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  • 1.
    Aarenstrup, Roger
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Improvements in Organizational development2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between innovation and system complexity, and suggest improvements for an organization to handle innovation and complexity better.

    Method: The analysis was based on theoretical models about organizational structure, development models and knowledge management. The models were selected to highlight theoretical extremes rather than practical usefulness to avoid practical obstacles in the theoretic evaluations. The work progressed as a strategy development flow based on a model including four phases; analysis, objectives and recommendations, options and Implementation.

    Result & Conclusions: To significantly improve how complexity and innovation are managed it isn’t sufficient to focus on improvements in one part, such as processes. Organizational goals, external environment, organizational structure, development model, knowledge management and internal culture have to be considered and balanced to achieve significant improvements. For the organization studied it was clear that there was a difference in the official description of the organization and how it worked in practice.

    Suggestions for future research: Metrics are important to measure value and improvement. Balanced metrics describing how well an organization is adapted to its goals and environment is an area for future work. The effect of Model-Based design on organizational structure is another interesting topic for further research.  

    Contribution of the thesis: The recommendations and objectives developed in this study can be used to improve an organization with respect to both internal and external environment.

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  • 2.
    Aarskog, Florence
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Österberg, Ylva
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Vad skiljer sig i uppfattningen gällande gift promotions mellan män och kvinnor?: - En studie kring likheter och skillnader mellan könen2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Title: What differences are there regarding the perception of gift promotions between men and women? – A study about similarities and differences between the genders

    Level: Student thesis, final assignment for Bachelor Degree in Business Administration

    Author: Florence Aarskog och Ylva Österberg

    Supervisor: Lars-Johan Åge

    Date: 2022-june

    Aim: The purpose of this study is to examine what similarities and differences might exist between men and women regarding their perceptions of gift promotions. The study is expected to give answers to what is laying behind these perceptions and how these can differ. 

    Method: This work is the result of a qualitative study implemented on men and women between the ages of 20-30 years old. The empirical material makes up the base of the work and is collected through semi structured interviews where the respondents have been requested to picture themselves in different scenarios inspired by everyday life. This is with other words also called a vignette experiment. The empirical material has then been processed to identify the similarities and differences of the two genders perceptions of gift promotions.

    Results and conclusions: The results of this study show that women in general have a more positive attitude towards gift promotions compared to men. This can be seen from the fact that it is more important for women to fulfill long term needs which some gifts can enable. It is also shown that men on the other side are more interested in fulfilling their short-term needs. Both genders find it important that the promoted gift must have value for themselves which women find to a greater extent than men. Another finding of this study is the importance of a good fit between gift and product which is something both genders agree on.

    Contribution of the thesis: This work has contributed to the business administration research field by collecting information about how men and women perceive gift promotions. This information can be used by marketers designing their promotion dealsand campaigns.

    Suggestions for future research: The focus of this study has been on the similarities and differences between men and women within the age gap 20-30 years old. For future research there is an interest to discover what other age groups would have to say, what the perceptions of gift promotions would look like when it comes to services instead of products and finally to compare perceptions of gift promotions online to the ones in physical stores.

    Key words: Gift promotions, sales promotions, gift promotion-perception, marketing-gender differences, marketing-perception

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  • 3.
    Aarskog, Fredrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Heco, Benjamin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Existerar en perfekt förhandlingsstrategi?: En jämförande studie av en fastighetsmäklares beteende.2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 4.
    Abangma, Ferdinand Enoayuk
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Recognition of Brand Equity and Advertising in the Banking Industry in Cameroon. Case study Citibank N.A.: MBA-thesis in marketing2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSEThe main purpose of this research is to determine the consumer level approach of brand equity in Citibank N.A using empirical information based on its brand awareness. The awareness of a brand would show the level of the brand recognition. A telephone interview was conducted to explain the different aspects that constitute the recognition of brand equity and brand awareness of Citibank N.A-Cameroon in addition to its ads.

    RESEARCH QUESTIONHow can Citibank N.A, Cameroon subsidiary, measure the level of its brand equity from its brand awareness?

    RESEARCH APPROACH/METHODOLOGYIn order to answer the research question and achieve the research objective established for this research, a structured research method was required. In this research a qualitative research approach was applied to suit the content of the research. A telephone interview was conducted to give a qualitative view of this research.

    FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONSAwareness (aided, unaided), contributes to the recognition of brand equity. In the empirical part of the thesis brand recognition and awareness can be facilitated by Citibank-Cameroon subsidiary being participative in its social corporate responsibility plan to develop the community by planting trees and organizing football competition every summer holidays. This brand strategy has been used for several years to keep a positive brand image of the bank.

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  • 5.
    Abbas, Wasim
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Chaudhry, Saqib Mehmood
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Analyzing the Disruption Factors of Emerging Markets: A Case Study of Pakistani Telecom IndustryHuawei in Pakistan2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A free and flexible business environment attracts international organisations to those markets that have big growth potential and high profit margins. To penetrate emerging markets is of great interest to any international organisation. The situation gets more intense if it is in the field of telecommunications. Telecommunications (telecoms) and information technology (IT) are generically known as the information and communication technologies (ICT) industries. ICT is one of the fastest growing industries in the world and is also considered among the biggest markets in terms of customer base, growth and profitability. The competition is very high in such markets, so relatively unique, attractive and extraordinary business strategies are usually practiced by these companies. The situation may create an atmosphere of upheavals and uncertainties in such markets. Extraordinary or unethical business policies can not only affect the business of other organisations, but also has some after-effects on societies and the mindset of target nations and market ethics. Organisations are very much engaged with society and work in the social environment, therefore the socio-cultural components is of great importance when designing business strategies. Exploring the facts about emerging markets and by analysing the case of Chinese company Huawei in the Pakistani telecom market, this thesis gives investigates and assess the success factor of this Chinese company. This thesis highlights the upheaval factors of emerging markets, by analysing the role of cultural interests and the mindsets of target nations for organisations planning their strategies

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  • 6.
    Abdelrahman, Ahmed
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    van den Akker, Melanie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    The Impact Of Corporate Governance Characteristics On Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Empirical Evidence From Sweden2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to examine the interactions and impact of six key corporate governance factors on greenhouse gas emissions in Swedish listed firms. Namely, board size, board gender diversity, CEO compensation, blockholder ownership, audit and non-audit fees. The study employs a quantitative research design and uses regression analysis to test the research hypotheses. The data for the study is obtained from a sample of 199 Swedish firms from 2014 to 2021 and data retrieved from the Nordic Compass Database, Swedish House of Finance Research Data Center. The findings reveal significant associations between corporate governance factors after controlling for firm size and industry with carbon emissions disclosure by firms. Concluding, these factors play a crucial role in tackling environmental sustainability performance in corporate practices.

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    The impact of CG on GH, Ahmed Abdelrahman_Melanie van den Akker
  • 7.
    Abdi, Asal
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi. University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Laic, Daniella
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi. University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    RE/MAX Sverige: En studie inom marknadsföring2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vårt syfte är att ta reda på vilka marknadsföringsstrategier och marknadsföringsmodeller som föreskrivs i teorin, som RE/MAX använder sig av i Sverige i dagsläget samt att komma fram till vilka marknadsföringsverktyg som de kan utveckla för att vinna större marknadsandelar.

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  • 8.
    Abdulkadir, Muna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Bozhko, Kristina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Driving university towards change and innovation: Impact of national culture and environmental factors2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To investigate the impact of national culture on the process of managing change and innovation in the sector of higher education and identify what kind of environmental factors could produce a moderating effect on the cultural impact.

    Method: Inductive method and qualitative approach were used. With the purpose of collecting qualitative data, 15 in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with employees of Faculty of Education and Business Studies in University of Gävle, Sweden.

    Results & Conclusions: The study suggests that any innovation is a change, while change is always a process and, thus, should be managed as such. Authors draw attention from the process of management of innovation itself towards managing through manipulating by such an influencer as national culture. At the same time authors point out that not everything can be explained on the basis of culture providing a range of potential factors that can strongly moderate the impact of culture.

    Suggestions for future research: Current research is limited by the choice of country, sector of economy, number of studied cases, etc. Investigation of cultural impact on change and innovation management in universities of other countries or the choice of another economic sector would open opportunities for further research.

    Contribution of the thesis: During the study the authors verified a part of the suggested hypotheses demonstrating the strength of the impact that national culture produces on management of change and innovation. Moderating effect of different environmental factors such as employee’s age and position within organizational structure, governmental policies in the sphere of higher education, type of organizational structure and type of leadership, was demonstrated. Authors come up with implications of managing the process of change and innovation through manipulation of cultural impact.

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  • 9.
    Abebaw, Meron Kebede
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Matukuta, Willard Kingstone
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Technology and Customers’ Experiences in Fashion Physical Stores: The Case of Sweden2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Technology and Consumers’ Experiences in Fashion Physical Stores: The Case of Sweden

    Level: Master Thesis in Business Administration

    Author: Meron Kebede Abebaw; Willard Kingstone Matukuta

    Supervisor: Agneta Sundström, PhD

    Examiner: Maria Fregidou-Malama, PhD

    Date: May, 2018 

    Aim: The aim of this study is to analyze whether in-store digital technology in fashion retailers are used to change the customers’ shopping experience and behavior.

    Method: This study chooses qualitative research and used both primary and secondary data collection as method.

    Results and conclusions: This study have reached to conclude that: with the current advances in technology, physical stores can use in-store technology to give customers a new experience; physical stores perceive that using in-store digital technology will change customers shopping experience. Also, marketing mix inputs and technology affect customers’ behavior.

    Suggestions for future research: For future research, how smart fitting rooms may influence the customer experience in the physical store will be important to study. Researchers can also consider understanding customer responses to in-store technology. Finally, a customer’s perspective to both suggestions should improve the knowledge on whether digital solutions are preferred in in-store shopping or not.

    Contributions of the thesis: This thesis contributes to the current state of theories on in-store technology by showing atmosphere has effect on customers’ experiences and behavior in addition to the marketing mix. On the managerial perspective, analyzing the installation of this technology will enable to identify its effect on customers’ experiences and behavior. In addition, on the societal perspective, the behavior of customers will help in motivating younger generation to utilize this in-store technology.

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  • 10.
    Abou Khaled, Omar
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Oleandersson, Viktor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Service Recovery genom hantering av eWOM: En studie om svenska e-handelns modebransch.2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Service Recovery by managing eWOM - A study of the e-commerce fashion industry.

    Level: Final assignment for Bachelor Degrees in Business Administration.

    Authors: Omar Abou Khaled & Viktor Oleandersson.

    Supervisor: Akmal Hyder.

    Date: 2022 June.

    Aim: The purpose of this study is to investigate how e-commerce companies in the fashion industry manage negative eWOM through the use of Service Recovery.

    Method: This study is based on a qualitative method with a hermeneutic approach and an inductive research approach. The empirical data consists of seven semi-structured interviews.

    Conclusion: Digital development has given a lot of room for mistakes, it is also easier for eWOM to spread. The most common reasons for negative eWOM spreading are mainly delivery issues or dissatisfaction with a product. The study also shows that the majority of companies lack strategies and instead rely on the customer service department, which makes it important to have well-trained staff.

    Contribution: The study’s contribution to the theory in marketing is an increased understanding of how Swedish companies in the e-commerce fashion industry manage negative eWOM and the reasons for eWOM’s emergence. The practical contribution is a wisdom for e-commerce companies in the fashion industry to be able to design a Service Recovery strategy and the aspects that can prevent negative eWOM.

    Suggestions for future research: The research can be further deepened by taking the customer perspective into account. It will also be of interest to investigate how companies should deal with digitalisation. Finally, a suggestion is to study this topic in other industries. 

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  • 11.
    Abou Khaled, Walle
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Baban, Dylan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Influencers på Instagram: En jämförande studie om hur olika sorters influencers påverkar konsumenters varumärkesuppfattning2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The purpose of the study is to investigate how consumers’ brand perception is influenced by influencer marketing with regard to influencers' number of followers and topical alignment.

    Method: In this study, a quantitative method has been conducted to aggregate 173 responses in a web-based questionnaire survey. After screening based on our selection, 153 responses were processed in SPSS where descriptive statistics, correlation analysis and cluster analysis were conducted. The result was used to conduct a discussion to draw further conclusions.

    Conclusion: The study shows that both topical influencers and influencers with many followers have a positive impact on consumer brand perception. Influencers with a large number of followers contribute to a more positive impact on consumer brand perception than topical influencers. For maximum results, marketers should use an influencer that has both a large number of followers and focuses on a topic.

    Contribution: The study's contribution to the theory of marketing research area is an increased knowledge of the influence of different types of influencers on consumer brand perception. The study shows that the number of followers weighs heavier than the topic in terms of how positively affected a consumer's perception of the brand is.

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  • 12.
    Abraha, Desalegn
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Hyder, Akmal S
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    From industrial networks to strategic alliances or vice-versa2009In: International Journal of Business and Emerging Markets, ISSN 1753-6219, Vol. 1, no 4, p. 361-386Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13. Abraha, Desalegn
    et al.
    Hyder, Akmal S
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    The service firms' establishments in developing countries2000In: Journal of Euromarketing, ISSN 1049-6483, E-ISSN 1528-6967, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 57-86Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Abraha Gebrekidan, Desalegn
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Skövde.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Awuah, Gabriel Baffour
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Halmstad.
    Relationships and Networks in the Processes of Establishment of Firms in Transitional Economies: The case of Scandinavian firms in Eastern and Central Europe2006Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Focus on the particular entry mode a firm uses to enter a new market, rather than the process of establishment dominates in extant literature. To fill this void, we apply an establishment process model developed from the network approach to illuminate the web of relationship forms embedded in the establishment process of two Scandinavian firms as they attempt to establish themselves in transition economies. In one case, the results show that Statoil’s process of establishment in Estonia was less time- and resource-consuming because the firm drew support from significant actors in their network of exchange relationships. In the second case, a lack of home and host country support for Scania in Croatia resulted in an arduous and costly process and less stable position in the market, with the firm’s position changing several times as different problems cropped up. In light of the findings from the two cases, theoretical and practical implications for managing the establishment process are discussed.

  • 15.
    Abraham Tewoldemedhin, Fithawi
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Medeubayev, Meiras
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Knowledge Hiding in Consulting Industry: the Case of EY in Kazakhstan2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: This study aims to explore the knowledge hiding phenomenon among project teammembers in the consulting industry. This study investigated why, when, how and what type ofknowledge team members hide.Methodology: This research applied a qualitative research with inductive approach. Semistructuredinterviews with eleven participants from EY in Kazakhstan were conducted.Secondary data was obtained from existing scientific articles and books.Findings: Findings of the study provided that (i) variables affecting knowledge hiding atindividual level also influence at team level; (ii) the technological and organizational barriershad a minor influence on knowledge hiding at team level; (ii) tacit/explicit and key/commonknowledge are subject to hiding among team members; (iv) three additional variables arediscovered at team level, i.e. laziness, fear of being seen silly and self-study.

    Theoretical contributions: This study contributes to the counterproductive knowledgebehaviour by exploring patterns of knowledge hiding among team members. Additionalknowledge sharing barriers of why and when team members hide knowledge were found. Teammembers hide knowledge when they feel ownership over knowledge and territoriality servesas a mediating tool. Nevertheless, collective knowledge psychological ownership weakensknowledge hiding, because team’s success is more important than individual’s goals.Managerial implications: Organizations are encouraged to nurture team environment, becauseteam members might feel that they are obliged to share their knowledge. Also, managementshould consider to lower territoriality perspectives (e.g. by team buildings, etc.).

    Limitations and future research: Future research should increase the number of respondentsfrom different companies, industries and geographical areas. To validate the three newly foundknowledge hiding variables at team level, they can be tested at individual level. On top of thatfuture research can focus on the effects of interpersonal injustice on knowledge hiding on eachmember, motivational process on knowledge concealing/sharing and cross-cultural differencesof how knowledge concealing is interpreted can be researched.

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  • 16.
    Abrahamsson, Pege
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Hedlund, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Valutariskhantering: En omotiverad kostnad eller ettvardagligt behov?2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Vårt syfte med detta arbete är att undersöka hur två stora företag i Gävleborgslän, med betydande del av sin verksamhet på export, hanterar de valutarisker som uppstår. Företagen som vi valt att granska är Sandvik och Korsnäs som båda är tillverkande företag inom industrin.

    Vi kommer sedan att jämföra hur respektive företag har valt att hantera sina risker och belysa de skillnader och likheter som dessa två företag har i sitt arbete med valutarisker. Slutligen ämnar vi jämföra det empiriskt insamlade materialet med den teoretiska referensram som finns inom det valda ämnet.

    Metod: Vi har valt att använda oss av en kvalitativ metod när vi insamlat data. Insamlingen har främst skett via samtalsintervjuer på respektive företags huvudkontor. Kompletterande information har insamlats via mejlkontakt med våra respondenter. De teorier vi har använt behandlar främst valutarisker och metoder för valutarisker.

    Resultat & slutsats: Slutsatsen från vårt arbete visar att de företag vi studerat har insett betydelsen av valutaexponering men bara ett av företagen har valt att aktivt arbeta med riskhanteringen. Vi vill dock poängtera att båda företagen tagit ställning till hur arbetet med risker ska hanteras.

    Förslag till fortsattforskning: I vårt arbete visar vi en bild av hur två företag hanterar sina valutarisker och exponeringar. Det kan vara intressant att undersöka detta ur ett större perspektiv. En djupare studie med fler företag kan göras. I vår studie sker jämförelsen mellan två industriföretag. Att göra jämförelsen med ett företag inom ett annat segment, t ex dagligvaruhandeln eller telekombranschen, finner vi intressant.

    Valutariskhantering: en omotiverad kostnad eller ett vardagligt behov?

    Uppsatsens bidrag: Vårt arbete ger ett bidrag till exporterande företag för att få en uppfattning om olika sätt att hantera sina valutarisker. Uppsatsen kan även användas av Sandvik och Korsnäs för att få reda på hur två studenter anser om deras arbete med valutasäkring.

    Nyckelord: Valutarisk, valutasäkring, valutaexponering, valutahantering, derivatinstrument, terminskontrakt, optioner.

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  • 17.
    Abramsson, Mattias
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Vikström, Johan
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Finns det för få fastighetsvärderare ur de offentliga aktörernas synvinkel?2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Inom fastighetsbranschen finns det ungefär 100 000 yrkesverksamma. Denna bransch står inom de närmaste åren för stora pensionsavgångar. En av de yrkeskategorier som kommer att påverkas är fastighetsvärderare. I dagsläget finns det ungefär 600 yrkesverksamma fastighetsvärderare. Genom ett antal offentliga aktörer som är verksamma inom fastighetsmarknaden, vill vi belysa frågan om de anser att det råder brist på fastighetsvärderare. Vi har valt att i denna studie särskilt granska och studera Gävle kommun och dess fastighetsbolag, Gavlefastigheter.

     

    Metod: Vi har med empirisk forskning, som bedrivs med företrädesvis kvantitativa och kvalitativa metoder, utfört denna studie. Data har samlats in genom intervjuer som sedan sammanställts och analyserats både utifrån de resultat vi fick in men även genom transaktionshandlingar som vi tagit del av ifrån Gavlefastigheter. Resultaten redovisas i löpande text. 

     

    Resultat & Slutsats: Resultaten vi fick fram visar på att ur de offentliga aktörernas perspektiv upplever alla utom en att det finns ett tillfredställande utbud av fastighetsvärderare. De offentliga aktörerna gör inte många fastighetstransaktioner och de anlitar bara fastighetsvärderare vid unika och komplexa objekt. Fastighetsvärderarna kommer att påverkas av pensionsavgångarna. Det i sin tur kommer inte, ur de offentliga aktörernas synvinkel, påverka efterfrågan av fastighetsvärderarnas tjänster.

     

    Förslag till fortsatt forskning: Vi har i denna studie valt att belysa vår problemformulering utifrån ett antal offentliga aktörers synvinkel. Det skulle vara intressant att göra en liknande fallstudie utifrån fastighetsvärderarnas egen sida, men även utifrån de privata fastighetsägarnas sida.

     

    Uppsatsens bidrag: Vi har med denna studie bidragit med att påvisa att de offentliga aktörerna inte anser att det finns för få fastighetsvärderare och att anlitningen av dem sker i mindre omfattning.

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  • 18.
    Absi, Lina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Leino, Matilda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Innovationsförmågans påverkan på goodwill2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent of goodwill that can be explained by the capacity for innovation in Swedish listed companies.

    Introduction: Goodwill is an intangible asset and occurs in connection with acquisitions. In recent years, the record received a great importance and it gives also an expression of the future economic benefits. Goodwill is difficult to define because the item may contain, for example, customer relationships, trademarks, good reputation, etc. In the current situation, innovation is an important factor for companies and has great significance for economic growth and innovation capacity of firms should have an impact on the goodwill value of the entry.

    Method: A quantitative study has been made in this paper. Through the database Retriever data was collected from the largest listed companies. An elimination was made for those companies that had not provided data that was required for the study. Through the statistical program Minitab was two regression models were conducted and analyzed.

    Conclusion: Our conclusion is that the two dimensions of innovation studied, patents and research and development, Large Cap both have a positive explainationary power on goodwill for Large Cap. For Mid Cap there no significant effect appears. For Small Cap patent has a weak impact on goodwill, while research and development showed no impact.

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    Innovationsförmågans påverkan på goodwill
  • 19.
    Ackerstierna, Eva
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Dagens arbetsmiljö för tjänstemän i norra Virginia, USA: en studie av ett amerikanskt företag.2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Describe a working climate a young professional can expect to face with a company in Northern Virginia, USA. Examine working conditions and the working environment through perspectives such as gender, culture, and leadership.

     

    Method: Qualitative research where one case study has been performed for collecting empirical data. Inductive logic and a constructivist approach have been used as strategy for parsing data.

     

    Result & Conclusions: There is a paradox between working hours and flexibility. Professionals work significantly more hours than stipulated in their job descriptions. The appropriate number of working hours is a gray zone issue and there is unspoken demand to stay and work late, especially at the higher levels within the organization. Finansa appears to be a flexible and understanding employer but only when missed hours are made up and added to with extra hours. The result is a false sense of employment security. There are no written contracts of employment and a manager and/or employer can fire you whenever they want to and without any reason. In addition, employees can leave the company without further notice. Finally, another important dimension to the work environment of the young professional is diversity. This is a demographic reality of professional life in Northern Virginia and it can present a significant challenge. It is extremely important for young professionals to understand that cultural differences influence the work environment; others may not think and act as you do and basic assumptions about conduct may differ greatly across cultures. The key for success in this diverse environment is to understand it exists in the workplace and to take action based on that knowledge. Tolerance of personal differences with co-workers is essential. Understanding how different ethnic groups deal with time, relations and environment could be the decisive key for success in the professional setting.

     

    Suggestions for future research: To perform a deeper study about working hours. To investigate how many hours white-collar workers in the US work outside stipulated working hours and how many hours they spend on volunteer hours. The gray zone of working hours is a large uninvestigated reality.

     

    Contribution of the thesis: Increase the understanding of challenges a young Swedish professional faces when working abroad and in particular with a company in Northern Virginia, USA.

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  • 20.
    Ackerstierna, Eva
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Serviceerbjudande: En jämförelse av skola och omsorg mellan Sverige och Virginia (USA).2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: My topic is based on my own experiences from living in the USA for a few years.  Eventually, I realized the differences between our cultures were greater than my expectations. With three children in school you are thoroughly exposed to the education system and it is natural to make comparisons. This study is a comparative assessment of services offered in the areas of education and child-care. The aim for the study was to describe and evaluate service offered to families in Sweden and Virginia by using theories in marketing and service management. The primary aim is to highlight and discuss where is the best place to live.

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  • 21.
    Addo, Richard Amankwah
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Mancuso, Giancarlo
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    To the Next Level: Influence of Social Media on Sport Organisations' Brand and Relationship Management during Global Pandemic2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of the study is to investigate the influence of social media in building brand and relationship for sport organisations during a global pandemic.  

    Methodology: The methodology in this study is built on a qualitative method based on a inductive approach. The authors conducted semi-structured interviews when interviewing the sports organisations and fans. Furthermore, a content analysis was employed as it served the aim of the study best.

    Findings & Conclusion: With regards to building the brand through the use of social media, findings showed that transparency, the history of the club and their image play a vital role in building a distinctive brand. With regards to building their relationship through the use of social media, findings showed that although efforts were made by the hockey clubs to interact and engage fans with various strategies, there was a lack of consistency in order to build their relationship with their fans. Thus, the findings of the study revealed that sport organisations have been able to build their brand as well as maintain their relationship with their fans during the global pandemic through the use of social media.

    Contribution of the Study: The study has both theoretical contributions and practical contributions. With regards to the theoretical contribution, the study introduces a framework that focuses on what factors influences the effectiveness of social media (SM) use for sports organizations to build their brand and relationship with their fans. Also, to the practical contribution, consistency in interacting and engaging with customers on SM should be a top priority for sport organisations’ relationship managers to build their relationship with fans on SM.

    Reflections on the Study and Suggestions for Future Research: As the study has been limited to three hockey clubs from Swedish Hockey League, the scope of the study could be broadened in future research. Also, conducting a quantitative method is recommended for future research to determine the link between interaction and engagement.

    Key Words: Relationship Building, Brand Building, Interaction, Engagement, Social Media, Sports Organisations

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  • 22.
    Adebäck, Julia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Eriksson, Ludvig
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Påverkar äktheten i socialt ansvarstagande den finansiella lönsamheten i företag?: En kvantitativ studie av 280 europeiska bolag2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Todays’ companies are facing an increased demand from society that they need to shift their priorities from just making money to being socially responsible. Due to the increased demand, the importance of the concept Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has also increased in the last decades. A popular branch in prior CSR studies has been to investigate if CSR-investments affects the Corporate financial performance (CFP) which has shown conflicting results. However, previous research has identified an authentic gap between what companies are promising and what they implement in reality. Therefore the aim with this study is to investigate how authentic investments in CSR, with regard to how a CSR committee and consistent CSR, influence corporate financial performance (CFP).

    Method: The study is based on the philosophy of positivism with a hypothetical deductive approach. Secondary data has been collected from Thomson Reuters Datastream with a quantitative approach. A longitudinal design has been used where data has been collected over a period of six years and the final sample has been processed and analyzed with regression analysis in IBM SPSS.

    Result & Conclusions: This study shows that companies’ financial performance is higher in the presence of a CSR-committee, which indicates that a company by engaging in authentic CSR-activities gets a higher financial performance. Management preferences to communicate the company's social responsibility results in a better financial performance due to a better relationship with the stakeholders

    Suggestions for future research: Suggestions for future research may investigate how the consistency of companies CSR is influenced by the new legislation over a longer period of time. Since the CSR-committee is influential for the financial performance we would also like to see further studies involving factors that might weaken or strengthen this relationship.

    Contribution of the thesis: From a theoretical perspective this study contributes to the accounting literature by investigating the relationship between financial performance and authentic CSR motives. From a practical perspective this study can be of interest for companies that are planning to implement a CSR-committee since this is an influential factor for the financial performance.

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  • 23.
    Adebäck, Sara
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Norman, Sofia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Innovationsförmågans påverkan på varumärket: En vindlande resa om redovisningens svårighet att informera om det mest väsentliga2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Developing an strong brand is a way for companies to stand out of the crowd, which today is necessary to conquer on the competitive market. The brand value is one of the most important assets in annual reports, but there are difficult to estimate an reliable value. It depends on the fact that the brand value is affected by few different factors, including innovativ-eness. Due to the thesis background the purpose enunciate: The purpose of this thesis is to investigate it there is a correlation between companies brand value and innovation capacity.

    Method: We have done a secondary data analysis, with help from the database Retriever. The combination of faint information and lack of quality in Retrievers capacity it contributed that we had to use semi-structured interviews as an complement to full follow the purpose. The paper per- form at Stockholm Nasdaq OMX and included de 250 largest companies that at least had one registered brand value. Companies with inapplicable data for the purpose of the study was elimi- nated. As a final the data was analysed by dint of linear regression, Pearsons correlation analysis, and interviews thru ”well-grounded theory”.

    Result & Conclusion: The result of the study indicated that there are positive relation between brand value and R&D. The complemented interviews contributed that the authors observed diff- erences between practitioners and researchers on the perception of between essential accounting information and the opportunities to provide principles to circumvent the recommendations. The conclusion of the study is that companies brand value are positively affected by the innovativeness.

    Suggestions for future research: Due to the lack of resources and qualitative database it wasn’t possible to satisfy the purpose of the study. Consequently our suggestion for future research will contain the recommendation to do the study on another stock exchange.

    Contribute of the thesis: Mainly this study contributes to illuminate the fact of accounting information: companies doesn't inform sufficient information to increase knowledge for there own business innovativeness and immaterial assets. Which can be seen as a problem. Second contribute comprises that there is, hence small or implicit, relation between brand value and their companies innovativeness at the researched companies. Consequently the results gets difficult to draw general conclusion from.

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    Innovationsförmågans påverkan på varumärket
  • 24. Adlemo, Anders
    et al.
    Hilletofth, Per
    Högskolan i Jönköping.
    Tarasov, Vladimir
    Fuzzy logic based decision-support for reshoring decisions2018In: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Operations and Supply Chain Management, 2018, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Aenehband, Pardis
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Hur kan ledare motivera vardagsarbetet?: En fallstudie om Clas Ohlson2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor thesis discus how store managers at Clas Ohlson motivate their co-workers at their everyday work.

    Motivation at work is essential, since engaging co-works makes the everyday routine work more effective. Otherwise that type of work can easily lead to unhappiness at the workplace which leads to less motivated workers, poor performance, even less motivated workers and this will start a negative circle.

    Other studies has shown that to in order to be pleased at a workplace and to keep qualified co-workers, the leaders needs to have knowledge in how they can use different techniques to increase staff motivation, but still motivation is not considered being an economic means of control. This has made me think about how leaders can motivate their workers at their everyday work.

    The questions at issue are:

    o How can leaders motivate co-workers in everyday work,

    o Which preferences the leaders consider control the individual motivation and

    o Which methods they can use to increase the motivation in the routine work.

    The purpose with this thesis is to study how leaders use their leadership to motivate workers to perform everyday work with more enthusiasm. To answer the question I have interviewed store managers at Clas Ohlson.

    In this thesis I have used a qualitative method, and I have compared relevant theories with the interviews I have done. Thus primary data has been gained through one-to-one interviews but also through mail interviews. Secondary data has its main source from literature studies, relevant to the subject but also articles from databases and Internet.

    The result I have concluded with this study is that a number of factors influence the co-workers motivation in everyday work. These factors are well communicated company goal, competence development, good personnel policy, strong company culture and reward of different kind which are influenced strongly of the store managers, but also management role and konwledge as leaders.

    I consider that Clas Ohlson has made use of all of these factors and my conclusion is based on the fact that workers in average stay longer at Clas Ohlson as employs than what they do in other retail stores.

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  • 26.
    Afram Chamun, Robbie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Sundholm, Rebecca
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    ESG-betygets samband med värdeskapandet: En studie av börsnoterade företag mellan en svensk och norsk kontext2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: The connection between the ESG rating and value creation – a study of listed companies between a Swedish and Norwegain context.

     

    Level: Student thesis, final assignment for Bachelor Degree in Business Administration.

     

    Author: Robbie Afram Chamun och Rebecca Sundholm.

     

    Supervisor: Jan Svanberg.

     

    Date: 2022 - January.

     

    Aim: The interest in companies´ sustainability work has led to their valuation also being based on this phenomenon. A measure for sustainability as a basis to evaluate the companies´ CSR is the ESG score. By examining the connection between the ESG score and the companies’ value creation, from partly a Swedish context and partly a Norwegian one, studies are intended to show whether the connection exists. Furthermore, the study shows whether this connection differs between two contexts with different degrees of regulation. The purpose of the studies is therefore to investigate the connection between the ESG score and value creation for Swedish and Norwegian listed companies. 

     

    Method: The research is based on a positivist research philosophy with a deductive approach and a quantitative research method. The execution of a longitudinal design meant that the research collected data from 68 companies over a period of 7 years. The data was collected from Refinitiv Eikon and was analyzed through the statistical programme SPSS. 

     

    Result & Conclusion: The results of the study show that no significant connection between the ESG score and the companies' value creation exists. The study confirms that companies from a Swedish context receive higher ESG ratings than companies from a Norwegian one.

     

    Contribution of the thesis: By comparing Swedish and Norwegian public listed companies, the study has helped to fill the gap around the ESG score´s impact on companies´ value creation for these countries. The results of this study could not state that the ESG scores alone significantly affects the companies' value creation. 

     

    Suggestions for future research: Future research should address how value creation is affected in the absence of ESG score.

    Key words: CSR disclosure, Value Creation, ESG, Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR).

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  • 27.
    Agerhill, Madeleine
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Eriksson, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Förvaltningsstrategier -   fyra värdeskapande perspektiv: En analys av fastighetsbolag i Sverige 2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    SAMANFATTNING

    Titel: Förvaltningsstrategier - fyra värdeskapande perspektiv

    Nivå: C-uppsats i ämnet företagsekonomi

    Författare: Madeleine Agerhill & Johan Eriksson

    Handledare: Jens Eklinder Frick

    Datum: 2015 - februari

    Syfte: Syftet med vår studie är att utifrån de fyra indirekt värdeskapande perspektiven; finansiellt, kund, interna process samt innovation- och tillväxt, analysera hur fastighetsbolag utformar sina CREM- relaterade strategier.

    Metod: Uppsatsens primära data har samlats in genom semistrukturerade intervjuer med tio stycken personer från några lokala samt några av Sveriges största fastighetsbolag. Uppsatsen tillämpar sekundärdata i form av vetenskapliga artiklar, böcker och Internetkällor. Vi redovisar vårt inhämtade empiriska underlag och analyserar därefter empirins relevans gentemot den tidigare forskningen. För att uppnå en djupare förståelse för de indirekta värdena fastighetsförvaltning kan skapa bygger vi vår studie på en hermeneutik vetenskapsgrund.

    Resultat & slutsats: Vi presenterar konkreta exempel på hur fastighetsförvaltning kan generera indirekta värden till företags kärnverksamheter. Uppsatsen tydliggör att fastighetsbolagen själva kan dra stor nytta av att generera mervärde till sina kunder. Mervärde skapar nöjdare kunder vilket bidrar till starka och långsiktiga relationer. Långsiktiga kundrelationer skapar ett mer hållbart och starkare fastighetsbolag då de ökar sin konkurrensfördel på en utsatt marknad.

    Förslag till fortsatt forskning: Studien ger anvisningar för framtida forskning med särskilt fokus på Sverige. Framtida forskning skulle kunna analysera vilken påverkan de indirekta värdena har ur företagens synvinkel. Det skulle samtidigt vara intressant att analysera vilka värden som kan uttryckas genom fastigheten. Utstrålar fastigheten den bild som organisationer vill uppnå? Bidrar fastighetens utseende till värde för varumärken? Vilka verktyg finns tillgängliga för att stödja fastighetens varumärkshantering? Lärdomar kan då dras från forskningsområden som arkitektur, marknadsföring och beteendevetenskap.

    Uppsatsens bidrag: Genom att ta del av vår studie ökar läsaren sin förståelse för hur fastighetsförvaltning kan generera indirekta värden till företags kärnverksamheter. Studien påvisar vilka effekter och fördelar som finns med att betrakta de indirekta värdena vid utformning av förvaltningsstrategier.  Fastighetsbolag kan använda vår uppsats som ett konkret underlag för att avgöra vilka indirekta faktorer som påverkar kunders kärnverksamheter. Företag som använder sig av externa fastighetsförvaltare kan med hjälp av vår uppsats öka sin förståelse för de mervärden fastighetsbolag genererar.

    Nyckelord: fastigheter, förvaltning, CREM, indirekta, värde, kund.

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  • 28.
    Aghester, Victor
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Gunnarsson, Alfred
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Användandet av mänskliga modeller i bostadsannonser: En undersökning gällande spekulanters preferenser2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie är att analysera spekulanters preferenser beträffande foton i en annons, för att skapa en förståelse för effekten av att använda sig av mänskliga modeller.   Metod: En experimentell studie med ett deduktivt synsätt där analyser av vetenskapliga artiklar och litteratur har utförts för att ge en god överblick av tidigare forskning. Insamling av empiri har skett genom en experimentell kvantitativ metod och enkätundersökningar. Vi har analyserat vårt resultat i SPSS och framställt deskriptiv statistik, korrelationsanalys, klusteranalys, faktoranalys och T-test.   Slutsats: Vår undersökning leder oss till slutsatsen att bostadsintressenter rent generellt är mer positivt inställda till en bostadsbild där mänskliga modeller exkluderas. Emellertid visar studien att det finns tre variabler vars högsta medelvärde uppmätts i experiment tre, nämligen hemtrevlig, insyn, och utsikt. Således gör vi konklusionen att en konstellation av en manlig och en kvinnlig modell vid marknadsföringen av en bostad, påverkar bostadsintressenters inställning positivt vad gäller dessa tre variabler.  Uppsatsens bidrag: Vårt bidrag till företagsekonomins och marknadsföringens forskningsområde är en ökad förståelse för hur mänskliga modeller inom bostadsannonsering påverkar intressenter på bostadsmarknaden. Vidare bidrar arbetet också genom att innefatta riktlinjer för branschen att rätta sig efter vid användning av modeller i sin marknadsföring av bostäder.

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  • 29.
    Agius, David
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Jansson, Andreas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Relationen mellan ledarskap och organisationskultur i krishantering: En empirisk studie av Crisis Response Leadership Matrix2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Organizations depend on a leader in crisis situations, but how does leadership need to be adapted to the prevailing organizational culture? Previous research has presented a model Crisis Response Leadership Matrix (CRLM) to match the right leader for a given organizational culture. The purpose of this study is to develop the spectrum of the CRLM model through empirical observations. Specific research questions are: (1) Based on Swedish leaders’ experiences of crisis management, how did the leadership adapt to the organizational culture, type of crisis and the phase of the crisis? (2) Based on Swedish leaders' experiences of crisis management, to what extent does CRLM correspond with those experiences? 

    Method: The study has conducted unstructured interviews with seven respondents who have solid experience of crisis management within various organizations. Respondents have rated their organizational culture with (OCAI). Interview data have been presented according to the informants' individual stories with a storytelling method, after which analysis has been done through modeling. 

    Result and Conclusions: The study indicates through the respondents' experiences of crisis management that leadership needs to be adapted through the different phases of the crisis, and to the prevailing organizational culture. The previously presented CRLM was in line with the respondents' experiences. Furthermore, we have been able to identify leadership styles and leadership competencies to develop CRLM in the different phases of the crisis for a given organizational culture. The development was the identified leadership styles empowering and democratic as well as the leadership competencies image and visibility, maintaining an effective organizational culture, creating organizational abilities, and creating trust.

    Contribution of the thesis: The study has developed previous CRLMs with a wider spectrum, which makes it more applicable to organizations.

    Suggestions for future research: CRLM needs to be investigated more empirically and especially for internal crises as well as within market and adhocracy cultures, which was a limitation of this study.

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  • 30.
    Agorelius, Matilda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Najmi, Emmelie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Trivsel och fysisk aktivitet på arbetsplatser: En kvalitativ studie om mäklarverksamheten2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay is to create an increased understanding of well-being in workplaces and how joint physical training can affect the well-being and business operations. A qualitative method with semi-structured interviews is used. The sample is limited to four brokerage offices with a total of ten respondents. According to the respondents, the most important factors for well-being at workplaces are colleagues, followed by management and joint physical activity. Flexible working hours and flexible workplaces are considered the least important for creating well-being. Joint physical training at the workplace contributes to increased productivity. Further research can be done to investigate whether the type of exercise has any effect on well-being. It is also interesting to investigate whether the time of the joint training sessions has an impact on the number of participants and whether the time of the joint training has any impact on productivity. Finally, further research can be done by investigating how joint physical training affects the well-being and operations in other industries.

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  • 31.
    Ahldén, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Domeij, Petter
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Effekterna på företags finansiella rapporter och nyckeltal efter införandet av IFRS 162019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Den nya leasingstandarden IFRS 16 träder i kraft i år, 2019, vilken innebär att företag ska kapitalisera sina operationella leasingavtal. Huvudsyftet med studien är därför att undersöka hur denna kapitalisering påverkar företag med avseende på deras finansiella rapporter och nyckeltal. Studien har även ett delsyfte vilket är att undersöka hur väl kapitaliseringsmodellen har estimerat operationella leasingavtalens påverkan utifrån utvalda nyckeltal hos företag.

    Metod: Studien använder ett kvantitativt tillvägagångssätt med en deduktiv forskningsansats. Empiriska data har samlats in med hjälp av en innehållsanalys där de dokument som granskats är årsredovisningar. Det insamlade materialet har sedan granskats med hjälp av deskriptiv statistik och bivariata analyser. Kapitaliseringsmodellen har också tillämpats för att kunna jämföra modellens estimeringar med verkliga utfallet. Resultaten har sedan diskuterats och lett till studiens slutsatser.

    Resultat & Slutsats: Resultaten av studien visar att tillgångar och skulder ökar för företag efter införandet av IFRS 16. Studien kommer fram till att branscherna hälsovård och detaljhandel kommer påverkas mest, att mindre företag samt mindre finansiellt begränsade företag påverkas mer. Studien finner att kapitaliseringsmodellen i regel har fungerat bra, främst inom branschen fastigheter och för större företag.

    Uppsatsens bidrag: Teoretiskt bidrar studien till avsaknaden av forskning om de faktiska effekterna hos företag på grund av implementeringen av IFRS 16. Den ger också ett svar på hur väl kapitaliseringsmodellen har fungerat, vilket kan vara användbart för såväl analytiker som forskare. Det praktiska bidraget är att studien bidrar till en ökad förståelse kring hur företag och olika branscher påverkas av den nya leasingstandarden.

    Förslag till fortsatt forskning: Ett förslag till vidare forskning är att studera ett större urval för att kunna få ett mer generaliserbart resultat. Ett annat förslag är att göra liknande studier i andra länder, för att se om regelförändringen slår hårdare på andra marknader.

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  • 32.
    Ahlenius, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration. KTH, Fastighetsföretagande och finansiella system.
    The impact of motivation and person-job fit on employee turnover among Swedish real estate brokers: A mixed method approach2022Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Residential real estate is a vital part of the economy, and homes are important for individuals for both financial and emotional reasons. Residential homes change owners for numerous reasons, and there is a need for these transactions to be secure and efficient from both the economic and individual perspective. The general idea of residential real estate brokerage is to facilitate these transactions securely and efficiently. Real estate brokerage has therefore captured both media as well as scholarly interest. Some scholars even argue that brokerage is a relevant research and literature field of its own. Like other occupations within sales, the brokerage industry suffers from problems connected to recruiting and retaining employees, as put forth by several spokespersons within the industry and scholars alike. Prior studies argue that there is a need for further studies that describe the occupational life cycle of brokers and employee turnover antecedents, such as intrinsic motivation. Hence, the overarching purpose of this thesis is to describe and analyze occupational turnover and its antecedents among Swedish real estate brokers. This thesis sprung out of a firsthand occupational experience of Swedish brokerage, curiosity, and an abductive stance toward knowledge creation. It is primarily explorative, and the embedded articles consist of different types of methodologic approaches and therefore also different ways of gathering data such as interviews, surveys, and registered data. All data solely involves Swedish real estate brokers. Results of the four articles show that the occupational life cycle of brokers is significantly longer than expected and that Swedish brokers display high levels of work-related intrinsic motivation, occasionally rooted in affective commitment towards customers and gained trust from sellers. Furthermore, being driven by gained trust and customer relations has a positive effect on person-job fit which in turn reduces turnover intentions. A majority of the results within the four articles are not in line with prior studies, which is interesting and prompts speculation. The service landscape of brokerage, and particularly Swedish brokerage due to the broker’s intermediary role and personal responsibility for the entire transaction, arguably drives intrinsic motivation and reduces turnover. This is enhanced by the high educational threshold for becoming a broker in Sweden. This thesis contributes to the literature field of brokerage by providing insights about what motivates brokers and the theoretical field of person-job fit by suggesting ways of improving the operationalization and the validity of person-job fit.

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  • 33.
    Ahlenius, Martin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Berggren, Björn
    KTH.
    Gerdemark, Tommy
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Kågström, Jonas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Åge, Lars-Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    The occupational life cycle of real estate brokers: a cohort study2022In: Journal of European Real Estate Research, ISSN 1753-9269, E-ISSN 1753-9277, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 351-367Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this article is to describe and analyze the occupational life cycle of Swedish real estate brokers.

    Design/methodology/approachVoluntary turnover among real estate brokers could lead to occupational turnover and/or employee turnover and has been described as problematic by both practitioners and researchers alike. Most previous studies focusing on this issue have explored connections between real estate brokers' personality, economic and market conditions and turnover. Employee turnover involves shifting jobs within the profession (real estate brokerage), whereas occupational turnover concerns movement to a job not related to the real estate brokerage profession. Both perspectives on turnover are however lacking data about the average time spent as a broker. This study fills this gap by exploring real estate brokers' life cycle through data analysis using a cohort study consisting of a sample of 5,304 real estate brokers registered and/or deregistered over a ten-year period from 2010 to 2019.

    Findings

    The analysis show that the decline is almost linear, resulting in 50% of the newly registered real estate brokers remain in the occupation eight years after registration. These findings are not in line with previous assumptions as the real estate brokers' life cycle is substantially longer. The results also reveal that there are differences in life cycles due to gender and year of registration.

    Originality/value

    The analysis of longitudinal, aggregated data on the life cycle of real estate brokers is highly relevant as it serves as a point of reference for future longitudinal studies analyzing the motives for leaving the occupation.

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  • 34.
    Ahlenius, Martin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Berggren, Björn
    KTH.
    Kågström, Jonas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Exploring Motivational Factors Among High Performing Real Estate Brokers: The Swedish Case2021In: Journal of Real Estate Practice and Education, ISSN 1521-4842, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 20-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this exploratory case study is to analyze the role of relational motivation for high-performing real estate brokers in Sweden. The concept of relational motivation, or relatedness, is explored through both affective and calculative commitment. The data in this study come from in-depth interviews with real estate brokers. The results show that the brokers are committed to their clients, in an affective and a calculative way. All of the participants expressed signs of being emotionally involved in their customer relations, often in terms of genuine interest in, and caring for, their clients. The existence of relatedness toward customers in a brokerage context contributes to the discussion on what motivates high-performing real estate brokers. By viewing relatedness as a trigger to engage in more customer relationships, the intrinsic motivation can be seen as a strong antecedent to individual performance.

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  • 35.
    Ahlenius, Martin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE).
    Berggren, Björn
    Åge, Lars-Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    The impact of gained trust on person-job fit and occupational turnover. The case of residential real estate brokersManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores if received trust is intrinsically motivating and if it is associated with subjective person-job fit and occupational turnover intentions in the Swedish brokerage setting. Results from 397 real estate brokers showed that brokers are driven by the gained trust from their sellers and that gained trust is a vital part of person-job fit within brokerage. Furthermore, increased levels of person-job fit strongly reduce occupational turnover intentions within brokerage. This study offers further insights into intrinsic motivation in professional service settings and indicates that certain types of customer interactions help to fulfill the basic psychological needs of competence and relatedness.

  • 36.
    Ahlenius, Martin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE).
    Kågström, Jonas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Do intrinsic rewards matter for Swedish real estate brokers? A quantitative empirical generalizationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - Intrinsic motivation affects job satisfaction and turnover intention. Still, previous motivational studies among real estate brokers (brokers) have primarily focused on extrinsic rewards leaving intrinsic rewards/motivation practically unexplored. The purpose of this study is therefore to evaluate the role of both satisfaction with intrinsic rewards (SIR) and satisfaction with extrinsic rewards (SER) on job satisfaction and turnover intention among Swedish brokers.

    Design/methodology/approach - This article is an empirical generalization and extension of Mosquera et al.’s (2020) article conducted among brokers in Portugal. Using a sample of 910 Swedish brokers, the study analyzes a conceptual framework and tests hypotheses by using partial least squares (PLS).

    Findings - Results indicate that SIR has a very strong impact on job satisfaction, which is not the case in the Portuguese sample. On the other hand, SER does not have an impact on job satisfaction, which is the case in the Portuguese sample. SIR does not have an impact on turnover intention in the Swedish sample, whereas SER does. Job satisfaction has twice the positive impact on turnover intention in the Swedish sample compared to the Portuguese. Furthermore, job satisfaction mediates the relationship between SIR/SER and turnover intention.

    Research limitations/implications - Findings of this study extend the existing literature of satisfaction with extrinsic and in particular intrinsic rewards on job satisfaction and turnover intention in the context of the brokerage industry. The most interesting difference between the samples is that Swedish brokers display much higher levels of satisfaction with intrinsic rewards. On the other hand, Swedish brokers appear to be less driven by extrinsic rewards, which is not in line with prior studies within brokerage.

    Practical implications - Both managers and students planning to become brokers should consider that SIR has a stronger impact on job satisfaction than SER. What are perceived as intrinsic rewards, however, is highly subjective, which is troublesome from a managerial perspective, even more so as SIR is much harder to influence than SER. Given that intrinsic motivation is primarily a consequence of needs fulfillment, screening of applicants for person-job fit ought to increase job satisfaction and reduce turnover given its focus on the congruence between job demands and worker’s needs, respectively what a job provides and the worker’s needs.

    Originality/value - This study contributes to the brokerage research field by indicating that being a broker differs substantially between countries and that intrinsic rewards matter for Swedish brokers.

  • 37.
    Ahlgren, Elin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Ahlstedt, Frida
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Miljömässigt- och socialt ansvarstagande i SME: - En studie om motiv vid implementeringen av CSR2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Environmental and social responsibility in SMEs - A study of underlying motivation when implementing CSR in Swedish SMEs.

     

    Level: Final assignment for Bachelor Degree in Business Administration 

     

    Author: Elin Ahlgren and Frida Ahlstedt

     

    Supervisor: Tomas Källquist and Pär Villhelmson

     

    Date: June - 2018

                        

    Aim: Previous research presents the majority of motives when implementing CSR. Motivations raise awareness of why companies implement CSR. Knowledge about the motivation for implementing CSR in SMEs is inadequate, as previous studies have primarily focused on large companies. The aim of the study is to increase understanding of the motives underlying the implementation of CSR in SMEs, focusing on the value-motive, the economy-motive and the stakeholder-motive.

                        

    Method: The study is based on a hermeneutical and social constructivist perspective with an abductive research effort. The study applies a qualitative survey method in which empirical data collection was conducted using semi-structured interviews. The theoretical frame of reference is based on previous research and the empirical material is grouped according to the themes and categories that arose during the interviews. Based on the abductive research effort, the theoretical reference frame and empirical data have been analyzed in interaction with each other to answer the purpose of the study.

                    

    Conclusions: The study suggests that the value-driven, the performance-drivenand the stakeholder-driven motive form the basis for implementing CSR in SMEs. The study also shows that the value-driven motive is the motive considered to be the most central and significant role in implementing CSR in SMEs.

     

    Suggestions for future research: Further research should focus on the importance of the motives when implementing CSR in specific industries. Also, the stakeholders' perspective on the issue can be studied by looking at whether the motives for implementing CSR are perceived by stakeholders.

     

    Contribution of the thesis: From a theoretical perspective, this study contributes with an understanding that the value-driven, the performance-drivenand the stakeholder-driven motive can be applied in a study on implementation of CSR in SMEs. From a practical perspective, this study contributes with advice about how companies and their leaders can increase knowledge about CSR and apply CSR-activities tailored to the company's conditions.

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  • 38.
    Ahlin, Hanna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Bäck, Marcus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Uppfattningen av krishanteringen vid en förtroendekris: En fallstudie av fackförbundet Kommunals kriskommunikation2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med studien är att öka förståelsen för hur kriskommunikation vid en förtroendekris används och hur förtroendeingivande kriskommunikationen uppfattas av allmänheten, med utgångspunkt från Image restoration theory.

    Metod: Studiens metoder består av en kombination av en kvalitativ innehållsanalys och en kvantitativ enkätstudie.

    Resultat & Slutsats: Det som kan synas i resultaten av innehållsanalysen är att kriskommunikationen vid en förtroendekris innefattar strategierna “korrigerande åtgärd”, “bakomliggande orsaker”, “goda avsikter”, “erkännande av fel”, “stöttande”, “minimera”, “fördel” och “enkel förnekelse”. De strategier som inte användes vid en förtroendekris var “skylla ifrån sig”, “olycka”, “differentiering”, “attackera den anklagande parten”, “provokation” och “kompensera”. Intressenternas uppfattning beror dels på målgrupp, användning av strategierna och mediernas inverkan. Mest förtroendeingivande ansågs “erkännande av fel”, “korrigerande åtgärd” och “kompensation”. Minst förtroendeingivande ansågs “enkel förnekelse”, “olycka”, “anklaga den attackerande parten” och “skylla ifrån sig”. Förberedande åtgärder har också upptäckts vara väldigt viktigt vid en förtroendekris. 

    Förslag på fortsatt forskning: Komplettera nuvarande studie med kvalitativa intervjuer med intressenter; Utföra ytterligare en fallstudie av Kommunal med fokus på det efterarbete och förberedande åtgärder som tillämpas för att undvika att hamna i samma situation igen; Komplettera nuvarande studie med en ostrukturerad innehållsanalys för att utläsa eventuella uttalanden från Kommunal som inte faller inom ramen för Image restoration theory.

    Uppsatsens bidrag: Studien ger organisationer en bättre helhetsbild av hur de ska kommunicera med allmänheten vid en förtroendekris, på allmänhetens villkor. Studien bidrar till att presentera ett heltäckande verktyg som kan vägleda dem att använda kriskommunikationen på ett sätt som dels minskar hotet mot organisationens rykte och dels bygger förtroendekapital hos intressenterna i ett tidigt skede.

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  • 39.
    Ahlm, Matilda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Eriksson, Sabina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Hur företag redovisar hållbarhetsinformation från sina underleverantörer: En studie på svenska börsnoterade företag2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Questions about environment, human rights, social conditions and anti-corruption are a growing area of discussions in business. Because of this, it is not enough for companies to just think about the consequences of their own actions, or their direct suppliers, companies also have to take all the other companies in their supply chain into consideration. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to describe how companies report sustainable information from their suppliers. Further, the purpose is to examine which factors can explain the amount of information from suppliers and which information the companies choose to report. These factors are line of business, which have not been investigated before, and the previous investigated factor size.

    The paper has a positivistic base and a quantitative method, and a deductive research approach has been applied. The paper’s empirical material are collected by annual reports and presented in charts and tables. The analysis has compared data to theories and previous research. The paper’s results indicate that most companies that include sustainability in their annual report also include their suppliers. There is a wide variation in the use of sustainability indicators for the companies who include their suppliers. Further, the results show that only one of the investigated factors can explain how the companies report sustainability information from their suppliers.

    Suggestions for future research is to investigate why some companies does not report sustainability information regarding their suppliers. Further, it would be interesting to study this in a few years, to see if any practice has been established regarding the companies reporting of sustainability information from the suppliers.

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  • 40.
    Ahlm, Matilda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Eriksson, Sabina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Hur företag redovisar värdeskapande genom The International <IR> Framework2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Society awareness of environmental issues has recently increased, which also led to the increase in demand for sustainability reporting. This has in turn resulted in the number of sustainability report becoming more and more recent. Sustainability reports are therefore usually very long and complex as the stakeholder’s needs are wide and large. Since these reports have not previously been integrated with the financial information of the company, this is something that should be done and therefore results in so-called integrated reporting. IR is a way for companies to report their value creation in the short, medium and long term. The purpose of IR is to expand traditional approaches to managing the various capital and business model that affect value creation. Based on this, the purpose on the study has been developed, which is to analyse how companies report value creation by applying the framework The International <IR> Framework.The study has a positivist point of departure and a major qualitative research strategy but with some quantitative elements in which a deductible research effort has been applied. The empirical material of the study has been collected from integrated reports and presented by diagram. The analysis has been carried out by data against previous research. The study's results show that business models affect the company's presentation of the value creation and that the International <IR> Framework is applied more and more when companies report a lot of capital. This result shows that it is in line with previous research and that the content element business model is a useful tool for reporting value creation. Suggestions for further research is to investigate why many companies do not link their business model with value creation though this study shows that the business model is useful tool for reporting value creation. Further, it would also be interesting to conduct a similar study when The International <IR> Framework has established itself and then study whether there are any significant differences.

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  • 41.
    Ahlqvist, Anders
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Andersson, Simon
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Motivations påverkan på fastighetsmäklares prestation under en nedåtgående marknad2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation influences broker performance during a down market.

    Level: Bachelor's degree thesis in business administration

    Author: Simon Andersson and Anders Ahlqvist

    Supervisor: Lars-Johan Åge

    Date: 2023 June

    Purpose: This study aims to understand which motivational factors most clearly affect real estate agents' motivation and performance when the housing market is down. We apply internal and external motivation according to self-determination theory in the brokerage profession.

    Method: The study was conducted according to a qualitative research strategy. The respondents were selected after purposive sampling and were then interviewed using semi-structured interviews with an inductive research approach. The empirical material was coded using grounded theory, which led us to identify six categories linked to brokers' internal and external motivations. The categories are image, wealth, interest/learning, relationships, fame/recognition and health.

    Results and conclusion: The study indicate that it is essential to have balance in life, private and at work, to be motivated and perform well as a broker in a declining market. However, it is also crucial that the organization understands the individual needs and motivates in an adapted way. In order to be motivated as a broker and get maximum performance, internal and external motivation factors are needed. In a down market, internal factors have a more decisive effect on brokers' motivation and performance at home and work.

    Contribution of the thesis: When companies have a greater understanding of how their employees are motivated and which motivational factors contribute most to better performance, they can implement measures that promote employee motivation to achieve the highest possible performance. Bringing out the maximum capacity of your employees is especially important during down markets to counteract the adverse effects that follow from a down market. Also, having an understanding and being able to identify one's motivational factors and having the insight that it can change during worse markets can contribute to not only motivation that leads to better performance but also having an insight into how you as an individual should work and set up goals to maintain motivation in your profession.

    Suggestions for further research: Our study has investigated the impact of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation on real estate agent's performance in a down market, and where it points to a mix of both motivational factors leading to the best performance, but that extrinsic motivation has a minor impact compared to a better market. It would have been interesting to investigate which external motivational factors reduce the impact on real estate agents as it leads to the industry's ability to streamline how they use extrinsic motivation to improve brokers' performance.

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  • 42.
    Ahlqvist, Christoffer
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Cambronero, Janya
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Drama på Jobbet?: Att använda dramapedagogik i företagsutbildning2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med vår uppsats är att undersöka hur dramapedagogik kan användas inom företagsutbildning, och att diskutera dess eventuella för- och nackdelar. Genom att använda oss av kvalitativa intervjuer och en workshop har vi sökt ta reda på hur människor i olika positioner uppfattar dramapedagogik.

    Metod och teori: De metoder vi har använt oss av är kvalitativa intervjuer med en dramapedagog, en personalchef och en medarbetare, en workshop med tio projektledare som fått göra värderingsövningar och rollspel samt en enkätundersökning. I teoriavsnittet har vi beskrivit dramapedagogik samt tagit fram fyra grundstenar för en effektiv företagsutbildning. Vi definierar dramapedagogik som en pedagogisk metod där fokus ligger på processen och deltagarnas egna erfarenheter. Det finns olika metoder inom dramapedagogik, de vi berör är rollspel, improvisation och värderingsövningar. De fyra grundstenarna för en bra utbildning är: motivation, improvisation och interaktivitet, minska kunskapstappet samt utvärdering.

    Resultat och slutsats: Samtliga intervjuade var överens om att lärande med hög grad av interaktivitet, då man får göra något, var den bästa formen av inlärning eftersom kunskaperna då satte sig djupare. Dessutom uppfattades dramapedagogiska metoder som roliga, vilket gav en positiv syn på utbildningsformen.Genom att använda sig av dramapedagogiska metoder kan de fyra grundstenarna tillgodoses, men man måste vara medveten om de nackdelar dramapedagogik kan innebära. Den allmänna kännedomen och förståelsen för vad dramapedagogik innebär är låg, och därför är det viktigt att de företag som köper in tjänsten och de som levererar den är tydliga med vad syftet är, så att deltagarna kan känna sig trygga. Dessutom kan metoden vara kostsam, då de grupper som utbildas endast kan ha en begränsad storlek.  Om man är medveten om dessa risker så kan dramapedagogik vara en mycket lämplig metod, då utbildningen uppfattas som rolig och personlig, deltagarna har stora möjligheter att relatera till sig själva och sitt arbete, samt kan vara aktiva under hela utbildningen.

    Uppsatsens bidrag: Vi hoppas att människor genom att läsa denna uppsats får en större förståelse för vad dramapedagogik innebär, samt nya uppslag och idéer till hur en lyckad företagsutbildning kan se ut.

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  • 43.
    Ahlqvist, Malin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Örn, Niklas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    En studie av den positiva marknadsreaktionen vid VD-byten i Norden: Hur reagerar investerare på kön, ålder och rekryteringskrets vid tillkännagivandet av en ny VD?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: A study of the positive market reaction to CEO changes in the Nordic region.

    Level: Student thesis, final assignment for Bachelor Degree in Business Administration 

    Authors: Malin Ahlqvist and Niklas Örn

    Supervisor: Jan Svanberg

    Date: 2019 - June

    Aim: The purpose of this study is to analyze how the Scandinavian market reacts to the announcement of a new CEO and to analyze how the factors gender, age and recruitment method can affect this reaction.

    Method: The study has a positivistic research philosophy with a deductive basis. The study applies an Event study and is thus associated with a quantitative research method.

    Result & Conclusions: The results of the study indicate a positive market reaction in Scandinavia at the announcement of a CEO change. The study also indicates a positive market reaction for both women and men. Furthermore, the study indicate that the market reaction is positive in Sweden and Finland as well as negative in Denmark and Norway. The market reaction for men under median age is positive while the reaction for men over median age is negative, the market reaction for women based on age is opposite to men. The study indicates that there is a positive reaction when the incoming CEO is internally recruited and a negative reaction when the incoming CEO is externally recruited. However, some parts of the results are not significant, therefore it cannot be ruled out that certain parts of the results are random.

    Contribution of the thesis: This thesis contributes to fill the research gap that exists regarding the market reaction to CEO changes related to age, gender, recruitment method and a comparative Scandinavian perspective.

    Suggestions for future research: This study shows on several occasions a significant market reaction the day before the actual announcement date of the CEO change, we believe a study to further study the reason behind this result would be of interest. Two more suggestions for further research are presented in the study.

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  • 44.
    Ahlstedt, Magnus
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Implementation of an IT based Marketing information system in a high tech company: MBA-thesis in marketing: MBA-thesis in marketing2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this thesis has been to try to answer the question of how an IT based marketing information system support the formation of business and product related strategies and when and how such a system should be integrated in a company

    Method: Analytical meta-study of published literature condensed through a SWOT analysis and combined with a qualitative evaluation of questionnaires directed to companies with experience of developing and implementing marketing information systems.

    Result & Conclusion: Company size and market volatility decides the time of implementation of a marketing information system. Implementation should be initiated top-down in order to secure full organisational inertia. The approach should be holistic and tailor-made for each specific organisation. Users should fully integrated in development and implementation.

    Suggestions for future research: Supplementary work could be carried out in trying to quantify how a marketing information system affect the new product time to market and the strategic mismatch to real market development, hence the efficiency of such a system. Another question of interest is the organisational inbound resistance to change, how this resistance affect the implementation of a marketing information system and how to overcome the boundaries it poses.

    Contribution of the thesis:This thesis contributes with a general framework that sustains the implementation of a marketing information system. It answers the initial questions that a manager has, standing before the possible implementation of such a tool.

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  • 45. Ahlström Söderling, Ragnar
    et al.
    Brunåker, Svante
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Lindhult, Erik
    McCluskey, Denise
    Do something different!: Entrepreneurship courses in management education2005In: Trading Wor(l)ds: rapport från RENT en forskningskonferens, Gävle: Högskolan i Gävle , 2005, p. 10-29Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Ahmadi, Elena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Psychology, Sports Science and Occupational Health Sciences, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Lundqvist, Daniel
    Bergström, Gunnar
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Psychology, Sports Science and Occupational Health Sciences, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Macassa, Gloria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work, Criminology and Public Health Sciences, Public Health Science.
    Managers in the context of small business growth: a qualitative study of working conditions and wellbeingManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Ahmadi, Elena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Macassa, Gloria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Public Health and Sport Science, Public Health Science. University of Porto.
    Larsson, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. LKAB.
    Managers’ work and behaviour patterns in profitable growth SMEs2021In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 57, p. 849-863Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated managers’ work and behaviour patterns in profitable growth small- and medium-sized Swedish companies, and considered how these patterns might be associated with good health outcomes. Specifically, we looked at hours worked by managers, proportion of time spent on working activities, and leadership behaviour orientation. We used a quantitative cross-sectional design and collected data via a standardized questionnaire that was answered by 133 top managers. The data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, linear regression, and compositional data analysis. Our results indicate that the managers worked long hours, which is a health risk both for them as individuals and for their organizations, but also that they engaged in work practices and leadership behaviours that were favourable for organizational health and for their employees. The managers spent a high proportion of their time in touring, which could be beneficial to organizational health, and exercised active leadership through behaviours that contribute to both employee health and company effectiveness. Comparing our results to other studies, we can observe that patterns of managers’ time use differ between small and large companies, confirming that the size of the firm is an important determinant of managerial work.

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  • 48.
    Ahmadi, Zahra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Moderating effects on the market orientation and strategic performance relationship in public housing2019In: Baltic Journal of Management, ISSN 1746-5265, E-ISSN 1746-5273, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 559-577Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this study is to examine how external factors moderate public housing companies’ market orientation and strategic performance relationship.

    Design/methodology/approach – The quantitative method was applied to data from a survey sent to 289 public housing companies in Sweden. A hierarchical, multicollinearity diagnostics–moderated regression analysis is used to test the research hypotheses.

    Findings – The results reveal moderating factors. The companies take several initiatives to inform themselves about customers’ needs and distribute the information within the company, but economic conditions, as well as market and technological turbulence in the municipalities, moderate the relationship between market orientation and strategic performance. Economic conditions make it difficult for public housing companies to strategically act based on market needs when making decisions and planning construction strategies (strategic performance).

    Research limitations/implications – This study is limited by focusing on public housing companies, a sector that differs radically from the open market. The study highlights the effects of moderating factors that are important for companies’ strategic performance and long-term construction strategies. From this limited focus, researchers might use the results to compare both similar and different market situations.

    Practical implications – The results of the study are useful for companies facing a similar market situation of external moderating constraints. The result might be used in future research related to the area in focus.

    Originality –This research adds new knowledge to market research by including the impact of economic conditions, which provide insight into how to develop and use market knowledge in real estate and public housing markets.

  • 49.
    Ahmadi, Zahra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration. KTH, Bygg- och fastighetsekonomi.
    The role of market orientation in public housing companies: A study of MO’s effect on construction strategies2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of public housing companies in Sweden is strongly influenced by legal, economic, and demographic changes. The companies long tradition of taking responsibility for customer welfare in living have recently been criticized for excessive dominance over price setting, which is claimed to give them competitive advantages in the housing market. New legislation in 2011 requires financial return on investment, implying increased competition with radical changes for the companies. Because of the law, they find themselves transitioning from the role of being responsible for living conditions in Sweden to having to work in a businesslike manner with increased competition.The purpose of this dissertation is to analyze how the public housing companies’ deal with market orientation constructs and what their impact is on construction strategy choices. Theoretically, the market orientation concept is seen as a tool for companies to create superior value for the customers and influence strategic performance, which is a relationship tested and analyzed in this dissertation.The research was conducted through data collection stages using qualitative and quantitative methods. In the first stage, a qualitative pilot study was conducted with interviews of 15 managers in 11 public housing companies in central Sweden. In the second stage, two quantitative comparative studies of public and private housing companies in declining markets in central Sweden were conducted, collecting data from 23 (22 survey respondents) public and 37 private housing companies (16 respondents). In the third and final stage, two quantitative studies were conducted, collecting data from all 289 public housing companies (165 respondents) in Sweden.Results of the five studies show, firstly, that economic condition in the municipality have a major impact on the housing companies’ construction strategies, causing them to act innovatively in order to create superior customer value. Secondly, market orientation efforts contribute to competitive advantages in growing markets, while weak economic conditions limit the companies’ construction strategy choices in declining markets. After analyzing the link between market orientation constructs and construction strategy in declining markets, results showed that the public housing companies demonstrate higher responsiveness to customer demands compared to the private sector, but these have no effects on construction strategy. Thirdly, the analysis of moderating (external) and mediating (corporate social responsibility) effects on the market orientation and construction strategy relationship confirms that economic conditions in society influence construction strategy planning and decisions. The results of the mediating effects of CSR indicate that environmental and social issues have a positive influence on the market orientation and construction strategy relationship.

  • 50.
    Ahmadi, Zahra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Vi är lika: Kulturella skillnader och professionalism i internationella projekt2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Title: We are equal. A study of cultural differences and professionalism in international projects.

    Level: Thesis for Master Degree in Business Administration.

    Author: Zahra Ahmadi

    Supervisor: Lars Ekstrand

    Date: 2012-05

    The purpose of my study is to analyze and examine it well-educated people can reduce the cultural differences in interaction with other actors around the world. Part of aims study surveys and analyzes to understand how educated people can communicate and facilitate communication in order to achieve the goals and motivation in international collaboration. Problems can arise from cultural differences in connection with that persons face in society and in international collaboration. In this study, I assume theoretical framework that exists in cultural and communication theme and professionalism to find common objectives within educated groups.

    Method: The purpose of this study, I have chosen to use a qualitative approach. I have conducted interviews with people who work internationally within the company Sandvik and with teachers at the University of Gävle who have worked abroad with teaching. In order to depict how well educated people working in international collaborations, I have seen qualitative research method as relevant. When analyzing the material I have been based on the hermeneutic interpretation in order to elucidate and compare respondents' views on professionalization and the importance of understanding and managing cultural differences in an international context.

    Conclusions: The study shows that highly educated people have a major impact on communication with other people. Professionalism in an international collaboration that is characterized by complexity and knowledge, can thus affect both cultural differences andcommunication in itself. Although personal values differ between different national cultures in terms of language and different ways of working individuals try to adapt to each other in international collaboration. In most cases there are cultural differences that contribute to difficulties in co-operation once, but the study shows that highly educated people solve complexity by applying their knowledge of how problems can be handled. This requires that educated people are aware of the culture, way of interpreting meanings in different contexts, have insight on the institutional structures and rules. Professional people can thus both facilitate communication and leadership, which can contribute to a positive attitude to achieve the objectives of collaboration.

    Suggestions for future research: It may be proposed in the future, a comprehensive study of well-trained groups that meet in different countries. Quantitative can be used methods in both the public and private sectors. It is possible to conduct a quantitative study and compare with qualitative studies and draw conclusions.

    Contribution of the thesis: This study helps to get an attractive understanding of how educated people meet in both the public and private sectors in an international project. My theoretical contribution consists of knowledge in two professional international Swedish organizations. I complement and expand knowledge in the fields of culture and professionalism.

    Despite cultural differences, the professionals communicate regardless of the culture and society they come from. The study can be used by different companies to develop and improve the relationship in an international project. In addition, the study shows that educated people encounter respect and have easier communication than non-educated.

    Keywords: Culture, Communication and Professionalism

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    Zahra Ahmadi
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