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  • 1.
    Abrahamsson, Viktoria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Carlstedt, Belinda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Våld och personer med funktionsnedsättning: En studie om våldets innebörder beroende på inblandade aktörer, inom grupp- och serviceboenden2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Through semi-structured interviews with three women working as care personnel in group or service homes for persons with disabilities, perceptions regarding violence as linked to persons with disabilities is studied from a social-constructionist point of view. The study explores how the roles of actors involved can be associated with notions and interpretations expressed, and with what the interviewees regard as “appropriate” action to handle the situation. The role of the aggressor proved crucial. Gender of the actors was not expressed as important but indications existed pointing to perceived differences. When discussing appropriate action, the interviewees related to both a sense of “duty” and the “right” thing to do from a utilitarian perspective. When involving a colleague, loyalty became relevant. Throughout the study the dimension of power and the complexity of violence is considered and its different understandings depending on context, actors and perspective.

  • 2.
    Andersas, Lisa
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Engholm, Malin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Hedersbrottslighetens ideala offer: En kvantitativ genomgång av polisens utredningar av brott med hederskaraktär2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    "The ideal victims of honour-related crime"

    The purpose of this study is to examine if characteristics of victim and perpetrator and circumstances involving the crime, which are described in the theory of "the ideal victim", have an influence on the outcome of police employee’s independent assessment on crimes of honour character. In order to examine this a quantitative method has been applied and a logistic regression has been made of data based on identified crimes whit honour as a motive. The results of the study have shown that eleven variables which has a connection to characteristics and circumstances involving the crime and the investigation, as gender, age and circumstances surrounding reporting the crime, have a significant influence on the outcome. The study’s main conclusion is that no clear connection can be drawn between the outcome of assessments on crimes with an honour motive and the perception of the ideal victim.

  • 3.
    Antonsen, Camilla
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Lind, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    "Vad tänker du när du hör ordet terrorism?": En intervjustudie om individers uppfattningar om terrorism2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study has exanimated different individuals’ conceptions and perceptions of terrorism. To examine this issue we have done semi-structured interviews with six different individuals. The first main result of the study and the most important conclusion was that different individuals had different perceptions about what terrorism is and how it should be defined. Most of the interviewees counted both physically and psychologically harmed people as victims of terrorism. The main result when it comes to conceptions about terrorists looks was that terrorists have “big beard” and were “Muslims”. When it comes to medias representation of terrorism most of the interviewees believed that media angle and leave out information, and that this had some influence on their perception of terrorism. The interviewees also mentioned an increased fear and concern about terrorism, something that did not affect their daily routines and activities.

  • 4.
    Arfwidsson, Linnéa
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Warg, Alicia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Traditionella och nya upplåtelseformer av bostadslägenheter2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essays main focus is to further develop the understanding and describe six different types of tenure. The essay investigate similarities and differences between the types of tenure on the Stockholm housing market. The most common types of leaseholds, ownership apartments, and rental apartments will be described but and also new types of leases will be described. Such as cooperative rental apartments, condominiums, low purchase price apartments and rental purchases. The latter two are new forms of types of ownership and have emerged as an attempt by developers to bring young adults and low-wage earners into the housing market.

    Firstly, The qQuestion formulations in this essay are constructed to investigate similarities and differences which exist between the different forms of submission. Secondly, the questions target what kind of current costs for housing and the non-recurrent costs for purchasing. Finally, the purposes for the introduction of the new forms of leasing.

    The study has been conducted through literature studies and also interviews with market developers. Therefore, based on the study questions, respondents have answered the basis for our presentation and discussion of a descriptive analysis of the various forms of submission.

    Based on the results of the study, it can be clarified that the rental apartments can be the most advantageous in terms of the cost. But then it is taken into account that the queue is about 10 years for getting an apartment. Further, the results indicate that individuals that has a capital and the opportunity to purchase a ownership apart, the queue isn’t a matter and the individual has an opportunity to make a profit or loss on a later sale of the residence. Taking account to amortization of loans, an ownership apartment can be most advantageous from an economic perspective. Condominiums has been found to have a relatively low fee but the monthly cost become relatively high depending on the high purchase price.

    The results of this study shows that co-operative rental apartments have been found to have a low monthly cost. But the problem is that they are bothered by a long queue and also that the individual is dependent of a input gains. The two new types of low purchase price apartments and rental purchases on the market are so newly established which makes it difficult to make an accurately interpret of their impact on the housing market today.

  • 5.
    Barreiro-Gen, Maria
    et al.
    Economic Development and Social Sustainability Research Unit, Department of Economic Analysis and Business Administration, Faculty of Economics and Business, University of A Coruna, Elviña, A Coruña, Spain.
    Novo-Corti, Isabel
    Economic Development and Social Sustainability Research Unit, Department of Economic Analysis and Business Administration, Faculty of Economics and Business, University of A Coruna, Elviña, A Coruña, Spain.
    Collaborative learning in environments with restricted access to the internet: Policies to bridge the digital divide and exclusion in prisons through the development of the skills of inmates2015In: Computers in human behavior, ISSN 0747-5632, E-ISSN 1873-7692, Vol. 51, no B, p. 1172-1176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The deprivation of freedom for the prisoners, involves not only physical isolation, but also digital, which implies a strong isolation particularly painful in an “information society”. Spanish prison population is deprived of access Internet and all ICT that could contact inmates with outdoor life, this is mainly due to security issues. Not having enough ICT skills is a new cause of social exclusion. The objective of this research was to identify the key issues which should be focused by policy makers to avoid digital divide among prison population. A survey among inmate population in all the five penitentiary centers in Galicia, in the northwest of Spain, was undertaken to obtain a sample of 380 inmates. A Structural Equation Model (SEM) was carried out to explain prisoners’ ICT Skills, in bias to inmate’s social skills, general skills and attitude towards collaborative learning. For inmates, who are characterized by their low education level, results shown the relevance of having general and social skills to be able to have more ICT skills. Then, collaborative learning in prison it is shown as a way to bridge both walls: the physical (better reinsertion and no recidivism) and the digital one.

  • 6.
    Benselfelt, Milena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Brändström, Sophia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Elledningars rättighetstyper; ledningsrätt, servitut och nyttjanderätt: Elbolagens och lantmäterimyndigheternas åsikter2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is constantly developing and it means more lines in the ground, which leads to more questions about their legal rights. The electricity grid is divided into three different sizes; the core network, the regional network and the local network. The electricity grid is an important part of the infrastructure, and it should be legally protected through for example, utility easement or agreement easement.. Issues may arise about the legal rights of power lines such as when a transfer occurs, etc. Thus it is important to examine how the power lines should be legally protected.

    The purpose of the study is to examine how the electricity companies legally protect their power lines, as well as the pros and cons of the legal rights, based on the aspects of electricity companies and cadastral authorities. The purpose is also to highlight the most common issue regarding the legal rights on power lines.

    The questions that were formulated according to the purpose were:

    1. How do electricity companies legally protect their power lines?

    2. What are the pros and cons of the legal rights based on the views of electricity companies and surveyors?

    3. What is the most common problem that electric companies have about legal rights of power lines?

    By using a qualitative method in form of an interview study, the data for the study has been obtained. The interview study consisted of 16 interviews with experts from electricity companies and cadastral authorities. As the study should cover all of Sweden, electricity companies and land surveyors were selected with a geographical spread.

    The study shows that electricity companies legally protect their power lines depending on their size. The study also shows the differences between the electricity companies and the cadastral authorities ́ views on the pros and cons of the legal rights. Issues may occur depending on who owns the land where the lines are to be constructed. 

  • 7.
    Berg, Erika
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Berglund, Terés
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Renskötselrätt vid lantmäteriförrättning: Hur beaktas rättigheten?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Renskötselrätt innebär enligt rennäringslagen en rätt för samer att använda mark inom ett renskötselområde till underhåll för sig och sina renar. Renskötselrätten grundas på urminnes hävd och tillkommer den som är same och medlem i en sameby. Renskötselrätt innebär en särskild rätt till fast egendom vilken existerar parallellt med äganderätten och omfattas av egendomsskyddet i 2 kap. 15 § regeringsformen.

    Enskilda individer kan tvingas till rådighetsinskränkningar eller till att avstå mark till förmån för allmänna intressen som infrastruktur och bebyggelse. Detta ska ske enligt reglerna för markåtkomst som återfinns i ett tjugotal lagar. Enligt Europakonventionen och regeringsformen ska den som tvingas avstå mark eller rättigheter ersättas.

    En fastighetsbildningsförrättning handläggs av lantmäterimyndigheten enligt reglerna i fastighetsbildningslagen. Ett återkommande problem är att värdera vilken skada en sameby lider när ersättning enligt lag måste prövas i samband med ett intrång.

    Syftet med detta arbete är dels att bidra med ökad kunskap om renskötselrättens juridiska innebörd, och dels att synliggöra hur renskötselrätten i nutid beaktas vid markåtkomst inom en lantmäteriförrättning. Detta för att bidra till att skapa en samsyn och en enhetlig handläggning av åtgärder som påverkar renskötselrätten. För att svara på denna studies frågeställningar har studier av förrättningsakter och intervjuer med förrättningslantmätare och en representant från Länsstyrelsen genomförts.

    Resultatet av studien visar att det i dagsläget är oklart hur renskötselrätten ska beaktas inom en lantmäteriförrättning och att det saknas arbetsstöd för hur renskötselrätten ska värderas vid ett intrång. I slutsatserna i detta arbete framgår det att detta beror på att det finns luckor i rennäringslagen vilket gör att den inte integrerar väl med annan lag och att det många gånger är oklart vilken myndighet som äger vilken fråga rörande renskötselrätten. För en enhetlig handläggning av ärenden som berör renskötselrätten krävs utbildning, klarläggande av vissa begrepp och bättre samverkan mellan myndigheter. Men framförallt krävs en revidering av rennäringslagen och relationen mellan den och annan lag.

  • 8.
    Berggren, David
    et al.
    Lantmäteriet.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Förnyelselagen - möjlighet eller hot?2018In: Samhällsbyggaren, ISSN 2000-2408, Vol. 27 maj, no 2, p. 38-39Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Riksdagen har beslutat att avtalsrättigheter som skrivits in i det statliga Lantmäteriets fastighetsregister före den 1 juli 1968 kommer att tas bort ur registret om inte rättighetshavaren senast den 31 december 2018 anmäler till Lantmäteriet att den ska finnas kvar. Hur arbetar rättighetshavare med förnyelsekravet och vad kan förnyelsekravet väntas få för konsekvenser?

  • 9.
    Blomberg, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Rullstol - en symbol för svaghet?: En översiktsstudie om vuxna individer med funktionsvariation och deras utsatthet för sexualbrott2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to present a general view of what is found in earlier research on adults with disabilities and their vulnerability to sexual crimes. The study covers two issues: (1) How do the disability affect vulnerability to sexual crimes according to the articles? (2) How do the articles construct sexual crimes? To answer the aim a scoping review with a total of nine quantitative and qualitative scientific articles were used and a thematic analysis was conducted. The results were analyzed from a social constructionist perspective. The results showed that an individual with a visible disability was described as a symbol of weakness. The results also showed that the articles chose to construct sexual crimes as an individualistic problem. Moreover the results showed that an individual with a disability "consents" to sexual intercourse because of low self-esteem. The conclusion is that more research is needed in order to develop measures to prevent sexual crimes against individuals with disabilities to improve their feeling of security in society. 

  • 10.
    Boklund, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Bäck, Emma
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    En skildring av fem kvinnors erfarenheter av våld i nära relation utifrån ett nätverksperspektiv2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine if and how victims of domestic violence disclose their experiences to their social network, how the social network responds to the violence and the significance of the network responses relative to the evolvement of the violence. The study is based on five semi-structured interviews with women who have been exposed to different forms of domestic violence. The results, which were analysed using a narrative analysis and interpreted by symbolic interactionism and the theory of the leaving process, shows that women disclose their experiences about domestic violence to both informal and formal contacts. Disclosure often happened in the aftermath of a serious violent incident. In the majority of cases, women experienced supportive reactions that also contributed to the final break up from their relationships. Some of the women, however, experience negative attitudes and rejection, in these situations an absolute break-up was not completed. 

  • 11.
    Bosell, Josefine
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Lindblad, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Fastighetstaxering av lokalhyreshus: Utrymmen under mark2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    At a property tax assesment of a non-residential rental housing unit the valuation model of land does not take in to consideration the space beneath it that generate revenue from rent. This means that the tax assessment value of the land does not necessarily reflect the market value.   The purpose of this paper is to make a survey, of two Swedish cities, that can provide the National Land Survey with information that can help them improve the quality of the tax assessment value. The aim is to identify possible connections between the market value in comparison to the tax assessment value of properties with and without space beneath ground.  The methods used are a qualitative analysis of the purchase price in relation to tax assessment values and qualitative interviews. The analysis of the purchase price was done to answer if space beneath ground affects the market value compared to the tax assessment value. The interviews aim to create a deeper knowledge of the value of space beneath ground.  The results from the analysis of the purchase price showed that the market value was not affected by space beneath ground. However, it emerged in the interviews that the land value for space beneath ground should be handled differently during assassment, because it has a noteworthy value. The conclusion was that space beneath ground that generates revenue, should be included in the property tax assessment under special conditions.  

  • 12.
    Brandt, Emma
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Rekrytering till islamiska staten: En kvalitativ intervjustudie om IS-rekryteringen i Sverige2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine the recruitment to the Islamic state as well as viewing possible reasons and motives for joining the Islamic state. Furthermore I also intended to examine the impact of the new amendment of the law concerning terrorist crimes. The study is based on seven semi-structured interviews with persons who work with this kind of questions. Social media is an important part of the radicalization and recruitment to the Islamic state. General motives for joining the Islamic state are for example alienation, social injustice or a search for identity. Nevertheless the process of radicalization and recruitment are individual and vary between different persons.

  • 13.
    Bronegård, Martina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Policy för markåtkomst: Granskning av Svensk Energis ”Policy - Markåtkomst”2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The management of land access for construction and maintenance of electric grids are handled differently by the electrical grid companies in Sweden. The branch organization Svensk Energi has created a policy for land access in order to create a unitary and equitable management that they recommend their members to use. The purpose of this study was to examine how the policy is used, to identify the areas of development and compile suggestions for improvement.

    Data for the study were collected through semi-structured interviews with experts in nine of the electrical grid companies that are members of Svensk Energi. The result shows that the application of the policy varies between the companies. According to the study the policy's positive features outnumbers its negative characteristics. The companies consider that the policy can be improved by more distinct guidelines in certain areas and more flexibility in other areas. The study presents and states the grounds for improvement proposals that Svensk Energi is recommended to implement to improve the policy.

  • 14.
    Brunzell, Therese
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    "Vi uppfinner hjulet vid varje enskilt tillfälle": En intervjustudie av Kriminalvårdens möte med intagna transpersoner2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Through qualitative interviews with five employees in the Swedish correctional system and one trans-identified inmate, I sought to get an understanding of transgender inmates are dealt with in the Swedish correctional system. The aim of this study was to examine norms, values and practices expressed by the interview participants regarding transgender inmates. The interview participants expressed an awareness of the group’s vulnerable position in the prison environment, but also the lack of guidelines as well as structured methods to handle the group. Responses focused on the deviant and direct rather than the normative and preventive. The transgendered inmates themselves were responsible to explain their identity to others. At the same time there were no efforts to make the staff members aware of questions concerning gender identities and/or expressions. The Swedish correctional system can be said to maintain normative conceptions of two binary sexes by failing to provide action plans or natural options for persons with gender identities that extend beyond woman or man, or fluctuate between the two categories. To refuse to take a stand is to exercise power, make transgender inmates invisible, and perhaps even be seen as a violation in itself.

  • 15.
    Çağdaş, Volkan
    et al.
    Yıldız Technical University, Turkey.
    Stubkjær, Erik
    Aalborg University, Denmark.
    de Vries, Walter Timo
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    van der Merwe, Cornelius
    University of Stellenbosch, South Africa.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Paulsson, Jenny
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Schwery, Nadja
    University of Freiburg, Switzerland.
    Ploeger, Hendrik
    VUUniversity Amsterdam / Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Işıkdağ, Ümit
    Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University, Turkey.
    Kara, Abdullah
    Yıldız Technical University, Turkey.
    Co-ownership shares in condominiums – A comparison across jurisdictions and standards: Long version2018In: 6th International FIG 3D Cadastre Workshop, Copenhagen: International Federation of Surveyors, FIG , 2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Condominium is one of the prevalent forms of three-dimensional (3D) property rights (Paulsson, 2007, p. 32). The condominium concept common to a number of jurisdictions consists of three elements: (a) individual ownership of an apartment, (b) co-ownership (joint ownership) of the land and the common parts of the building, and (c) membership of an incorporated or unincorporated owners' association (van der Merwe, 2015, p. 5). The ownership shares of condominium unit owners in the common property are here referred to as co-ownership shares; yet, alternative terms include ownership fraction, condominium share, participation quota, share value, and unit entitlement. The co-ownership share determines the proportional contribution to the common expenses and the share of common profits, as well as the voting power of each condominium unit owner in the administration of the condominium. The most common approaches to the determination of the co-ownership shares are based on equality, relative size or relative value of each condominium unit, or a combination of such (van der Merwe, 1994, p. 57-58). The literature presents detailed descriptions and comparative analysis related to condominium systems in different jurisdictions (e.g. van der Merwe, 2016; 2015; Paulsson, 2007; EUI, 2005; UNECE, 2005); however, the technical and procedural aspects related to the allotment of co-ownership shares still need to be further investigated. This paper aims to compare methods and procedures applied for the allotment of co-ownership shares of condominium systems in the following seven jurisdictions; Denmark, Germany, South Africa, Sweden, Switzerland, the Netherlands, and Turkey. Also, international geographic information standards (i.e. ISO LADM, OGC LandInfra/InfraGML) are analyzed to assess the extent to which they facilitate allocation of co-ownership shares. The main purpose is to clarify the legal provisions and methodologies related to the determination of co-ownership shares in national condominium systems and bring new insights to countries, which are trying to revise their national provisions for fairer implementations.

  • 16.
    Çağdaş, Volkan
    et al.
    Yıldız Technical University, Turkey.
    Stubkjær, Erik
    Aalborg University, Denmark.
    de Vries, Walter
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    van der Merwe, Cornelius
    University of Stellenbosch, South Africa.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Paulsson, Jenny
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Schwery, Nadja
    University of Freiburg, Switzerland.
    Ploeger, Hendrik
    VU University Amsterdam/Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Işıkdağ, Ümit
    Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University, Turkey.
    Kara, Abdullah
    Yıldız Technical University, Turkey.
    Co-ownership shares in condominiums – A comparison across jurisdictions and standards: Short version2018In: 6th International FIG 3D Cadastre Workshop / [ed] Peter van Oosterom, Copenhagen: International Federation of Surveyors, FIG , 2018, p. 217-242Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Condominium is one of the prevalent forms of three- dimensional (3D) property rights (Paulsson, 2007, p. 32). The condominium concept common to a number of jurisdictions consists of three elements: (a) individual ownership of an apartment, (b) co-ownership (joint ownership) of the land and the common parts of the building, and (c) membership of an incorporated or unincorporated owners' association (van der Merwe, 2015, p. 5). The ownership shares of condominium unit owners in the common property are here referred to as co-ownership shares; yet, alternative terms include ownership fraction, condominium share, participation quota, share value, and unit entitlement. The co-ownership share determines the proportional contribution to the common expenses and the share of common profits, as well as the voting power of each condominium unit owner in the administration of the condominium. The most common approaches to the determination of the co-ownership shares are based on equality, relative size or relative value of each condominium unit, or a combination of such (van der Merwe, 1994, p. 57-58). The literature presents detailed descriptions and comparative analysis related to condominium systems in different jurisdictions (e.g. van der Merwe, 2016; 2015; Paulsson, 2007; EUI, 2005; UNECE, 2005); however, the technical and procedural aspects related to the allotment of co-ownership shares still need to be further investigated. This paper aims to compare methods and procedures applied for the allotment of co-ownership shares of condominium systems in the following seven jurisdictions; Denmark, Germany, South Africa, Sweden, Switzerland, the Netherlands, and Turkey. Also, international geographic information standards are analyzed to assess the extent to which they facilitate allocation of co-ownership shares. The main purpose is to clarify the legal provisions and methodologies related to the determination of co-ownership shares in national condominium systems and bring new insights to countries, which are trying to revise their national provisions for fairer implementations.

  • 17.
    Carpenter, Angela
    et al.
    School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, United Kingdom; Centre for Marine and Coastal Policy Research, Plymouth University, United Kingdom.
    Shellock, Rebecca
    Plymouth Marine Laboratory, United Kingdom; European Centre for Environment and Human Health, University of Exeter, Truro, United Kingdom.
    von Haartman, Robin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Stephen, Fletcher
    UN Environment World Conservation Monitoring Centre, United Kingdom.
    Glegg, Gillian
    Centre for Marine and Coastal Policy Research, Plymouth University, United Kingdom.
    Public perceptions of management priorities for the English Channel region2018In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 97, p. 294-304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The English Channel region is an area of high conservational importance, as well being a contributor to economic prosperity, social well-being and quality of life of the people living around it. There is a need to incorporate societal elements into marine and coastal governance, to improve management of the Channel ecosystem. Public Perception Research (PPR) is a relatively unexplored dimension of marine science, with limited research at the scale of the Channel region. Using an online survey, this study examined the public's use of, and funding priorities for, the Channel's marine and coastal environment. It revealed that there are variations in how the English and French coastlines are used. Environmental issues were generally viewed as being more important than economic ones. Country-level differences were observed for public uses of, and priorities for the Channel region. Cleaner water and beaches, and improved coastal flood defences, were more highly prioritised by English respondents, while offshore renewable energy and sustainability of businesses were more highly prioritised by French respondents. The paper contributes to the debate on the value of PPR by addressing evidence gaps in the English Channel region, and to PPR literature more broadly. It provides baseline data to inform future engagement strategies for the marine and coastal governance of the Channel region specifically. It also identifies how this type of research has implications for the wider marine and coastal environment, including contributing to Sustainable Development Goal 14 on conserving and sustainably using the oceans, seas, and marine resources.

  • 18.
    Da Luz Reis, Isaura
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Kindström, Linnéa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    "Om man ser ut som du så får man skylla sig själv": En intervjustudie om transidentifierades utsatthet för brott och annan utsatthet, samt rättsväsendets bemötande2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In using semi-structured interviews with four people of trans experience, the study investigated such peoples’ (transvestites, transgender, inter-gender and other with transexperience) exposure to crime and other vulnerabilities. It explored whether they had contacted the justice system concerning their vulnerabilities and if so, the quality of the response they received, in the case of there being any at all. The exposure to crime (and other) varies greatly as it is dependent upon different grounds of discrimination. It is also said to be multifaceted and made up of both illegal actions and others that are not necessarily lawfully deemed a crime. The exposure of such discrimination is to a degree of frequency, the interviewees normalise it and struggle to distinguish it. There are multiple reasons as to why the interviewees do or do not choose to contact the justice system, possibly the fear of secondary victimization or their own earlier experience of poor treatment. This potentially could also be put to the fact the justice system’s response has, when it existed, varied significantly. How well binary transpeople pass affect the exposure to crime (and other) to a great extent, since the ignorance of transpersons is large and often result in discrimination.

  • 19.
    Dimopooulou, Efi
    et al.
    National Technical University of Athens, Greece.
    Karki, Sudarshan
    Queensland Government, Australia.
    Miodrag, Roić
    University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    de Almeida, José-Paulo Duarte
    University of Coimbra Apartado, Portugal.
    Griffith-Charles, Charisse
    The University of the West Indies St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago.
    Thompson, Rod
    Delft University of Technology.
    Ying, Shen
    Wuhan University, China.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    van Oosterom, Peter
    Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    3D Cadastres Best Practices, Chapter 2: Initial Registration of 3D Parcels2018In: FIG Congress 2018: Proceedings, Copenhagen: International Federation of Surveyors, FIG , 2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Registering the rights of a 3D parcel should provide certainty of ownership, protection of rights and unambiguous spatial location. While not all cadastral jurisdictions in the world maintain a digital cadastral database, the concepts of such registration hold true regardless of whether it is a paper-based cadastre or a digital one. Similarly, the motivations and purpose for the creation of a 2D cadastre for individual jurisdictions applies to3D cadastre as well. It provides security of ownership for3D parcels, protects the rights of the owners, and provides valuable financial instruments such as mortgage, collateral, valuation and taxation. The current life cycle of the development of a land parcel includes processes startfrom outside the cadastral registration sphere, such as zoning plans and permits, but has a direct impact on how a certain development application is processed. Thus, in considering the changes required to allow a jurisdiction to register 3D, it is important to note the sphere of influence that could have an impact on 3D registration. These include planners, notaries, surveyors, data managers and registrars; however for the purpose of this paper, the research is focused on the core 3D aspects that are institutional, legal and technical. This paper explores approaches and solutions towards the implementation of initial 3D cadastral registration, as derivedby current procedures of registration of 3D parcels in various countries worldwide. To this end, the paper analyses the categorisations and approaches of3D spatial units and examines the validation requirements (constraints) on a cadastral database, at various levels of maturity. In this view, 3D data storage and visualization issues are examined in relation to the level of complexity of various jurisdictions, as provided by the results of the country inventory combined with a worldwide survey in 2010 and updated in 2014 (Van Oosterom, et al., 2014). It appearsthat significant progress has been achieved in providing legal provisions for the registration of 3D cadastres in many countries and several have started to show 3D information on cadastral plans such as isometric views, vertical profiles or text environment to facilitate such data capture and registration. Moreover, as jurisdictions progress towards an implementation of 3D cadastre, much 3D data collected in other areas (BIM, IFC CityGML files, IndoorGML, InfraGML and LandXML) open up the possibility of creating 3D cadastral database and combining with the existing datasets.The usability, compatibility and portability of these datasets is a low cost solution to one of the costliest phases of the implementation of 3D cadastres, which is the initial 3D data capture.

  • 20.
    Dimopooulou, Efi
    et al.
    School of Rural and Surveying Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou, Greece.
    Karki, Sudarshan
    Queensland Government, Department of Natural Resources and Mines, Brisbane, Australia.
    Roić, Miodrag
    Faculty of Geodesy, University of Zagred, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Duarte de Almeida, José-Paulo
    Geomatic Engineering Laboratory, Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science & Technology, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.
    Griffith-Charles, Charisse
    epartment of Geomatics Engineering and Land Management, Faculty of Engineering, The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago.
    Thompson, Rod
    Department OTB, Section GIS - technology, Faculty of Architecture and the Built Environment, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands.
    Ying, Shen
    School of Resource and Environmental Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Oosterom, Peter van
    Department OTB, GIS Technology Section, Faculty of Architecture and the Built Environment, Delft University of Technology, Delft, the Netherlands .
    Chapter 2. Initial Registration of 3D Parcels2018In: Best Practices 3D Cadastres - Extended version / [ed] Peter van Oosterom, Copenhagen, Denmark: International Federation of Surveyors , 2018, p. 67-94Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Registering the rights of a 3D parcel should provide certainty of ownership, protection of rights and unambiguous spatial location. While not all cadastral jurisdictions in the world maintain a digital cadastral database, the concepts of such registration hold true regardless of whether it is a paper-based cadastre or a digital one. Similarly, the motivations and purpose for the creation of a 2D cadastre for individual jurisdictions applies to3D cadastre as well. It provides security of ownership for3D parcels, protects the rights of the owners, and provides valuable financial instruments such as mortgage, collateral, valuation and taxation. The current life cycle of the development of a land parcel includes processes startfrom outside the cadastral registration sphere, such as zoning plans and permits, but has a direct impact on how a certain development application is processed. Thus, in considering the changes required to allow a jurisdiction to register 3D, it is important to note the sphere of influence that could have an impact on 3D registration. These include planners, notaries, surveyors, data managers and registrars; however for the purpose of this paper, the research is focused on the core 3D aspects that are institutional, legal and technical. This paper explores approaches and solutions towards the implementation of initial 3D cadastral registration, as derivedby current procedures of registration of 3D parcels in various countries worldwide. To this end, the paper analyses the categorisations and approaches of3D spatial units and examines the validation requirements (constraints) on a cadastral database, at various levels of maturity. In this view, 3D data storage and visualization issues are examined in relation to the level of complexity of various jurisdictions, as provided by the results of the country inventory combined with a worldwide survey in 2010 and updated in 2014 (Van Oosterom, et al., 2014). It appearsthat significant progress has been achieved in providing legal provisions for the registration of 3D cadastres in many countries and several have started to show 3D information on cadastral plans such as isometric views, vertical profiles or text environment to facilitate such data capture and registration. Moreover, as jurisdictions progress towards an implementation of 3D cadastre, much 3D data collected in other areas (BIM, IFC CityGML files, IndoorGML, InfraGML and LandXML) open up the possibility of creating 3D cadastral database and combining with the existing datasets.The usability, compatibility and portability of these datasets is a low cost solution to one of the costliest phases of the implementation of 3D cadastres, which is the initial 3D data capture.

  • 21. El-Mekawy, Mohamed
    et al.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    Lantmäteriet.
    Paulsson, Jenny
    KTH, Fastighetsvetenskap.
    Integration of 3D Cadastre, 3D Property Formation and BIM in Sweden2014In: Proceedings of the 4th International FIG 3D Cadastre Workshop, 9-11 November 2014, Dubai, UAE, 2014, p. 17-34Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 22.
    El-Mekawy, Mohamed Sobaih Aly
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    Swedish Mapping, Cadastral and Land Registration Authority, Gävle, Sweden.
    Paulsson, Jenny
    Real Estate Planning and Land Law, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Integration of Legal Aspects in 3D Cadastral Systems2015In: International Journal of E-Planning Research, ISSN 2160-9918, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 47-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article continues a research on the feasibility of BIM for 3D cadastre in unified building models, presented in . It describes problems and solutions concerning interaction between BIM and the registration and visualisation of legal 3D property information. BIM and legal 3D property are two seemingly different domains, and there is a lack of BIM-3D property research in relation to technical and registration issues. The article therefore focuses on possibilities and difficulties of addressing legal interests (i.e. rights, restrictions and responsibilities) in land. A Swedish case study is used to describe the use of 3D property formation and registration in Sweden, and how it might be possible to achieve a more integrated, standard based registration of legal boundaries and physical buildings. The results emphasize how BIM and 3D property domains can interact to serve the needs for effective information handling by e.g. importing 3D cadastral boundaries into BIM as basis for decision-making or to use BIM as input in the 3D cadastral formation process.

  • 23.
    Estrada, Felipe
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Kriminologiska institutionen.
    Nilsson, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Kriminologiska institutionen.
    Jerre, Kristina
    Stockholms universitet, Kriminologiska institutionen.
    Wikman, Sofia
    Stockholms universitet, Kriminologiska institutionen; Institutet för framtidsstudier.
    Violence at Work: The Emergence of a Social Problem2010In: Journal of Scandinavian Studies in Criminology and Crime Prevention, ISSN 1404-3858, E-ISSN 1651-2340, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 46-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses trends in violence at work on the basis of victim surveys, work-environment surveys, and press material. It proceeds from the two most common explanations of why violence at work appears to have increased over recent decades. These emphasize shifts in working conditions that have increased employees' victimization risk, and a broadened view of what is regarded as work-related violence. The empirical analyses provide support for both these explanations, and the various dimensions examined—increased reporting propensities, expanded definitions, a reduced tolerance of violence, and altered working conditions—are linked to one another.

  • 24.
    Estrada, Felipe
    et al.
    Institutet för framtidsstudier, Stockholm.
    Nilsson, Anders
    Institutet för framtidsstudier, Stockholm.
    Wikman, Sofia
    Stockholms universitet, Kriminologiska institutionen.
    Det ökade våldet i arbetslivet: En analys utifrån de svenska offerundersökningarna2007In: Nordisk Tidsskrift for Kriminalvidenskab, ISSN 0029-1528, Vol. 94, no 1, p. 56-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Victim surveys from both Sweden and her Nordic neighbours show that the proportion reporting exposure to violence at work has increased during the 1990s. This article examines the question of how this trend should be understood. Does the increase reflect a rise in the number of people exposed to such violence, or is it rather due to an increase in the focus on violence and a broadening of the way violence is defined? On the basis of Swedish victim surveys covering the period 1984 - 2001, the article examines whether the character of this problem has changed as regards the seriousness of the violence, the occupational groups exposed to such violence, and the extent to which victims have contacted the police. The study shows that there has been an increase in exposure to threats and violence at work. This increase is found primarily in relation to violence and not to threats, among women, and in particular those working with some form of care provision. One surprising finding is that the propensity to report work-related violence has diminished somewhat, something that is not true for other types of violence. We thus find a high propensity to report when levels of exposure are low, and a lower reporting propensity once exposure to violence has increased. This trend is conceptualized against the background of a shift in and broadening of the type of incidents reported in the context of victim surveys. Acts of violence against persons employed in the health sector, schools and in care provision are less likely to be reported to the police than violence perpetrated against members of other occupational groups. Thus as care workers come to account for an increasing proportion of both violent incidents and the victims of violence, the aggregate propensity to report such incidents decreases. When the focus is limited to those individuals working in the care sector who have themselves been exposed to violence, there are no signs of a reduction in their reporting propensity.

  • 25.
    Faulkner, Lina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Rosenius, Cecilia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Brott, kön och socioekonomi i Uppsala: en analys av statistik om ungdomar misstänkta för brott i Uppsala kommun2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis was to analyze delinquency in Uppsala regarding types of crime, neighborhoods and gender, as well as to study whether there was any correlation between delinquency and socioeconomics. By using data on suspected youths in the age of 13-20 in Uppsala, we did a univariate and bivariate statistical analysis. To study the relationship between the neighborhood structure and frequency of suspected youths we first used a correlation matrix and then proceeded with a multiple linear regression analysis. The results indicated that there are similarities and differences regarding delinquency of boys and girls. The most distinct difference was the frequency of suspected youths. Regarding the regression analysis, the socioeconomics explains a relatively large part of the variance of frequencies of suspected youths.

  • 26.
    Forsberg, Sandra
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Wattberg, Maja
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    "Det är aldrig för sent": Fyra berättelser om vägen ut ur kriminalitet.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ”It´s never too late.” - Four stories about the path out of crime.

    The purpose of this paper was to study the subjective experiences of factors that have contributed to desistance from criminal behavior, and the factors which, according to the interviewees own experiences lead to the maintenance of a more conventional lifestyle. The study was performed using qualitative semi-structured interviews with four ex-offenders. The results have shown that factors, such as love relationships and parenting, as well as desistance from alcohol and drug abuse and changing their environment are factors that in interaction with each other have affected the interviewed individuals desistance from criminal behavior. Routines, new social network and support are factors which, according to the interviewees made it possible to maintain a more conventional lifestyle. The study's main conclusion is that the interaction between external and internal factors so called ”turning points”, is crucial to a desistance process to be successful.

  • 27. Gallo, Carina
    et al.
    Fowlin, Julaine
    Lilja, My
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Criminology.
    Gaining a Global Criminal Justice Perspective: A Computer-Supported Collaboration Between Students in Sweden and the United States2018In: Journal of Criminal Justice Education, ISSN 1051-1253, E-ISSN 1745-9117, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 531-550Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores how Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) can globalize a criminal justice curriculum. It draws on a project where criminology students in Sweden and the United States collaborated in an online environment. We describe the design of the project and use student reflections to identify successes and challenges. The results show that for a CSCL to be successful, instructors need to be intentional about academic, psychological, and interpersonal aspects of the collaboration, as they are all interrelated. The students experienced challenges, for example, related to the workload. However, in most cases, the perceived benefits outweighed the challenges. The students reported an improved understanding of criminology theory and enhanced critical thinking skills. We argue that CSCL can improve the affordability and accessibility of global learning. Without having to travel, the students entered a virtual space where they could learn together with students and faculty from another country.

  • 28.
    Gorgis Poulos, Ival
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Dulger, Nouhadra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Livsberättelser av unga män i förorten: En kvalitativ studie om identifiering av risk- och skyddsfaktorer2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att studera bakomliggande orsaker till uppkomsten av brottsliga handlingar hos personer med invandrarbakgrund i utsatta områden. Studiens centrala frågeställning är att undersöka hur intervjupersonerna ser på sina uppväxtförhållanden. För att besvara frågeställningen utgick vi från en kvalitativ metod och använde oss av semistrukturerade intervjuer innehållande narrativa inslag, med fyra intervjudeltagare. Ett av studiens viktigaste resultat är att riskfaktorer i tidig ålder är indikationer på brottsliga beteenden, men forskning visar att det är nästintill omöjligt att med säkerhet predicera om riskfaktorer i ungas liv leder till senare brottslighet. Förändringar kan ske både i livsförloppet och i individernas sociala nätverk som i sin tur leder till strukturella förändringar i individernas liv. Dessa förändringar kan både främja och hämma brottsliga beteenden hos en individ, beroende på om förändringarna utgör risk-eller skyddsfaktor.  Slutsatsen av studien är att ingenting är på förhand givet, vi kan inte med säkerhet säga att en individ med vissa riskfaktorer kommer att bli kriminell. 

  • 29.
    Göransson, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Winka, Hans
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Nej till omarrondering: En studie i västra Rättvik2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Genom flera århundraden har fastigheter, genom arv, delats upp i skiften så pass många gånger att de i dag inte utgör lämpliga fastigheter. Omarrondering, som är en typ av fastighetsreglering, är ett verktyg som är till för att förbättra den befintliga fastighetsstrukturen och i Sverige används omarrondering i syfte att skapa ett så lönsamt skogsbruk som möjligt. Men det är långt ifrån alla fastighetsägare som ställer sig positiv till fastighetsregleringsmetoden. Syftet med studien var att beskriva hur berörda fastighetsägare ser på omarronderingsprocessen och vilka faktorer som är avgörande då de röstar nej till omarrondering samt presentera eventuella åtgärder som kan förenkla framtida omarronderingar. Studien genomfördes genom att intervjua fastighetsägare som röstat nej till omarrondering i en opinionsundersökning. Intervjupersonerna valdes ut slumpvis från en lista med fastighetsägare som röstat nej till omarrondering i västra Rättvik. Resultatet visade bland annat att motståndet till omarrondering berodde på: att det är en lång process som kostar mycket pengar, att fastighetsägare kan tvingas till omarrondering mot sin vilja och en rädsla att förlora jakträtten. En del fastighetsägare upplevde omarronderingsprocessen som odemokratisk och vinklad, ett större samförstånd mellan berörda parter efterfrågades. Studien utmynnade i bland annat följande slutsatser: Många fastighetsägare lyfte fram att omarronderingsprocessen måste bli snabbare och ske till en lägre kostnad. Förutom det framkom även faktorer av känslomässig karaktär och att samsynen måste förbättras mellan myndighet och fastighetsägare. Det fanns en viss positiv inställning till omarrondering som gjorde att fastighetsägare kunde tänka sig rösta för en omarrondering, men att det måste ske under andra former. Vissa fastighetsägare kunde aldrig tänka sig att rösta ja till omarrondering, de ansåg att processen ska vara frivillig.

  • 30.
    Heggem, Annika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Parkeringsköpets giltighet vid ändrad markanvändning.: Det kommunala myndighetsbeslutets verkan på det civilrättsliga avtalet.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Planning and Building Act regulates how municipalities plan the use of land and water. When deciding on the detailed development plan, the respective municipality is responsible for the parking standard in the space that will be allocated for parking and which is made in connection with land construction. The decision is followed up in the building permit process. One of the requirements for building permits being granted is that the parking solution is approved. A public parking lot lease is a solution that is approved by law regarding parking in another area beyond one's own property. The municipality can be a party in the agreement for leasing public parking lots in the role of land access provider and may be responsible for preparing the parking lot. In order to be valid, the lease shall guarantee a measure of permanence over time.

    The rights that accompany the parking lot agreement need to be monitored by authority decisions that cause a change in land use. The municipalities' responsibility to meet the policy's stated objective to increase housing may result in already built-up areas becoming denser. Surfaces such as parking lots may be used for this purpose. Increased density in municipalities requires new detailed development planning.

    Thirty of the country's municipalities with the highest number of completed buildings, specifically multi-family housing, were examined for the time period 2005-2016. The basis for the analysis was experiencing increased density where the land area has been affected in relation to objects for public parking leases. Current legislation is interpreted to find support for the validity of leasing public parking lots in cases of changes in land use.

    This study's research question relates to how the municipality should handle their role in decisions on changed land use, as a party to the civil parking lease agreement and as a public authority.

    The results highlight the validity of agreements to lease public parking lots despite civil authorities' decisions that change the use of land within the area in question. It is suggested that the municipality, as a civil party to the agreement, must monitor legal right by entering into the agreement. As an authority, the municipality has the responsibility to monitor and follow up the underlying decisions of the regulating authority and building permission decisions, the assessment of which may depend on the approval of the suggested solution for parking. Thus, the new decision regarding land use should not be in conflict with the underlying decisions which also continue to be valid.

    It is recommended that municipal administrations and companies cooperate closely in the early stages of the detailed development planning process. This is necessary to ensure that the legal right resulting from agreements to lease public parking lots is taken into consideration. The working documents in the form of geographical information may include demarcated areas which include leased public parking lots.

  • 31.
    Hespanha, Joao
    et al.
    Technology and Management Polytechnic School, Águeda, Portugal.
    Jardim, Monica
    Law Faculty, University of Coimbra, Portugal.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    Lantmäteriet.
    Zevenbergen, Jaap
    OTB Research Institute, Delft University of Technology, Delft, the Netherlands.
    Modelling Legal and Administrative Cadastral Domain: Implementing into the Portoguese Legal Framework2009In: Journal of Comparative Law, ISSN 1477-0814, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 140-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research concerning the classification and modelling of rights, restrictions, and responsibilities related to real property based on a systems approach within the domain of land registration and cadastre commenced with the Core Cadastral Domain Model (CCDM) initiative in 2002. That model has been renamed the Land Administration Domain Model (LADM), having at its core a conceptual model of the relationship of persons (natural, non-natural or group) to registered objects through rights, restrictions, and responsibilities. This basic relationship is assumed to be applicable to land registration and cadastral systems throughout the world. In fact, LADM has gathered support from such international organizations as OGC, ISO/TC211, UN-Habitat and EU-Inspire.1 It is being discussed within the International Standards Organization (ISO) as Working Draft 19152 with a view to issuing a new international standard.2The research leading to the original CCDM has been published through a series of papers concerning different modelling aspects, cumulating in two articles. One generic3 and one on the proposed implementation of the Portuguese Cadastre.4 This first implementation exercise, as well as a current (operational) implementation to the Icelandic Cadastre,5 both focused specially on the cadastral component (specifically, geometry and spatial topology of surveying and mapping objects, especially parcels).

  • 32.
    Holmberg, Kalle
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Idrottslärares motiv till att använda sig av bollaktiviteter som undervisningsform i idrott och hälsa.2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta arbete är att undersöka hur idrottslärare använder sig av bollaktiviteter i undervisningen, samt att ta reda på vilka syften de har när de använder sig av det. I studien medverkade sju idrottslärare som alla undervisade på högstadiet i ett och samma län. Resultatet visar att idrottslärarna ägnar ungefär 30 % av tiden till bollaktiviteter. De sammanhang lärarna använder sig av bollaktiviteter är i lagbollsporter och lekar. Lärarna koppar bollaktiviteter till kunskapskravet i kursplanen för idrott och hälsa där det står att eleverna ska kunna delta i lekar, spel och idrotter. De anser också att eleverna lär sig samarbeta och utvecklar sin motoriska förmåga genom bollaktiviteter. En av slutsatserna av denna studie är att kursplanen för idrott och hälsa kan tolkas på olika sätt och att lärarna därför kan välja innehåll i undervisningen ganska fritt.

  • 33.
    Hägglund, Chris
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Criminology.
    Den onormala kvinnan: En kvalitativ studie av konstruktionen av kvinnliga våldsbrottslingar och hur detta kan ta sig uttryck i svensk press2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate how the female criminals are portrayed in media, with a scientific theoretical basis of social constructionism. The study is based on various stereotypes that can be used in media's representation of female offenders. To investigate this, a qualitative content analysis was used. The essay is based on a social constructivist approach, which means that female and male is seen as something socially constructed. The theoretical bases are located in gender theory and the various designs which exist in Media’s image of the female offender. Media can use various stereotypical descriptions of violent female offenders and can also reproduce the perception of the female offender as a abnormal woman. The conclusion drawn is thatmedia contributes to a one-sided picture of female offenders and that further research on women and crime in media is needed as this field of research is relatively small.

  • 34.
    Ibrahim, Jenny
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Thelander, Marieke
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    "Den stora ordlösheten": Intervjuer med yrkesverksamma personer som kommer i kontakt med män som utsatts för våld i nära relation och/eller sexuellt våld2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Our purpose was that through semi-structured interviews with professionals from relevant organizations and an authority, which comes in contact with men who are victims of domestic violence and/or sexual violence, highlight and analyze their experiences and perceptions of these men's victimization. The organizations and the authority that they worked for was a non-profit organization, a hospital and the Swedish police.

    When it comes to these men it has emerged that they rarely contact support organizations and/or file a police report. The reason for this is, according to our study, among other factors the norms of masculinity that exist in society which claims that men can not be victims of neither domestic violence nor sexual violence, men are expected to be able to defend themselves or they are themselves the perpetrators.

  • 35.
    Juric, Marija
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Upphävande av ledningsrätt i vattenområde: Hur hanteras eventuell miljöskada inom Stockholms län2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today's society we are dependent on electricity, water and sewage treatment, broadband and other lines, which are of great benefit to people and infrastructure. In order to secure the right to draw up cables for different purposes are formed often rights. Communities change over time, and the technology itself modernized. Existing utility easements are not sufficient, which means that the need for more cables and rights occurs. Existing pipelines and facilities that served their purpose, amended or repealed. The question arises what happens with the lines and the devices after they served their purpose. How is environmental damage managed?

     

    When written about the establishment, amendment and / or termination of utility easements there is usually suggest of the process itself as well as about the advantage of object and purpose of the utility easement which it meet.

    The environmental aspect is something that is not talked about as much. When the cables are on the bottom of the lake, or gets left behind after they served their purpose, it starts ongoing degradation of the material out in the water. What happened is – impact on environmental and thereby also people's life quality.

     

    The methods used in the work are: (1) a legal study of legal position examined and described; (2) an interview to analyze how the Swedish mapping, cadastral and land registration authority and the County Board looks at the problem of wiring left in the water after a utility easement has been repealed and an interview study to analyze to what extent are the property owners and proprietor of the utility easement informed about the problem of cables left in the water after the utility easement right has been revoked and who they think has the responsibility to remove the cables to restore the environment in the water area; (3) a review of the ordinance acts to analyze whether sufficient information is given out to the property owners and proprietor of the utility easement about what will happen to the cables after they served their purpose and to analyze whether an environmental assessment has been made regarding the environmental impact of the cables in the water area.

     

    The results and the conclusion of the thesis answers the question whether current legislation including the environment during the preparation of utility easement, identifying gaps about the management of environmental issues and how these gaps could be fixed.

  • 36.
    Järling, Kristine
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Klassificering av markanvändning och markägande enligt Land Administration Domain Model, LADM: En fallstudie i Valbo, Gävle2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to analyse a part of a model that describes the relationship in land administration. The model is both international and Swedish standard and is named, The Land Administration Domain Model (LADM). The model describes how a natural or legal person, property unit or joint property unit is affected by the legislation, exercise of authority and agreements within an administrative entity, such as a property unit or joint property unit. A part of the model has been analysed in a case study in Valbo, Gävle. 

    The study has been delimited to investigate the part that describes land administration that manifests itself as zoning plan, area regulations, Real Property Register and digitalised available cadastral dossiers. The information has been decoded by the part of the model rights, restrictions, and responsibilities (RRR). This is a more detailed way of describing how land administration affects a property unit or person. As far as the author knows has the model not been practiced in Sweden, despite of that the model has been of Swedish standard since 2012. 

    The study shows that LADM can be used in Swedish legislation and fills a void when describing land administration, the main focus is to describe the relationship between property units and persons. The cross-border collection of property related information generates an overview of what exists in a land area. This makes it possible to see when information is duplicated or absent. LADM has the capacity to gather information from different land administration systems. By gathering information to a system so an overview is created and better conditions for exercise of authority or inhabitant to identify which factors affect a land area.

  • 37.
    Karlsson, Martin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Engberg, Robin
    Konfliktförebyggande rekommendationer vid boende med närliggande hästhållning: En jämförelse av faktorer i Skåne läns rapport "Hästar och bebyggelse" mot faktorer beaktade i rättsfall avgjorda 2009 till 20112011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Antalet hästar har ökat markant i Sverige under de senaste åren. Detta har skapat problem både vid detaljplanering hos handläggare men även hos boende som är osäkra på vilka regler och rekommendationer som ska följas. Examenarbetets syfte är att undersöka rapporten "Hästar och bebyggelse - Underlag för den fysiska planeringen" från 2004 av Länsstyrelsen i Skåne län och att jämföra faktorerna i guiden mot vilka faktorer som varit utslagsgivande vid beslut i rättsfall mellan 2009-01-01 till 2011-01-01. Målet med studien är att utifrån en jämförelse mellan faktorerna som Skåne läns guide rekommenderat och de faktorer som tas upp i rättsfallen komma med förslag på förbättringar till guiden. Som bakgrund genomfördes en litteraturstudie för att undersöka vad som tidigare skrivits inom området. Rättsfallen hämtades från Zeteos rättsfalldatabas. Endast de rättsfall som innehöll klagomål på hästhållning, överklaganden av nekad rätt till att hålla hästar och slutligen de rättsfall som rörde bygglov vars tillstånd eller avslag avgjordes på grund av hästnära verksamhet togs i beaktande. En tabell konstruerades för at analysera vilka faktorer som tagits upp i rättsfallen och därefter genomfördes en jämförelse mellan faktorerna i Skåne läns guide och rättsfallen. Resultatet visar att en förbättring av Skåne läns guide bör göras och det är främst faktorerna områdets karaktär och antalet hästar som bör ges större betoning. Avståndet kan minskas till 50-100 meter när antalet hästar är färre än 60. Förekomst/grad av verksamet är en faktor som saknat betydelse vid domstolsavgöranden och den bör därför tas bort ur guiden. Eftersom områdets karaktär är en betydande faktor kan det diskuteras om det inte är lämpligt att ha två olika rekommendationer beroende på om området är av lantlig karaktär eller inte.

  • 38.
    Karlsson, Sanne
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Olofsson, Cajsa-Stina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Brottsutsattas perspektiv: Personer utsatta för våldsbrott, deras syn på offerrollen samt upplevelser av kontakten med polis och brottsofferjouren2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper was to examine how victims of violent crime viewed the role as a victim and how they experienced their contact with the Police and the Victim Support Sweden (Brottsofferjouren, BOJ) regarding help and assistance. The method used for this purpose was of a qualitative design, through semi-structured interviews with five people exposed to violent crime. The main results showed that the participants had split opinions on if and how they viewed themselves as victims. Everyone were fairly satisfied and positive towards the support and the contact with the Victim Support Sweden. The participants were in general unsatisfied with the response from the Police. Conclusions from the results and the analysis was that the expectations from the participants towards the Police did not seem to coincide with the reality. It also seemed to be an ambivalence to be identified as a victim.

  • 39.
    Karplund, Katja
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Criminology.
    Sundberg, Cecilia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Criminology.
    ”Middag med vargar” och ”a walk in the park”: En kvalitativ intervjustudie om högstadie- och gymnasielärares tankar kring och erfarenheter av arbetsplatsrelaterat våld i skolan2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of our study was to examine how teachers in the senior level of the 'grundskola' (högstadiet) and upper secondary school (gymnasiet) relate to violence in school. In order to examine this, we have done qualitative interviews with five teachers. The teachers defined violence against them mostly as physical acts and considered their own victimization to be low. The teachers though expressed that exposure to psychological violence was common. Their strategies to cope with violence were formed by the construction of their profession. The teachers were diffident about defining themselves as victims. They held themselves as strong and capable of coping with violence and pointed out maintaining order in class as a key point to avoid victimization. Another key point was good relations between teachers and student. Suggested measures against school violence consisted of increased resources in order to prevent students failure and thereby reduce risk situations.

  • 40.
    Kehr, Felicia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Criminology.
    Larsson, Martina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Criminology.
    Lustmord eller mordmardröm?: Ett genusperspektiv på svensk press porträttering av en kvinnlig och en manlig gärningsperson2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to reflect how both a female and a male perpetrator were portrayed in the media by observing two different cases that both received media attention and shared a lot of similarities. We wanted to examine the similarities and differences between these two cases with support from gender and criminological theory and see if they could be understood from a gender perspective. We did this through a qualitative content analysis of Swedish newspaper articles. The result showed that the differences were more than the similarities. What we primarily could discuss based on gender perspectives were the different depictions that were made around the perpetrators' motives and approaches. The female perpetrator was portrayed as an extreme case, with a lot of emotions attached to her crime, while the male perpetrator's case was presented in a more neutral progression, focused on him being a misfit and deviant. In conclusion, we discussed and emphasized that this study can be seen as an small section of the field and therefore require additional similar research in order to make the results valuable.

  • 41.
    Kitsakis, Dimitrios
    et al.
    National Technical University of Athens, Greece.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Paulsson, Jenny
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Navratil, Gerhard
    Technical University Vienna, Austria.
    Vučić, Nikola
    State Geodetic Administration, Croatia.
    Karabin, Marcin
    Warsaw University of Technology, Poland.
    El-Mekawy, Mohamed
    Stockholms universitet.
    Koeva, Mila
    University of Twente (ITC), The Netherlands.
    Janecka, Karel
    University of West Bohemia, Czech Republic.
    Erba, Diego
    National University of Litoral, Argentina.
    Alberdi, Ramiro
    National University of Catamarca, Argentina.
    Kalantari, Mohsen
    University of Melbourne, Australia.
    Yang, Zhixuan (Jenny)
    Dongbei University of Finance and Economics, China.
    Pouliot, Jacynthe
    Université Laval, Canada.
    Roy, Francis
    Université Laval, Canada.
    Montero, Mónica
    United Nations Office for Project Services (UNOPS), Costa Rica.
    Alvarado, Adrián
    Universities UCEM and University of San José, Costa Rica.
    Karki, Sudarshan
    Queensland Government, Australia.
    3D Cadastres Best Practices, Chapter 1: Legal foundations2018In: FIG Congress 2018: Proceedings, Copenhagen: International Federation of Surveyors, FIG , 2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The concepts of three-dimensional (3D) real property have been the subject of increased interest in land use management and research since the late ‘90s. Literature provides various examples of extensive research towards 3D Cadastres as well as those that are already implementing 3D cadastral systems. However, in most countries the legal aspects of 3D real property and its incorporation into 3D cadastral systems have not been so rigorously examined. This paper compares and discusses 3D property concepts in 15 cadastral jurisdictions, based on the authors’ national experience, covering Europe, North and Latin America, Middle East and Australia. Each of the legal system in these cadastral jurisdiction are based on different origins of Civil Law, including German, Napoleonic and Scandinavian Civil Law, which can prove useful to research in other Civil Law jurisdictions interested in introducing 3D cadastral systems. These jurisdictionsare at different stages of introducing and implementing a 3D cadastral system. This contributes to the detection of the 3D real property concepts that apply as well as deficiencies that prohibit introduction of 3D cadastral systems, while highlighting challenges that may have not yet surfaced in individual jurisdictions. This paper aims to present the different legal concepts regarding 3D real property in the examined countries, focusing on the characteristic features of cadastral objects described as 3D within each country’s legal and cadastral framework. The analysis of the case studies revealed that the countries are on different stages of 3D Cadastral implementation, starting from countries with operational 3D cadastral systems, to others where there is yet no interest in introducing a 3D cadastral system. This paper presents the nature of 3D cadastral objects in each country, as well as differences in the regulatory framework regarding definition, description and registration. The paper continues the legal workshop discussions of the 4th International Workshop on 3D Cadastres in Dubai 2014 by analysing the legal concepts of 3D cadastres in the above-mentioned countries. The outcome is an overview and discussion of existing concepts of 3D property describing their similarities and differences in use, focusing on the legal framework of 3D cadastres. The article concludes by presenting a possible way forward and identifies what further research is needed which can be used to draft national and international research proposals and form legislative amendments towards introduction of national 3D cadastral systems.

  • 42.
    Kitsakis, Dimitrios
    et al.
    School of Rural and Surveying Engineeriing, National Technical University of Athens, Athens, Greece.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS. The Swedish mapping, cadastral and land registration authority, Gävle, Sweden.
    Paulsson, Jenny
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Navratil, Gerhard
    Department for Geodesy and Geoinformation, Technical Unviersity Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
    Vučić, Nikola
    Department for Administrative and Professional Supervision, The State Geodetic Administration of the Republic of Croatia, Zagrec, Croatia.
    Karabin, Marcin
    Department of Cadastre and Land Management, Faculty of Geodesy and Cartography, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland.
    El-Mekawy, Mohamed
    Department of Computer and Systems Sciences, Stockholm University, Kista, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Koeva, Mila
    Department of Urban and Regional Planning, ITC FAcultu, University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands.
    Janečka, Karel
    Geomatics, University of West Bohemia, Pilsen, Czech Republic.
    Erba, Diego
    Faculty of Engineering and Hydric Sciences, National University of Litoral, Santa Fe, Argentina.
    Alberdi, Ramiro
    Faculty of Engineering and Hydrics Sciences, National University of Catamarca, Santa Fe, Argentina.
    Kalantari, Mohsen
    Centre for SDIs and Land Administration (CSDILA), Department of Infrastructure Engineering, University of Melbourne, Australia.
    Yang, Zhixuan
    School of Investment and Construction Management, Dongbei University of Finance and Economics, Dalian, Liaoning, China.
    Pouliot, Jacynthe
    Department of Geomatics Sciences, Laval University, Québec, Canada.
    Roy, Francis
    Department of Geomatics Sciences, Laval University, Québec, Canada.
    Montero, Monica
    Provincia de Heredia, Costa Rica.
    Alvarado, Adrian
    Alajuela, Costa Rica.
    Karki, Sudarshan
    Department of Natural Resource and Mines, Queensland Government, Brisbande, Australia.
    Chapter 1 – Legal Foundations2018In: Best Practices 3D Cadastres - Extended version / [ed] Peter van Oosterom, Copenhagen, Denmark: International Federation of Surveyors , 2018, p. 1-66Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concepts of three-dimensional (3D) real property have been the subject of increased interest in land use management and research since the late ‘90s.Literature provides various examples of extensive research towards 3D Cadastres as well as those that are alreadyimplementing3D cadastral systems. However, in most countries the legal aspects of 3D real property and its incorporation into 3D cadastral systems have not been so rigorously examined.This paper compares and discusses 3D property concepts in 15 cadastral jurisdictions, based on the authors’ national experience, covering Europe, North and Latin America, Middle East and Australia. Each of the legal system in these cadastral jurisdiction arebased on different origins of Civil Law, including German, Napoleonic and Scandinavian Civil Law, which can prove useful to research in other Civil Law jurisdictions interested in introducing 3D cadastral systems. These jurisdictionsare atdifferent stages of introducing and implementing a 3D cadastral system.This contributesto the detection of the 3D real property concepts that apply as well as deficiencies that prohibit introduction of 3D cadastral systems,whilehighlighting challenges that may have not yet surfacedin individual jurisdictions. This paper aims to present the different legal concepts regarding 3D real property in the examined countries, focusing on the characteristic features of cadastral objects described as 3D within each country’s legal and cadastral framework. The analysis of the case studies revealed that the countries are on different stages of 3D Cadastralimplementation, starting from countries with operational 3D cadastral systems, to others where there is yet no interest in introducing a 3D cadastral system.This paper presents the nature of 3D cadastral objects in each country, as well as differences in the regulatory framework regarding definition, description and registration. The paper continues the legal workshop discussions of the 4th International Workshop on 3D Cadastres in Dubai 2014 by analysing the legal concepts of 3D cadastres in the above-mentioned countries. The outcome is an overview and discussion of existing concepts of 3D property describing their similarities and differences in use, focusing on the legal framework of 3D cadastres. The article concludes by presenting a possible way forward and identifies what further research is needed which can be used to draft national and international research proposals and form legislative amendments towards introduction of national 3D cadastral systems.

  • 43.
    Kitsakis, Dimitrios
    et al.
    National Technical University of Athens, Greece.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS. The Swedish mapping, cadastral an d land registration authority .
    Paulsson, Jenny
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, KTH.
    Navratil, Gerhard
    Technical University Vienna, Austria.
    Vučić, Nikola
    State Geodetic Administration, Croatia.
    Karabin, Marcin
    Warsaw University of Technology, Poland.
    Tenório Carneiro, Andréa Flávia
    Federal University of Pernambuco, Brazil.
    El-Mekawy, Mohamed
    Stockholms universitet.
    3D Real Property Legal Concepts and Cadastre: A Comparative Study of Selected Countries to Propose a Way Forward2016In: 5th International Workshop on 3D Cadatres / [ed] Peter van Oosterom, Efi Dimopoulou & Elfriede Fendel, International Federation of Surveyors , 2016, p. 1-24Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The concepts of three-dimensional (3D) real property have been the subject of increased interest in land use management and research since the late ‘90s while literature provides various examples of extensive research towards 3D Cadastres as well as already implementing 3D cadastral systems. However, in most countries the legal aspects of 3D real property and its incorporation into 3D cadastral systems have not been so rigorously examined. This paper compares and discusses 3D property concepts in six selected countries: Austria, Brazil, Croatia, Greece, Poland and Sweden, based on the authors’ national experience. Each of these countries’ legal system is based on different origins of Civil Law, including German, Napoleonic and Scandinavian Civil Law, which can prove useful to research in other Civil Law jurisdictions interested in introducing 3D cadastral systems. Selected countries are on different stages of introducing and implementing a 3D cadastral system; this may contribute to the detection of the main 3D real property concepts that apply as well as deficiencies and malfunctions that prohibit introduction of 3D cadastral systems, highlighting challenges that may have not yet surfaced. This paper aims to present the different legal concepts regarding 3D real property in the examined countries, focusing on the characteristic features of cadastral objects described as 3D within each country’s legal and cadastral framework. The analysis of the case studies revealed that the countries are on different stages of 3D Cadastre implementation, starting from countries with operational 3D cadastral systems, to others where there is yet no interest in introducing a 3D cadastral system. 3D cadastral objects in each country are presented, as well as differences in the regulatory framework regarding definition, description and registration. The paper continues the legal workshop discussions of the 4th International Workshop on 3D Cadastres in Dubai 2014 by analysing the legal concepts of 3D cadastres in the above mentioned countries. The outcome is an overview and discussion of existing concepts of 3D property describing their similarities and differences in use, focusing on the legal framework of 3D cadastres. The article concludes by presenting a possible way forward and identifies what further research is needed which can be used to draft national and international research proposals and form legislative amendments towards introduction of national 3D cadastral systems.

  • 44.
    Kristiansen, Lisbeth
    et al.
    Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Mittuniversitetet, Sundsvall.
    Strand, Susanne
    Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Mittuniversitetet, Sundsvall.
    Rättspsykiatri2010In: Omvårdnad vid psykisk ohälsa - på grundläggande nivå / [ed] Ingela Skärsäter, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2010, 1, p. 279-303Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Kristoffersson, Eleonor
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Unjust enrichment in Swedish and EU Law2017In: Swedish perspectives on private law europeanisation / [ed] Annina H Persson, Eleonor Kristoffersson, London: Bloomsbury Academic , 2017Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Kristoffersson, Eleonor
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Law. Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Leidhammar, Börje
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Law.
    The practical protection of taxpayer’s fundamental rights: Sweden2015In: The practical protection of taxpayer’s fundamental rights, Amsterdam: International Bureau of Fiscal Documentation (IBFD) , 2015, p. 741-760Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Lassbo, Sofia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Pasichna, Olga
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Omarrondering ur markägares perspektiv: En studie i västra Rättvik2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Skogsmarken i Dalarna är sedan länge på grund av arvstradition och starkt motstånd mot förändringar i fastighetsindelningen, uppdelad i ett stort antal små och långsmala skiften. Den rådande ägosplittringen lägger en död hand över skogsbruket och landsbygdsutvecklingen i Dalarna. Markägarna i västra Rättvik, som medverkade i studien, insåg följderna av ägosplittringen men motståndet mot omarrondering var omfattande och de flesta röstade nej till en omarrondering när myndigheterna erbjöd en chans att effektivisera skogsbruket. Omarronderingen blev inställd.

    Den här studien syftar till att belysa problematiken med omarrondering ur markägares mer personliga perspektiv. Genom att förklara de bakomliggande orsakerna till markägares opinionsbeslut belyses djupet av det markägarna saknar, önskar och upplever. Tidigare forskning visar också att behovet av att utvärdera omarrondering ur ett mer personligt perspektiv är starkt.

    För att besvara studiens frågeställningar genomfördes 18 semistrukturerade telefonintervjuer med markägare som medverkade i omarronderingsprocessen i västra Rättvik 2015. Markägarna valdes ut med hänsyn till hur de röstade i opinionsprövningen samt efter storleken på deras markinnehav.

    Resultatet av detta arbete visade att markägares inställningar till omarrondering kan skilja sig åt beroende på flera faktorer, bland annat storleken på markägarens innehav, hur samlat innehavet är, hur de använder sin mark samt deras tidigare erfarenhet av omarrondering. Även i omarronderingsprocessen upptäcktes problem, de flesta problem återfanns i myndigheternas stormöten vilka ansågs fungera dåligt, de upplevdes som en källa till irritation av de flesta markägarna, samt att enskild information, diskussion samt personlig kontakt med myndigheterna saknades. Studien visade även att det var viktigt för markägare att få framföra sina åsikter och känna sig lyssnad på genom hela processen. Nästan alla respondenter hade röstat likadant om en opinionsprövning under samma förutsättningar skett idag, vilket betyder att något måste förändras för att det för markägare ska kunna bli intressant att medverka i en omarrondering.

  • 48.
    Leidhammar, Börje
    et al.
    Juridiska avdelningen, Karlstads universitet.
    Lindkvist, Gustav
    Juridiska fakulteten, Stockholms universitet.
    Bevisprövning i mål om genomsyn2010Book (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Lemmen, Christiaan
    et al.
    Kadaster.
    van Oosterom, Peter
    TU Delft.
    Ploeger, Hendrik
    TU Delft.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    Swedish mapping, cadastral and land registration authority, Gävle, Sweden.
    Paulsson, Jenny
    Department Department of Real Estate and Construction Management, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zevenbergen, Jaap
    UT/ITC.
    Legal Refinement of the LADM Standard: More classes or extended code lists with better defined types of Rights, Restrictions and Responsibilities?2014In: PLPR 2014 Conference: Book of Abstracts, 2014, p. 91-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To provide legal security in property rights/land tenure and support efficient land use planning, one needs a well-functioning system of land administration. In other words good land administration is the basis for sustainable land management and a stable and efficient land market.

    Although property rights and procedures vary considerably between jurisdictions, the underlying data model to support land administration was found to be quite similar. Therefore, a decade ago, several of the authors of this paper initiated the process of coming to an international reference standard for land administration, the so-called Land Administration Domain Model (LADM). LADM is a framework for describing interest in land according to internationally agreed concepts and terminology and makes it possible to categorize interests in land (in specific jurisdiction) regardless of the origin in different legal systems. This not only enables the improvement and further development of national systems of land administration, but also supports international communication and exchange of data. In 2012 the LADM became an international standard, ISO 19152.

    The LADM is based on “right”, “restriction” and “responsibility” (RRR) classes, which can apply to land, but also to buildings, network utilities, and 3D volumetric spatial units. Based on a number of earlier publications, such as (Paasch 2012), (Paasch et al 2013) and (Hespanha et al 2013), this paper explores the need and possible approaches to a more detailed classification of property rights, by either adding more subclasses for specific sets of RRRs, clustered after their legal or societal characteristics (e.g. common rights, latent rights, customary rights or informal rights as explored by (Paasch et al 2013)) or by the extension of code list values in LADM for a more refined classifications, or both. Options to ‘define’ code list values are: 1. describe with natural text, or 2. additionally encode an hierarchical structure to code list values, or 3. develop an ontology of the code list values, such as ownership, lease, etc. However, in all options it is non-trivial to define formally basic legal concepts such as ‘ownership’.

    We will further investigate these aspects, including the decision when to add new classes and when to extend the code list values. In case of code list it will be further explored what is good approach to define the values.

  • 50.
    Liedholm Johnson, Eva
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Division of Real Estate Planning and Land Law, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Paulsson, Jenny
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Division of Real Estate Planning and Land Law, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    Swedish mapping, cadastral and land registration authority, Gävle, Sweden.
    Classification and Co-ordination of Conflicting Rights for Sustainable Land Use2014In: Nordic Journal of Surveying and Real Estate Research, ISSN 1459-5877, E-ISSN 2341-6599, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 61-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to investigate the possibilities to detect the conflicts between national interests and rights for sustainable land use. The analysis is based on a newly developed standardized terminological framework for classification of interests in land, the Legal Cadastral Domain Model. The model is used to classify conflicting rights in two Swedish mining areas, Kiruna and Bunge, in Kiruna the relocation of the city due to mining interests and in Bunge the ongoing conflict between mining interests and national nature preservation interests.

    The study shows that it is relevant to use a standardized approach for getting an overview of and thus comparing the multi-facetted nature of private and public interests in land. For example, land use regulations, such as a zoning plan, often contain prohibitions and obligations for the property owner embedded in the same document and a mining concession may contain instructions for environmental protection activities. They are in the model classified as separate interests beneficial or limiting for the right holder. A detailed classification therefore provides an overview and can assist officials and decision makers in identifying and co-ordinating conflicting interests.

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