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  • 1.
    Aare, Therese
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Wernh, Weronica
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Emotionella upplevelser och emotionsreglering i samband med en nedskärningsprocess2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate emotions and emotion regulation of a downsizing in an industrial company. The sample consisted of persons who had experienced a downsizing but have kept the employment, within a same position or being transferred to another one. Data consisted of two focus group interviews, analysed by an inductive thematic analysis. The results have indicated that emotional reactions changed over time as well the emotional regulation did during the different phases. The groups differed in emotional reaction related to the time of decision regarding the retention of employment. One conclusion is that fast and accurate information during the different phases of a downsizing process may lead to more positive emotional reactions, which in consequence may result in a positive experience of the reduction process as a whole. The confidence in management increased across the time, due to its decisiveness during the process of downsizing.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Linus
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Petra
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Jonas K.
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nordin, Steven
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Effects of Task Demands on Olfactory, Auditory, and Visual Event-Related Potentials Suggest Similar Top-Down Modulation Across Senses2018In: Chemical Senses, ISSN 0379-864X, E-ISSN 1464-3553, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 129-134, article id bjx082Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A widely held view is that top-down modulation of sensory information relies on an amodal control network that acts through the thalamus to regulate incoming signals. Olfaction lacks a direct thalamic projection, which suggests that it may differ from other modalities in this regard. We investigated the late positive complex (LPC) amplitudes of event-related potentials (ERP) from 28 participants, elicited by intensity-matched olfactory, auditory and visual stimuli, during a condition of focused attention, a neutral condition, and a condition in which stimuli were to be actively ignored. Amplitudes were largest during the attend condition, lowest during the ignore condition, with the neutral condition in between. A Bayesian analysis resulted in strong evidence for similar effects of task across sensory modalities. We conclude that olfaction, despite its unique neural projections, does not differ from audition and vision in terms of task-dependent neural modulation of the LPC.

  • 3.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    Department of Earth Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Klingberg, Jenny
    Department of Earth Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gunnarsson, Bengt
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Cullinane, Kevin
    School of Business Economics and Law, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Ingela
    City of Gothenburg, Parks and Landscape Administration, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hedblom, Marcus
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Landscape Analysis, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Lindberg, Fredrik
    Department of Earth Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ode Sang, Åsa
    Department of Landscape Architecture, Planning and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Pleijel, Håkan
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Thorsson, Pontus
    Division of Applied Acoustics, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Thorsson, Sofia
    Urban Climate Group, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    A framework for assessing urban greenery's effects and valuing its ecosystem services2018In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 205, p. 274-285, article id S0301-4797(17)30940-4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ongoing urban exploitation is increasing pressure to transform urban green spaces, while there is increasing awareness that greenery provides a range of important benefits to city residents. In efforts to help resolve associated problems we have developed a framework for integrated assessments of ecosystem service (ES) benefits and values provided by urban greenery, based on the ecosystem service cascade model. The aim is to provide a method for assessing the contribution to, and valuing, multiple ES provided by urban greenery that can be readily applied in routine planning processes. The framework is unique as it recognizes that an urban greenery comprises several components and functions that can contribute to multiple ecosystem services in one or more ways via different functional traits (e.g. foliage characteristics) for which readily measured indicators have been identified. The framework consists of five steps including compilation of an inventory of indicator; application of effectivity factors to rate indicators' effectiveness; estimation of effects; estimation of benefits for each ES; estimation of the total ES value of the ecosystem. The framework was applied to assess ecosystem services provided by trees, shrubs, herbs, birds, and bees, in green areas spanning an urban gradient in Gothenburg, Sweden. Estimates of perceived values of ecosystem services were obtained from interviews with the public and workshop activities with civil servants. The framework is systematic and transparent at all stages and appears to have potential utility in the existing spatial planning processes.

  • 4.
    Baehre, Nils
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Inverkar kön och etnicitet på bedömningen av lämplighet för en professorstjänst?: En experimentell studie.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was through manipulation of the name on a fictional applicant for a vacant professorship review if the assessments within the Academy of Sweden were shifting, depending on the applicant’s gender and ethnicity. Staff from Högskolan i Gävle read an expert opinion and then answered a series of questions about an applicant's suitability for a vacant professorship. The applicant’s gender and ethnicity were manipulated by changing the applicant’s name. No significant differences in the assessment of the applicant's suitability based on gender or ethnicity existed. Women estimated the applicant’s suitability for the professorship higher than men did. The participants made a difference by ethnicity if they themselves thought that the applicant would receive the professorship and if they thought that the applicant would receive the professorship. The lack of significant effects of gender and ethnicity of the assessed applicant can cautiously interpreted as the fact that the gender equality work within the academy has begun to profit results.

  • 5.
    Bell, Raoul
    et al.
    Department of Experimental Psychology, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Germany.
    Röer, Jan P.
    Department of Experimental Psychology, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Germany.
    Marsh, John E.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Storch, Dunja
    Department of Experimental Psychology, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Germany.
    Buchner, Axel
    Department of Experimental Psychology, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Germany.
    The Effect of Cognitive Control on Different Types of Auditory Distraction2017In: Experimental psychology (Göttingen), ISSN 1618-3169, E-ISSN 2190-5142, Vol. 64, no 5, p. 359-368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Deviant as well as changing auditory distractors interfere with short-term memory. According to the duplex model of auditory distraction, the deviation effect is caused by a shift of attention while the changing-state effect is due to obligatory order processing. This theory predicts that foreknowledge should reduce the deviation effect, but should have no effect on the changing-state effect. We compared the effect of foreknowledge on the two phenomena directly within the same experiment. In a pilot study, specific foreknowledge was impotent in reducing either the changing-state effect or the deviation effect, but it reduced disruption by sentential speech, suggesting that the effects of foreknowledge on auditory distraction may increase with the complexity of the stimulus material. Given the unexpected nature of this finding, we tested whether the same finding would be obtained in (a) a direct preregistered replication in Germany and (b) an additional replication with translated stimulus materials in Sweden.

  • 6. Berglund, Eva
    et al.
    Eriksson, Mårten
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Communicative development in Swedish children 16-28 months old: The Swedish early communicative development inventory - words and sentences2000In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 133-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To describe the development of words and sentences in Swedish children 16-28 months old, 900 parental reports on 336 children were analyzed. Subjects were randomly selected from the national birth register, and there was a response rate of 88%. The assessments were made using the Swedish Early Communicative Development Inventory-words and sentences (SECDI-w&s).

    Age-based norms for productive vocabulary, pragmatic skills, grammar skills, and maximum length of utterance (MaxLU) were determined. We describe the development of feedback morphemes, semantic categories, and single words and tasks. Correlation across measures was significant, and especially strong between vocabulary size and grammar skills. Optimized positive predictive values were high for 25 to 28 month predictions (71%-88%), and vocabulary scores were found to be of particular predictive importance. No significant gender differences were detected. The clinical relevance of the instrument is discussed.

  • 7. Berglund, Eva
    et al.
    Eriksson, Mårten
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Reliability and content validity of a new instrument for assessment of communicative skills and language abilities in young Swedish children2000In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 176-185Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Bergsten, Eva
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bjärntoft, Sofie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Edvinsson, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Larsson, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Jahncke, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Schemalagt arbete: Hälsofrämjande återhämtningsmönster i schemalagda arbeten: Kartläggning hösten 20162017Report (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Brinkhagen, Alice
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Strömberg, Julia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Varför arbetar tjänstepersonal övertid?: En kvantitativ studie på tjänstepersonal som inte erhåller extra övertidsersättning i rekryterings- och bemanningsbranschen2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study aimed to investigate reasons to work overtime among employees without overtime compensation in the staffing and recruitment industry depending on work demands, the place of work in one’s life, internal and external working motivation and harmonious and obsessive passion toward work. The study was conducted as a digital survey sent to 16 companies. QPS Nordic measured work demands, the place of work in one’s life and internal and external working motivation. PTWS measured harmonious and obsessive passion toward work. The present study showed that work demands predicted overtime hours. No difference was observed in the other predictors. The conclusion of the study was that work demands made employees in the staffing and recruitment industry work overtime hours and that employers should pay attention to this regarding the health implications resulting from working overtime.

  • 10.
    Chérif, Lobna
    et al.
    Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, Canada.
    Wood, Valerie
    Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, Canada.
    Marois, Alexandre
    École de psychologie, Université Laval, Québec, Canada.
    Labonté, Katherine
    École de psychologie, Université Laval, Québec, Canada.
    Vachon, François
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. École de psychologie, Université Laval, Québec, Canada.
    Multitasking in the military: Cognitive consequences and potential solutions2018In: Applied Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0888-4080, E-ISSN 1099-0720, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 429-439Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multitasking-the performance of several tasks at the same time-is becoming increasingly prevalent in workplaces. Multitasking is known to disrupt performance, particularly in complex and dynamic situations, which is exactly what most military occupations entail. Because military errors can be consequential, the detrimental impact of multitasking on cognitive functioning in such contexts should be taken seriously. This review pertains to high-consequence military occupations that require strong multitasking skills. More specifically, it highlights cognitive challenges arising from different forms of multitasking and discusses their underlying cognitive processes. Because such challenges are not expected to diminish, this review proposes context-relevant solutions to decrease occupational workload, either by reducing the cognitive load ensuing from the to-be-performed tasks or by improving soldiers' multitasking abilities. To ensure effective implementation of these solutions, we stress the need to design context-adapted tools and procedures, and to guide human resource managers in developing particular strategies.

  • 11.
    Edvinsson, Johanna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Jahncke, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Development and validation of a questionnaire addressing flexible work and restoration2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Elcadi, Guilherme H.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science.
    Tsaklis, Panagiotis
    Alexander Technological Institute of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Blomqvist, Sven
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science.
    Ervasti, Per-Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science.
    W. Söderström, Mikael
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Richter, Hans
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    A Strong Correlation Between Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex And Vastus Lateralis Activity During Running To Fatigue2016In: Medicine and science in sports and exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, Vol. 48, no 5, p. 854-854Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fatigue is a phenomenon of pronounced importance in sports. Recently, there is strong evidence of interplay between the prefrontal cortex and motor output during fatiguing contractions. The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPC) due to its large involvement in cognitive and motor activities is believed to be involved but this requires physiological clarification. AIM: We investigated the relationship between DLPC activity - responses in oxyhemoglobin (HbO2) and total hemoglobin (HbT) measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), and the vastus lateralis muscle (VL) activity - quantified as root-mean-square (RMS) of the EMG signal, during a fatigue protocol.

    METHODS: Four male runners (32±12 yrs) with probes for NIRS over the DLPC and EMG over the VL performed a track running test at a constant speed to fatigue (exhaustion). The running speed was individually determined as the average speed of a 1200-m time trial performed ~3 days prior to testing. For NIRS changes in μmole/L of HbO2 and HbT were computed. The VL EMG-RMS of the contraction of each step was normalized as a percent of a submaximal reference contraction (%RMS), thus removing the non-activity between steps. Data of 10s epochs at 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% of time for each lap were averaged for analyses. Regression analyses performed with HbO2 and with HbT as dependent variables and %RMS as the independent variable.

    RESULTS: Over time there was an increase in HbO2 and HbT in the DLPC, and in VL-%RMS. Both HbO2 and HbT correlated strongly with EMG-RMS during running to fatigue (see figures below); p<0.001 for both.

    CONCLUSION: The strong relationship between DLPC and VL activities during running to fatigue suggests the involvement of the DLPC in the central processing of fatigue.

  • 13.
    Eliasson, Ingegärd
    et al.
    Urban Climate Group, Physical Geography, Department of Earth Sciences, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Westerberg, Ulla
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Thorsson, Sofia
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet. Urban Climate Group, Physical Geography, Department of Earth Sciences, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Lindberg, Fredrik
    Urban Climate Group, Physical Geography, Department of Earth Sciences, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Climate and behaviour in a Nordic city2007In: Landscape and Urban Planning, ISSN 0169-2046, E-ISSN 1872-6062, Vol. 82, no 1-2, p. 72-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Four urban public spaces, representing various designs and microclimates, were investigated in Gothenburg, Sweden, in order to estimate how weather and microclimate affect people in urban outdoor environments. The research strategy was both multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary and included scientists from three disciplines: architecture, climatology and psychology. The project is based on common case studies carried out during four seasons, including measurements of meteorological variables, interviews and observations of human activity at each place. Multiple regression analysis of meteorological and behavioural data showed that air temperature, wind speed and clearness index (cloud cover) have a significant influence on people's assessments of the weather, place perceptions and place-related attendance. The results support the arguments in favour of employing climate sensitive planning in future urban design and planning projects, as the physical component of a place can be designed to influence the site-specific microclimate and consequently people's place-related attendance, perceptions and emotions.

  • 14.
    Elliott, Emily M.
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA.
    Marsh, John E.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science. University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Zeringue, Jenna
    Department of Psychology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA.
    McGill, Corey I.
    Department of Psychology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA.
    Are individual differences in auditory processing related to auditory distraction by irrelevant sound?: A replication study2019In: Memory & Cognition, ISSN 0090-502X, E-ISSN 1532-5946Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Irrelevant sounds can be very distracting, especially when trying to recall information according to its serial order. The irrelevant sound effect (ISE) has been studied in the literature for more than 40 years, yet many questions remain. One goal that has received little attention involves the discernment of a predictive factor, or individual difference characteristic, that would help to determine the size of the ISE. The current experiments were designed to replicate and extend prior work by Macken, Phelps, and Jones (Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 16, 139-144, 2009), who demonstrated a significant predictive relationship between the size of the ISE and a type of auditory processing called global pattern matching. The authors also found a relationship between auditory processing involving deliberate recoding of sounds and serial order recall performance in silence. Across two experiments, this dissociation was not replicated. Additionally, the two types of auditory processing were not significantly correlated with each other. The lack of a clear pattern of findings replicating the Macken et al. (Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 16, 139-144, 2009) study raises several questions regarding the need for future research on the characteristics of these auditory processing tasks, and the stability of the measurement of the ISE itself.

  • 15.
    Ellis, Rachel
    et al.
    Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Zekveld, Adriana
    Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Section Ear and Hearing, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Editorial: Cognitive hearing mechanisms of language understanding: Short- and long-term perspectives2017In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, p. 1-4, article id 1060Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Enmarker, Ingela
    et al.
    Fakultet for sykepleie og helsevitenskap - Nord universitet.
    Boman, Eva
    Improvement of the sound environment in schools2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17. Enmarker, Ingela
    et al.
    Boman, Eva
    Noise annoyance in schools – Teachers’ perceptions2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Enmarker, Ingela
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi. Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Boman, Eva
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi. Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Structural equation models of memory performance across noise and age2006In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 47, no 6, p. 449-460Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Competing models of declarative memory were tested with structural equation models to analyze whether a second-order latent variable structure for episodic and semantic memory was invariant across age groups and across noise exposure conditions. Data were taken from three previous experimental noise studies that were performed with the same design, procedure, and dependent measures, and with participants from four age groups (13-14, 18-20, 35-45, and 55-65 years). Two noise conditions, road traffic noise and meaningful irrelevant speech, were compared to a quiet control group. The structural models put to the test were taken from Nyberg et al. (2003), which employed several memory tests that were the same as ours and studied age-groups that partly overlapped with our groups. In addition we also varied noise exposure conditions. Our analyses replicated and supported the second-order semantic-episodic memory models in Nyberg et al. (2003). The latent variable structures were invariant across age groups, with the exception of our youngest group, which by itself showed a less clear latent structure. The obtained structures were also invariant across noise exposure conditions. We also noted that our text memory items, which did not have a counterpart in the study by Nyberg et al. (2003), tend to form a separate latent variable loading on episodic memory.

  • 19.
    Enmarker, Ingela
    et al.
    Fakultet for sykepleie og helsevitenskap - Nord universitet.
    Boman, Eva
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Hygge, Staffan
    The effects of noise on memory1998Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20. Enmarker, Ingela
    et al.
    Boman, Eva
    Hygge, Staffan
    The effects of noise on word fluency and word comprehension in different age groups2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Enmarker, Ingela
    et al.
    Fakultet for sykepleie og helsevitenskap - Nord universitet.
    Hygge, Staffan
    The Effects of Aircraft Noise on Memory, Stress and Arousal in Older Persons2000Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Eriksson, Mårten
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Berglund, Eva
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Swedish early communicative development inventories: words and gestures1999In: First language, ISSN 0142-7237, E-ISSN 1740-2344, Vol. 19, no 55, p. 55-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study describes the typical course and variability in major areas of communicative development for 228 Swedish-speaking children between 8 and 16 months of age. The assessments were made by parental reports with the Swedish Early Communicative Development Inventories (SECDI) using a semi-longitudinal design. Age-based norms for understanding of phrases, vocabulary comprehension, vocabulary production and use of gestures are described at the 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th and 90th percentile levels. More lexical verbs were found among the first words in comprehension than in production. An extensive variability within individuals in onset and development was found for the assessed skills. The individual differences proved to be stable over 4–6 months. No gender differences were found for comprehension of phrases, total gestures, vocabulary compre-hension, or for vocabulary production. Strong, unique associations were found between total gestures and vocabulary comprehension and between vocabulary comprehension and vocabulary production. In contrast, no unique association was found between gestures and vocabulary production. The results generally concur with those reported for English-speaking American children by Fenson et al. (1993, 1994).

  • 23.
    Esteves, Francisco
    et al.
    Instituto Universitário de Lisboa.
    Arriaga, Patrícia
    Instituto Universitário de Lisboa.
    Carneiro, Paula
    Instituto Universitário de Lisboa.
    Flykt, Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Emotional Responses (verbal and psychophysiological) to pictures of food stimuli2010In: Psicologia, ISSN 0874-2049, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 89-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emotional processing of food-related pictures was studied in four experiments, comparing participants who revealed unhealthy attitudes toward food, dieting and body shape with control groups. All subjects were female and responses to pictures of low and of high calorie foods were compared to responses to other emotional stimuli. The first three experiments measured verbal and autonomic responses and Experiment 4 was a classical conditioning study. In Experiments 2-4, pictures were presented backward masked in order to observe automatic, non-conscious responses. The results showed that, in general, food pictures were processed in the same way as other emotional material, both verbally and psychophysiologically. Although there were some results indicating a difference between groups, the general pattern was that participants selected for being more worried about food and dieting did not show higher reactivity to food cues.

  • 24.
    Giusti, Matteo
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Human-nature relationships in context. Experiential, psychological, and contextual dimensions that shape children’s desire to protect nature2019In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What relationship with nature shapes children’s desire to protect the environment? This study crosses conventional disciplinary boundaries to explore this question. I use qualitative and quantitative methods to analyse experiential, psychological, and contextual dimensions of Human-Nature Connection (HNC) before and after children participate in a project of nature conservation. The results from the interviews (N=25) suggest that experiential aspects of saving animals enhance children’s appreciation and understanding for animals, nature, and nature conservation. However, the analysis of children’s psychological HNC (N=158) shows no statistical difference before and after children participate in the project. Analysing the third dimension – children’s contextual HNC – provides further insights. Including children’s contextual relations with home, nature, and city, not only improves the prediction of their desire to work for nature, but also exposes a form of Human-Nature Disconnection (HND) shaped by children’s closeness to cities that negatively influence it. Overall, combining experiential, psychological, and contextual dimensions of HNC provides rich insights to advance the conceptualisation and assessment of human-nature relationships. People’s relationship with nature is better conceived and analysed as systems of relations between mind, body, culture, and environment, which progress through complex dynamics. Future assessments of HNC and HND would benefit from short-term qualitative and long-term quantitative evaluations that explicitly acknowledge their spatial and cultural contexts. This approach would offer novel and valuable insights to promote the psychological and social determinants of resilient sustainable society.

  • 25.
    Halin, Niklas
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Holmgren, Mattias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Haga, Andreas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    The Effects of Sound on Proofreading: Can Task Engagement Shield from Distraction2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Performance on various cognitive tasks is impaired by task-irrelevant speech. The objective of this study was to manipulate the detrimental effects of task-irrelevant speech on a proofreading task, by increasing task engagement using an odd font (i.e. Haettenschweiler vs. Times). Texts were proofread in three different sound conditions (i.e. quiet, task-irrelevant speech and spectrally rotated speech). The participants searched for words (i.e. either content or function words) that were either misspelled or exchanged with contextually inappropriate words. Speech impaired detection of exchanged function words, but only when the text was written in Times, not when written in the odd font. Moreover, the participants missed fewer misspelled words in the speech condition, especially in Times, and they read more slowly in this sound condition. Taken together, these results indicate that proofreading behavior changes in the presence of task-irrelevant speech, to a more superficial/structural level of text processing (hence the improvement in detection of misspelled words), in comparison to the deeper/semantic level of text processing in the quiet condition (i.e., better detection of contextually inappropriate words). Greater task engagement (as indexed by the Haettenschweiler font), however, appears to protect the participant from the effect of sound on the ability to detect contextually inappropriate words.

  • 26.
    Hammergård, Elin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Hagman, Karin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Effekter av ålder och verksamhetstyp på arbetsrelaterad identitet och strävan2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study aimed to examine if the line of business and the employees' biological age had an impact on work-related identity and striving. It was conducted as a questionnaire survey at a service management company in a Swedish medium-sized town. A total of 56 people participated, consisting of 98.2% of women. According to the results older compared to younger participants were shown to have a stronger organizational identity, professional identity and identification with peers. Line of business was shown to have an on identification with peers and strivings in terms of development opportunities.

  • 27.
    Hartig, Terry
    et al.
    Institute for Housing and Urban Research and Department of Psychology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Jahncke, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Letter to the editor: Attention restoration in natural environments: Mixed mythical metaphors for meta-analysis2017In: Journal of toxicology and environmental health. Part B, Critical reviews, ISSN 1093-7404, E-ISSN 1521-6950, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 305-315Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Holmgren, Mattias
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Kabanshi, Alan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Marsh, John E.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, United Kingdom.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    When A+B < A: Cognitive bias in experts' judgment of environmental impact2018In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 823Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When ‘environmentally friendly’ items are added to a set of conventional items, people report that the total set will have a lower environmental impact even though the actual impact increases. One hypothesis is that this “negative footprint illusion” arises because people, who are susceptible to the illusion, lack necessary knowledge of the item’s actual environmental impact, perhaps coupled with a lack of mathematical skills. The study reported here addressed this hypothesis by recruiting participants (‘experts’) from a master’s program in energy systems, who thus have bachelor degrees in energy-related fields including academic training in mathematics. They were asked to estimate the number of trees needed to compensate for the environmental burden of two sets of buildings: One set of 150 buildings with conventional energy ratings and one set including the same 150 buildings but also 50 ‘green’ (energy-efficient) buildings. The experts reported that less trees were needed to compensate for the set with 150 conventional and 50 ‘green’ buildings compared to the set with only the 150 conventional buildings. This negative footprint illusion was as large in magnitude for the experts as it was for a group of novices without academic training in energy-related fields. We conclude that people are not immune to the negative footprint illusion even when they have the knowledge necessary to make accurate judgments.

  • 29.
    Holmgren, Mattias
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Are mental biases responsible for the perceived comfort advantage in "green" buildings?2018In: Buildings, ISSN 2075-5309, E-ISSN 2075-5309, Vol. 8, no 2, article id 20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown that merely calling an indoor environment environmentally certified will make people favor that environment over a conventional alternative. In this paper we explore whether this effect depends on participants deliberately comparing the two environments, and whether different reasons behind the certification influence the magnitude of the effect. In Experiment 1, participants in a between-subjects design assigned higher comfort ratings to an indoor environment that had been labeled "environmentally certified" in comparison with the exact same indoor environment that was unlabeled, suggesting that the effect arises even when participants do not compare the two environments when making their estimates. The results from Experiment 2 indicate that climate change mitigation (as the reason for the certification) is a slightly better trigger of the effect compared to climate change adaptation. The results suggest that studies on psychological effects of "green" buildings should experimentally control for the influence from participants' judgmental biases.

  • 30.
    Hurtig, Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Masked- and unmasked speech, effects recollection of semantically categorized words2012In: APCAM 11th annual meeting Minneapolis November 15 2012 (at the Hilton Minneapolis Hotel), 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Hurtig, Anders
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University and Department of Sports and Medicine, University of Dalarna, Sweden .
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Nöstl, Anatole
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Keus van de Poll, Marijke
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Ljung, Robert
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Acoustical conditions in the classroom: Recall of spoken words in English and Swedish heard at different signal-to-noise ratios2014In: 11th International Congress on Noise as a Public Health Problem (ICBEN), Nara, Japan, 1-5 June, 2014, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Hurtig, Anders
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Keus van de Poll, Marijke
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Pekkola, Elina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Recall of spoken words in English and Swedish heard at different signal-to-noise ratios and different reverberation times: Children aged 10-11 years2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Noise impairs speech perception which in turn makes memory and learning more difficult. School children are expected to be particularly vulnerable to the negative effects of noise. In this study we varied reverberation time (RT) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) to see how they affected recall of words in Swedish (native tongue) and English. Participants were 72 children in the fourth grade who listened to wordlists presented in Swedish and English with broadband noise in the background. We compared two reverberation time (RT) conditions: a short RT (0.3 sec.) and a long RT (1.2 sec.), and two signal-to-noise (SNR) conditions: a low SNR (+3 dB) and a high SNR (+12 dB). Each wordlist had 8 words to be recalled. Main effects of language and SNR were found. Children could recall fewer words if they were presented in English or had a low SNR. Interactions were found between Language, RT, SNR and whether the words were at the beginning, in the middle or at the end of the wordlists. Recall performance was best with a short RT and a high SNR. Fourth graders recalled more words in their native language compared to English. Children might have difficulties with semantic association and understanding the meaning of words in English. Recall performance was markedly improved with good listening conditions, which indicates that there is something to be gained by improving the acoustical conditions in a classroom to improve memory and learning.

  • 33.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Classroom acoustics – Speech intelligibility, memory and learning2014In: Proceedings of Forum Acusticum: Forum Acusticum, Kraków, Poland, 7-12 Sept, 2014 / [ed] Borkowski, B., 2014, Vol. 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The acoustical conditions in a classroom may severely impair listening, which in turn impairs learning. To safe-guard against inferior listening conditions government agencies and professional societies have established building codes and recommendations for acceptable signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) and reverberation times (RT) in classrooms. Codes and recommendations are based on conditions required for speech intelligibility and correct identification of spoken words and isolated sentences. Correct identification of what was said is a necessary condition for memory and learning, but it is not a sufficient one. There is a gap between speech intelligibility and memory and the size of that gap is a function of the intelligibility of the spoken message and how much the message taxes the individual's limited working memory capacity. I will discuss how SN, RT and their combinations change speech intelligibility and memory of spoken messages. Although the characteristics of the spoken material and the individual's working memory capacities can be assessed independently of each other, there is a functional equivalence between them. A difficult task and a lack of skill are two sides of the same coin. In a better world building codes and recommendations for classroom acoustics should be based on memory and learning rather than on speech intelligibility alone.

  • 34.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Classroom noise and its effect on learning2014In: 11th International Congress on Noise as a Public Health Problem (ICBEN), Nara, Japan, 1-5 June, 2014, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The acoustical conditions in a classroom may severely impair listening, which in turn impairs learning. To safe-guard against inferior listening conditions government agencies and professional societies have established building codes and recommendations for acceptable signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) and reverberation times (RT) in classrooms. Codes and recommendations are based on conditions required for speech intelligibility and correct identification of spoken words and isolated sentences.

    Correct identification of what was said is a necessary condition for memory and learning, but it is not a sufficient one. There is a gap between speech intelligibility and memory and the size of that gap is a function of the intelligibility of the spoken message and how much the message taxes the individual's limited working memory capacity.

    I will discuss how SN, RT and their combinations change speech intelligibility and memory of spoken messages. Although the characteristics of the spoken material and the individual's working memory capacities can be assessed independently of each other, there is a functional equivalence between them. A difficult task and a lack of skill are two sides of the same coin.

    In a better world building codes and recommendations for classroom acoustics should be based on memory and learning rather than on speech intelligibility alone.

  • 35.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Noise and cognition in children2011In: Encyclopedia of Environmental Health, Volume 4 / [ed] J.O. Nriagu, Burlington: Elsevier, 2011, p. 146-151Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Noise effects on children's cognition: WHO work on noise, Burden of Disease (BoD) and Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALY)2011In: Proceedings of the Institute of Acoustics, London: Institute of Acoustics , 2011, Vol. 33, p. 469-476Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    When and why does a long reverberation time improve comprehension and recall?2017In: Proceedings 12th International Congress on Noise as a Public Health Problem (ICBEN), Zürich, Switzerland, 18-22 June, 2017, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In four recent experiments we have seen that a long reverberation time (RvT) may improve, rather than impair, comprehension and recall of spoken words or texts for participants who have limited language skills. A long RvT improved, rather than impaired, comprehension for Swedish pupils with a low proficiency in English reading when taking a grade 9 English listening comprehension test in their classroom. For those who were good at reading English there was a better recall with a short RvT. This crossover antagonistic interaction was replicated with Swedish college students grouped by their English proficiency reading skills. In two word list experiments with Swedish pupils in grade 4 and college students, English and Swedish words were presented with a long and short RvT and crossed with two signal-to-noise ratios. Also here there were indicators of a crossover interaction to the effects that along reverberation time improved, rather than impaired, the recall of the words for students that were on the low side of English language proficiency. Possible explanations will be discussed in the presentation.

  • 38. Hygge, Staffan
    et al.
    Boman, Eva
    Enmarker, Ingela
    Fakultet for sykepleie og helsevitenskap - Nord universitet.
    An experiment with children in the first grade to reduce their self-generated noise2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Hygge, Staffan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Jahncke, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Ljung, Robert
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Ökat brus i klassrum ger sämre inlärning hos elev2011In: Husbyggaren, ISSN 0018-7968, no 7, p. 34-35Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 40.
    Hygge, Staffan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Special issue on noise, memory and learning: editorial commentary2010In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 12, no 49, p. 199-200Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Hygge, Staffan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Landström, Ulf
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Störande buller i arbetslivet: Kunskapssammanställning2013Report (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Hygge, Staffan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Nöstl, Anatole
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Speech intelligibility and recall of first and second language words heard at different signal-to-noise ratios2015In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 6, article id 1390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Free recall of spoken words in Swedish (native tongue) and English were assessed in two signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) conditions (+3 and +12 dB), with and without half of the heard words being repeated back orally directly after presentation [shadowing, speech intelligibility (SI)]. A total of 24 word lists with 12 words each were presented in English and in Swedish to Swedish speaking college students. Pre-experimental measures of working memory capacity (operation span, OSPAN) were taken. A basic hypothesis was that the recall of the words would be impaired when the encoding of the words required more processing resources, thereby depleting working memory resources. This would be the case when the SNR was low or when the language was English. A low SNR was also expected to impair SI, but we wanted to compare the sizes of the SNR-effects on SI and recall. A low score on working memory capacity was expected to further add to the negative effects of SNR and language on both SI and recall. The results indicated that SNR had strong effects on both SI and recall, but also that the effect size was larger for recall than for SI. Language had a main effect on recall, but not on SI. The shadowing procedure had different effects on recall of the early and late parts of the word lists. Working memory capacity was unimportant for the effect on SI and recall. Thus, recall appear to be a more sensitive indicator than SI for the acoustics of learning, which has implications for building codes and recommendations concerning classrooms and other workplaces, where both hearing and learning is important.

  • 43.
    Hygge, Staffan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Nöstl, Anatole
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Keus, Marijke
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Hurtig, Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Ljung, Robert
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Acoustical conditions in the classroom II: Recall of spoken words in English and Swedish heard at different signal-to-noise ratios2013In: 42nd International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering 2013, INTER-NOISE 2013: Noise Control for Quality of Life, 2013, p. 5091-5098Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An experiment will be reported which assessed speech intelligibility and free recall of spoken words in Swedish (native tongue) and in English heard under different signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios (+3 and +12 dB), and with/without the spoken words being repeated back orally directly after presentation (shadowing). All participants encountered all experimental conditions. Twelve wordlists with 12 words each were generated in English as well as in Swedish. The words were chosen according to their ranks in category norms for the two languages, and no category was the same for the two languages. Blocks of counter balanced presentation orders, S/N-ratios and shadowing/no shadowing were generated. After each wordlist the participants wrote down the words they could recall. Pre-experimental measures of working memory capacity were taken. The basic hypotheses for the recall of the words were that working memory would be overloaded when the S/N-ratio was low, there was no shadowing and when the language was English. A low score on working memory capacity was expected to further enhance these effects. While writing this abstract data collection is still in progress but results will be presented at the conference.

  • 44.
    Hygge, Staffan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Ljung, Robert
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Jahncke, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Dålig akustik i klassrum ger sämre inlärning2012In: Vi hörs, ISSN 0787-9520, Vol. 2, p. 11-13Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 45.
    Hygge, Staffan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Ljung, Robert
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Israelsson, Karl
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Acoustical conditions in the classroom I: Speech intelligibility and recall of spoken material heard at different signal-to-noise ratios.2013In: 42nd International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering 2013, INTER-NOISE 2013: Noise Control for Quality of Life, 2013, p. 4957-4964Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explored speech intelligibility and free recall of word lists heard under different signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios. Pre-experimental measures of working memory capacity (WMC) were taken to explore individual susceptibility to the disruptive effects of noise. The thirty-five participants first completed a WMC-operation span task in quiet and later listened to spoken word lists containing 11 one-syllable phonetically balanced words presented at four different S/N ratios (+12, +9, +6, and +3). Participants repeated (shadowed) each word aloud immediately after its presentation and performed a free recall task of the words after the end of the list. The speech intelligibility function decreased linearly with increasing S/N levels for both the high-WMC and low-WMC groups. Recall and memory of the words decreased with increasing S/N levels only for the low-WMC group. Recall and memory for the high-WMC individuals was not affected by increased S/N levels. Our results suggest that impoverished acoustical conditions impair speech intelligibility and memory, but also that a high WMC may counteract some of the negative effects of speech noise.

  • 46.
    Hygge, Staffan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Nöstl, Anatole
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Hurtig, Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Haga, Andreas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Holmgren, Mattias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Recall of spoken word lists in English and native Swedish presented at different signal-to-noise ratios and different reverberation times: A comparison between children aged 10-11 years and college students2014In: 11th International Congress on Noise as a Public Health Problem (ICBEN), Nara, Japan, 1-5 June, 2014, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two experiments will be presented which assessed free recall of spoken words in Swedish (native tongue) and in English heard under different signal-to-noise ratios (SNR: +3 and +12 dB), and different reverberation times (RT: 0.3 and 1.2 s). All participants encountered these eight experimental conditions (Language*SNR*RT). The first experiment was run with college student (N=48), who were run individually. In the second experiment children in grade 4 (10-11 years, N=72) took part and they were run as a group in their regular classrooms.

    Twelve wordlists in English and twelve wordlists in Swedish were generated. The words were chosen according to their ranks in category norms for the two languages. The number of words in each list was 12 for the college group and 8 for children in Grade 4. The 2 x 12 wordlists were presented in counter balanced presentation orders in three blocks (Blocks). To compare primacy and recency effects the word lists were divided into three parts (p3rd). After each wordlist the participants typed in or wrote down the words they could recall.

    The basic hypotheses for the recall of the words were that working memory would be overloaded when the SNR was low and the RT was long, and that SNR and RT would interact with each other, with Language and with Study (Grade4/College). The analyses suggest that for both groups there were expected effects of language and of SNR, but the effect of RT was smaller and only showed up in interactions.

  • 47.
    Hygge, Staffan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Nöstl, Anatole
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Hurtig, Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Haga, Andreas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Holmgren, Mattias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Recall of spoken words in English and Swedish heard at different signal-to-noise ratios and different reverberation times: Children aged 10-11 years and college students2014In: 28th International Congress of Applied Psychology (ICAP 2014), Paris, France, 8-13 July, 2014: Abstracts, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two experiments will be presented which assessed free recall of spoken words in Swedish (native tongue) and in English heard under different signal-to-noise (SN) ratios (+3 and +12 dB), and different reverberation time (RT, .3 and 1.2 sec). All participants encountered all eight experimental conditions (Language*SN*RT). The first experiment was run with college student (N=48) and they were run individually. In the second experiment children in grade 4 (10-11 years, N=72) took part and they were run in the regular classrooms.

    Twelve wordlists in Swedish and twelve wordlists in English generated. The words were chosen according to their ranks in category norms for the two languages, and no category was the same for the two languages. The number of words in each list was 12 for the college group and 8 for grade four. The 2 x 12 wordlists were presented in counter balanced presentation orders in three blocks. Within each block order of S/N and RT was also counterbalanced. After each wordlist the participants wrote down the words they could recall. Pre-experimental measures of working memory capacity were also taken.

    The basic hypotheses for the recall of the words were that working memory would be overloaded when the SN-ratio was low and the RT was long, and that SN and RT would interact with each other, with Language and with Age-group.

    To compare primacy and recency effects the word lists were divided into three parts (p3rd). After each wordlist the participants typed in or wrote down the words they could recall.

    The basic hypotheses for the recall of the words were that working memory would be overloaded when the SNR was low and the RT was long, and that SNR and RT would interact with each other, with Language and with Study (Grade4/College). The analyses suggest that for both groups there were expected effects of language and of SNR, but the effect of RT was smaller and only showed up in interactions.

  • 48.
    Isenberg, Christian
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Larsson, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Kan befattningen påverka inre arbetsmotivation och psykiskt välbefinnande?: En studie med tjänstemän med olika grad av individuella krav och kontroll på arbetet2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine differences in the experience of intrinsic work-motivation and to examine changes depending on profession, where the purchasers experienced a higher level of individual demands and control than the production leaders. Another purpose was to see how the intrinsic motivation needs predicted mental well-being in the professions. The study was carried out using an internet survey that was distributed by e-mail, there were 98 participants. Two questionnaires were used; Basic Need at Work scale (W-BNS) measured intrinsic motivation and GHQ12 measured mental well-being. The result showed that the staff overall had high intrinsic motivation with highest scores on relatedness followed by competence and lastly autonomy. No significant distinction was found between the professions depending on intrinsic work-motivation. Lastly, autonomy was the best predictor for mental well-being for the production leaders while competence was the best for the purchasers.

  • 49.
    Jahncke, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Cognitive Performance and Restoration in Open-Plan Office Noise2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation presents four experimental studies (in four papers) with the overall aim to investigate the effects of office noise on cognitive performance and restoration. In the first two papers the focus was on the effects of different sound levels (i.e., the mean level from all sound sources at an office, such as speech, phones, people walking) on performance, fatigue and stress. In the last two papers the focus was on the effects of background speech, as this has previously been shown to be the most disturbing noise source in open-plan offices. Paper I demonstrated decreased word memory performance, increased fatigue and motivational deficits when the background sound level increased by 12 dB, from 39 to 51 dB LAeq. Paper II showed that the sound level effects were more pronounced for individuals with a hearing impairment. Unexpectedly, no effects were found of acute noise exposure on the participant´s stress hormone levels (Paper I and Paper II).

              Regarding effects of irrelevant speech, Paper III showed that cognitive performance decreased as a function of background speech intelligibility, the higher the intelligibility depicted by the Speech Transmission Index (STI), the worse the performance. The results indicated that the STI-value must be less than 0.50, to avoid a negative influence on performance. Further, both Paper III and IV showed that performance is more impaired by background speech if the focal task requires episodic memory and rehearsal—such as word memory and information search. Interestingly, some tasks were insensitive for speech.

              The restorative effects of a break were addressed in Paper I and II (i.e., directly after the work sessions in noise). The break period differed in content between the participants. Paper I showed that a break with a nature movie with corresponding sound increased energy ratings compared to just listening to river sounds or office noise. Continued exposure to office noise gave the lowest ratings of motivation after the break. Paper II showed improved arithmetic performance and motivation after the break with a nature movie and decreased performance and motivation after continued noise exposure. For the hearing impaired participants, however, continued noise during the break increased motivation and performance, while the movie did not.

              Taken together, the current thesis demonstrates that open-plan office noise can have a negative impact on fatigue, motivation and performance. How much performance is impaired varies with the cognitive processes required by the tasks performed and hearing status. Moreover, continued noise exposure during a short break can further decrease motivation and subsequent performance.

  • 50.
    Jahncke, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    How much does irrelevant speech impair employees' work performance in open-plan offices?2013In: Noise & Vibration Worldwide, ISSN 0957-4565, E-ISSN 2048-4062, Vol. 44, no 9, p. 10-15Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When people are talking in the background of an open-plan office it can be experienced as disturbing. However, it is not well specified how much irrelevant speech actually disrupts performance. The aims of the present study were, first, to investigate how much cognitive performance is impaired by irrelevant background speech with varying degrees of speech intelligibility, and second, to determine whether some office-related tasks are more susceptible than others. The results showed that cognitive performance decreased as a function of background speech intelligibility, the higher the intelligibility depicted by the Speech Transmission Index (STI), the worse the performance. The results indicated that the STI-value should be less than 0.50 (between the speaker and the listener), to avoid a negative influence on performance. Further, performance was more impaired by background speech if the focal task required episodic memory and rehearsal — such as word memory and information search. Interestingly, some tasks were insensitive for speech. This study also shows that the efforts to minimize speech intelligibility will yield increases in cognitive performance with a varying degree, depending on the type of focal task.

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