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  • 1.
    Ahlsten, Matilde
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Camaj Ericson, Veronica
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Kön och ålderns påverkan på den inre arbetsmotivationen2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine if self- perceived intrinsic work motivation differed between men and women and between three age groups (20-38 years vs. 39-50 years vs. 51-65 years). The data was collected by administering the Basic Need Satisfaction at Work Scale (BNS) to employees at an international company. The survey was based on the Self-Determination Theory (SDT) and measured intrinsic work motivation by asking 21 propositions that concerned the sub-categories autonomy, competence and belongingness. The result of this study showed that there was no difference between men and women in self-reported intrinsic work motivation. However, there was a main effect of age group, wherein employees aged between 39 and 50 years reported a lower score on the propositions that measured perceived competence compared to employees aged between 20 and 38 years. This study highlights the importance of that individuals aging can have an influence on the perceived intrinsic work motivation.

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    Matilde Ahlsten & Veronica Camaj Ericson
  • 2.
    Ahmadi, Elena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Vilhelmson, Pär
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Macassa, Gloria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science.
    Larsson, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    FRAMFÖR (Framgångsrika företag i Gästrikland): ett longitudinellt projekt om ledarskap, arbetsmiljö och effektivitet – fördel för både forskning, utbildning och ett hållbart arbetsliv?2016In: Inkluderande och hållbart arbetsliv: Book of abstracts - FALF 2016, Östersund: Mittuniversitetet , 2016, p. 48-48Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektbeskrivning: FRAMFÖR har under 15 år bedrivits i Gästrikland i samarbete mellan utbildning och forskning vid Högskolan i Gävle, företagsutvecklare vid kommuner, företag och näringslivsorganisationer. Varje år delas utmärkelsen FRAMFÖR ut till 50 företag. Ambitionen är att uppmuntra framgångsrika företagare och visa upp intressanta exempel på hur framgång kan skapas. Processen startar med att 120 företag (>4 anställda) nomineras utifrån finansiella kriterier (ex. omsättningstillväxt, vinstmarginal). Sedan genomför studenter vid Ekonomprogrammet intervjuer med cheferna för dessa företag. Intervjuerna sker utifrån ett standardiserat frågeformulär kring arbetsmiljö, ledarskap, organisering och effektivitet. Avslutningsvis väljer en jury ut de 50 mest framgångsrika företagen utifrån såväl finansiella kriterier som studenternas intervjuresultat. Projektets trippel helixuppbyggnad (Utbildning, Forskning och, Företag) skapar nyttor för olika intressenter.

    Utbildningsnyttor: Studenterna får möjlighet till interaktion med företagare i sin direkta närhet. Aktiviteterna underlättar att uppfylla utbildningsmål där flera mål kan uppfyllas med samma aktiviteter. Förståelse för näringslivets förutsättningar samt kunskaper om ett vetenskapligt angreppssätt ökar.

    Forskningsnyttor: Stärker pågående forskning om hälsofrämjande och effektivt ledarskap inom arbetshälsovetenskap samt företagsutveckling inom företagsekonomi. Det stora urvalet av företag ger en bra bild av företagen i regionen och en möjlighet att följa dem över tid. Ambitionen är att få mer kunskap om hållbara och effektiva företag. Fördjupade studier av utmärkelseföretag möjliggörs och ett doktorandprojekt med inriktning på ledarskapsbeteenden, organisationsfaktorer, tidsanvändning samt chefers/medarbetares arbetsmiljö/hälsa i utmärkelseföretag är uppstartat.

    Företagsnyttor: Företagare får möta studenter och förstå hur de tänker. Ställda frågor, t.ex. rörande arbetsmiljö och ledarskap, kan starta reflektionsprocesser som bidrar till fortsatt utveckling. FRAMFÖR-utmärkelsen delas ut vid en högtidlig tillställning där företagarna kan bygga nätverk. Flera företagare lyfter fram det positiva symbolvärdet av att få utmärkelsen.

    Projektets framtid: Målet är att fortsätta ytterligare 15 år och fortsätta utveckla nyttorna för samtliga intressenter. Ett prioriterat område är återkoppling till företag i någon form samt ökad samverkan mellan studenter och företagare.

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  • 3.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Social Work.
    Zandi, Saeid
    Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran, Iran.
    Cetrez, Önver Andreas
    Uppsala University.
    Akhavan, Sharareh
    Mälardalen University.
    Job satisfaction and challenges of working from home during the COVID-19 pandemic: A study in a Swedish academic setting2022In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 71, no 2, p. 357-370Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic changed the academic world in various ways, and most universities are still closed and continue operating via teleworking.

    OBJECTIVE: This study is intended to investigate how university faculty/staff and students in Sweden have coped with the lockdown and working/studying from home during the pandemic.

    METHODS: A survey was conducted among 277 women and men working and studying at different universities in Sweden.

    RESULTS: The results indicate that most (61%) respondents were very or somewhat satisfied with the current work-from-home arrangement. Additionally, they indicate that, overall, almost 30% were working more than usual due to the pandemic and teleworking. The coping methods having the highest impact on overall job satisfaction were: "thinking about what I can do rather than what I can't do"; "being able to access medical resources and medical services if I need to seek help"; and "having trust in state or health authorities in my country."

    CONCLUSIONS: The study reveals that Sweden can serve as a good example of how university faculty/staff and students can address the occupational challenges caused by a health pandemic and possible subsequent quarantines.

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  • 4.
    Akbar, Yusra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences. 0704965014.
    Är du glad på din arbetsplats?: En kvalitativ undersökning om faktorer av betydelse för trivseln på arbetsplatser2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Att vara glad på arbetsplatsen är ett mål som vi anställda strävar efter inom arbetsmarknaden. Att trivas på arbetet kan bero på olika faktorer som kan hänga ihop med en god arbetsmiljö för de anställda. Anställda som trivs med sitt jobb visar bättre resultat och har en ökad prestation. Arbetsgivarna bör tänka strategiskt på detta område och investera både tid och resurser för positiv påverkan på verksamheten. Att mäta trivselgraden regelbundet i ett företag är nödvändigt i högsta grad för att ta reda på vad som fungerar bra och vilka områden som behöver förbättras.

    Uppsatsen bygger på en kvalitativ metod i form av halvstrukturerade intervjuer. Detta innebär intervjuer av ett antal anställda på företaget Bauhaus. Valet av företag bygger på bekvämlighetsprincipen. Intervjuerna riktade in sig på upplevd trivsel på arbetet samt vad som ökar trivseln.

    Uppsatsen utgår från en studie av Angelöw (2015) som visar att Sverige ligger på 9:e plats på världskartan när det gäller trivsel i arbetet, efter bland annat Mexiko, Indien och Norge. Resultaten av denna studie visar exempel på faktorer som kan ligga bakom trivseln i arbetet. Undersökningen kan därför vara en grund till att öka förståelse och insyn i vad som kan vara en trivsam arbetsplats och vad som kan påverka arbetsmiljötrivsel.

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  • 5.
    Andersson, Jenny
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Criminology.
    Persson, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Criminology.
    Att definiera våld i skolan: En intervjustudie med lärare om hur våld hanteras i gymnasiesärskolan och yrkesgymnasiet2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study has examined how teachers from three integrated secondary schools – one which provides education for students with special needs and two vocational schools –define violence. The definitions have been linked to whether the schools tend to display a workplace environment perspective or a crime perspective on violence, and how these perspectives are expressed. These perspectives constitute one of the theories that the study is based on, along with Nils Christie’s the Ideal Victim and Ron Akers’ Differential Reinforcement. Interviews have been held with three teachers from the vocational schools and four teachers from the school for students with special needs. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed from a perspective of qualitative content analysis. Conclusively the results show that while all teachers include physical violence in their own definitions of violence, and most of them include psychological violence, the specific actions that are included in their concepts of violence differ. However, we found that the way they “choose” which actions are to be included in their concepts consists among all teaches. They all seem to “choose” from a combination of the expectations on them set by the organization and to what extent the action can be perceived as an “ideal crime”.

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  • 6.
    Areskoug, Linda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science.
    Samband mellan arbetsidentitet och den mentala (o)hälsan inom byggbranschen: En kvantitativ studie2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between emotion- and cognition components within personal- and collective work identity, and exhaustion. A quantitative method was used, and questionnaires was sent out to employees in the construction industry. Using 2 hierarchical multiple regression analyzes and 149 employees who participated in the study the emotional component (p=.002) of personal work identity and the cognition (p=.04) component in collective work identity showed a negative relationship to exhaustion, indicating that individuals with a strong work identity based on these components show a decreased level of exhaustion. The cognition component (p=<.001) of personal work identity and the emotion component (p=.02) of collective work identity showed a positive relationship to exhaustion, indicating that individuals with a strong work identity based on these components show an increased level of exhaustion. However, the analysis of the collective work identity did not show a significant support for the model as a whole, which indicates that these results should be interpreted with caution.

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  • 7.
    Arnqvist, Moa
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology.
    Titz, Petronella
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology.
    Att stanna eller att gå?: De psykologiska behovens betydelse för den kritiska personalomsättningen hos vård- och omsorgsanställda2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka sambandet mellan de psykologiska behoven autonomi, kompetens och samhörighet i Self-Determination Theory [SDT] och intentionen att sluta [ITQ] hos vård- och omsorgsanställda inom en svensk kommun. En tvärsnittsstudie genomfördes och 79 sjuksköterskor och undersköterskor på den specifika kommunen deltog i en enkätundersökning som mätte deras psykologiska behov och intention att sluta. Data analyserades i SPSS genom en multipel regressionsanalys och en korrelationsanalys. Resultaten visade ett signifikant negativt samband mellan de psykologiska behoven i SDT och ITQ, vilket betydde att ju högre upplevelse av de psykologiska behoven desto mindre var intentionen att sluta. Autonomi var det behovet som förklarade störst del av variansen i ITQ, följt av samhörighet och kompetens. Uppfyllandet av alla psykologiska behov var således av vikt för att uppleva lägre intention att sluta hos vård- och omsorgsanställda.

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  • 8.
    Asp, Monica
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Arbete i glädje och sorg: En kvalitativ studie om arbetsglädje för personal på ett äldreboende2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Behovet av personal inom vård- och omsorg beräknas öka. Personal som arbetar i denna sektor står bakom de flesta av anmälningarna av arbetsskada. Det är betydelsefullt att arbeta förebyggande med arbetsmiljö både för att främja anställdas hälsa och utveckla verksamheter. Personal inom äldreomsorg utför ett viktigt arbete för de äldre som är i behov av vård. Syftet i denna uppsats är att genom kvalitativa intervjuer beskriva vårdpersonalens upplevelse av arbetsklimatet och ha Aaron Antonovskys teori om känsla av sammanhang - KASAM som teoretisk modell för att se vad som kan göras för att verka för ett gott arbetsklimat.

    Resultatet visar att den uppskattning personalen får av de boende gör att arbetet upplevs som meningsfullt. Det finns resursbrist i form av personalbrist men även ekonomiska enligt personalens utsagor vilket påverkar hanterbarheten. Personalen upplever att det finns få möjligheter att få utbildning i arbetet och att vidareutbildning i yrket inte lönar sig.

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  • 9.
    Bergdahl, My
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Snäll, Josephine
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Kan den interna kommunikationen inom en organisation predicera uppfyllelsen av medarbetarnas psykologiska kontrakt?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to quantitatively examine whether the internal communication (based on the dimensions: personal feedback, relationship with superiors, organizational integration and communication climate) can predict the psychological contract (which consists of expectations, commitments and promises that arises between one employee and employer). A survey was sent to two department stores in central Sweden within an international organization. The survey was based on parts of the Communication Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ) (Downs & Adrian, 2004) and Isaksson and Bellaaghs (2005) Swedish translation of the PSYCONES project's measuring instrument for the psychological contract. The survey aimed at employees without a leading position and was answered by 70 employees at the organization. The result showed that the communication dimensions together as a model significant predicted the fulfilment of the psychological contract. Organizational integration predicts the employees' psychological contract the strongest. Even the dimension relationship with superiors contributed with a unique proportion of the coefficient of determination.

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  • 10.
    Berglund, Jenny
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Dahlberg, Moa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Digital HR: Vilka effekter har digitaliseringen på de anställda och deras relationer?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: E-HR is an enterprise management system where digital tools are used to manage the human resources of the organisation. Previous research argues that there is a lack of research on the use of e-HR from the employee perspective and also with a focus on how the relationships are affected. The aim of the study is thus to increase understanding of how employees experience the use of e-HR and what effects digitization may have on the relationships in the organisation.

    Method: The study assumes a hermeneutic perspective with inspiration from the operator approach. The research program has an abductive focus in which a qualitative research design has been used with ten semistructured interviews.

    Result & Conclusions: The study shows that e-HR tools are perceived as a valuable support at work, but sometimes with increased workload. Furthermore, the study shows that the relationships have been influenced only to a small extent by e-HR and mainly because communication in larger part is done digitally. The study although shows that digital HR can not replace the personal meeting.

    Suggestions for future research: The study could have been developed even more if the management had been interviewed about the motivation for current digital HR tools. This to study the manager's experiences of the current solutions, but also to see if they have concidered other options. We therefore consider that further research could provide contributions by studying the subject also from the manager's perspective, as there is also a lack of research about their perspective.

    Contribution of the thesis: The theoretical contribution of the study is that e-HR increases the sense of safety and control, but that digitizing can also increase workload. The study also shows that a digital relationship is seen as an opportunity to get a relationship with a larger number of employees within the organization. The practical contribution is the advice to focus on education of the systems as well as to have back-up when the technology fails. The practical contribution of the study also applies to the fact that more organizations should consider using e-HR as a way to gather all the relevant information about the employees in one place.

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  • 11.
    Berglund, Karin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Nilsson, Denise
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Arbetsmotivation och hälsa i olika kontorsmiljöer: Skiljer sig upplevelsen beroende på kontorsmiljö och kön?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine if there were any differences regarding work motivation, mental and general health among employees depending on the office environment they were working in and based on their gender. The study was conducted by an organization that works with economic issues, which 141 officials participated by answering a questionnaire. The measuring instruments that were used were BNS (Basic Need Satisfaction at work scale), GHQ (General Health Questionnaire) and one question regarding general health. Motivation was measured through the subcategories autonomy, competence and relatedness. The result of the study showed that there were no differences regarding physical and general health depending on the office environment and gender. The result of the present study also showed that employees who worked in their own offices estimated autonomy and competence higher than employees who worked in open plan offices. A slight tendency of difference was shown regarding relatedness and office environment. No significant difference was shown regarding gender and office environment. The shown result are believed to depend on that employees who works in their own offices has better concentration opportunities and there for experience a higher level of autonomy, competence and relatedness.

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  • 12.
    Bergsten, Eva L.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Wijk, Katarina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Healthy work - healthy business? A survey of work environment improvements and profitability among small and medium enterprises2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to investigate how Swedish small and medium enterprises (SMEs) within the manufacturing industry carry out work environment improvements, and to study if managers consider profitability to be associated with issues in the work environment. Workplace observations and interviews (n=60) with company managers were carried out. Forty-five enterprises were affiliated with an occupational health service, typically in order to get quick access to health care, rather than getting help planning and implementing changes. Fifty-eight managers believed that healthy work environments would have at least some positive effect on company profitability. Incentives for work environment improvements were external, individual and organizational and varied between companies of different sizes. External requirements from The Swedish Work Environment Authority and from established or potential customers were prioritized incentives in SMEs with < 50 employees. Organizational and individual incentives such as incident- and accident reports, productivity, health and sick-leave were prioritized in SMEs with >50 employees. Irrespective of company size, well-being among work-force was consistently mentioned as an important factor for successful business. Small companies urged quick decisions and actions while medium companies had more planned, systematic and organized work environment activities. Deliberate work environment improvements for increased profitability were for instance, changes to eliminate risks, reduce manual work and resolve planning and coordination problems in production that led to stress.

  • 13.
    Bergström, Johanna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Göthe, Sandra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Att känna sig ett med märket: En kvalitativ studie på ett industriföretag om upplevelserna av mervärde i anställningen2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to examine the experience of value within the employment of officials at an industrial company. The study was based on eight interviews and the data were analyzed using a basic qualitative research. The result showed that officials experienced value in their employment and were proud of being a part of the company and the Employer Brand. The result also showed that the company provided a wide offering of benefits and opportunities to grow within the company. The heads also played an important part in experiencing value in the employment for the officials. The official’s definition of an attractive employer and their definition of the current employer were consistent, although there exists some improvement potential. This regards harmonization of benefits between different business areas and the communicative and informative role of the heads. The result also showed that the internal mobility within the company, mainly between business areas, could be improved.

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  • 14.
    Bjärntoft, Sofie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Larsson, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Luleå University of Technology; LKAB, Gällivare.
    Edvinsson, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Jahncke, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    A participatory approach to identify key areas for sustainable work environment and health in employees with flexible work arrangements2021In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, no 24, article id 13593Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flexible work arrangements are common worldwide, but knowledge on how to achieve a sustainable work environment is sparse. The aim of this study was to use a participatory approach to identify concrete suggestions and key areas for improvement that were considered relevant, effective, and feasible for promoting good work environment and health at organizational, work group and individual level (O-G-I), among office employees with flexible work arrangements. Eight focus group interviews (including 45 employees) were conducted in a large Swedish government agency in 2017. By using a Tree diagram approach, employees made a total of 279 suggestions for improvements, which were sorted into O-G-I levels and mapped into 18 key areas. We found that 13 key areas addressed organizational level (e.g., improving leadership, policy, job demands, and work efficiency), two key areas addressed group level (create common rules of availability and activity-based working), and three key areas addressed individual level (e.g., individuals’ responsibility to clearly communicate their availability). The participatory process was effective in obtaining concrete suggestions and key areas in need of improvement, which may provide an action plan that can guide organizations in developing interventions to promote good work environment and health in flexible work. 

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  • 15.
    Björklund, Amanda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology.
    Hur upplever första linjens chefer inom vård och omsorg i offentlig sektor stöd i sitt arbete under Covid-19-pandemin?: En intervjustudie2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Author: Amanda Björklund 

    Title: How do first-line managers in health and care in the public sector experience work support during the Covid-19 pandemic? An interview study

    Course: Master thesis in Occupational Health Sciences, 30 credits’ Institution: University of Gävle 

    Aim: The aim of the study is to investigate through interviews how first-line managers in health and care in the public sector experience work support during the Covid-19 pandemic. Method: The study was a semi-structured interview study where the interviews were conducted by telephone or digitally via Teams. The sample consisted of ten participants who worked in elderly care in the public sector. Data collection was analyzed through qualitative content analysis. Main Results: The content of the analysis resulted in two categories that described the informants' experiences of work support during the Covid-19 pandemic. One category was: Practical support in the work during the Covid-19 pandemic through guidelines, routines, information, instructions and help in the work execution through collaboration. The second category was: Emotional support at work by understanding, confirmation, communication, and feedback at work. Conclusion: The results of the study show that first-line managers feel that information is needed at work and more help at work. According to the managers, this means more cooperation, feedback and understanding, which is also perceived as important in the work. The study can contribute with knowledge about the first-line managers' work situation in relation to their work environment by studying experiences of support at work during the Covid-19 pandemic.

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  • 16.
    Björklund, Erika
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Nordlöf, Hasse
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Djupsjöbacka, Mats
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Discursive constructions of electricians in discussions about musculoskeletal disorders among professionals in the field2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electricians have an increased risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) compared to most other blue collar professions. Many end up with chronic disabilities, forcing them to change careers or to go on sickness pension. Besides negative consequences for the individuals concerned, MSDs also have a detrimental impact on the workforce (reduced number of professionals) and on society (financial costs). It is therefore important to find ways to prevent MSDs and to promote good ergonomic behavior. Electricians’ knowledge and habits regarding MSDs are first formed and shaped in school, during vocational education to become an electrician. In the course of this time the students have periods of internship during which they interact with professionals within the field. Drawing on the ideas of bio-power and governmentality, as introduced and developed by Foucault and developed further by Rose, discourses govern how it is possible to think and act. From this standpoint, then, talk and discourses are not perceived as innocent or ‘mere’ talk but as producing and regulating subjects through their acquisition of specific dispositions, tastes and abilities. Thus, discourses drawn on about electricians and the profession during the students’ internship will govern how it is possible for the students to think and act about themselves and others in relation to both ergonomic behavior and MSDs and, by extension, will have material effects on electricians’ health. This means that, to foster healthy ergonomic behavior one needs to consider how electricians are thought of within the field, i.e. how electricians and the profession are discursively conceived. The purpose of this paper is thus to explore discursive constructions of electricians and the profession as these were expressed in discussions about MSDs among professionals in the field.  Two semi-structured focus group interviews and one individual interview with professionals in the field were conducted. The participants were asked to discuss ideas about i) causes as to why electricians develop MSDs, ii) consequences and effects of MSDs, and iii) ideas about what could be done to prevent MSDs. The interviews were transcribed and the material is currently being discursively analyzed with questions in mind about how the participants conceived of electricians and the profession. Results will be presented at the conference, but preliminary analyses suggests that predominant discourses are concerned with the masculinity of electricians as well as with their time pressured work situation, both contributing to casualness towards ergonomic behavior.

  • 17.
    Björkman, Annica
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Engström, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Nursing Department, Medicine and Health College, Lishui University, Lishui, China .
    Olsson, Annakarin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Wahlberg, Anna Carin
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Identified obstacles and prerequisites in telenurses’ work environment: a modified Delphi study2017In: BMC Health Services Research, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 17, no 1, article id 357Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Telenursing is an expanding part of healthcare, staffed with registered nurses whose work environment is typical of a call centre. Work-related stress has been shown to be a major problem in nurses’ work environments and of importance to the outcome of care, patient safety, nurse job satisfaction and burnout. Today, however, we have a limited understanding of and knowledge about the work environment for telenurses. The aim of the present study is to explore and reach consensus on perceived important obstacles and prerequisites in telenurses’ work environment.

    Methods: A modified Delphi design, using qualitative as well as quantitative data sequentially through three phases, was taken. Data were initially collected via semi-structured interviews (Phase I) and later using a web survey (Phase II-III) between March 2015 and March 2016.

    Results: The findings present a consensus view of telenurses’ experiences of important obstacles and prerequisites in their work environment. Central to the findings are the aspects of telenurses having a demanding work, cognitive fatigue and having no opportunity for recovery during the work shift was ranked as important obstacles. Highly ranked prerequisites for managing were being able to focus on one caller at a time, working in a calm and pleasant environment and having technical support 24/7.

    Conclusions: Managers need to enable telenurses to experience control in their work, provided with possibilities to control their work and to recover during work; shortening work time could improve their work environment. Limited possibilities to perform work might contribute to feelings of stress and inability to perform work. 

  • 18.
    Boström, Maria
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet.
    Björklund, Christina
    Karolinska institutet.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Karolinska institutet.
    Nybergh, Lotta
    Karolinska institutet.
    Schäfer Elinder, Liselotte
    Karolinska institutet.
    Stigmar, Kjerstin
    Lunds universitet.
    Wåhlin, Charlotte
    Karolinska institutet; Linköpings universitet.
    Jensen, Irene
    Karolinska institutet.
    Kwak, Lydia
    Karolinska institutet.
    Health and work environment among female and male Swedish elementary school teachers - A cross-sectional study2020In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 17, no 1, article id E227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Changes in teachers' work situation in Sweden since the 1990s may have contributed to an increase in common mental disorders (CMDs) and burnout. However, there is a lack of research in this field. The aim was to describe how Swedish elementary school teachers experience their health, organizational and social work environment, and the psychosocial safety climate at the workplace, and especially differences and similarities between female and male teachers.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were collected with the COPSOQ, OLBI, UWES and PSC-12 from 478 elementary teachers, 81.0% of them women, from twenty schools. The response rate was 96.4%.

    RESULTS: Teachers reported relatively good general health but experienced high stress, high work pace and emotional demands, low influence at work and a poor psychosocial safety climate. These factors were especially prominent among female teachers. Both women and men experienced good development possibilities and high work engagement.

    CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study can help us to develop a more sustainable work environment for female and male teachers. A more sustainable work environment might attract more people to the profession and incentivize existing teachers to remain in the profession.

  • 19.
    Branteström, Victoria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Alm, Therése
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Ombudsmäns upplevelser av work-life balance: En kvalitativ studie om upplevelsen av work-life balance bland ombudsmän vid ett fackförbund beläget i Mellansverige2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the experience of work-life balance among ombudsmen within a trade union located in the midst of Sweden. The study was based on a qualitative method conducted through semi-structured interviews with 10 respondents. The results were analyzed by an inductive thematic analysis that generated three main themes; Personal circumstancesFlexible work arrangements and work load and The profession of ombudsmen. The result demonstrated that the majority of the respondents felt that they had a good experience of work-life balance. They argued that their working life and private life do not have a major impact on each other but stated that they on numerous occasions primarily had to prioritize commitments in their working life. The respondents expressed that their experience of work-life balance may periodically change due to workload and personal circumstances such as family situation and experience of the profession. They also argued that the flexible working arrangements along with the culture that characterize their profession have an impact on the experience of work-life balance.

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  • 20.
    Carlbaum, Michaela
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Nordström, Mikaela
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Bakgrundsbrusets effekt på kognitiv prestation samt skapandet av falska minnen: Om bullrets inverkan i öppna kontorsmiljöer2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to explore how 31 collage students' cognitive performance and their ability to create false memories were affected by the exposure of an extraneous background noise. The studies main hypotheses were based on previous research on how extraneous noise affect the cognitive ability and the creation of false memories: 1) that an extraneous background noise increases the ability to create false memories, 2) that an extraneous background noise impairs the learning of cognitive information, 3) that an extraneous background noise contributes to an increased representation of fictional words, 4) that an extraneous background noise impedes the ability to understand speech . The results showed a tendency in which false memories increased in the condition without background noise, a result which goes in the opposite direction of the hypothesis. Furthermore, the result supported the hypothesis that the extraneous background noise impairs the learning of cognitive information. The results also showed that there was no effect between the conditions regarding the representation of fictional information. However, the result confirmed the hypothesis that a background noise impedes the ability to understand speech. The authors believe that studies like this are of great importance to the debate about how noise in open plan offices affect people's performance and the appearance of error information.

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  • 21.
    Cikota Molnar, Nikolina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology.
    Sambandet mellan mängden distansarbete, psykisk ohälsa och den psykosociala arbetsmiljön2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a relationship between the extent of telework and mental illness and whether job-demands and job- resources affected the relationship in white-collar workers. This is a register study with a quantitative cross-sectional design, that consisted of 2835 white collar workers from six different organisations in Sweden. To answer the study’s two reasearch questions, four linear regression analyses were performed. The analyses included background and confounding variables.The result showed that there was no significant relationship between the extent of telework and burnout or depression. Furthermore, the results did not change when job demands and resources were included. There was however a significant relationship between burnout and depression and age, marital status, job-demands and job-resources.The conclusion was that no evidence showed of a relationship between extent of telework and mental illness in white-collar workers and it did not change when job-demands and job-resources were taken into account. Further research can be done by including respondent’s experience of telework during COVID-19, as data was collected during the time of the pandemic. By finding out whether they percieved the extent of telework as forces or not, we can identify if the effects of the pandemic had affected the results. 

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    Sambandet mellan mängden distansarbete, psykisk ohälsa och den psykosociala arbetsmiljön
  • 22.
    Dahl, Moa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science.
    Upplevelsen av rehabiliteringsprocessen hos tidigare sjukskrivna i psykiatriska diagnoser: En kvalitativ studie2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the experience of the rehabilitation process, among Swedish public employees, who had returned to work after sick leave due to common mental disorders. Method: To examine this, qualitative method was used. To collect data, semi-structured interviews was carried out and then analyzed with qualitative content analysis. Ten women participated in the study. They were employed in the public sector in Sweden and had returned to work after being on full time sick leave. Result: The analysis resulted in six categories. Summarized, the experience of the rehabilitation process was being changed as a person, feeling vulnerable, and consequently, the importance of good treatment, appropriate work adaptations, and a functioning structure around the rehabilitation process, where the person going through rehabilitation is involved without having to be responsible. Conclusion: Based on the experiences of the study participants, there seems to be a need for a clearer framework for the rehabilitation process, clearer division of responsibilities and guidance for the individual. With knowledge of how the rehabilitation process is experienced, and of facilitating and hindering factors, improvements can be made.

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  • 23.
    Danielsson Källmark, Christina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology.
    Forsberg, Andrea
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology.
    Ledaregenskaper på distans, vilka egenskaper upplever chefer att de behöver utveckla?2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Remote work expects to increase, which means that future leaders should be able to lead their employees remotely. There’s a large amount of research on the subject of leadership, but it’s still unclear whether current leadership theories apply to remote leadership and more research is required. The purpose of this study is to investigate which qualities managers feel they need, or need to develop, to improve their remote leadership. It was investigated in a qualitative study by holding semi-structured interviews with managers at a government organization. Data were analyzed through inductive thematic analysis. The results showed that the qualities managers felt were needed are mutual trust between themselves and employees, that as a manager you’re present, available, adaptable, empathetic and communicative. The qualities, based on the managers' different perspectives, are perceived to be connected to each other. For example, good communication is required to be present and available.

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  • 24.
    Danielsson, Thérèse
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology.
    Samband mellan ljud i öppna kontorslandskap och behovet av återhämtning efter arbetstid: - En kvantitativ studie2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Research indicates that open plan offices are accompanied by high noise levels which have a negative impact on performance and wellbeing at work. However, little is known about how noise levels and noise annoyance associate with need for recovery (NFR) among employees in open-plan offices.

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there is an association between experiences of high noise levels, noise annoyance and need for recovery among open-plan office workers.

    Method: The study was performed with a cross-sectional design. Need for recovery was measured with a short version Need for Recovery (NFR) Scale and noise levels and noise annoyance was measured with Noise Annoyance and High Noise Levels in Work Environments. The questionnaire was sent out to 16 workplaces in Sweden and contained responses from 61 employees.

    Results and conclusions: Hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed a positive association between experienced high noise levels, noise annoyance and NFR. A significant (< .05) association was found between noise annoyance and NFR, independent of noise levels. However, no significant association was found between noise levels and NFR when both predictors were included in the same model. Results suggest that noise annoyance, compared to noise levels, has a more important impact on NFR. Even if no significant association were found between both predictors and the outcome variable, noise levels might influence the experience of noise annoyance, and therefore also be important for NFR. However prospective studies are needed for causal inferences.

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  • 25.
    Djupsjöbacka, Mats
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Björklund, Erika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Nordlöf, Hasse
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Utveckling av arbetsmiljöutbildning på yrkesgymnasium för förebyggande av belastningsbesvär och främjandet av ett hållbart arbetsliv för installationselektriker: En förberedande fallstudie2018In: FALF KONFERENS 2018. Arbetet - problem eller potential för en hållbar livsmiljö? Gävle 10-12 juni 2018: Program och Abstracts / [ed] Per Lindberg, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2018, p. 92-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund och syfte

    Många yrkesprogram på gymnasiet utbildar för yrken där vi vet att anställda ofta drabbas av belastningsrelaterad ohälsa. Exempelvis visar data från Arbetsmiljöverket att 9–12% av alla installationselektriker och elmontörer rapporterar besvär orsakade av påfrestande arbetsställningar och att de rapporterar en ettårsprevalens på 6–10% för besvär i nacke, axlar, arm och rygg till följd av arbetet som varit så svåra att det påverkat arbetsförmågan. Forskning har även visat att elever på elteknikprogram löper särskilt hög risk att drabbas av arbetsskada relativt andra utbildningar. Redan under utbildningen bör åtgärder sättas in för att minska dessa risker.

    En genomgång av litteraturen visar dock att det finns tydliga brister i hur yrkesprogram förbereder eleverna för ett kommande arbetsliv vad gäller arbetsmiljökunskap och att orsakerna till dessa brister troligen finns inom undervisningens innehåll och utformning, lärares kompetens och samverkan med yrkeslivet under utbildningen. Vidare kan elever-nas attityder till arbetsmiljöundervisning utgöra ett hinder. Sammantaget förefaller hin-dren för en bra arbetsmiljöutbildning på yrkesprogram inom gymnasiet vara komplexa och multifaktoriella.

    Innan åtgärder sätts in för att utveckla undervisningen finns därför stort behov av att kartlägga de komplexa orsakssambanden bakom brister inom utbildningen och utifrån det utforma förbättringsåtgärder.

    I vår studie avser vi att svara på forskningsfrågan: Hur anser olika intressenter att olika faktorer inom såväl utbildningen som framtida yrkeskontext interagerar och bidrar till uppkomsten av belastningsbesvär hos installationselektriker?

    Metod och resultat

    Studien har en fallstudiedesign där fokusgrupper och problemträdsanalys används. Pro-blemträdsanalys är en metod för att kartlägga komplexa orsakssamband och att klargöra grundläggande orsaker. Analysen kan därmed säkra att aktiviteter och insatser inte väljs och påbörjas utan att man först har kartlagt kärnproblemets ofta komplexa orsaker grundligt.

    Som underlag till problemträdsanalysen kommer fokusgruppsintervjuer att genomföras där personer från samma kategori intressenter separat samtalar om kärnproblemet. Vi kommer genomföra intervjuer separat med elever, lärare, skolledning och representanter från arbetslivet. Problemträdsanalysen genomförs sedan vid ett tillfälle där 2–3 personer från varje intressent; elever, lärare, skolledningen, representanter från arbetslivet och forskare från projektgruppen deltar. Inför sessionen kommer vi att delge deltagarna underlag baserat på resultaten från fokusgruppintervjuerna och vår litteratursökning så att de kan ta del avSession D:2Individuella presentationer: Fysiskt arbetsliv93vad andra intressegrupper/källor identifierat som möjliga orsaksfaktorer. Efter framtagande av problemträd kommer tänkbara lösningar att formuleras i samverkan med alla intressenter för att skapa ett lösningsträd, vilket kommer att utgöra grund för kommande utvecklingsarbete inom utbildningen.

    Datainsamling och analyser genomförs under våren 2018 och preliminära resultat kommer att presenteras på konferensen.

  • 26.
    Edvinsson, Johanna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bjärntoft, Sofie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Jahncke, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hartig, Terry
    Institute for Housing and Urban Research, Uppsala University, 75105 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    A Work Time Control Tradeoff in Flexible Work: Competitive Pathways to Need for Recovery2023In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 20, no 1, article id 691Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Work time control may offer opportunities, but also implies risks for employee recovery, influenced by increased work-related ICT use and overtime work. However, this risk–opportunity tradeoff remains understudied. This study aimed to test two different models of associations between work time control, work-related ICT use, overtime work, and the need for recovery. These models were constructed based on data on office workers with flexible work arrangements. Cross-sectional data were obtained with questionnaires (n = 2582) from employees in a Swedish multi-site organization. Regression models treated the three determinants of the need for recovery either as independent, or as linked in a causal sequence. The test of independent determinants confirmed that more work time control was associated with less need for recovery, whereas more ICT use and overtime work were associated with a higher need for recovery. In a test of serial mediation, more work time control contributed to a greater need for recovery through more ICT use and then more overtime work. Work time control also had a competitive, indirect effect through a negative association with overtime work. Our results suggest that work time control is beneficial for employee recovery, but may for some be associated with more work-related ICT use after regular working hours, thus increasing recovery needs. Policies that support work time control can promote recovery, but employers must attend to the risk of excessive use of ICT outside of regular working hours.

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    Edvinsson et al. 2023. A Work Time Control Tradeoff in Flexible Work_Competitive Pathways to Need for Recovery
  • 27.
    Fresk, Maja
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Intern kommunikation för organisationens framgång: En fallstudie av kommunikationsproblem i ett mindre företag2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Problem – The internal communication are identified as very important for the organization’s survival and overall performance, but there are many companies that do not take their communication issues seriously. In smaller companies the internal communication is important because the close relationship with coworkers and the entrepreneur. There are limited studies focused only on internal communication within small companies.

    Purpose – This paper investigates communication problems existing in smaller companies and makes suggestions for improvements to overcome these problems.

    Method– This paper is based on a single case study. Through asking structured questions and a carried out observation the empirical evidence were collected. In order to support the findings a literature study has been conducted.

    Findings – The case company provided indications about an inadequate internal communication influences the whole organization and can be the bottom reason for multiple problems experienced within the organization.

    Conclusion – The study identifies different kinds of communication problems existing within the case company and contributes to finding solutions for the identified problems. The study also highlights the importance of communication for the organization and the consequences of a fallible internal communication. 

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  • 28.
    Funk, Lina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Johansson, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Upplevelsen av arbetsgivarattraktionen och upplevelsen av rekryteringsprocessen: En kvantitativ studie om skillnaden mellan de som anställts respektive inte anställts vad gäller upplevelsen av arbetsgivarattraktionen samt rekryteringsprocessen.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to investigate if there was a difference in the experience of employer attractiveness and experience of recruitment process, based on whether the respondent had received employment or not at the selected organization.

    The purpose was also to investigate whether there was a correlation between experience of employer attractiveness and experience of recruitment process. The questionnaire used contained questions about the experience of the recruitment process and employer attractiveness, the latter was measured using the Employer Attractiveness scale. The study showed that those who became employed rated all dimensions of employer attractiveness higher. Furthermore, the study showed that those who became employed rated the dimensions fairness and treatment higher. As for the experience of the usability of the recruiting tool there were no differences between the groups. The results also showed a positive correlation between experience of the recruitment process and experience of employer attractiveness.

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  • 29.
    Granberg, Adam
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology.
    Flexibelt arbete och känslan av sammanhang: Kvantitativ studier av inustribranschen2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Denna studies syfte är att undersöka till vilken grad flexibelt arbete kan associeras med arbetsrelaterad KASAM.Metod: Detta är en kvantitativ tvärsnittsstudie riktad till industriarbetare i centrala Sverige, som kan arbeta flexibelt åtminstone deltid. Inledningsvis gjordes en litteraturgranskning för att undersöka hur flexibelt arbete påverkar hälsa och välbefinnande. Efter en kvalitetsgranskning av åtta artiklar användes sju av dem för att skapa en bakgrund för denna studie. En tvådelad webbundersökning som innehåller flexibelt arbete och arbetsrelaterad känsla av sammanhang användes. Den administrerades genom arbetsplatschefer som kontaktades via post eller telefon. Sju arbetsplatser deltog och av dem svarade totalt 52 respondenter på undersökningen. Resultaten analyserades genom multipel regression. Först utfördes en analys av sambandet mellan den beroende variabeln arbetsrelaterad känsla av sammanhang och den oberoende variabeln flexibelt arbete i en icke justerad modell. Därefter utfördes en andra analys med kovariaterna ålder och kön som ytterligare oberoende variabler i en justerad modell. Resultat: Det finns ett signifikant samband mellan grad av flexibelt arbete och utfallet gällande arbetsrelaterad känsla av sammanhang. Variabeln flexibelt arbetet förklarar 17% av utfallet avseende arbetsrelaterad känsla av sammanhang i den icke justerade mode. När den signifikanta kovariaten åldern tillkom förklarar modellen 24% av utfallsvariationen avseende arbetsrelaterad känsla av sammanhang. Slutsats: Resultaten tillhandahåller data på associationen mellan variabler hittills ej utforskade, flexibelt arbete och arbetsrelaterad KASAM. För att stärka validiteten och trovärdigheten behövs dock fler studier i större skala.

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  • 30.
    Göthe, Emilia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Lundberg, Sofie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Chefer och medarbetares arbetsmotivation inom privat och offentlig sektor2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to examine differences concerning work motivation between managers and employees in the public and private sector. The result is based on 145 web surveys answered by managers and employees in nine different organizations, within both sectors. The measuring instrument used was Work Self-determination Index (W-SDI) based on Self-Determination Theory (SDT). The result showed that managers in a higher degree have self-determined work motivation than employees, regardless of sector affiliation. However, there was no difference between private and public sector concerning self-determined work motivation.  

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  • 31.
    Hallström, Fredrika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology.
    Distansarbetares upplevda arbetstillfredsställelse och Work Family Conflict: under covid-192022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Distansarbete som arbetsform har blivit alltmer vanligt det senaste decenniet. Arbetsformen har tidigare oftast varit frivillig och setts som en förmån som arbetsgivaren kan ge de anställda i sitt arbete. I mars 2020 förändrade covid-19 pandemin förutsättningarna för distansarbete, då detta gick från att vara valbart till att rekommenderas och mer eller mindre bli påtvingat för miljontals individer världen över. Distansarbete som arbetsform har i tidigare forsknings setts kunna bidra till en högre upplevd arbetstillfredsställelse och en lägre konflikt mellan arbete och privatliv, men sambanden under pandemin är mer oklara. Syftet med studien var därför att undersöka om distansarbete under pandemin har någon påverkan på upplevd arbetstillfredsställelse och Work Family Conflict (konflikt mellan arbete och privatliv), samt om tidigare erfarenhet av distansarbete modererar denna relation. Ett underliggande syfte var att titta på relationen mellan upplevd arbetstillfredsställelse och Work Family Conflict vid distansarbete under covid-19.

    Studien har en tvärsnittsdesign. Data är insamlade genom en enkätundersökning genomförd av forskningsprojektet Flexibelt arbete (Flex-A) på Högskolan i Gävle. Respondenterna består av 1041 tillsvidareanställda tjänstemän och arbetare från ett tiotal svenska organisationer som arbetat på distans i någon omfattning under covid-19. 

    Resultatet visade att det inte på några samband mellan distansarbete och upplevd Work Family Conflict eller arbetstillfredsställelse under covid-19. Däremot fanns effekter av kön och individer med små barn (yngre än 13 år) på Work Family Conflict. Resultatet visade även ett signifikant samband mellan Work Family Conflict och arbetstillfredsställelse där en lägre Work Family Conflict ger en högre arbetstillfredställse. 

    Då distansarbete troligtvis kommer att vara en mer förekommande arbetsform även när pandemin ebbat ut behövs dock mer forskning inom ämnet. 

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  • 32.
    Hammarstedt, Sandra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science.
    Vilket stöd behöver chefer i arbetet med den organisatoriska och sociala arbetsmiljön?: - En fenomenografisk studie2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Ohälsa kopplat till den organisatoriska och sociala arbetsmiljön är en av arbetsmarknadens största utmaningar. Inom arbetsmiljöområdet är den organisatoriska och sociala arbetsmiljön det område chefer tycker är svårast att arbeta med och tidigare forskning har visat ett behov av att kartlägga vilket stöd chefer behöver i frågan. Syfte: Syftet med studien är att beskriva vad chefer med personalansvar och fördelade arbetsmiljöuppgifter upplever för olika behov av stöd i arbetet med den organisatoriska och sociala arbetsmiljön. Metod: Studien har en kvalitativ tolkande studiedesign. Totalt 10 chefer från olika medelstora/stora företag i Jönköping län (åtta män och två kvinnor) med minst ett års chefserfarenhet deltog. Datainsamlingen skedde genom semistrukturerade intervjuer under jan/feb 2020 och en fenomenografisk analys användes som metod för resultatframställning. Resultat: Chefer är i behov av relationellt stöd, professionellt stöd, formellt stöd, stödjande kultur och kontextuellt anpassat stöd i arbetet med organisatorisk och social arbetsmiljö. Behovet av relationellt stöd var något mer framträdande, men alla typer av stöd var viktiga och behöver ses i relation till varandra. Slutsats: Studien bidrar med ny kunskap i frågan om vilka olika typer av stöd chefer behöver i organisatoriskt och socialt arbetsmiljöarbete och ger en diskussion om hur behovet kan förstås. Studiens resultat föreslås användas som ett hjälpmedel vid lägesanalys av den egna organisationen och därigenom vara behjälplig vid utformandet av meningsfullt och adekvat chefsstöd i syfte att förbättra organisationens arbetsmiljö i frågan.

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    Hammarstedt.Sandra.Masteruppsats.
  • 33.
    Hedberg, Ebba
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology.
    Pettersson, Hannah
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology.
    En studie kring arbetsmotivation vid distansarbete och digitalt transformativt ledarskap2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I december 2019 erkändes Covid-19 som en pandemi. Distansarbete gavs ut som en rekommendationen till individer som har möjlighet att arbeta hemifrån, och arbetsgivare blev ansvarig för att det digitala ledarskapet fungerar. Syftet med denna kvantitativa studie var att undersöka om distansarbete och transformativt digitalt ledarskap predicerar arbetsmotivationen. Urvalet kategoriserades till två grupper, utifrån arbetstagare som arbetade med relationsinriktade yrken samt ekonomi och it. Totalt genererades 79 st fullständiga enkätsvar där deltagarna var i åldrarna 21-60 år. En digital enkät konstruerades som var baserad på The Work Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation Scale (WEIMS) samt Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ). Data analyserades i SPSS genom två multipla hierarkiska regressionsanalyser, där resultatet visade endast ett signifikant resultat vilket var att transformativt ledarskap positivt predicerar intrinsikal arbetsmotivation. 

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  • 34.
    Hedenberg, Linnéa
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Hägerström, Amanda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Den stora utmaningen att kombinera arbetslivet med privatlivet för män respektive för kvinnor: En kvantitativ studie om gymnasielärares upplevelse av Work- Life Balance2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether the experience of the Work- Life Balance (divided on Family -Work Conflict and Work -Family Conflict) was dependent on gender and whether the participants had children under 13 years old or not. The study also aimed to investigate whether quantitative work demands and decision demands could predict WLB. The study was conducted as a web survey, in which teachers from 10 different high schools in Sweden participated. A total of 125 surveys were submitted, 103 of these were complete surveys and were used in the study. The results of the study showed that men experienced WFC more than women and participants that had children under the age of 13 reported a higher level of FWC than participants that did not have children under the age of 13. The result also showed that quantitative work demands predicted WFC, thus high quantitative work demands resulted in a bigger conflict between work life and personal life, 30, 5 % of the variation in WFC can be explained by the variation in quantitative work demands. 

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    C-uppsats Work-Life Balance
  • 35.
    Hedin, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Isberg, Madelen
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Trakasserier i arbetslivet: En kvantitativ studie om sambandet mellan trakasserier och självskattad (o)hälsa2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to investigate if high experienced harassment can explain high self-rated (un) health.  This was done by asking 420 employees to answer an internet questionnaire consisting based on the measuring intstruments Harassment Scale (Savicki, Cooley och Gjesvolds, 2003) and The Karolinska Exhaustion Scale (KES) (Saboonchi, Perski & Grossi, 2012).  The main result of the study showed that harassment in workplace has an impact on the self- rated health in all of the different areas of health (cognitive exhaustion, disturbed sleep, fatigue, somatic symptoms, irritability, negative affect) the results also showed that there is a difference between men and women consider harassments effects on the self-rated health. The results showed that men´s self-rated health was affected more than women in all of the areas except one. 

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  • 36.
    Hedqvist, Amanda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Johansson, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Att attraheras, motiveras och välja att stanna kvar: En kvalitativ studie inom hemtjänsten2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate how employees in home care services in a municipality in central Sweden was attracted to a workplace, what motivated them to work, and what motivated them to remain in the workplace. A further aim was to highlight the employees' experiences of this in relation to how the various companies in home care worked to attract, motivate and retain their staff. Nine semi-structured interviews were conducted with home care staff from five companies. Data was analyzed by an inductive thematic analysis. The analysis revealed four thematic areas: Customer significance, A sense of security, Good leadership, and To be appreciated. The study revealed that the most important factor to be attracted to an employer where the employer's reputation. The most important factor for what motivated the participants at work was customer relationship and the main factors why participants chose to remain was the employer's treatment and a permanent employment.

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  • 37.
    Hemphälä, Hillevi
    et al.
    Ergonomics, Design Sciences, Lund University, Lund.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Department of Medical Sciences, Section of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Lindberg, per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Nylén, Per
    Division of Ergonomics, School of Technology and Health, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Huddinge; Swedish Work Environment Authority, Stockholm.
    A method for assessing risks within visual ergonomics2014In: 11th International Symposium on Human Factors in Organisational Design and Management & 46th Annual Nordic Ergonomics Society Conference: Track: F - Tools & methods, Session: F1 - Risk management, Santa Monica, CA, USA: The IEA PRESS , 2014, p. 111-112Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1.  Introduction

    Insufficient visual ability can lead to strained work load for employees and can contribute to eyestrain and musculoskeletal discomfort, “the eye leads the body” (Anshel, 2005). An optimal visual environment provides physical conditions for work in the best possible way. Visually demanding work, such as computer work, is associated with eye discomfort, headaches and muscle pains in mainly the neck and shoulders (Rosenfield, 2011). For computer workers in North America studies show that 75-90 % of the workers reported subjective symptoms from the eyes (Anshel, 2005). The causality between eyestrain and musculoskeletal discomfort is not fully understood, but studies have shown that straining the eyes increases the musculoskeletal activity in neck and shoulders (trapezius), and a link between visually demanding work, eye problems, headache and/or muscle problems have been found (Aarås et al., 2001; Richter et al., 2008; Zetterlund et al., 2009; Zetterberg et al., 2013). A study of call-center workers in Sweden showed that 21% of workers have both eyes and neck problems (Wiholm et al., 2007). Ergonomic problems also exist for professions where computer work is not dominant. Surgeons and other surgical personnel, with subjective eye discomfort, reported twice the incidence of musculoskeletal disorders when compared with staff without eye symptoms (Hemphälä et al., 2011). In an intervention study among postmen the eyestrain and musculoskeletal discomfort decreased after visual ergonomic interventions including customized eyeglasses and optimal lighting conditions (Hemphälä et al., 2012). Apart from health and well-being being affected by a poor visual ergonomic work environment, the quality and productivity are also involved (Eklund, 2009).

    Lighting is an important factor; both the lighting quantity (strength) and quality (e.g. light distribution, direction, glare and contrast). Too low illumination makes it difficult to see clearly and may thus lower performance, high illuminance can cause glare and lead to increased eye fatigue and decreased productivity (IESNA, 2011).

    2.  Methods

    There are several factors to consider when developing a method for visual ergonomics risk assessment of subjective symptoms and discomfort of the eyes (Colon et al. 1999; Børsting et al., 2008, Knave et al., 1985). There are also checklists used in eye exams or medical appointments (Sheedy and Shaw-McMinn, 2002; Wilson & Corlett, 2005). These will be used as basis in the presents the project intended to develop a risk assessment instrument for visual ergonomics.

    3.  Results

    A preliminary version of a risk analysis method for Visual Ergonomics has been developed and will be presented, with a focus on discussing with the audience which factors should primarily be included. The factors included so far in the method are the objective measurements such as illuminance, luminance contrast, uniformity values, expert assessment of the risk for glare; indirect measurements such as subjective ratings of the visual ability, eyestrain and musculoskeletal discomfort. The goal is to develop a practical time efficient method that is easy to use. With such a tool, actions needed to reduce the visual load among the workers, the companies and the society’s negative consequences induced by work-related eyestrain and musculoskeletal discomfort can hopefully be identified.

  • 38.
    Henriksson, Emelie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology.
    Mikaelyan, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology.
    Ett spektrum av tillhörighet: Hur upplever coworkingmedlemmar tillhörighet?2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Distansarbete har blivit allt vanligare och många väljer att nyttja ett coworkingspace som arbetsplatslösning i stället för att arbeta från hemmet. Coworking-spacesskiljer sig markant från traditionella arbetsplatser eftersom de delas av flera olikaorganisationer och individerna som nyttjar arbetsplatsen arbetar tillsammans medmänniskor som inte är organisatoriska kollegor. Syftet med studien var att undersökahur tillhörighet upplevs vid arbete på ett coworking-space. En induktiv tematisk analysav kvalitativa data visade att begreppet tillhörighet kan beskrivas som ett brett spektrumav ingående ämnen. Fyra huvudteman av begreppet tillhörighet utkristalliserade sig idatamaterialet; social tillhörighet, tillhörighet till omgivning, professionell tillhörighetoch delade oskrivna sociala koder. Behovet av tillhörighet visade sig vara olika förinformanterna, några söker en mer social tillhörighet medan andra är mer intresseradeav tillhörighet kopplat till profession. Ett coworking-space fungerar således som ettkomplement till de tillhörighetsbehov som respektive individ har svårt att uppfyllaunder distansarbete. 

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  • 39.
    Hillman, Johanna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology.
    Eidin, Elin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology.
    Covid-19 pandemins påverkan på den psykosociala arbetsmiljön: Ledares upplevelse av arbetet med den psykosociala arbetsmiljön under påtvingat distansarbete2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many organizations have introduced teleworking to reduce the spread of infection during the Covid-19 pandemic. Due to forced teleworking, organizations rapidly needed to increase their knowledge regarding leadership, effective and healthy virtual teams,and digital aids. The purpose of the present study was to investigate leaders' experience of the work with the psychosocial work environment during the forced distance-work during Covid-19. Seven semi-structured interviews were conducted with leaders from public administration and the private sector. The material was analyzed with an inductive thematic analysis, the themes that emerged were relationship to the employees, communication and support, the employees' health, and future work situation. The present study showed that managers' experience of the psychosocial work environment for employees has not deteriorated during the forced distance work. However, the result is contradictory as the leaders also experienced some problems with social contact and that it was difficult to pick up signals when it comes to ill health among employees at a distance. The results are discussed in relation to previous research regarding psychosocial work environment during teleworking.

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  • 40.
    Hollander, Ernst
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Kravformarmodellen för innovationer: en pusselbit för frigörande arbetslivsforskning2016In: På jakt efter framtidens arbete: utmaningar i arbetets organisering och forskning / [ed] Åke Sandberg, Stockholm: Tankesmedjan Tiden , 2016, p. 131-135Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Med hjälp av kravformarmodellen kan vi få syn på att jämlika löner och hög standard på arbetsmiljön uppmuntrar avancerade krav. Dessa krav kan i sin tur föda innovationer som har såväl demokratiförstärkande kvaliteter som kommersiell potential. Med mitt bidrag vill jag medverka till en revitaliserad forskning om arbetsorganisation som stödjer en ”regim” där forskare samarbetar med allt ifrån kravformare ”på golvet” till fack, andra civilsamhälleliga organisationer (NGO:s) och företagsledningar som är öppna för dialoger.

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    Kravformarmodellen för innovationer – en pusselbit för frigörande arbetslivsforskning
  • 41.
    Holmgren, Rebecka
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Psychology.
    Wigren, Linn
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Psychology.
    Härskartekniker: ledarens makt över medarbetarens arbetstillfredsställelse.2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between job satisfaction and leaders’ practices of master suppression techniques from an employee perspective. Further, the master suppression techniques most frequently experienced were studied. A survey was conducted to investigate job satisfaction in relation to following master suppression techniques; making invisible, ridicule, withhold information, double bind andheap blame/put to shameResults showed that there was a negative correlation between job satisfaction and master suppression techniques. A multiple regression showed that the strongest predictor for job satisfaction was “ridicule”. Furthermore, an ANOVA followed by a post-hoc test showed that the master suppression technique “making invisible” was used most by leaders based on employees’ experience. In conclusion, master suppression techniques overall have a negative effect on employees’ job satisfaction. Therefore, there should be an organizational interest in noticing and working preventively with master suppression techniques.

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  • 42.
    Isaksson, Lena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Larsson, Michaela
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Omorganisationens påverkan på den psykosociala arbetsmiljön: En studie om enhetsledarnas arbetssituation och hur den påverkas under en omorganisation2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to investigate how first line managers in municipal elderly care experienced their psychosocial work environment during an ongoing reorganization, both from an individual and organizational perspective. Our theoretical approaches have been the salutogenic perspective, as well as Karasek and Theorell’s control, support and demand model. We use a survey to measure the psychosocial workplace environment experienced by the first line managers in an ongoing reorganization. As a complement to the survey, four first line managers were interviewed with the support of SOC-13. Previous research showed that the psychosocial work environment had a significant role in reorganization and to facilitate the change, there was several factors to consider. The result of our study showed that the first line managers psychosocial work environment did not appear to be adversely affected by the rapid organizational change, the problem was already there.

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  • 43.
    Ivares Dahlgren, Alva
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology.
    Koebe Gustafsson, Sofia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology.
    Upplevd jämställdhet och samband med arbetsmotivation: Den upplevda jämställdhetens betydelse för arbetsmotivation hos kvinnor och män på en mansdominerad organisation2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is Europe's most gender-equal country. On the other hand, men to a greater extent than women believe that we live in an equal society. The present study was conducted to investigate gender differences in perceived gender equality in a work and organizational context. The study also aimed to investigate the relationship between perceived gender equality and work motivation. The data collection was carried out via an online questionnaire which was answered by 60 participants. The results showed no difference in perceived equality between women and men. Furthermore, the results showed that the degree of gender equality explained 22 percent of the work motivation for women and 19 percent for men.

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  • 44.
    Jeppsson Levin, Jennifer
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Restaurangpersonals upplevelse av sexuella trakasserier i arbetsgruppen: En semistrukturerad intervjustudie2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The restaurant industry is often described as a hard and tough working environment. The restaurant industry is the industry that are most subjected to sexual harassment witch can affect the occupational health both physically and psychologically. The aim of this study was to explore the experience of sexual harassment among staff in the restaurant industry. To get a view and understanding of earlier research a systematic literature review was conducted. To get an understanding of restaurant staffs experience of sexual harassment a qualitative interview study with a phenomenology approach was performed. The main results showed that the informants experienced sexual harassment as a process of acclimatization. It starts with a sexual jargon that is customary and the informant describes a fear of reporting. The jargon and fear becomes a part of everyday life and informants describes that they don’t define it to be sexual harassment anymore. The informants describe it as the borders have moved or become blurred when it comes to sexual harassment witch can defines like a normalization of sexual harassment.

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  • 45.
    Johansson, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Qvarnström, Frida
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Medarbetare och chefers upplevelse av en organisations målarbete: Hur målarbetet kan främja arbetsmotivationen hos medarbetarna2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka hur chefer och medarbetare upplevde organisationens målarbete samt hur de ansåg att den kunde förbättras, för att på så vis stärka arbetsmotivationen hos medarbetarna. Elva enskilda intervjuer genomfördes och materialet analyserades med hjälp av en induktiv tematisk analys. Detta resulterade i två huvudteman: Målarbetet och dess olika nivåer samt Faktorer som främjar arbetsmotivationen. Resultatet visade på ett fungerande och aktivt målarbete där medarbetarna gavs utrymme för självbestämmande och delaktighet. Förslag på förbättringsområden för att främja arbetsmotivationen inom målarbetet var uppföljning, utvärdering och kontinuerlig feedback. 

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  • 46.
    Johansson, Terese
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Tronelius, Lovisa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Chefens ledarskapsförmågor och dess påverkan på medarbetarnas arbetstillfredsställelse2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: The manager's leadership skills and its impact on employees' job satisfaction.

    The purpose of the study was to investigate how two of the managerial leadership skills (communicator competence and ability to motivate) predicts the employees' job satisfaction. The study was conducted on the basis of a web-based survey of an insurance company. A total of 74 respondents participated in the study. The measuring instruments that were used for the study were Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ), Communicator Competence Questionnaire and Motivating Language Scale. A multiple regression analysis showed that the manager's communicator competence predicts the employee's job satisfaction to the fullest extent and the manager's ability to motivate was shown not to predict the employee's job satisfaction.

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  • 47.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences.
    Managers’ perceptions of the work environment: its prioritization, company interests and relation to success2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Managers and employees spend much of their waking time at work, in a working life that is rapidly changing and continuously increasing the requirements of its participants, as well as the demands on the environment they work in. Earlier research have suggested that elements of the work environment can cause both negative consequences and ill health, but can also contribute to better health and safety as well as support to business factors like competitiveness, productivity, and creativity. The process of managing and prioritizing the work environment is crucial to achieve the potential benefits of a good work environment. To better understand how managers view this concept, the aim of this study was to investigate the prioritization of different areas in the work environment, as perceived by managers in successful companies, and to what extent the same managers perceive a relationship between work environment and success. 

     

    Methodology: Included companies were randomly selected from a list of monetary successful companies, systematically established by a private accounting firm. The included companies were all active in a county in middle Sweden, from a variety of branches and were mostly micro or small sized. In a web-based questionnaire using Visual Analogue Scales (VAS) the managers (n=35, response rate 26%) rated the prioritization of different work environment areas from no priority whatsoever to highest possible priority. The managers also ranked the top-three, of six, company interests and furthermore rated to what extent a general relationship between companies’ work environment and success, respectively of a relationship for the specific company which they represented, were perceived.

     

    Findings: The highest prioritized area ( VAS score) was Communication and Interaction, followed by Psychosocial working conditions and Work environment routines. The managers perceived a relationship between work environment and success, and rated the perception of a general relationship significantly higher than of a relationship in their own company (p=<0.05, paired sample t-test). Profitability was ranked as the most important company interest.

     

    Conclusion: The high prioritization of communication and interaction can be seen as an indicator of that the managers, in this sample, consider it important to involve the employees in various processes of business activities. The managers’ perception of a relationship between a good work environment and success can be assumed to be a motivational factor for themselves, as for others, to strive for the potential benefits of establishing good work environments.

  • 48.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Lindberg, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Berntson, Erik
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Wellbeing at work and the development of a questionnaire2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Improved employee wellbeing has been suggested to contribute to individual motivation and health, as well as to corporate competitiveness (Grawitch et al, 2006). However, in order to reach these potential benefits, we need to better understand the underlying factors that create wellbeing at work and healthy work environments.

    Aim. The aim of the study is to explore how a sample of Swedish blue- and white collar workers interprets the concepts of healthy work environments and workplace wellbeing, as a basis for the development of a questionnaire. In addition, a second aim is to investigate the psychometric properties of the subsequent questionnaire.

    Method. Interviews focusing on healthy work environments and workplace wellbeing were undertaken with managers and employees (n=62) at three medium-sized companies. All interviews were verbatim transcribed and analyzed in order to identify factors reported as important for healthy work environments and workplace wellbeing. The interview findings, together with factors identified in a systematic review about indicators of healthy work environments (Lindberg & Vingård, 2012) were used to develop items for a questionnaire aimed at measuring underlying factors for workplace wellbeing. The questionnaire, including newly constructed “workplace wellbeing items” as well as well-established questions for employee health, working conditions, and organizational factors was distributed to all employees at the three companies, where 74 % (n=303) responded. A retest survey was distributed to a subsample of the participants. 86 % (n=107) responded. 

    Preliminary results. The interview data suggested a broad spectrum of factors to be significant for establishing healthy work environments and workplace wellbeing. These factors represented six categories: Psychosocial climate; Physical working conditions; Communication; Management; Autonomy & Competence; and Values. The survey data showed that the single most important statement for workplace wellbeing was “that work- and family life can be combined in a good way”. Further psychometric properties, including reliability and factor analysis, are being conducted and will be presented at the conference.

    Conclusion. A healthy work environment is believed to hold great potential for both individuals and companies. With a mixed method approach this study test a set of questions measuring factors for a healthy work environment and wellbeing at work.

     

    References

    Grawitch MJ, Gottschalk M, Munz DC. (2006)The path to a healthy workplace: A critical review linking healthy workplace practices, employee well-being, and organizational improvements. Consulting Psychology Journal,58(3):129-47

    Lindberg P & Vingård E. (2012). Indicators of healthy work environments – a systematic review. Work, 41(0), 3032-3038.

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  • 49.
    Karplund, Katja
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Criminology.
    Sundberg, Cecilia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Criminology.
    ”Middag med vargar” och ”a walk in the park”: En kvalitativ intervjustudie om högstadie- och gymnasielärares tankar kring och erfarenheter av arbetsplatsrelaterat våld i skolan2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of our study was to examine how teachers in the senior level of the 'grundskola' (högstadiet) and upper secondary school (gymnasiet) relate to violence in school. In order to examine this, we have done qualitative interviews with five teachers. The teachers defined violence against them mostly as physical acts and considered their own victimization to be low. The teachers though expressed that exposure to psychological violence was common. Their strategies to cope with violence were formed by the construction of their profession. The teachers were diffident about defining themselves as victims. They held themselves as strong and capable of coping with violence and pointed out maintaining order in class as a key point to avoid victimization. Another key point was good relations between teachers and student. Suggested measures against school violence consisted of increased resources in order to prevent students failure and thereby reduce risk situations.

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  • 50.
    King, Debra
    et al.
    Flinders University, Australia.
    Svensson, Sven
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Wei, Zhang
    Flinders University, Australia.
    Not always a quick fix: the impact of employing temporary agency workers on retention in the Australian aged care workforce2017In: Journal of Industrial Relations, ISSN 0022-1856, E-ISSN 1472-9296, Vol. 59, no 1, p. 85-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of external labour such as temporary agency workers in the general workforcehas increased in recent decades, but comparatively little is known about their impactwithin the aged care workforce. This article analyses quantitative data from a census ofaged care facilities and a large-scale survey of their workforce regarding the use andimpact of temporary agency workers on internal workers. It demonstrates that employ-ing temporary agency workers helps address labour shortages generally and skill short-ages in particular. However, it has a negative impact on the job satisfaction of internalpersonal care workers – a predictor of an increase in intention to leave. In contrast,there was little impact on internal nurse satisfaction. The use of temporary agencyworkers could therefore create a paradox: increasing personal care worker numbersin the short term, but negatively impacting on their retention in the long term. Giventhe need for an expanded and sustainable aged care workforce, this finding has import-ant implications for organisations, policy and unions.

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