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  • 1.
    Fregidou-Malama, Maria
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för ekonomi, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    The Relationship Between Agricultural Cooperatives and the State in Sweden: The Legislative Process2000Inngår i: Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics, ISSN 1370-4788, E-ISSN 1467-8292, Vol. 71, nr 1, s. 79-103Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    On the basis of interviews made with twenty seven leading personalities from cooperatives and government institutions, it is identified, that two main dimensions, the economic and the social, are emphasized by different interest groups involved in the cooperative process. It is also indicated that the relationship between state and cooperatives, in varying degrees, combines these two basic dimensions over time in the actual cooperative law and thus focuses on one dimension, neglecting the other. Relationship is meant to anchor the economic and the social values of cooperatives in the political process, and enable them to be accepted. In conclusion, it can be argued that the state can influence the character of cooperatives by selecting specific actors in specific processes. For this reason, in order to secure a sustainable autonomous development of cooperatives, it is important to synthesize and take into consideration different interests in future relations between cooperatives and the state.

  • 2.
    Hammar, Björn
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Ämnesavdelningen för filmvetenskap, historia, litteraturvetenskap, medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap och statsvetenskap.
    Figuras del poder soberano, fueros internos e inventio política2009Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 3.
    Hammar, Björn
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för humaniora, Statsvetenskap.
    Geometría y contingencia de lo político2011Inngår i: Vida pública, Vol. 1, nr 1, s. 9-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 4.
    Hammar, Björn
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Ämnesavdelningen för historia och statsvetenskap.
    Interiores y exteriores politológicos2001Inngår i: Foro Interno : Anuario de Teoría Política, ISSN 1578-4576, E-ISSN 1988-2920, Vol. 1, nr 1, s. 75-114Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 5.
    Hammar, Björn
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för humaniora, Statsvetenskap.
    La figuración retórica de los espacios políticos2010Inngår i: Política y cultura. La tensión de dos lenguajes. / [ed] Cairo, Heriberto och Javier Franzé, Madrid: Biblioteca Nueva , 2010, s. 109-125Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 6.
    Hammar, Björn
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Ämnesavdelningen för historia och statsvetenskap.
    Lenguaje y construcción en el estudio de la política1997Inngår i: Revista de Estudios Políticos, ISSN 0048-7694, E-ISSN 1989-0613, nr 97, s. 225-254Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 7.
    Hammar, Björn
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Ämnesavdelningen för historia och statsvetenskap.
    Metonimias del Estado soberano2008Inngår i: Utopía y praxis latinoamericana : Revista internacional de Filosofía Iberoamericana y Teoría Social, ISSN 1316-5216, Vol. 13, nr 43, s. 33-48Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 8.
    Hammar, Björn
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Ämnesavdelningen för filmvetenskap, historia, litteraturvetenskap, medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap och statsvetenskap.
    On Power, Order and Prudence in Early Modern Spanish Political Thought2008Inngår i: Redescriptions : Yearbook of Political Thought, Conceptual History and Feminist Theory, Vol. 12, s. 271-275Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 9.
    Hammar, Björn
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för humaniora, Statsvetenskap.
    Poder soberano, fueros internos e inventio política2012Inngår i: Retórica y democracia: Perspectivas críticas sobre el estado de la investigación / [ed] Arenas-Dolz, Francisco, Valencia: Institució Alfons el Magnànim , 2012, s. 241-262Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 10.
    Hammar, Björn
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap. Historia och statsvetenskap.
    Relaciones internacionales, tiempo y espacio político: discursos sobre Europa y España.1998Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 11.
    Hammar, Björn
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Ämnesavdelningen för historia och statsvetenskap.
    Remapping Global Politics: History’s Revenge and Future Shock2005Inngår i: Foro Interno: Anuario de Teoría Política, ISSN 1578-4576, nr 5, s. 150-152Artikkel, omtale (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 12.
    Hammar, Björn
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för humaniora, Statsvetenskap.
    Representación y fundación política2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 13.
    Hammar, Björn
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Ämnesavdelningen för historia och statsvetenskap.
    The Rights of Strangers: Theories of International Hospitality, the Global Community, and Political Justice since Vitoria2004Inngår i: Foro Interno : Anuario de Teoría Política, ISSN 1578-4576, E-ISSN 1988-2920, nr 4, s. 165-167Artikkel, omtale (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 14.
    Hammar, Björn
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för humaniora, Statsvetenskap.
    Thomas Hobbes y las metonimias del Estado moderno2010Inngår i: Pasajes. Revista de pensamiento contemporáneo, ISSN 1575-2259, nr 32, s. 45-52Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 15.
    Hammar, Björn
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för humaniora, Statsvetenskap.
    Todd Butler, Imagination and Politics in Seventeenth-Century England2010Inngår i: Foro Interno : Anuario de Teoría Política, ISSN 1578-4576, E-ISSN 1988-2920, Vol. 10, s. 201-203Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 16.
    Hammar, Björn
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Ämnesavdelningen för filmvetenskap, historia, litteraturvetenskap, medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap och statsvetenskap.
    Utopía y praxis latinoamericana: Revista internacional de Filosofía Iberoamericana y Teoría Social, Número 43, Vol (13)2008Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 17.
    Hammar, Björn
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Ämnesavdelningen för historia och statsvetenskap.
    Varierande ursprung och rörliga horisonter: anmärkningar om tidsperspektiv och historia som politiskt språk2001Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 18.
    Hammar, Björn
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Ämnesavdelningen för historia och statsvetenskap.
    Abellán, Joaquín
    Franzé, Javeier
    Pablo, Jáuregui
    The meaning of "Europe" in Spain (1941-1986)2003Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 19.
    Isén, Fredrik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för humaniora.
    Alla ska med?: en jämförande ideologianalys av medborgarskapsbegreppet i dansk och svensk parlamentarisk debatt2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Citizenship is fundamental for participation in a democracy. It gives us rights but also responsibilities in the state that we are citizens of. Citizenship provides us with the opportunity to vote in order to influence who should govern us. However, not all living in a state are citizens. Some individuals are not included in the political life of the state.

    In recent years, there has been a rise of nationalist political parties in Europe. Since the end of the nineties the party Dansk Folkeparti has been a member of the Danish Parliament and with the 2010 elections in Sweden, the Swedish counterpart Sverigedemokraterna is now also represented in the Parliament.

    In citizenship theory there is an ongoing debate, chiefly concerning the issue on understanding the underlying meaning of what citizenship really is. The substantially different perspectives that are held by on one side Liberals and on the other Communitarians are ideal for use in a comparative study regarding differences in the recent parliamentary debate in Denmark and Sweden.

    Therefore, the aim of this study is to analyze the parliamentary debate in regards to the issue of citizenship in Denmark and Sweden.

    The main results of the study show that the arguments held by the political parties in both countries are in line with the ideologies of liberals and communitarians, but that there is a slightly different focus between the two debates. Also, there are a greater number of parties in Denmark that represent communitarians values than there are in Sweden.

  • 20.
    Löfgren, Kristoffer
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för humaniora.
    Sunt förnuft: populism i politiska partiers valpropaganda2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This study attempts to answer the question of whether the propaganda of the Swedish political parties ”Socialdemokraterna”, and/or ”Sverigedemokraterna”, used for the election to the European parliament 2009, are to be viewed as populistic. Furthermore, is the propaganda to viewed as included in the ”Classical populism”, the ”New populism”, both, or none of the above genres? With a theoretical approach deriving from earlier works on the subject Classical/New populism from a number of writers, the study uses empirical and qualitative text analysis to study the parties propaganda. For each of the two genres of populism an ideal type is set up, which is used to define their core elements. The empirical material is then put in relation to these two ideal types as a reference point, so that it can be examined systematically. The main result of the study concludes that none of the two ideal types matches the information that can be read out from the party ”Socialdemokraterna”´s election propaganda, and that it therefore is to be regarded as neither ”Classical” nor ”New” populism. ”Sverigedemokraterna”´s propaganda on the other hand, displays all of the characteristics that are defined by the theory used in the study as ”New populism”.

  • 21.
    Löfstrand, Lisa
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi.
    Välfärd - ett begrepp i förändring: En diskursanalys av LSS2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 22.
    Persson, Daniel
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Ämnesavdelningen för filmvetenskap, historia, litteraturvetenskap, medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap och statsvetenskap.
    Yttrandefrihetens dilemma: en idécentrerad studie om yttrandefrihetens roll och begränsningar2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This paper concerns the freedom of speech in our democracy and the principles underlying the restrictions. The study is aimed at using a descriptive theory to provide a useful basis for analyzing a justification of the role behind freedom of speech and its limitations. The analysis is made on the basis of the Swedish parliament debate in the form of motions and the non-governmental organization Swedish Helsinki Committee's report. The study has a focus on the law of hate speech and will be done with an idea centred analysis. On the basis of democratic theory, the central role of freedom of speech was clarified on the basis of a clear need for a reliable communication. An absence of this process could disrupt the democratic order. The theoretical function of restrictions is to maintain that reliable communication process where, for example, special circumstances, threats of violence and certain types of information were seen as examples of situations where the process could be in danger.

    The empirical result was largely in line with the theoretical conclusions. The ability to argue and keep open debates was seen as important building blocks in a democratic society and therefore implies the benefits of a reliable communication process. Justification for the restrictions was made with regard to harmful information, threatening circumstances and xenophobic organizations, who were examples of counter-productive expressions to the democratic order. However, the study showed that parliamentary motions and the Swedish Helsinki Committee often focused their justifications on different fundamental views which partly could be explained by the concepts of positive and negative freedom and the perception of minority rights. The findings indicated that the issue of restrictions on freedom of speech is extremely complex because of the varied opinions in the drafting of the law of hate speech. The dilemma of freedom of expression can therefore be seen as relevant up to this day.

  • 23.
    Pettersson, Joanna
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Ämnesavdelningen för filmvetenskap, historia, litteraturvetenskap, medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap och statsvetenskap.
    Rättigheter och skyldigheter i grundlagarna: I ljuset av den politiska filosofin2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay has been to compare different constitutions, and their outlook on citizenship, rights, obligations and natural duty. This has been done in the light of the political philosophy, in order to give the answer to four questions. These questions are: Which rights and obligations can be seen in the constitutions, and how can it be interpreted. Can there be signs of any political philosophy in the constitutions?  Are there any differences between the constitutions regarding citizenship, rights, obligations and natural duty? If so, what are the differences? Can the rights be seen in a further extent than the obligations in the constitutions?

    I have conducted a qualitative comparision study and analyzed the political philosophers and made a classification scheme of their views. Further I made a comparison between the constitutions of the countries, and their view on citizenship, rights, obligations and natural duty. This was later inflicted in to the classification scheme, to see if the countries could fit in to the political philosophers views, and also to find out if there would be any differences in values between the countries constitutions.

    To bind together the outlook on citizenship, rights, obligations and natural duty between the citizen and the state, I have used a social contract theory, to get better understanding regarding the relationship between the legal system and the citizen.

    My conclusions of this essay is that the political philosophers views of citizenship, rights, obligations and natural duty was sometimes similar, but the differences were clear in the light of the classification scheme. The countries constitutions were also similar, but I found that the constitutions could fit in different places in the classification scheme, giving the result that citizenship and rights, were important in all of the constitutions, but obligations and natural duty was not.

  • 24.
    Rönnlund, Fredrik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap.
    En gemensam fiende?: -En jämförande studie om olika staters syn på terrorism2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Even though terrorism has been on the political agenda for several years there is no general accepted definition of the phenomena of terrorism. Several scientist do also apply that terrorism have changed after the 9/11-attacks. The purpose with this thesis was to analyze and compare the image of terrorism represented by the United States, United Kingdom, Sweden and Norway, in an attempt to draw conclusions about similarities and differentials. The material that was used was these four nations individual counter terrorism strategy. This was made by using idea analysis and self constructed dimensions based on earlier science about security, terrorism and international law. A result of this study showed that there is a consensus about terrorism as a high existential threat because of the religious extremism that is related to Al Qaeda and justifies mass murder and have showed attempt to acquire weapons of mass destruction. On this adoption the nations in this study justifies extraordinary actions in cooperation against global terrorism. It is however some differentials about the means to counter this threat. The United States, United Kingdom and Norway describes in their strategy that the threat of Al Qaeda and its allies should be met by military force. United Kingdom describes that the military action is to consider as an exception based on the extraordinary threat that Al Qaeda poses. Sweden on the other hand shows a description of terrorism as a criminal act that should be met by national measures.

  • 25.
    Selander, Anders
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för humaniora.
    Förtroendet till samhällets institutioner: En komparativ studie mellan Sverige och Portugal2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This study is about trust for public institutions and what the foundation is that builds this confidence. For this study I have used three dependent variables to define different aspects of public institutions. These are trust in the legal system, trust in political parties and state of health services nowadays.  The method that is used in the study is based on a comparative study between two countries, Sweden and Portugal.  The actual result is made up by comparing means and regressions by using 13 independent variables. Many of the independent variables that has been used is deriving from institutional theories of Putnam and Rothstein These theories points out the importance of strong traditions of civic engagement and that the success of the trust of the institutions depends in large part on the horizontal bonds that make up social capital. Other theories describe the malicious venom that is the outcome of corruption and the importance of happiness. The cultural dimensions by Hofstede are also included in the list of theories, especially those dealing with the freedom and free from collectivism and caring for others well-being. With help from these theories thirteen independent variables were emerged. The result that comes from the study is that the trust is first of all the obvious Sweden has a higher level of trust in all the different aspects than Portugal. Although the regressions shows that only 4,8 -11,2% can be explained, there is still possible to make clear conclusions. The clearest conclusion we can draw is that state of happiness makes a difference regarding trust for the institutions. Other things that influence the trust are civic engagement by working in another organization and believing in equality seems to correlate with higher trust. Caring for others seems to have a slightly negative effect on the trust. With this we can conclude that altruists do not have a higher trust on public institutions than others. A clearer tendency is that the sense of feeling free is negative on the trust for the public institutions.

  • 26.
    Söderberg, Nadja
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för Industriell utveckling, IT och Samhällsbyggnad, Samhällsbyggnad, GIS.
    Hur trafikplanering kan komma att påverkas av självkörande fordon: Med fokus på planerarens och allmänhetens perspektiv2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this study is how self-driving vehicles can come to affect the future urban planning of infrastructure. In order to find that out, earlier studies have been analyzed and interviews have been done with three infrastructure planners in different counties around Sweden to see if they have already been thinking about this topic. The purpose of the study is to give todays planners an insight on how the planning can be affected by the self- driving technology when it is put in use in our public spaces.

    The public participated in this study by answering some questions on this topic and about their current transportation habits (as well as how they may be affected by the self-driving technology). The interviews with the infrastructure planners focused on what they were focusing on in todays planning of infrastructure and how that may be affected by the self-driving vehicles.

    This study shows that infrastructure planners mostly focus on the availability to walk, bicycle and public transfer. Therefore, previous research shows that its possible that self-driving vehicles will be introduced to the society as an alternative to public transit rather than private cars.

  • 27.
    Westin, Carolina
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap.
    Östlund, Petra
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap.
    Intressen i det internationella systemet: En idéanalys av EU:s intervention i Somalia2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The main aim of this study is to investigate which structural ideas that lies behind the European Union’s marine operation Atalanta that has been put into motion to counteract piracy and robbery outside the coast of Somalia. In order to do this, we have with the use of the theory of weak states, intervention as well as sovereignty, investigated EU’s document in the question with the use of the idea centered analytical method. The questions that has guided this study, lies both on an empirical and theoretical level. On the basis of a theoretical perspective we have investigatet how the principle of sovereignty and thoughts on intervention affects the international community’s handling of the potential problems in weak states. On the empirical level we investigated which conceptions and structural ideas that can explain EU’s strategy in the set up and execution of operation Atalanta.

    The study sowed that the humanitarian ideal is the most prominent idea behind this operation. It also showed that there is a realistic view behind the operation. This view means that one always ought to win something on every operation one executes. Further more, we noticed that the principle of sovereignty ever since the Cold War had to stand back in favor of humanitarian interventions. This can be explained by the fact that human rights has become a stronger ideal. However, the question regarding when it is right and who has he right to intervene is still an object of discussion on both a theoretical level and from case to case.

     

    Key words: intervention, weak states, sovereignty, Somlia, Atalanta, EU

  • 28.
    Widerberg, Linnea
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för humaniora.
    Suveränitet eller mänskliga rättigheter?: En idéanalys om USA:s rättfärdigande av Operation Iraqi Freedom2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    As human beings, we are all governed by our innate instinct that to kill another human being, or to just inflict pain on another, is to go against what makes us human. Still, it happens every day, far and near. Some of these killings happens in war-like situations, where atrocities against humanity occur. The international community has since the founding of UN in 1945, a duty to intervene where crimes against the human rights occur. This is a difficult task, because, in order to intervene and help those in need, the situation might postulate states violating states sovereignty. This is a problem.

                           Hence, the main aim of this study is to investigate how a state can justify intervening in a foreign country in the light of human rights and state sovereignty.

                          In order to do this, the theories of sovereignty, nature rights, human rights and intervention has been applied upon the empirical material of USA’s invasion of Iraq, also named, Operation Iraqi Freedom. To execute the analysis, an idea centered analytical method was used. The two questions that guided this study lies both on an theoretical and empirical level. The previous question looked into how states can defend their actions when intervening on basis of the human rights, in a foreign state. The latter question investigates USA’s reasoning and justification, in regards to sovereignty and human rights, prior to the invasion of Iraq in 2003.

                          The study showed that the human rights, as well as liberal values, such as, freedom and liberty were the prevailing arguments in America’s reasoning.

                          The international community’s agreement on international law and respecting the principle of self governance, has, in recent years, put a clear tension on the relation between sovereignty and humanitarian intervention.

                          This goes to show that in questions of sovereignty vs. human rights, the latter comes out on top in international law. At least in the case of USA’s invasion of Iraq in 2003.

                          Though, the question on who has the right and when it is right to intervene is very much circumstantial, and so, the discussion ought to continue.

     

    Keywords: sovereignty, nature rights, human rights, intervention, Iraq, USA, Operation Iraqi Freedom, White House

     

  • 29.
    Wilkinson, Cathy
    et al.
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm, Sweden, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Luleå tekniska universitet, Luleå, Sweden.
    Saarne, Toomas
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Paterson, Garry D.
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Colding, Johan
    Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Stockholm, Sweden; The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Strategic spatial planning and the ecosystem services concept: An historical exploration2013Inngår i: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 18, nr 1, artikkel-id 37Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how ecosystem services (ES) have been taken into account historically in strategic spatial plans in Melbourne and Stockholm through a comparative case study analysis of eight strategic spatial plans from 1929-2010. We investigated the types of ES taken into account, and how human-nature relations and the valuation and trade-off discussions regarding ES were framed. An ES coding protocol was developed that categorized and identified 39 ES drawing from the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment and other relevant literature. Only two of the 39 ES were addressed in every plan for both cities, namely freshwater and recreation. While the number of ES referred to in plans has generally increased over time, just under a third of ES in Melbourne and Stockholm were not addressed at all. References to individual ES showed little continuity over time. This variability reveals a time-scale mismatch that has been overlooked in the ES literature with potential urban policy implications. Despite considerable variation in ES addressed across the plans, there is a striking similar pattern in the total numbers of ES addressed over time in both cities. Plans for both cities showed a spike in the late 60s/early 70s, followed by a significant decline in the late 70s/early 80s with the highest number of ES addressed in the most recent plans. Furthermore, our analysis shows that strategic spatial plans generally demonstrate awareness that urban populations are dependent on ecosystems and this framing is an important part of the policy discourse. While specific monetary values were not placed on any ES in the plans, resolution of land-use conflicts requiring tradeoffs between ES and equity of distribution of ES is a central feature of most of the examined plans. We argue that longitudinal policy document analysis represents a useful complement to any attempt to improve understanding of the implications of and opportunities for operationalizing an ES approach in urban practice

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