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  • 1.
    Asplund, Adam
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Resiliens i stadsutveckling: En kvalitativ jämförelse mellan teori och kommunal planering2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    We face a number of uncertainties, challenges and risks, known and unknown, many of which are linked to global changes. Urban development must be planned to become sustainable in the long term despite future changes and to succeed, planning must handle uncertainties. The current view of sustainability has resulted in a planning ideal that strives for sustainability as a vision of an ideal structure and design. The research on resilience question this by asking how something static can be sustainable in the face of uncertainties and future changes. The work towards sustainability must focus on increasing the capacity of cities to be resilient. Cities which are resilient have the capacity to adapt to future changes while retaining the same function, structure and identity.

    Näringen is an existing industrial area in Gävle which has been designated suitable for a larger urban development exploitation project. The study aims to investigate how resilience is incorporated into the planning and development process of Näringen. The study compared Gävle municipality's intentions and ambitions for the development of Näringen in relation to theoretical principles for increased resilience in urban environment. The comparison between theory and practice was done through a qualitative content analysis of policy documents and interviews with two officials.

    The findings show that the intentions and ambitions of Gävle municipality in some ways are in line with the principles for increased resilience in cities but miss important aspects within the principles. The municipality strives for novel and innovative ways of planning which the principles for resilience can contribute with. One problem which can lead to reduced sustainability and resilience is that socio-economic prerequisites and conditions are prioritized over natural geographical ones.

    Implementation of the principles in municipal planning is not easily achieved in all situations because the principles in some respects overlap depending on the scale. Gävle Municipality's view of sustainability is also not in line with the approach that the research of resilience advocates, that we all live and operate in complex social-ecological systems. Resilience deals with complex theories and attempts to implement resilience principles without an understanding for the complexity of systems can lead to an unsuccessful outcome. The resilience principle adaptive planning holds the potential for continuous learning about social-ecological systems and is considered the principle that should be prioritized in planning for sustainability through resilience.

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  • 2.
    Brandt, S. Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Föreläsningar - övningar - eller?: en jämförande studie av undervisningsmetoder inom gevärsskytte och geografiska informationssystem2004In: Kunskap och lärande i den högre utbildningen: lärarreflektioner från praktiken / [ed] Sara Dahlström och Göran Fransson, Gävle: Pedagogiska rådet, Högskolan i Gävle , 2004, p. 19-38Chapter in book (Other academic)
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  • 3.
    Brandt, S. Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Rapport från Utbildningssektionens årliga utbildningskonferens2009In: Kart- & bildteknik, ISSN 1651-792X, Vol. 2009, no 3, p. 18-19Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Kartografiska sällskapets utbildningssektion genomför varje år de så kallade lärardagarna, en utbildningskonferens som kretsar kring geografisk information. Tilltänkta deltagare är alla, både utbildare och avnämare, som har intresse av utbildningsfrågor från skol- till universitetsnivå. Den 17 till 18 augusti detta år stod KTH som värd, med Hans Hauska hållande taktpinnen, och med 19 deltagare från ett tiotal olika arbetsgivare.

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  • 4.
    Brandt, S. Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Svensk kartografiutbildning i ett historiskt perspektiv2008In: Kartan i våra hjärtan: Kartografiska Sällskapet 100 år 2008, Stockholm: Kartografiska Sällskapet , 2008, p. 305-318Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 5.
    Brandt, S. Anders
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Arnberg, Wolter
    Stockholm University.
    A harmonized GIS course curriculum for Swedish universities2007In: EUC'07 HERODOT Proceedings: ESRI European User Conference 2007: Stockholm, Sweden, 25-27 September 2007, 2007, p. 10 s.-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With the implementation of the Bologna declaration, European and other universities must change or adjust courses and programmes so they fit into the Bologna model. In Sweden this will take place during 2007. The intention with the declaration, for example, is that a basic course in one subject at one university should be treated as equivalent to the same type of course at another university. Once a year, the recently formed section for education of the Swedish Cartographic Society gathers university lecturers and others for an education conference to discuss matters concerning higher education in geomatics, geoinformatics, geography, etc. Last year’s conference identified the need for a harmonized course curriculum in basic GIS. One of the advantages of such a course is easier transfer of study records for inclusion of course credits in study programmes at other universities. Therefore, an attempt has been made to write a harmonized course curriculum for basic GIS. The course will contain about 50% common content and about 50% of content decided by the individual university. The common content will be described as learning outcomes, and then it is up to the universities to place the learning outcomes into a context. Thanks to this common core, the course can be given for such diverse programmes as archaeology, land surveying, or economy, and still be able to include the required knowledge for students to continue on more advanced courses at other universities.

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  • 6.
    Brandt, S. Anders
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Karlsson, Janne Margrethe
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Ollert-Hallqvist, Pia
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Harmonization of GI educations in Sweden and the Bologna process: viewpoints of University of Gävle2006In: Fifth European GIS Education Seminar (EUGISES 2006), 2006, p. 10-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the implementation of the Bologna declaration, many study programmes and course curricula needs to be updated and revised. This paper describes the current situation in Sweden regarding GIT educations and courses and whether a harmonization is needed. A survey was made to see which GIT courses that are given and at which level they are given at the various universities. For some universities, interviews were conducted about their courses’ contents and their strategies for determining course levels. Discussions were also made about harmonization of courses between Swedish universities. Some problems due to lack of harmonization was noted, which probably will be more severe in the future due to increased student mobility. To harmonize courses, Bloom’s revised taxonomy is put forward as a tool which is used to clearly state the level of the course in relation to learning objectives.

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  • 7.
    Brandt, S. Anders
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Larsson, Anders
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Kartografiska Sällskapets utbildningssektion: ett nytt tillskott i KS-familjen2006In: Kart- & bildteknik, ISSN 1651-792X, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 10-11Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    På Kartografiska Sällskapets årsmöte i Jönköping den 21 mars beslutades att inrätta en ny sektion inom sällskapet – en utbildningssektion. Denna artikel beskriver bakgrunden till sektionen och dess verksamhetsidé. Utbildningssektionens embryo tillkom för tre år sedan efter förslag från ULI som delegerade uppgiften till Geomatikprogrammet vid Högskolan i Gävle. Tanken vara att skapa ett forum för lärare inom geomatikområdet. Både för att sammanföra lärare från olika lärosäten, för att öka förståelsen för varandras arbeten, och för att kunna förbättra möjligheterna till samarbete.

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  • 8.
    Bren d'Amour, Christopher
    et al.
    Mercator Research Institute on Global Commons and Climate Change, Germany; Department Economics of Climate Change, Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Reitsma, Femke
    Department of Geography,Canterbury University, Christchurch, New Zealand.
    Baiocchi, Giovanni
    Department of Geographical Sciences, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA.
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Güneralp, Burak
    Center for Geospatial Science, Applications and Technology (GEOSAT), Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA.
    Erb, Karl-Heinz
    Institute of Social Ecology Vienna, Alpen-Adria Universitaet Klagenfurt, Vienna, Austria.
    Haberl, Helmut
    Institute of Social Ecology Vienna, Alpen-Adria Universitaet Klagenfurt, Vienna, Austria.
    Creutzig, Felix
    Mercator Research Institute on Global Commons and Climate Change, Germany; Department Economics of Climate Change, Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Seto, Karen C.
    Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.
    Future urban land expansion and implications for global croplands2017In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 114, no 34, p. 8939-8944Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban expansion often occurs on croplands. However, there is little scientific understanding of how global patterns of future urban expansion will affect the world's cultivated areas. Here, we combine spatially explicit projections of urban expansion with datasets on global croplands and crop yields. Our results show that urban expansion will result in a 1.8-2.4% loss of global croplands by 2030, with substantial regional disparities. About 80% of global cropland loss from urban expansion will take place in Asia and Africa. In both Asia and Africa, much of the cropland that will be lost is more than twice as productive as national averages. Asia will experience the highest absolute loss in cropland, whereas African countries will experience the highest percentage loss of cropland. Globally, the croplands that are likely to be lost were responsible for 3-4% of worldwide crop production in 2000. Urban expansion is expected to take place on cropland that is 1.77 times more productive than the global average. The loss of cropland is likely to be accompanied by other sustainability risks and threatens livelihoods, with diverging characteristics for different megaurban regions. Governance of urban area expansion thus emerges as a key area for securing livelihoods in the agrarian economies of the Global South.

  • 9.
    Butler, Andrew
    et al.
    Faculty of Landscape and Society, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Psychology.
    Åkerskog, Ann
    Field Forest Research Institute, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sarlöv Herlin, Ingrid
    Institutionen för landskapsarkitektur, planering och förvaltning, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Ode Sang, Åsa
    Institutionen för landskapsarkitektur, planering och förvaltning, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Ångman, Elin
    Institutionen för Stad och Land, Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Foraging for identity: the relationships between landscape activities and landscape identity after catastrophic landscape change2019In: Landscape research, ISSN 0142-6397, E-ISSN 1469-9710, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 303-319Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we deal with landscape activities in relation to changing landscape identity after a major wildfire in Sweden in 2014. The aim was to investigate the relationships between 22 landscape activities (before the fire) and 2 components (emotion and cognition) of landscape identity (before and after the fire). A total of 656 respondents living nearby the fire area participated in this study. Before the fire, a positive association was found between the activities of enjoying nature and foraging, and both components of landscape identity. This suggests that the more participants enjoyed nature and picked berries and mushrooms, the stronger their attachment to the landscape (emotion), and the more they remembered and reasoned about the landscape (cognition). Post fire, these relationships were found only between the two components of landscape identity and foraging. This implies a significant role of this type of activity for keeping alive' landscape identity.

  • 10.
    Ederyd, Julia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Hägg, Sara
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Hur kan ekosystemtjänster bevaras i urbana områden?: En studie om Grönytefaktor2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    We need to be proactive when it comes to planning our cities to meet the challenges that arrive with rapid and increasing urbanization. It’s important to preserve biodiversity and ecosystem services in a rapidly growing city since they have a great positive effect on our environment. The sustainable city can be defined through a valuation, quantification and identification of the ecological values and ecosystems in the urban area. One approach to quantify important socio-ecological ecosystem services is to calculate an areas eco-effective surfaces by using the Biotope Area Factor (BAF) tool.This study aim to increase the knowledge of how ecosystem services can be included in the planning process to create a sustainable city- and living environment. The goal of this study is to explore the requirements of BAF in the planning process since it’s important to assure and preserve ecosystem services in urban areas. The study is a comparative case study that includes a BAF-calculation with GIS and an analysis of the courtyards in three blocks in the suburb Hammarby Sjöstad, Stockholm. The result is then compared with three cityblocks in Norra Djurgårdsstaden, Stockholm. Interviews with experts are also included to give the study legitimacy. The result shows that the BAF-value does not differ between the chosen blocks in the districts, although the balancing was very low in Hammarby Sjöstad compared to Norra Djurgårdsstaden. The result also showed that the experince of the courtyard does not correspond to the achieved BAF-value and that the BAF-tool used in this study has developing potential. The BAF-tool is initially a good tool too enhance issues about ecosystem services but in the longterm we need to build and plan differently compared to how we build and plan today. This study has therefor resulted in ten criterias that should be considered when planning in space limited urban areas to enhance ecosystem services in the city.

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  • 11.
    Eliasson, Ingegärd
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Ljungdahl, Ewa
    Gaaltje, Sydsamiskt kulturcentrum, Östersund.
    Hanneryd, Ola
    Härjedalens Fjällmuseum AB, Funäsdalen.
    Karlsson, Eva
    Länsstyrelsen i Jämtlands län.
    Fjäll som kultur?2015Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Fjällområdet är ett kulturlandskap där människor bott och verkat under tusentals år. Naturen har satt gränsen för människans livsvillkor och möjlighet att överleva. Här har växt- och djurliv slipats och formats och det är bara arter med hög grad av anpassning som överlevt. 

    Vi ser fysiska lämningar efter mänskliga aktiviteter, men det finns också minnen, berättelser och kunskap som förs vidare från generation till generation.

    Denna skrift är en sammanfattning av resultaten från projektet Fjällandskap: betydelsen av kulturella ekosystemtjänster som har varit ett samarbetsprojekt mellan Göteborgs universitet, Högskolan i Gävle, Länsstyrelsen i Jämtlands län, Fjällmuseet i Funäsdalen och Gaaltije, sydsamiskt kulturcentrum. Projektet är en del av forskningsprogrammet Storslagen fjällmiljö.

  • 12.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    et al.
    Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Colding, Johan
    Beijer International Institute of Ecolological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Borgström, Sara
    CTM, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Duit, Andreas
    CTM, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Jakob
    Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, Erik
    Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ahrné, Karin
    Department of Ecology and Crop Production Science, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Ernstson, Henrik
    Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bengtsson, Janne
    Department of Ecology and Crop Production Science, Uppsala, Sweden .
    The Dynamics of Social-Ecological Systems in Urban Landscapes2004In: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, ISSN 0077-8923, E-ISSN 1749-6632, Vol. 1023, p. 308-322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study addresses social-ecological dynamics in the greater metropolitan area of Stockholm County, Sweden, with special focus on the National Urban Park (NUP). It is part of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) and has the following specific objectives: (1) to provide scientific information on biodiversity patterns, ecosystem dynamics, and ecosystem services generated; (2) to map interplay between actors and institutions involved in management of ecosystem services; and (3) to identify strategies for strengthening social-ecological resilience. The green areas in Stockholm County deliver numerous ecosystem services, for example, air filtration, regulation of microclimate, noise reduction, surface water drainage, recreational and cultural values, nutrient retention, and pollination and seed dispersal. Recreation is among the most important services and NUP, for example, has more than 15 million visitors per year. More than 65 organizations representing 175,000 members are involved in management of ecosystem services. However, because of population increase and urban growth during the last three decades, the region displays a quite dramatic loss of green areas and biodiversity. An important future focus is how management may reduce increasing isolation of urban green areas and enhance connectivity. Comanagement should be considered where locally managed green space may function as buffer zones and for management of weak links that connect larger green areas; for example, there are three such areas around NUP identified. Preliminary results indicate that areas of informal management represent centers on which to base adaptive comanagement, with the potential to strengthen biodiversity management and resilience in the landscape.

  • 13.
    Eriksson, Sofia
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Miljövetenskap.
    Skånes, Helle
    Hammer, Monica
    Södertörns högskola, Miljövetenskap.
    Lönn, Mikael
    Södertörns högskola, Miljövetenskap.
    Current distribution of older and deciduous forests as legacies from historical use patterns in a Swedish boreal landscape (1725–2007)2010In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 260, no 7, p. 1095-1103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We combine historical maps and satellite derived data to reconstruct the development of a Swedish boreal landscape over the past 300 years. The aim is to understand legacies from past use patterns in present-day forest composition and consequences for conservation objectives from a landscape perspective. We analyze landscape development in cross-tabulation matrixes, building change trajectories. These trajectories are tested in linear models to explain the distribution of present-day landscape composition of coniferous, mixed, and deciduous forests >110 years. Of 49 tested change trajectories, 11 showed a significant association. Associations for mixed and coniferous forests were similar and linked to characteristics such as forest continuity, which characterized the studied landscape. Deciduous older forests did not show any association to forest continuity but were more likely to occur on areas that specifically shifted from forests with grazing in the 1720s to open impediment (likely indicating low tree coverage) in the 1850s. There were large shifts and spatial redistribution in ownerships over time. Use patterns and legacies varied between small- and large-scale ownership categories as well as within small-scale categories. The legacies found in the study indicate a complex origin of heterogeneous landscape elements such as older deciduous forests. Additionally, the origin of the legacies indicates a potential need to diversify conservation management based on the influence of past use patterns. Despite large inconsistencies in historical and contemporary data we argue that this type of analysis could be used to further understand the distribution of landscape elements important for conservation objectives.

  • 14.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    El discurso de la ultraderecha en el marco de la formación de políticas públicas de educación inclusiva y equitativa en España y Suecia2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [es]

     La Agenda 2030 para el Desarrollo Sostenible establece en su objetivo 4 el deber de todos los estados nacionales de garantizar el derecho de educación inclusiva y equitativa de calidad y promover oportunidades de aprendizaje permanente para todos.

    Al mismo tiempo que autoridades educativas de alto nivel se comprometen en la

    implementación de políticas educativas a nivel regional y nacional para alcanzar dicho objetivo, en la práctica, se aprecia que el resultado de elecciones en diferentes países europeos y americanos muestra un avance de la ultraderecha al poder político.

    Caracterizado por el nativismo, autoritarismo y populismo (Mude, 2013) el discurso político de la ultraderecha está basado en la xenofobia etno-nacionalista y el regreso a los valores más tradicionales, el fascismo y el nacionalismo (Akkerman, 2012; Rydgren & van der Meidenv, 2016; Rydgren 2018).  Además, como asevera Kováts & Põim (2015) estos movimientos políticos han comenzado abiertamente una misión casi religiosa de poner fin a la ideología de genero. A su vez los avances de la ultraderecha tienen efectos colaterales en los otros partidos tradicionales que tienden a seguir el discurso migratorio restrictivo para evitar perder los votos de sus electores potenciales.

     

    Con el fin de discutir las posibles implicaciones del avance del discurso de la ultraderecha en la formación de las políticas públicas de educación inclusiva y equitativa, esta ponencia analiza las estrategias educativas propuestas en programas políticos a nivel nacional y regional de dos partidos de ultraderecha emergentes en España y Suecia.

    Partiendo de la concepción teórica de política educativa como texto y discurso (Touraine, 2000, Ball et alt (2012), Rizvi & Lingard, 2013, Dubet, 2016) el estudio presentado en esta ponencia está basado en un análisis crítico de discurso (Fairclough, 1995, Wodak y Meyer, 2003, Pini, 2009, Van Dijk, 2000, 2009 y 2012. ) de programas electorales a nivel regional, nacional y europeo del partido español Vox y el partido sueco Sverigedemokraterna durante el periodo 2018-2019.

     

    Principales resultados

    En la formación de políticas públicas de educación la propuesta de la ultraderecha es el establecimiento de un currículo monocultural y monolingüista basado en la cultura de la mayoría, con un enfoque nacional.  A nivel de gestión su propuesta sigue las tendencias políticas internacionales neoliberales incentivando tanto la privatización como la libertad de elección de centro. Pero también estas políticas de la ultraderecha suponen una paradoja a los principios más elementales de educación inclusiva y equitativa. Supone la finalización de políticas comprehensivas que promueven la equidad. Se apuesta por políticas que refuercen el mérito y capacidad individual.

    En esta ponencia se discute también la posibilidad de extender este análisis al estudio de la formación de políticas públicas de educación inclusiva y equitativa en otros contextos nacionales europeos y americanos donde se registre un avance importante de la ultraderecha en el gobierno y el parlamento.

     

  • 15.
    Heldt Cassel, Susanna
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Kulturgeografi.
    Mörner, Cecilia
    Högskolan Dalarna, Kulturgeografi.
    The Legacy of Mining: Visual Representations and Narrative Constructions of a Swedish Heritage Tourist Destination2011In: Tourism, Culture & Communication, ISSN 1098-304X, E-ISSN 1943-4146, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the marketing and management efforts that have been undertaken to make the Falun World Heritage Site a successful tourist destination in terms of hegemonic, visual representations and narrative constructions. Visual representation is assumed to be a vital aspect of the construction of narratives used to promote tourist destinations. The idea of a narrative as something that constructs sites as comprehensible places through visual representation can be used to illuminate the logic of heritage tourism and branding destinations. The paper argues that representations of a heritage site that are closely related to hegemonic ideas of the site’s history are not necessarily the most profitable ones. If the heritage site is to contribute to local development and tourism, it is essential to understand what the representations of heritage communicate. Using the Falun World Heritage Site as a case study, the article aims to show how the attraction of a site can be hindered by hegemonic assumptions of its history, and therefore of its most interesting and valuable aspects. Analyses of Falun’s marketing, as well as the site itself, show that the constructed hegemonic narratives about the Falun Mine primarily concern men, masculinity and nationalism. Visitors are offered an opportunity to take part through narratives of the Swedish Great Power Period, as constructed and experienced by male geniuses and male mineworkers. These are the stories that correspond to the hegemonic view of those who manage and market the site.

  • 16.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    A city is a complex network2015In: A City is Not a Tree: 50th Anniversary Edition / [ed] Michael W. Mehaffy, Portland, OR: Sustasis Press , 2015, 1, p. 89-100Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A city is not a tree but a semilattice. To use a perhaps more familiar term, a city is a complex network. The complex network constitutes a unique topological perspective on cities and enables us to better understand the kind of problem a city is. The topological perspective differentiates it from the perspectives of Euclidean geometry and Gaussian statistics that deal with essentially regular shapes and more or less similar things. Many urban theories, such as the Central Place Theory, Zipf's Law, the Image of the City, and the Theory of Centers can be interpreted from the point of view of complex networks. A livable city consists of far more small things than large ones, and their shapes tend to be irregular and rough. This chapter illustrates the complex network view and argues that we must abandon the kind of thinking (mis-)guided by Euclidean geometry and Gaussian statistics, and instead adopt fractal geometry, power-law statistics, and Alexander's living geometry to develop sustainable cities.

  • 17.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    A complex-network perspective on Alexander's wholeness2016In: Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, ISSN 0378-4371, E-ISSN 1873-2119, Vol. 463, p. 475-484Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The wholeness, conceived and developed by Christopher Alexander, is what exists to some degree or other in space and matter, and can be described by precise mathematical language. However, it remains somehow mysterious and elusive, and therefore hard to grasp. This paper develops a complex network perspective on the wholeness to better understand the nature of order or beauty for sustainable design. I bring together a set of complexity-science subjects such as complex networks, fractal geometry, and in particular underlying scaling hierarchy derived by head/tail breaks — a classification scheme and a visualization tool for data with a heavy-tailed distribution, in order to make Alexander’s profound thoughts more accessible to design practitioners and complexity-science researchers. Through several case studies (some of which Alexander studied), I demonstrate that the complex-network perspective helps reduce the mystery of wholeness and brings new insights to Alexander’s thoughts on the concept of wholeness or objective beauty that exists in fine and deep structure. The complex-network perspective enables us to see things in their wholeness, and to better understand how the kind of structural beauty emerges from local actions guided by the 15 fundamental properties, and in particular by differentiation and adaptation processes. The wholeness goes beyond current complex network theory towards design or creation of living structures.

  • 18.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Head/tail breaks for visualization of city structure and dynamics2016In: European Handbook of Crowdsourced Geographic Information / [ed] Cristina Capineri, Muki Haklay, Haosheng Huang, Vyron Antoniou, Juhani Kettunen, Frank Ostermann, Ross Purves, London: Ubiquity Press, 2016, p. 169-183Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The things surrounding us vary dramatically, which implies that there are far more small things than large ones, e.g., far more small cities than large ones in the world. This dramatic variation is often referred to as fractal or scaling. To better reveal the fractal or scaling structure, a new classification scheme, namely head/tail breaks, has been developed to recursively derive different classes or hierarchical levels. The head/tail breaks works as such: divide things into a few large ones in the head (those above the average) and many small ones (those below the average) in the tail, and recursively continue the division process for the large ones (or the head) until the notion of far more small things than large ones has been violated. This paper attempts to argue that head/tail breaks can be a powerful visualization tool for illustrating structure and dynamics of natural cities. Natural cities refer to naturally or objectively defined human settlements based on a meaningful cutoff averaged from a massive amount of units extracted from geographic information. To illustrate the effectiveness of head/tail breaks in visualization, I have developed some case studies applied to natural cities derived from the points of interest, and social media location data. I further elaborate on head/tail breaks related to fractals, beauty, and big data.

  • 19.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Line simplification2016In: International Encyclopedia of Geography: People, the Earth, Environment, and Technology / [ed] Douglas Richardson, Wiley-Blackwell, 2016Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    New ways of thinking for maps and mapping2017In: Kart och Bildteknik, ISSN 1651-8705, E-ISSN 1651-792X, Vol. -, no 3, p. 9-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Jiang, Bin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Jia, Tao
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Agent-based simulation of human movement shaped by the underlying street structure2011In: International Journal of Geographical Information Science, ISSN 1365-8816, E-ISSN 1365-8824, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 51-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Relying on random and purposive moving agents, we simulated human movement in large street networks. We found that aggregate flow, assigned to individual streets, is mainly shaped by the underlying street structure, and that human moving behavior (either random or purposive) has little effect on the aggregate flow. This finding implies that given a street network, the movement patterns generated by purposive walkers (mostly human beings) and by random walkers are the same. Based on the simulation and correlation analysis, we further found that the closeness centrality is not a good indicator for human movement, in contrast to a long-standing view held by space syntax researchers. Instead we suggest that Google's PageRank and its modified version (weighted PageRank), betweenness and degree centralities are all better indicators for predicting aggregate flow.

  • 22.
    Jiang, Bin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Okabe, Atsuyuki
    Aoyama Gakuin University, Tokyo, Japan.
    Different ways of thinking about street networks and spatial analysis2014In: Geographical Analysis, ISSN 0016-7363, E-ISSN 1538-4632, Vol. 46, no 4, p. 341-344Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Jiang, Bin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Okabe, AtsuyukiSchool of Cultural and Creative Studies, Aoyama Gakuin University, Tokyo, Japan.
    Special Issue: Street Networks and Spatial Analysis2014Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Jiang, Bin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Ren, Zheng
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Geographic space as a living structure for predicting human activities using big data2019In: International Journal of Geographical Information Science, ISSN 1365-8816, E-ISSN 1365-8824, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 764-779Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inspired by Christopher Alexander's conception of the world - space is not lifeless or neutral, but a living structure involving far more small things than large ones - a topological representation has been previously developed to characterize the living structure or the wholeness of geographic space. This paper further develops the topological representation and living structure for predicting human activities in geographic space. Based on millions of street nodes of the United Kingdom extracted from OpenStreetMap, we established living structures at different levels of scale in a nested manner. We found that tweet locations at different levels of scale, such as country and city, can be well predicted by the underlying living structure. The high predictability demonstrates that the living structure and the topological representation are efficient and effective for better understanding geographic forms. Based on this major finding, we argue that the topological representation is a truly multiscale representation, and point out that existing geographic representations are essentially single scale, so they bear many scale problems such as modifiable areal unit problem, the conundrum of length and the ecological fallacy. We further discuss on why the living structure is an efficient and effective instrument for structuring geospatial big data, and why Alexander's organic worldview constitutes the third view of space.

  • 25.
    Jiang, Bin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Thill, Jean-ClaudeDept. of Geography and Earth Sciences, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, USA.
    Special issue on volunteered geographic information2015Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Knez, Igor
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Eliasson, Ingegärd
    Department of Conservation, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Relationships between Personal and Collective Place Identity and Well-Being in Mountain Communities2017In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, no JAN, article id 79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to investigate the relationships between landscape-related personal and collective identity and well-being of residents living in a Swedish mountain county (N = 850). It was shown that their most valued mountain activities were viewing and experiencing nature and landscape, outdoor recreation, rest and leisure, and socializing with friends/family. Qualitative analyses showed that the most valued aspects of the sites were landscape and outdoor restoration for personal favorite sites, and tourism and alpine for collective favorite sites. According to quantitative analyses the stronger the attachment/closeness/belonging (emotional component of place identity) residents felt to favorite personal and collective sites the more well-being they perceived when visiting these places. Similarly, the more remembrance, thinking and mental travel (cognitive component of place identity) residents directed to these sites the more well-being they perceived in these places. In both types of sites well-being was more strongly predicted by emotional than cognitive component of place-identity. All this indicates the importance of person-place bonds in beneficial experiences of the outdoors, over and above simply being in outdoor environments.

  • 27.
    Lemmens, Rob
    et al.
    University of Twente, The Netherlands.
    Falquet, Gilles
    University of Geneva, Switzerland.
    De Sabbata, Stefano
    University of Leicester, UK.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Bucher, Benedicte
    IGN, France.
    Querying VGI by semantic enrichment2016In: European Handbook on Crowdsourced Geographic Information / [ed] Cristina Capineri, Muki Haklay, Haosheng Huang, Vyron Antoniou, Juhani Kettunen, Frank Ostermann, Ross Purves, London: Ubiquity Press, 2016, 1, p. 185-194Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Volunteered geographic information (VGI) plays an increasing role in current geodata provision. At the same time, due to its lack of structure, it is hard to use as meaningful input in software applications. In this chapter, we embark upon the unstructured character of VGI and on ways to enrich the structure in order to make it suitable for information retrieval. We describe the characteristics of semantic enrichment and explain how folksonomies and ontologies play a role. We believe that they represent different levels of formality in a semantic reference space and determine the richness of the information retrieval.

  • 28.
    Lenke, Niklas
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Sundholm, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Allmänyttan - Nytta för äldre?: En kvalitativ fallstudie om kommunal bostadsförsörjning med fokus på äldre2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The population in Sweden is growing older. One fourth of the population will be over 65 years of age by the year 2070, a development that will set pressure on the Swedish welfare system. One way to reduce the public expenses has been to introduce kvarboendeprincipen, which is that elderly will be given the possibility to live in ordinary homes instead of nursing homes. By law, it is up to municipalities to secure local housing by conducting appropriate policies and guidelines. An important tool has for a long time been municipal housing companies.

    The municipal housing companies are obligated by Swedish law to act with a public purpose and at the same time to act in a businesslike way. The legislation from 2011 has been questioned by several researchers whether it is possible to combine a public purpose and still act in a businesslike way.

    The purpose of the study is by a qualitative multi-case study describing how the municipalities alongside the municipality housing companies are working together to provide housing customized for the elderly. The study is delimited to the municipalities: Söderhamn and Ljusdal in the county of Gävleborg. The selected cases have a negative population growth and most of their housing stock consists of property rights, which according to previous studies and research entails difficulties to provide the elderly with customized housing.

    To answer the research questions a qualitative content analysis of different municipal guiding documents has been performed: like comprehensive plans, housing supply documents and owner directives of the municipal housing companies. Interviews with public servants from the municipality’s city planning offices and representatives from the municipality housing companies have also been made.

    The study shows that the current housing stock in the analyzed municipalities: Söderhamn and Ljusdal is outdated which constitutes a problem concerning availability. The analyzed cases promote the production of customized housing for elderly in order to secure the housing needs of an aging population. The relationships between the municipalities and the municipal housing companies differ between the two analyzed cases which may affect the supply of customized housing. The results indicate that the provision of housing for the elderly not only can be understood by economic theories regarding supply and demand.

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  • 29.
    Li, Songnian
    et al.
    Ryerson University, Toronto, Canada.
    Dragicevic, Suzana
    Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, Canada.
    Castro, Francesc Antón
    Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Sester, Monika
    Leibniz University Hannover, Germany.
    Winter, Stephan
    University of Melbourne, Australia.
    Coltekin, Arzu
    University of Zurich, Switzerland.
    Pettit, Christopher
    University of New South Wales, Australia.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Haworth, James
    University College London, UK.
    Stein, Alfred
    University of Twente, The Netherlands.
    Cheng, Tao
    University College London, UK.
    Geospatial big data handling theory and methods: a review and research challenges2016In: ISPRS journal of photogrammetry and remote sensing (Print), ISSN 0924-2716, E-ISSN 1872-8235, Vol. 115, p. 119-133Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Big data has now become a strong focus of global interest that is increasingly attracting the attention of academia, industry, government and other organizations. Big data can be situated in the disciplinary area of traditional geospatial data handling theory and methods. The increasing volume and varying format of collected geospatial big data presents challenges in storing, managing, processing, analyzing, visualizing and verifying the quality of data. This has implications for the quality of decisions made with big data. Consequently, this position paper of the International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ISPRS) Technical Commission II (TC II) revisits the existing geospatial data handling methods and theories to determine if they are still capable of handling emerging geospatial big data. Further, the paper synthesises problems, major issues and challenges with current developments as well as recommending what needs to be developed further in the near future.

  • 30.
    Ljung Holm, Jesper
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Wennergrund, Tobias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Hur identifieras segregerade bostadsområden?: En metodutveckling med utgångspunkt i Bollnäs tätort2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Segregation in Sweden has been rising in recent years, which has lead to an increase in social problems. It is therefore important that municipalities, in an early stage, actively begin to work against segregation and towards social sustainability. With this study and its methodology we want to encourage smaller Swedish cities by developing and testing a method that municipalities can use in mapping of segregation.

    To handle segregation's complex problems, several of method steps have been applied. A literature review resulted in six variables, all of which have a significant impact on segregation. The variables were: housing tenure, employment rates, domestic/foreign-born, overcrowding, education and age. A survey was then conducted with 14 experts in the urban planning sector. The planners were asked to rank the variables that the literature review highlighted. The rankings were then used to create rank sum weights, which later led to a multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) based on a linear additive method. The aim of the study is to present a mapping of the segregation in Bollnäs urban area based on the method we have developed.

    The result of the study shows that out of 15 areas in Bollnäs urban area, four were classified as "most segregated" and three areas classified as "least segregated". These results have been tested using three validity and reliability methods: The Index of Dissimilarity, interview and sensitivity analysis. The results of the three tests demonstrate clear trends and similar results compared with our method, which indicates that our method is robust and trustworthy. The necessity for proper mapping of segregation is demonstrated by the interview where a planner from Bollnäs municipality was given the chance to pinpoint five areas the person considered to be most segregated. For these five areas, the planner pointed out one area that according to our study was least segregated, which proves the difficulty of identifying segregation. Our hope with this study is to create a method that support municipalities work with social sustainability.

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  • 31.
    Ma, Ding
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Omer, Itzhak
    Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel.
    Osaragi, Toshihiro
    Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.
    Sandberg, Mats
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Why Topology Matters in Predicting Human Activities2019In: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, ISSN 2399-8083, Vol. 46, no 7, p. 1297-1313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Geographic space is best understood through the topological relationship of the underlying streets (note: entire streets rather than street segments), which enabales us to see scaling or fractal or living structure of far more less-connected streets than well-connected ones. It is this underlying scaling structure that makes human activities or urban traffic predictable, albeit in the sense of collective rather than individual human moving behavior. This power of topological analysis has not yet received its deserved attention in the literature, as many researchers continue to rely on segment analysis for predicting urban traffic. The segment-analysis-based methods are essentially geometric, with a focus on geometric details such as locations, lengths, and directions, and are unable to reveal the scaling property, which means they cannot be used for human activities prediction. We conducted a series of case studies using London streets and tweet location data, based on related concepts such as natural streets, and natural street segments (or street segments for short), axial lines, and axial line segments (or line segments for short). We found that natural streets are the best representation in terms of traffic prediction, followed by axial lines, and that neither street segments nor line segments bear a good correlation between network parameters and tweet locations. These findings point to the fact that the reason why axial lines-based space syntax, or the kind of topological analysis in general, works has little to do with individual human travel behavior or ways that human conceptualize distances or spaces. Instead, it is the underlying scaling hierarchy of streets – numerous least-connected, a very few most-connected, and some in between the least- and most-connected – that makes human activities or urban traffic predictable.

  • 32.
    Marcus, Lars
    et al.
    Department of Architecture, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Giusti, Matteo
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Cognitive affordances in sustainable urbanism: contributions of space syntax and spatial cognition2016In: Journal of Urban Design, ISSN 1357-4809, E-ISSN 1469-9664, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 439-452Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Post-industrial societies impose new ecological challenges on urbanism. However, it is argued here that most approaches to sustainable urbanism still share the conception of the humans-environment relations that characterized modernism. The paper finds support in recent knowledge developments in social-ecological sustainability, spatial analysis and cognitive science to initiate a dialogue for an alternative framework. Urban form engages humans not only through physical activities, but also mentally through opportunities for learning and creation of meaning, thereby both reinforcing and impeding behaviours on a cognitive level. Against this background, it is proposed that what in cognition studies is termed ‘cognitive affordances’ could form the core of a new epistemological framework of the human-environment relation in sustainable urbanism.

  • 33.
    Nelson, Ross
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Map of rural regions of Canada and case study communities2013Other (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shows the variation of rurality between Canada's census divisions.

  • 34.
    Nelson, Ross
    et al.
    Thompson Rivers University.
    Ström, Patrik
    University of Gothenburg.
    Bjällesjö, Jonas
    Linnaeus University.
    Divergent Paths in Regional Economic Development: A Tale of Two Festival Towns2011In: Small Cities Imprint, ISSN 1918-4492, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 86-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study compares how two small communities in rural settings tried to promote sustained economic development by capitalizing on local music festivals. Merritt, British Columbia, Canada, home to a large country music event, focused on place branding, marketing, and related entertainment initiatives. Hultsfred, Sweden, in contrast, used its iconic rock festival to create a year-round music industry cluster called RockCity. Our study argues that the alternative strategies reflect fundamental differences in economic development policies and governance structures. We subsequently question whether RockCity-like cluster initiatives are possible in the Canada without coordinated tools and programs for supporting cultural industries in small communities. 

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    Divergent Paths
  • 35.
    O'Hara, Sarah
    et al.
    School of Geography, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom; Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition (SCOHOST), Södertörn University, Sweden.
    Gentile, Michael
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Household Incomes in Central Asia: The Case of Post-Soviet Kazakhstan2009In: Eurasian geography and economics, ISSN 1538-7216, E-ISSN 1938-2863, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 327-347Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two European geographers present the findings of a sizeable survey (n = 7,5 15) providing a detailed geographical analysis of household incomes and reliance on personal subsidiary garden plots across Kazakhstan. The authors focus on assessing the extent to which Kazakhstan's rising GDP during the post-Soviet period has coincided with an increase in the general population's personal income and ability to secure adequate food supplies for personal consumption. The fine geographical scale of analysis of the survey data (significantly less coarse than oblast-level data) enabled them to identify regions characterized by "trickle-down" income, largely centered on the country's two main urban centers and areas of resource exploitation. The patterns revealed in the paper have relevance to the debate concerning the uneven distribution of benefits from resource exploitation (notably oil and gas) to Kazakhstan's population. Journal of Economic Literature, Classification Numbers: D100, D310, 1300, Q120, R290, 2 figures, 6 tables, 51 references.

  • 36.
    Omer, Itzhak
    et al.
    Department of Geography and Human Environment, Tel-Aviv University, Israel.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Can cognitive inferences be made from aggregate traffic flow data?2015In: Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, ISSN 0198-9715, E-ISSN 1873-7587, Vol. 54, p. 219-229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Space syntax analysis or the topological analysis of street networks has illustrated that human traffic flow is highly correlated with some topological centrality measures, implying that human movement at an aggregate level is primarily shaped by the underlying topological structure of street networks. However, this high correlation does not imply that any individual's movement can be predicted by any street network centrality measure. In other words, traffic flow at the aggregate level cannot be used to make inferences about an individual's spatial cognition or conceptualization of space. Based on a set of agent-based simulations using three types of moving agents – topological, angular, and metric – we show that topological–angular centrality measures correlate better than does the metric centrality measure with the aggregate flows of agents who choose the shortest angular, topological or metric routes. We relate the superiority of the topological–angular network effects to the structural relations holding between street network to-movement and through-movement potentials. The study findings indicate that correlations between aggregate flow and street network centrality measures cannot be used to infer knowledge about individuals' spatial cognition during urban movement.

  • 37.
    Omer, Itzhak
    et al.
    Tel Aviv University, Israel.
    Kaplan, Nir
    Tel Aviv University, Israel.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Why angular centralities are more suitable for space syntax modeling?2017In: Proceedings - 11th International Space Syntax Symposium: 2. Cities and urban studies / [ed] Heitor T., Serra M., Bacharel M., Cannas da Silva L., Silva J.P., Instituto Superior Tecnico, Departamento de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Georrecursos , 2017, Vol. 2, p. 100.1-100.12Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The street network's angular properties were found more suitable than metric properties for capturing the observed pedestrian and vehicle movement flows in space syntax modeling. Some studies relate this state to the underlying street network structure that create the potential for movement across the network. The aim of this paper is to clarify why the angular structure of the network has superiority over the metric structure. The investigation entailed analysis of street network' centralities and movement flows obtained through agent-based simulations conducted for two cities that differ in the pattern and size of street network. The findings indicate that the superiority of the angular structure can be explained by two structural properties: (i) a multi-scale correlation between to-movement and through-movement potentials (centrality measures) of the same distance type; and (ii) an overlap between movement potentials of different distance types across scales of the network. These structural properties create coherent and dominant angular foreground structures that fit movement flows in both study cities.

  • 38.
    Rafiqui, Pernilla
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gentile, Michael
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad. Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition (SCOHOST), Södertörn University, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Vientiane2009In: Cities, ISSN 0264-2751, E-ISSN 1873-6084, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 38-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vientiane, the capital of the Lao People's Democratic Republic, is a small city that has experienced various rounds of socio-economic experimentation during the past few decades: currently, it is set in a capitalist economic context under the rule of a communist regime. With increasing connectivity to regional and global networks, the city has embarked on a far-reaching path of urban transformation. This city profile describes the historical influences affecting the spatial structure of Vientiane, the urban spatial structures and the land use patterns that have unfolded as a result of the economic liberalization that has been taking place since the late 1980s, as well as some salient aspects of the urban management process with respect to planning procedures.

  • 39.
    Robinson, Anthony C.
    et al.
    GeoVISTA Center, Department of Geography, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA.
    Demšar, Urška
    School of Geography and Sustainable Development, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Scotland.
    Moore, Antoni B.
    School of Surveying, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
    Buckley, Aileen
    Esri, Inc, Redlands, USA.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Field, Kenneth
    Esri, Inc, Redlands, USA.
    Kraak, Menno-Jan
    Department of Geoinformation Processing, Faculty of Geoinformation Science and Earth Observation, University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands.
    Camboim, Silvana P.
    Department of Geomatics, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Brazil.
    Sluter, Claudia R.
    Department of Geomatics, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Brazil.
    Geospatial big data and cartography: research challenges and opportunities for making maps that matter2017In: International Journal of Cartography, ISSN 2372-9333, Vol. 3, no Suppl. 1, p. 32-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Geospatial big data present a new set of challenges and opportunities for cartographic researchers in technical, methodological and artistic realms. New computational and technical paradigms for cartography are accompanying the rise of geospatial big data. Additionally, the art and science of cartography needs to focus its contemporary efforts on work that connects to outside disciplines and is grounded in problems that are important to humankind and its sustainability. Following the development of position papers and a collaborative workshop to craft consensus around key topics, this article presents a new cartographic research agenda focused on making maps that matter using geospatial big data. This agenda provides both long-term challenges that require significant attention and short-term opportunities that we believe could be addressed in more concentrated studies.

  • 40.
    Schmidinger, Helen
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Brandt, S. Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Närområdesexkursioner och inre motivation för bättre lärande: en studie i svenska gymnasieskolan2015In: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, Vol. 2015, no 1, p. 22-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports results from two locally based geography excursions at two secondary schools in Sweden, in order to study how the pupils’ own experience from the local neighborhood, intrinsic motivation, and flow interact during the learning process to see if these parameters affect their understanding and knowledge of the studied objects. The methods used were observations during the excursions, as well as interviews and questionnaires afterwards. The results show that the pupils believe that they learn more when studying objects in their natural environment, i.e. outside their classroom. Furthermore, the results show that intrinsic motivation may be difficult, but not impossible, to achieve, and also that there are good opportunities for attaining flow. If the pupils can see patterns and structures of the objects and processes studied, they will start understand and gain knowledge. This process will increase chances for intrinsic motivation, which will further increase understanding and knowledge, and attaining flow. Once achieved, a spiral process of continued flow, continued intrinsic motivation, and increasing knowledge may be maintained.

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  • 41.
    Schmidinger, Helen
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Molin, Lena
    Uppsala universitet.
    Brandt, S. Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Excursions in school – past and present from Swedish and Anglo-Saxon perspectives2014In: European Journal of Geography, ISSN 1792-1341, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 87-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to present the results from a review of literature on geography excursions and field studies and to discuss their development over time, focusing on purpose, content, method, and execution. The scope was limited to Swedish and Anglo-Saxon literature, produced after the year 1900. The results show that excursions and field studies have since long been important methods in school teaching, not only in the subject geography. One of the purposes of using excursions and field studies in teaching is to facilitate the learning process of pupils and students. Several authors arguing that learning improved when the objects are studied in the real world. We can see that a continuous process of change has altered contents as well as conduction of the excursions. The previous instrumental orientation has moved toward more pupil-participating work methods. Today preparation is a keyword in most texts on excursions, and the perspectives have been broadened.

  • 42.
    See, Linda
    et al.
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
    Mooney, Peter
    Department of Computer Science, Maynooth University, Maynooth, Ireland .
    Foody, Giles
    School of Geography, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom.
    Bastin, Lucy
    School of Engineering and Applied Science, Aston University, Birmingham, United Kingdom .
    Comber, Alexis
    School of Geography, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom.
    Estima, Jacinto
    NOVA IMS, Universidade Nova de Lisboa (UNL), Lisboa, Portugal .
    Fritz, Steffen
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria .
    Kerle, Norman
    Department of Earth Systems Analysis, ITC/University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Laakso, Mari
    Finnish Geospatial Research Institute, Kirkkonummi, Finland .
    Liu, Hai-Ying
    Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU), Kjeller, Norway .
    Milčinski, Grega
    Sinergise Ltd., Cvetkova ulica 29, Ljubljana, Slovenia .
    Nikšič, Matej
    Urban Planning Institute of the Republic of Slovenia, Ljubljana, Slovenia .
    Painho, Marco
    NOVA IMS, Universidade Nova de Lisboa (UNL), Lisboa, Portugal .
    Pődör, Andrea
    Institute of Geoinformatics, Óbuda University Alba Regia Technical Faculty, Székesfehérvár, Hungary .
    Olteanu-Raimond, Ana-Maria
    Université Paris-Est, IGN-France, COGIT Laboratory, Saint-Mandé, Paris, France.
    Rutzinger, Martin
    Institute for Interdisciplinary Mountain Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Innsbruck, Austria .
    Crowdsourcing, citizen science or volunteered geographic information?: The current state of crowdsourced geographic information2016In: ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, ISSN 2220-9964, Vol. 5, no 5, article id 55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Citizens are increasingly becoming an important source of geographic information, sometimes entering domains that had until recently been the exclusive realm of authoritative agencies. This activity has a very diverse character as it can, amongst other things, be active or passive, involve spatial or aspatial data and the data provided can be variable in terms of key attributes such as format, description and quality. Unsurprisingly, therefore, there are a variety of terms used to describe data arising from citizens. In this article, the expressions used to describe citizen sensing of geographic information are reviewed and their use over time explored, prior to categorizing them and highlighting key issues in the current state of the subject. The latter involved a review of 100 Internet sites with particular focus on their thematic topic, the nature of the data and issues such as incentives for contributors. This review suggests that most sites involve active rather than passive contribution, with citizens typically motivated by the desire to aid a worthy cause, often receiving little training. As such, this article provides a snapshot of the role of citizens in crowdsourcing geographic information and a guide to the current status of this rapidly emerging and evolving subject.

  • 43.
    Sinclair, Paul
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Isendahl, Christian
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholm Resilience Centre (SRC), Stockholms universitet.
    Beyond Rhetoric: Towards a Framework for an Applied Historical Ecology of Urban Planning2016In: The Oxford Handbook of Historical Ecology and Applied Archaeology / [ed] Christian Isendahl and Daryl Stump, Oxford University Press, 2016Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Historical ecological approaches to settlement aggregation and complexity reject modernist and post-modernist reliance on linear neo-evolutionary categorization of cities in relation to earlier farming communities. Instead, urban centres and multi-urban systems are viewed as components of complex heterarchically and hierarchically organized landscapes. Resilience theory has been applied in several archaeological efforts to characterize urban development of specific centres. Building on experience from the recently concluded Urban Mind project this chapter argues for a historical ecology approach to track the long-term cultural and environmental dynamics of multi-centred urban systems. Linking human cognition, social memory, ecosystem services, urban metabolism and food security, and institutions of urban governance, it uses data on long-term urban histories in the eastern Mediterranean, southern Africa, and Mesoamerica to identify implications for future urban planning initiatives.

  • 44.
    Sognestrand, Johanna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Österberg, Matilda
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    KOLLEKTIVTRAFIKENS GEOGRAFISKA VARIATIONER I TID OCH KOSTNAD – HUR PÅVERKAR DETTA BOSTADSPRISERNA?: Fallstudie Uppsala län med pendlingsomland2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The distance between home and work has increased in recent decades. By the development of infrastructure and public transport, jobs farther from home have become more accessible and this development has in turn increased commuting. Commuting travellers often pass over administrative boundaries which often serve as borders for public transport pricing. Also the market control prices. Research shows that travel times and costs significantly affect commuting choice. Many people have an upper limit of 60 minutes commuting distance between home and work. How commuting costs affect the individual's choice of commuting will vary depending on the individual's income and housing costs. The aim of our study was to see how public transport costs and travel times may vary geographically. GIS, Geographic Information System was used to make a network analysis which showed time distances and travel costs on maps. We also examined whether there was a link between towns accessibility by public transport and housing market which we did with help of correlation and regression analysis. In order to answer our questions we started from a study area consisting of Uppsala County with its surrounding commuting area. The maps showed how accessibility to larger towns varies among the smaller towns. The access is often best between bigger towns while there is less accessibility between smaller towns. The distance to bus stops or railway station also has a significant effect on how long the total travel time will be. Urban areas with access to rail services had the best opportunities to reach larger cities and that give also better access to labour market. From our study of the Uppsala County with a monocentric structure, we could indicate a link between accessibility to the bigger cities and housing prices in the surrounding towns. The higher commuting costs and longer travel time to the central place the lower the housing prices. A similar study of Stockholm which has a polycentric structure showed that the relationship between accessibility and house prices not are applicable to all regions. Here we can conclude that housing markets depends on many other factors than access to rapid public transport. House prices can depend on things like closeness to nature and water.

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  • 45.
    Soyal, Bejna Dilsen
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    En studie över etnisk boendesegregation i Sverige: Med fokus på andra generationens invandrare2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study is a qualitative study that aims to examine how foreign-born parents affect second-generation immigrants choice of form of housing and residential areas and what differences there are between Swedish native-born and foreign-born parents. The study also examines how ethnicity affects young adults' choice of housing and residential area and the importance of second-generation immigrants attitudes towards segregated areas in the future have. The study focuses on the residential neighbourhoods of Sätra located in Gävle and Vivalla located in Örebro. Both neighbourhoods are million program areas but in different ways. The data collection consisted of ten people, five women and five men. The method asked specific questions and then interviewees spoke about themselves and how they perceive housing segregation. The selection has been made strategically thus the people that have been interviewed are born in Sweden and have parents that are born abroad. Also all of the interviewed individuals live in segregated areas. There is a lot of prejudice in the media and the public about segregation and the vulnerability of segregated areas. The results shows five women and five men’s own experiences and thoughts about living in segregated residential areas, having foreign- born parents, how both have affected them and their views of ethnic segregation.

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  • 46.
    Ström, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Department of HUman and Economic Geography .
    Nelson, Ross
    Thompson Rivers University, Faculty of arts.
    Dynamic Regional Competitiveness in the Creative Economy: Can Peripheral Communities Have a Place?2010In: Service Industries Journal, ISSN 0264-2069, E-ISSN 1743-9507, ISSN 0264-2069, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 497-511Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article makes a contribution to the debate on regional economic development based on the increasing importance of the knowledge-driven or creative economy. The empirical data stems from research conducted on the structure of the creative economy in Sweden, where the results point to a few areas of importance for the concentration of the creative class. The results are compared with Canadian studies that reflect similar economic development patterns. The article seeks to contribute to the understanding of these results in a peripheral economic geographical context. The article argues for caution in applying the same kind of policy recommendations for urban and peripheral regions based on the analysis of the creative class. 

  • 47. Thorsvall, Jonas
    et al.
    Kärsten, Carl
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholms universitet, Historiska institutionen.
    Laboratoriestaden2012In: Arkitektur: byggnad, interiör, plan, landskap, ISSN 0004-2021, no 2, p. 64-69Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Norra Djurgårdsstaden är Stockholms nästa stora projekt för hållbart stads­byggande. "Världsklass" är nyckel­ordet. Vi har lagt de stora planerna på analyssoffan. Fram träder en stad där den ekologiska hållbarheten triumfe­rar, men som socialt nöjer sig med att bli ett livsstilsboende för en urban elit.

  • 48.
    Vestman, Erik
    University of Gävle, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för religionsvetenskap.
    Afrikabilden i läromedel2000Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med examensarbetet är att ta reda på hur bra skolböcker i samhällsorienterande ämnen lyckas förmedla en dynamisk och rättvis bild av Afrika. Mina frågeställningar är: Vilken bild av den afrikanska kontinenten och afrikanerna förmedlas av läroböckerna för högstadieelever? Hur dynamisk och mångfacetterad är egentligen den bilden? Ger läroböckerna en god möjlighet till en positiv identifikation med människor i Afrika? Hur skiljer sig denna bild från den som ges av den socialrealistiska afrikanska filmen Borom Sarret?

    Läroboken är fortfarande ett viktigt strukturerande verktyg för läraren. Den styr till stor del fortfarande undervisningen på ett övergripande sätt. Trots detta är det inte många som verkar intressera sig för läroböckerna och deras utformning.

    Lpo-94 nämner vikten av att förstå både det egna kulturarvet och delaktigheten i det gemensamma, om vikten av en stark identitet och en kulturell mångfald. Det bör rimligtvis innebära att man inte får försumma en hel kontinents kulturarv genom att enbart ta upp Afrikas historia när den varit viktig för Europas historiska utveckling. Detta är vad som sker i de allra flesta skolböcker.

    Skolböckerna utgår alldeles för ofta från att vår kultur och vår utveckling är ett facit för hur andra länder bör se ut. De ger grovt generaliserande och stereotypa bilder av Afrika som ett enda stort u-land befolkat av anonyma afrikaner. Vi behöver en mer dynamisk och mindre generaliserande bild av Afrika och dess befolkning.

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  • 49.
    Walldén, Amadeus
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Lindholm, Thommy
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Socioekonomisk segregation i Gävles stadsplanering i jämförelse med nationella mål och strategier2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to investigate how socio-economic segregation is treated and communicated within different instances. The study examines whether municipalities and national agencies work on the same goals and strategies regarding socio-economic segregation. The study has a local delimitation to the newly developed area of Gävle Strand in Gävle.

    Segregation between different socioeconomic social groups has increased in recent decades. High housing prices and rental requirements make it difficult for social classes with lower incomes to establish themselves in the housing market. This leads to socio-economically strong groups having a greater opportunity to follow developments in the housing market.

    The studies have conducted a qualitative content analysis as well as a qualitative comparative analysis, where a comparison has been made between the municipal urban planning and national targets and strategies related to socio-economic segregation. Silence has also been addressed in the text.

    The results of the study show that there are similarities and differences in how the subject socio-economic segregation is addressed in the documents. In order to ensure the diversity of residential areas, most of the documents considered mixed forms of tenure to be important. At the same time, the documents describe the problems of new production being too expensive and leading to homogeneity. A big difference in this study's results is how the national documents emphasize the importance of placing more demands on municipal planning, while the municipal documents explain that they do not want to limit the building concepts of the building developers. There are also differences internally between municipal and local plan documents that deal with socio-economic segregation.

    The study has created an increased understanding of how the work on socio-economic segregation is treated and implemented, by demonstrating what differences and similarities exist between different control and planning documents. The study's results can be used to better understand these similarities and differences in order to ensure that work at the different levels to a greater extent deals with socio-economic segregation in the same way in the future.

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  • 50.
    Wilkinson, Cathy
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Porter, Libby
    Colding, Johan
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Metropolitan planning and resilience thinking: A practitioner’s perspective2010In: Critical Planning, Vol. 17, p. 2-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Glasgow, Stockholm and Melbourne by resilience and planning scholars, this paper synthesizes practitioner insights into how resilience thinking can inform metropolitan planning. The paper identifies three ways resilience thinking can usefully inform metropolitan planning. First, by offering new metaphors regarding the nature of structural change in linked and complex systems that prioritize change and uncertainty. Second, through the application of new frames and tools for analysis of the dynamics of complex social-ecological urban systems. Third, by examining the relevance of adaptive governance for metropolitan planning.

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