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  • 1.
    Airey, John
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Eriksson, Urban
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Fredlund, Tobias
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Linder, Cedric
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    On the Disciplinary Affordances of Semiotic Resources2014In: IACS-2014 Book of abstracts, 2014, p. 54-55Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the late 70’s Gibson (1979) introduced the concept of affordance. Initially framed around the needs of an organism in its environment, over the years the term has been appropriated and debated at length by a number of researchers in various fields. Most famous, perhaps is the disagreement between Gibson and Norman (1988) about whether affordances are inherent properties of objects or are only present when they are perceived by an organism. More recently, affordance has been drawn on in the educational arena, particularly with respect to multimodality (see Linder (2013) for a recent example). Here, Kress et al. (2001) have claimed that different modes have different specialized affordances. Then, building on this idea, Airey and Linder (2009) suggested that there is a critical constellation of modes that students need to achieve fluency in before they can experience a concept in an appropriate disciplinary manner. Later, Airey (2009) nuanced this claim, shifting the focus from the modes themselves to a critical constellation of semiotic resources, thus acknowledging that different semiotic resources within a mode often have different affordances (e.g. two or more diagrams may form the critical constellation).

    In this theoretical paper the concept of disciplinary affordance (Fredlund et al., 2012) is suggested as a useful analytical tool for use in education. The concept makes a radical break with the views of both Gibson and Norman in that rather than focusing on the discernment of one individual, it refers to the disciplinary community as a whole. Put simply, the disciplinary affordances of a given semiotic resource are determined by those functions that the resource is expected to fulfil by the disciplinary community. Disciplinary affordances have thus been negotiated and developed within the discipline over time. As such, the question of whether these affordances are inherent or discerned becomes moot. Rather, from an educational perspective the issue is whether the meaning that a semiotic resource affords to an individual matches the disciplinary affordance assigned by the community. The power of the term for educational work is that learning can now be framed as coming to discern the disciplinary affordances of semiotic resources.

    In this paper we will briefly discuss the history of the term affordance, define the term disciplinary affordance and illustrate its usefulness in a number of educational settings.

  • 2.
    Ball, Linden J.
    et al.
    University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Threadgold, Emma
    University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Marsh, John E.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Christensen, Bo T.
    Copenhagen Business School, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    The effects of stimulus complexity and conceptual fluency on aesthetic judgments of abstract art: Evidence for a default–interventionist account2018In: Metaphor and Symbol, ISSN 1092-6488, E-ISSN 1532-7868, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 235-252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report an experiment investigating how stimulus complexity and conceptual fluency (i.e., the ease of deriving meaning) influence aesthetic liking judgments for abstract artworks. We presented participants with paintings at two levels of complexity (high vs. low) and five levels of conceptual fluency (determined from a prior norming study) and requested separate ratings of beauty and creativity. Our predictions were derived from the PIA Model (Pleasure-Interest Model of Aesthetic Liking), which views aesthetic preferences as being formed by two, distinct fluency-based processes: an initial, automatic, stimulus-driven, default process and a subsequent, perceiver-driven deliberative process. A key trigger for deliberative processing is assumed to be disfluency at the default stage, as caused by factors such as visual complexity. We predicted that complexity and conceptual fluency would interact in determining aesthetic liking, with people preferring complex stimuli, but only when these are relatively easy to process conceptually. Our results supported this prediction for beauty judgments, although creativity judgments showed a curiously uniform profile. Nevertheless, the predictive capacity of the PIA Model in relation to beauty judgments attests to the explanatory strength of this default?interventionist theory of aesthetic liking. We conclude by noting important parallels between the PIA Model and the Revised Optimal Innovation Hypothesis, which likewise has broad reach in explaining how defaultness and non-defaultness affect pleasure across a range of linguistic and pictorial stimuli.

  • 3.
    Begovic, Nina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies.
    A study of communicative strategies in upper-secondary school2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates communicative strategies used by a group of four upper-secondary L2 learners of English. To be able to reach this goal, I have recorded and transcribed a conversation between these students in order to detect natural communication. The communicative strategies I have looked for were: pauses and hesitations, questions, code-switching and message abandonment.

    Previous research on communicative strategies is divided into two different fields. These two approaches define and classify communication strategies as either interactional or psycholinguistic.  The definition and classification of communicate strategies depends viz. on what kind of approach is used. 

  • 4. Berglund, Eva
    et al.
    Eriksson, Mårten
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Communicative development in Swedish children 16-28 months old: The Swedish early communicative development inventory - words and sentences2000In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 133-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To describe the development of words and sentences in Swedish children 16-28 months old, 900 parental reports on 336 children were analyzed. Subjects were randomly selected from the national birth register, and there was a response rate of 88%. The assessments were made using the Swedish Early Communicative Development Inventory-words and sentences (SECDI-w&s).

    Age-based norms for productive vocabulary, pragmatic skills, grammar skills, and maximum length of utterance (MaxLU) were determined. We describe the development of feedback morphemes, semantic categories, and single words and tasks. Correlation across measures was significant, and especially strong between vocabulary size and grammar skills. Optimized positive predictive values were high for 25 to 28 month predictions (71%-88%), and vocabulary scores were found to be of particular predictive importance. No significant gender differences were detected. The clinical relevance of the instrument is discussed.

  • 5. Berglund, Eva
    et al.
    Eriksson, Mårten
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Reliability and content validity of a new instrument for assessment of communicative skills and language abilities in young Swedish children2000In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 176-185Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Brunner, Jonas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Rap Music: Differences in Derogatory Word Use Between Mainstream and LGBTQ Artists2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims at investigating differences in derogatory word use between heteronormative rap artists and rap artists identifying with LGBTQ norms. A list of six profane words to be content analysed was constructed. These words were divided into three subcategories: those generally related to men (dick and nigga), women (bitch and pussy), or language in general (fuck and shit). The study examines the frequency of these derogatory words in randomly selected rap music and investigates how these frequencies differ in mainstream and LGBTQ artists' song lyrics. A content analysis of four randomly selected songs each from ten randomly selected mainstream artists and ten randomly selected LGBTQ artists was conducted. Two hypotheses that were derived from the literature (Wilson, 2007; Monk-Turner & Sylvertooth, 2008) were tested. It was expected that (1) general profanity (the use of fuck and shit) would occur most frequently in the lyrics of both mainstream and LGBTQ artists and that (2) derogatory words directed at women would not be as frequent in the lyrics of LGBTQ artists as in mainstream rappers' lyrics. On the contrary, the data show that profanities aimed at women occur more frequently in LGBTQ artists' lyrics. The data also show that general profanity is most common in LGBTQ artists' lyrics but not in the lyrics of mainstream artists, where profanities aimed at men was most frequent. However, there were several factors which affected the validity of the study. The issue of whether profane words are always used in a derogatory way in the songs or not is a big methodological shortcoming of the study in terms of accuracy. Furthermore, the small sample size indicates that one should be cautious about stating generalisations based on tendencies seen in the data.

  • 7.
    Christensson, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Swedish and Gender studies.
    Lärarstudenters multimodala identitetsproduktion2017In: Kunskap, motstånd, möjlighet: Humanistisk forskning i dag / [ed] Ulrika Serrander & Peder Thalen, Halmstad: Molin & Sorgenfrei, 2017, 1, p. 105-128Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Christensson, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Swedish and Gender studies.
    ‘This is where my inner history teacher appears’: a methodological approach to analysing student teachers’ professional identity in interaction2019In: Classroom Discourse, ISSN 1946-3014, E-ISSN 1946-3022, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 168-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By testing a model for analysing identity in interaction, the present article explores how a history student teacher produces social identity in relation to his future profession as a teacher, with an important point of departure being the relationship between the academic and professional aspects of teacher education. This is addressed through an empirical analysis of a student teacher’s identity production in a specific academic setting: a bachelor thesis course. The main body of data consists of audio recordings and video recordings from a group of three student teachers giving feedback on each other’s theses. With respect to methodology, the article employs a model from multimodal (inter)action analysis that focuses on the concept of vertical identity – the notion that identity in interaction is produced in three layers of discourse simultaneously. The results show that the main participant produces the identity of history teacher in an academic setting where such identity production is not encouraged, e.g. by resemiotisising curricula: thus, policy documents can work as a tool when producing teacher identity. This production of identity is done by employing strong agency, which consequently points to the need of a more elaborated discussion on agency in the tested model.

  • 9.
    Dahlberg, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Translanguaging as a scaffolding structure in a multilingual group studying English in Sweden2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

               This study was conducted in order to find out what translanguaging practices are used in an English learning multilingual classroom and how those practices can create scaffolding structures for the students’ language development. By attending a second language English class with adult multilingual students and conducting a structured observation it was possible to achieve gathered material sufficient to answer these questions. In class all the translaguaging incidents were written down and afterwards these incidents were structured into different themes to outline scaffolding structures. After analyzing the notes it was clear to see that in this particular class translanguaging was used as a strategy to develop supportive learning structures. The result shows the translanguaging practices correlation between teacher and students as well as in relation to different types of educational classroom applications. Besides those features the results show some indications about the spoken production of translanguaging.

     

  • 10.
    Drion, Elisabeth
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Swedish.
    Grammar and language structures in a virtual student environment2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish Language Structure has for many years been a subject that caused study delay for many students. SLS is a course in basic grammar including phonology and morphology and is part of the teacher’s program and the Swedish language program at the University of Gävle.When a large part of all our distance courses became completely IT-based, (i.e. without any physical meetings) SLS became an even greater obstacle for students. I decided that I wanted to try to create not only a virtual classroom, but a virtual student environment where students would have the opportunity to communicate in an informal way and become more connected to each other. When I discussed the issues with SLS, and especially the online version in pedagogical forum of humanities at HiG, I was given the opportunity to turn this idea into a pedagogical project with support from the Learning Center.

    I adjusted the course literature, presentations and communication tools so that they were easily used interactively in order to create a safe and inspiring learning environment. I also made use of social media and explored the possibilities of online examination. Finally, I changed the focus in the course from a theoretical, normative perspective on grammar to a practical, descriptive one.

  • 11.
    Engström, Andriette
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    I’m sure women use more hedges, I think: A study comparing male and female usage of hedges2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study reexamines Lakoff’s (1973) claim that women use more hedges than men is true. Because of the vast number of hedges, this study focuses on two hedges: I think and I’m sure. It also investigates how the included hedges are used by men and women to express belief and opinion. The study has been carried out with the help of a corpus called British National Corpus 2014 (BNC2014). From this database, authentic conversations that include these hedges in clause-final position have been extracted. By using the extracted and processed data, a conclusion can be drawn regarding similarities and differences in how often men and women use these hedges and in what context they are used. The results show that Lakoff’s (1973) claim has a certain truth to it, since 63.0% of the valid I think tokens and 67.6% of the valid I’m sure tokens were produced by women. As for the expression of belief or opinion, the results points towards I think and I’m sure upholding traditional gender traits.

  • 12.
    Eriksson, Mårten
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Proceedings from the First European Network Meeting on the Communicative Development Inventories: May 24-28 2006 Dubrovnik Croatia2007Conference proceedings (editor) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 13.
    Eriksson, Mårten
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Sex differences in language development as a topic for cross-cultural comparisons2007In: Proceedings from the First European Network Meeting on the Communicative Development Inventories: May 24-28 2006 Dubrovnik Croatia, 2007, p. 103-114Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Eriksson, Mårten
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Berglund, Eva
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Swedish early communicative development inventories: words and gestures1999In: First language, ISSN 0142-7237, E-ISSN 1740-2344, Vol. 19, no 55, p. 55-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study describes the typical course and variability in major areas of communicative development for 228 Swedish-speaking children between 8 and 16 months of age. The assessments were made by parental reports with the Swedish Early Communicative Development Inventories (SECDI) using a semi-longitudinal design. Age-based norms for understanding of phrases, vocabulary comprehension, vocabulary production and use of gestures are described at the 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th and 90th percentile levels. More lexical verbs were found among the first words in comprehension than in production. An extensive variability within individuals in onset and development was found for the assessed skills. The individual differences proved to be stable over 4–6 months. No gender differences were found for comprehension of phrases, total gestures, vocabulary compre-hension, or for vocabulary production. Strong, unique associations were found between total gestures and vocabulary comprehension and between vocabulary comprehension and vocabulary production. In contrast, no unique association was found between gestures and vocabulary production. The results generally concur with those reported for English-speaking American children by Fenson et al. (1993, 1994).

  • 15.
    Eriksson, Mårten
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Ylikiiskilä, AnttiBerglund, Eva
    Tionde Nordiska Barnspråkssymposiet 18-20 november 2005, Högskolan i Gävle2006Conference proceedings (editor) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 16.
    Hadin, Joacim
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, English.
    Learning by Gaming: Investigating the Influence of Playing Video Games on Vocabulary Level among Swedish ESL Learners2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The video game industry is one of the fastest growing markets in the world today. The fact that playing video games has become such a popular recreational activity among youths and adolescents has created a need for research investigating the effects of video game playing. Because of the role of the English language as a global lingua franca, most video games are released in English. Since most video games are released in English, many believe that the utilization of video games can help learners of English to improve their knowledge of how to utilize the English language. The aim of this study is to investigate whether video game playing does positively influence the English receptive vocabulary level of ESL learners. In addition, the present study also investigated the influence of other factors, such as the utilization of online communication tools, the average time spent playing video games, and the type of video games played, on English receptive vocabulary level. The study was conducted using quantitative research methods. Since the aim of the study was to investigate the relation between two separate aspects, the study had to utilize two separate elicitation methods for the data collection: one questionnaire (that was supposed to determine each informant’s video game habits) and one vocabulary test (that was supposed to get an approximation of each informant’s receptive vocabulary level). When the data had been collected, the tests were corrected, and the participants were categorized according to the previously mentioned variables. The mean scores of the categories were later examined and compared to each other. Differences between groups that were of high importance were further examined, with a t-test, to determine whether the difference was statistically significant or not. The results of the study show that the vocabulary level difference between ESL learners that do play video games and ESL learner that do not play video game is insignificant. The results further show that the utilization of online communication tools while playing video games positively influences vocabulary level, as the mean score difference on the vocabulary test between OCT users and OCT non-users was revealed to be significant by the t-test. The analysed data thus show that the influence of the utilization of online communication tools on English receptive vocabulary level are more significant that the influence of playing video games.

  • 17.
    Hemgren, Susanne
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies.
    Mottagande av nyanlända elever: En studie av mottagande och resurser på två olika skolor2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 18.
    John, Adam
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Gender differences in syntactic complexity amongst Swedish L2 learners of English2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Internationally, female L2 learners of English are believed to outperform males in all areas including writing. However, in the context of Sweden, the gender gap has been reducing in recent decades. A body of literature focusing on gender differences and syntactic complexity of Swedish high school L2 learners of English using the Uppsala Learner English Corpus (ULEC) has not provided strong evidence to suggest female students outperform male students. Furthermore, the analyses of most of these studies do not take into consideration other important control variables, lack thorough statistical testing and use small datasets. This study uses linear regression analysis to test the hypothesis of whether females outperform males. It uses the ratio of dependent clauses to total clauses (DC/C) as a proxy of syntactic complexity which is estimated using the L2 Syntactic Complexity Analyzer (L2SCA). A total of 663 essays written by year one and year two senior high school L2 learners taken from the ULEC dataset are used in the analysis. The results clearly reject the hypothesis that females outperform males. An inconclusive yet interesting insight which requires further investigation is some evidence from the results which suggests that males may, in fact, outperform females when programme fixed effects are considered.

  • 19.
    Kaatari, Henrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, English.
    Larsson, Tove
    Université catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgien.
    Using the BNC and the Spoken BNC2014 to study the syntactic development of I think and I’m sure2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The grammaticalization of I think has received considerable attention in recent years (Thompson & Mulac, 1991; Kaltenböck, 2011; Van Bogaert, 2011). However, far less attention has been paid to the related epistemic marker I’m sure, despite the fact that this construction has been shown to exhibit similar behavior (Kaatari, forthcoming). The present study aims to investigate the degree to which I’m sure is on the same grammaticalization trajectory as I think, as explained below.

    Following Traugott & Heine (1991), we view grammaticalization as both a diachronic and a synchronic phenomenon to be studied “at a synchronically segmented moment in time” (Traugott & Heine, 1991:1). In addition to a propensity for that-omission in clause-initial position, one of the main arguments put forth to support the claim that I think is grammaticalized is that it has developed an ability to occur in clause-medial (1) and clause-final position (2), that is outside its canonical clause-initial position (3) (Thompson & Mulac, 1991). Contrary to Hooper’s (1975) claim, a recent empirical study on I’m sure has indicated increased flexibility in this respect, as exemplified below (Kaatari, forthcoming).

    (1)  He is, I think/I’m sure, an interesting person.

    (2)  He is an interesting person, I think/I’m sure.

    (3)  I think/I’m sure (that) he is an interesting person.

    Nonetheless, the question remains whether the development of the two constructions can be accounted for in the same way, despite the fact that these constructions have different frequency entrenchment and that the predicates belong to two different word classes.

    The aim of the present study is to investigate whether I’m sure follows the same grammaticalization trajectory as I think. The research questions are as follows (see Lehmann, 1985:303, for a discussion of the methodological parameters of grammaticalization used):

    • What is the frequency distribution across the clausal positions (syntagmatic variability)?
    • To what extent is the complementizer that omitted (paradigmatic variability)?
    • Are there any differences across time such that the development of I’m sure could be considered to mirror that of I think?

    The study uses comparable subsets from the spoken component of the BNC (Burnard, 2007; Lee, 2001) and the newly compiled Spoken BNC2014 (Love et al., 2017). The results show that I think and I’m sure exhibit remarkable similarity, especially in the most recent data, not only in terms of their proportional distribution across clausal position, but also in terms of their propensity for that-omission. Even though the time span covered is relatively short, a clear increase of that-omission can be noted for I’m sure, for which the frequency increased from 93 to 98 percent, thus mirroring the frequencies for I think (99 percent) very closely. In order to reconcile the fact that I think and I’m sure thus exhibit similar behavior, despite differences in frequency entrenchment, we argue that both constructions are part of the same constructional grammaticalization schema in which the frequency of I think seems to reinforce the grammaticalization of both I think and I’m sure.

  • 20.
    Kaatari, Henrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, English.
    Larsson, Tove
    Université catholique de Louvain, Belgium; Uppsala universitet.
    Using the BNC and the Spoken BNC2014 to Study the Syntactic Development of I Think and I’m Sure2019In: English Studies: A Journal of English Language, ISSN 0013-838X, E-ISSN 1744-4217, Vol. 100, no 6, p. 710-727Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates whether I’m sure seems to be on the same grammaticalisation trajectory as I think. It does so by tracking the frequency of these two constructions over time to explore (i) their distribution across clausal positions (syntagmatic variability) and (ii) the extent to which the complementiser that is omitted (paradigmatic variability). The study uses spoken data from the BNC and the newly compiled Spoken BNC2014. The results show that the two constructions exhibit remarkable similarity, not only in terms of their proportional distribution across clausal positions, but also in terms of their propensity for that-omission. For example, both constructions show adverb-like behaviour with regard to clausal positions. Furthermore, even though the time span covered is relatively short, a clear increase in that-omission was noted for I’m sure, mirroring the frequencies for I think very closely. It thus seems that I’m sure is on the same path as I think, despite differences in frequency entrenchment

  • 21.
    Klintborg, Carl
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Begreppet Fossilisering: Om avstannad språkutveckling2011Student paper second term, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammandrag

     

    Föreliggande uppsats handlar om fossilisering. Fossilisering är ett begrepp som belyser andraspråksinlärares avstannade språkutveckling. Syftet med uppsatsen är att undersöka vilken språksyn som ligger bakom fossilisering och hur det definieras samt hur forskningen har använt begreppet. Fossilisering myntades av lingvisten Larry Selinker 1972. Uppsatsen är en litteraturstudie vars mindre format har frambringat ett antal avgränsningar särskilt när det gäller val av litteratur. Detta har framför allt fått konsekvenser som innebär att uppsatsen endast kan betraktas som ett nedslag i forskningen i och kring begreppet fossilisering.

     

     

    Fossilisering är en slutstation i en andraspråksinlärares försök att lära sig ett andraspråk. Om en talares andraspråk har fossiliserats finns det fortfarande markanta influenser och rester kvar av modersmålet när det gäller sådant som grammatiska strukturer, uttal och ordval. Andra liknande termer inom andraspråksforskningen är stagnation eller partiell fossilisering.

    I slutdiskussionen försöker jag att kritiskt diskutera fossilisering. Fossilisering är ett vedertaget men problematiskt begrepp ur en rad synvinklar. Dock används begreppet fortfarande både i snäv och vid betydelse. I sin vidaste mening är 95% av alla andraspråksinlärare fossiliserade.

     

    Nyckelord: Andraspråksinlärning, Fossilisering, Stagnation, Interimspråk, Selinker,

  • 22.
    Larsson, Tove
    et al.
    Université catholique de Louvain; Uppsala Universitet.
    Kaatari, Henrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, English.
    Extraposition in learner and expert writing: Exploring (in)formality and the impact of register2019In: International Journal of Learner Corpus Research, ISSN 2215-1478, E-ISSN 2215-1486, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 33-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Subject extraposition (e.g. it is important to remember) is generally regarded to be a formal construction that learners, whose writing is often said to be overly informal, have been found to struggle with. This study investigates to what extent register and text type can be used to explore learners’ reportedly “informal” use of this construction. Learner writing is compared to expert writing from several different registers and to native-speaker student writing. The results show that there are important differences across both registers and text types. Furthermore, while the learners’ use is most like that of the experts’ academic writing, certain similarities to the non-academic registers were also noted. The results moreover suggest that earlier claims about the informal status of learner writing seem mainly to have been influenced by the text types included in the corpora previously investigated.

  • 23.
    Larsson, Tove
    et al.
    Université catholique de Louvain; Uppsala Universitet.
    Kaatari, Henrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, English.
    Syntactic complexity across registers: Investigating (in)formality in student writing2019In: LANGUAGE IN TIME TIME IN LANGUAGE - ICAME40: Book of abstracts, 2019, no 1Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While syntactic complexity is often used to measure linguistic development in second-language (L2) writing (e.g. Housen & Simoens, 2016), it has also been found to be correlated with formality, as formal, academic texts tend to be characterized by elaborate and diverse language (e.g. Biber, 2016). This paper aims to investigate the relative importance of measures of syntactic complexity across registers in expert production and in non-native-speaker (NNS) and native-speaker (NS) student writing to test previous claims of (in)formality, as outlined below.

    Student writers, in particular learners, are often descried as being overly informal in their writing (e.g. Altenberg & Tapper, 1998). However, such claims tend to be based primarily on over/underuse of a limited number of features, and few studies have sought to investigate formality in a more systematic manner. Based on the assumption that registers can be used as reference points on a scale from informal to formal (Larsson & Kaatari, 2019), the present study bridges this gap in the literature by mapping out the distribution of 14 complexity measures (e.g. phrasal sophistication, subordination and sentence complexity; see, e.g., Lu, 2017) across five registers (academic prose, popular science, news, fiction and conversation) and in NNS and NS student data. The following research questions are investigated:

    • What is the relative importance of these complexity measures for predicting formality, and in what ways are these measures correlated?
    • How do these measures pattern across registers?
    • Which of the experts’ registers is the student writers’ use closest to, and what can this tell us about (in)formality in the student texts?

    The study uses data from one expert corpus, BNC-15, two learner corpora, ALEC and VESPA, and one NS student corpora, BAWE. The study uses inferential and explorative statistics, such as Random Forests. The results show that the degree of phrasal sophistication is more important than measures such as amount of subordination for predicting register. While the student texts bear some resemblance to the expert academic writing (e.g. both groups score high on complex nominals per T-unit), they also exhibit features that are associated with the non-academic registers (e.g. shorter clause length), which might offer some support for the claim that student writers tend to be somewhat informal in their writing. The results will hopefully contribute to nuancing the perceived informal-formal dichotomy, thereby benefitting both L2 instruction and theory.

    References

    Altenberg, Bengt & Marie Tapper. 1998. The use of adverbial connectors in advanced Swedish learners’ written English. In Sylviane Granger (ed.), Learner English on computer, 80–93. London: Longman.

    Biber, Doug. 2016. Using MD analysis to explore cross-linguistic universals of register-variation. In Marie-Aude Lefer & Svetlana Vogeleer (eds.), Genre and register-related discourse features in contrast, 7–34. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

    Housen, Alex & Hannelore Simoens. 2016. Cognitive perspectives on difficulty and complexity in L2 acquisition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 38. 163–175.

    Larsson, Tove & Henrik Kaatari. 2019. Extraposition in learner and expert writing: Exploring (in)formality and the impact of register. International Journal of Learner Corpus Research 5(1). 33–62.

    Lu, Xiaofei. 2017. Automated measurement of syntactic complexity in corpus-based L2 writing research and implications for writing assessment. Language Testing 34(4). 493–511.

  • 24.
    Larsson, Tove
    et al.
    UCLouvain.
    Kaatari, Henrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, English.
    Syntactic complexity in L2 writing: Testing different measures across levels of formality2019In: EUROCALL Conference 2019 “CALL and Complexity”: Book of abstracts / [ed] Serge Bibauw, Louvain-la-Neuve: European Association of Computer Assisted Language Learning , 2019, p. 60-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Lindström, Cecilia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Swedish and Gender studies.
    Unga kvinnor och gamla män: En pragmatisk studie i bruket av adjektiv och substantiv vid gestaltning av kvinnor och män2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie undersöker språkbruket vid kvinnliga och manliga gestaltningar i klassiskaromaner i svensk litteratur, om detta språkbruk styrker stereotyper om kvinnor och mänsamt om författarens könstillhörighet påverkat språkbruket. Studiens material består avromanerna Doktor Glas av Hjalmar Söderberg, Mor gifter sig av Moa Martinson ochKejsarn av Portugallien av Selma Lagerlöf. Studiens teoretiska utgångspunkt är genusteorimed inslag av dekonstruktion, semantik, pragmatik och markerade konstruktioner.Vid datainsamlingen brukades metoden närläsning. Insamlade data bearbetades däreftermed en modifierad semantisk fältteori. Studiens resultat påvisade att språkbruket främststyrker stereotyper om både kvinnor och män samt att författarens könstillhörighet haften oansenlig påverkan på språkbruket.

  • 26.
    Lingemyr, Jesper
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, English.
    English Varieties in Swedish Upper Secondary School: An analysis of Listening Exercises in Swedish National Tests2017Student paper other, 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this project was to find out what varieties of English that Swedish upper secondary school students are exposed to in the classroom and to what extent they are exposed to different varieties. This was conducted by looking at preparation exercises for the listening part of the Swedish National Tests. These exercises are created by Göteborgs Universitet and are available online for everyone and show how the real national test will be done. By listening and analyzing every speaker’s variety they were sorted into British, American, Mid-Atlantic, Australian or New Zealand varieties. A total of 91 speakers were analyzed and the results showed that Students are exposed to mostly British English with half of the speakers using a British variety. One fourth of the speakers used American English while the rest were divided into Mid-Atlantic, Australian or New Zealand varieties.

  • 27.
    Modiano, Marko
    University of Gävle, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för moderna språk.
    EIL, Nativespeakerism, and the Failure of European ELT2009In: English as an International Language: perspectives and pedagogical issues / [ed] Farzad Sharifian, Multilingual Matters, Cleavdon UK , 2009, p. 58-77Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Discussion of the development of English as an international language in Europe against the backdrop of plurilingualism and monoculturalization. The Development of Euro-English, and policy making in the European Union.

  • 28.
    Modiano, Marko
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, English.
    English in a Post-Brexit European Union2017In: World Englishes, ISSN 0883-2919, E-ISSN 1467-971X, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 313-327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article speculates about the possible effects of the Brexit process on the status andfunctions of English in the European Union (EU). One issue here is whether Brexit will result in theweakening of the status of English within the Union, or whether this process will, ironically, strengthen thepower of English as the principal working language of the EU, as well as the primary L2 among Europeans.One possibility here is that the exit of Britain from the Union will clear the sociolinguistic space for theemergence of an authentic European English, used by members of the EU as a ‘second language’ or (even)a quasi-Outer Circle English, serving the needs of the European Union as the common link language foradministration and cooperation between member states.

  • 29.
    Modiano, Marko
    University of Gävle, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för moderna språk.
    Response to "Colinguals Among Bilinguals"2008In: World Englishes, ISSN 0883-2919, E-ISSN 1467-971X, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 131-132Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Response to Martin Schell's article introducing the idea of colingualism.

  • 30.
    Morelius, Alexandra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    The Use of Adjectives in Contemporary Fashion Magazines: A Gender Based Study2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay investigates how adjectives are used in fashion magazines in order to determine if the use differs regarding the targeted gender of the magazines, regarding the gender of the author of the article and regarding the gender of the person featured in the article. The aim is to determine if different types of adjectives are used, and if the frequency of the use of adjectives differs. A close reading of the articles was the method for identifying the adjectives, and the adjectives were classified as positive or negative in the context. In addition, all color terms and adjectives directly describing the person featured were identified separately. The results show that there are differences in terms of frequency. Women tend to use more adjectives than men. However, there are more adjectives included in magazines that target men and magazines featuring men. Men and women use different types of adjectives as well; positive adjectives are frequently used by women and negative by men. However, more negative adjectives are included in magazines targeting women whilst positive adjective are more frequently used in magazines targeting men. Regarding color adjectives, no clear differences are found. Adjectives describing the person featured differ regarding the gender of the author. Women are more frequent users. In addition, more adjectives are used to describe women than men. Women uses the types of adjectives describing the person featured more frequently. Adjectives describing personality are more common. Lastly, some differences between genders and adjectives that are viewed as restricted to women and men can been identified. It is possible to conclude that fashion magazines sustain gender roles in their representations.

  • 31.
    Nordwall, Eva
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Utbildning, undervisning och föräldrasamverkan i ett andraspråksperspektiv2011Student paper second term, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att försöka ta reda på hur andraspråkselever på den skola jag undervisar uppfattar sin skolsituation gällande Svenska som andraspråk, ämnes- och modersmålsundervisning och vilka faktorer som är viktiga för dem för att de skall lyckas i skolarbetet. Jag har valt att göra en kvalitativ studie på skolan där jag har intervjuat fyra andraspråkselever. I mitt arbete har jag har utgått ifrån följande frågeställningar: (1) Vad innebär, för andraspråkseleverna, en väl fungerande undervisning i den svenska grundskolan? (2) Är det viktigt för andraspråkseleverna att de får möjlighet att utveckla andraspråket parallellt med sitt modersmål? (3) Har föräldrasamverkan en betydande roll för andraspråkselevernas skolresultat? (4) Upplever andraspråkselever i hög utsträckning att de får förenklade texter och uppgifter av sina lärare? Hur påverkar det dem i så fall?

    Resultaten av min studie stämmer till största del överens med tidigare forskning. Likvärdig, varierad och inspirerande undervisning för såväl första- som andraspråkselever, god samverkan mellan olika pedagoger på skolorna samt mellan hem och skola och att bli sedd och respekterad för den man är betonas av samtliga informanter under mina intervjuer. Alla utom en av informanterna tycker det är viktigt att utveckla andraspråket parallellt med modersmålet. Samtliga informanter tycker det är oerhört viktigt och prestationshöjande att föräldrar engagerar sig i sina barns skolgång. Det förekommer tyvärr att andraspråkselever får förenklade texter och uppgifter av sina lärare och detta uppfattas som mycket kränkande men det verkar ändå inte ske i någon hög utsträckning på skolan.

  • 32.
    Norlander, Anne Sofie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Attityder till hen hos elever och lärare på gymnasiet2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    1966 gjordes ett försök att lansera hen som ett praktiskt, könsneutralt pronomen, men först med barnboken Kivi och monsterhund 2012 fick hen stort utrymme i den offentliga debatten. Att barnet Kivi omnämndes med hen väckte starka känslor.

     

    Användningen av hen kan ses som tredelad: könspolitisk eller könsöverskridande (personer som inte vill inordnas i ett tvåkön-system), könsneutral (i stället för exempelvis han/hon när man inte vet kön på den omtalade, eller när det är betydelselöst) och anonymiserande (när man inte vill avslöja den omtalades kön).

     

    Denna uppsats syftar till att undersöka attityder till hen bland gymnasieelever och svensklärare på gymnasiet genom en enkät. 114 personer besvarade enkäten. Resultaten bearbetades med statistikprogrammet SPSS. Resultaten visar en tydlig polarisering i attityderna till hen, men med en tendens till större acceptans för hen som könsneutralt pronomen. Några skillnader i attityd mellan elever på olika program, mellan kön eller mellan elever och lärare kunde inte beläggas.

  • 33.
    Norman, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, English.
    Student’s Self-perceived English Accent and Its Impact on Their Communicative Competence and Speaking Confidence: An Empirical Study Among Students Taking English 6 in Upper-Secondary School2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The English language plays an important role as a lingua franca in Sweden as well as in many countries across the European Union (EU). The ability to communicate well in English is highly valued and as a response to this, communicative competence has had an increasingly major part in the English language education and curriculums all over Europe, including the Swedish curriculum for English language education. (Rindal & Piercy, 2013; Swedish National Agency for Education, 1995; Tornberg, 2015). With communication as a primary goal of the Swedish curriculum for English, the importance of acquiring an inner-circle accent, an accent spoken by native speakers of English, has had to take a step back, without thoroughly studying the effect it has on the communicative competence and speaking confidence of the students.

    The aim of this study is to investigate, with an empirical approach, if student’s self-perceived English accent impacts positively or negatively on their speaking confidence and communicative competence. The study was conducted using an empirical and descriptive approach, with a quantitative data analysis. The investigation was conducted in an upper-secondary school, using a web-based survey with 80 respondents from the second and third grade. The students took English 6, a course the students must pass to be eligible for further academic studies. The school and the respondents were chosen using a convenience sample.

    The results were analysed, and the data was shown using figures to explain the results further. The results of the study concluded that students seem to think that having a native-like accent is overvalued and that communication is to favour over their perceived English accent. It is somewhat conclusive that most of the students value communication over perceived accent, and many of them say that they do not care how they sound as long as what they say is conveyed.

  • 34.
    Norman, Malin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Terminology in Beer Reviews2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to examine beer reviews to see what descriptors are identified and used to describe beers. Also, the domains APPEARANCE, AROMA, FLAVOUR, MOUTHFEEL and OVERALL IMPRESSION are analysed. The theoretical framework stems from the genre of wine reviews, with additional backbone from beer sensory analysis and established beer terminology. Through analysis of 27 beer reviews in three leading beer magazines, the study shows that most typically object descriptors and property descriptors relating to the raw materials are used. In terms of domains, APPEARANCE and MOUTHFEEL have few descriptors, whilst AROMA and FLAVOUR have a higher number of descriptors and more categories. The domain with more process related and human-like descriptions, as well as more elaborate expressions to entice the consumer, is OVERALL IMPRESSION.

  • 35. Peltola, Ulla
    et al.
    Eriksson, Mårten
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Tecken som stöd i hörande barns tidiga språktillägnande2006In: Tionde Nordiska Barnsspråkssymposiet 18-20 november 2005, Högskolan i Gävle, Gävle: Högskolan i Gävle , 2006, p. 106-112Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Persson, Christel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    CODA-elever i undervisning: En undersökning om särskild stöttning för CODA-elever i gymnasiet.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Hörande barn till döva kallas med en förkortning CODA. Det är en grupp andraspråkstalare med en unik andraspråkssituation som sällan uppmärksammas. CODA har teckenspråk som förstaspråk och talat språk som andraspråk. Min undersökning avser att genom semistrukturerade intervjuer med fyra lärare undersöka huruvida CODA:s speciella språkliga situation uppmärksammas i undervisning och om de erbjuds särskild stöttning i det svenska språket. Jag undersöker också ett läromedel med lärarhandledning som används av flera av informanterna för att se om det understödjer språkutvecklande undervisning. Undersökningen analyseras genom ett sociokulturellt perspektiv och Cummins klassrumsmodell för undervisning och lärande. Resultatet visar att medvetenheten om CODA är godtycklig och att undervisningen inte är uniform men att det läromedel jag har un-dersökt understödjer språkutvecklande undervisning och i och med detta gynnas även CODA.

  • 37.
    Persson, Joakim
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Speech and Gender in the English as a Second Language Swedish High School Classroom: a Sociolinguistic Study.2018Student paper other, 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Gender dominance has been the focus of research in recent years. However, this research was conducted in countries with less progressive stances towards gender equality than Sweden. This paper focuses on gender equality in the Swedish high school English as a second language classroom. 

    A mix of quantitative research, empirical analyses using modern technology and qualitative interviews were conducted. This approach focused upon students’ views regarding gender and speech dominance and how these views correlate with the views of the teachers. Furthermore, the quantitative amount of spoken language output was measured to confirm informants’ views about speech dominance.

    Three informant groups were interviewed and observed. For a myriad of reasons, it was impossible to come to a definite conclusion regarding speech and gender equality. However, it is clear that floor-time is a vital factor for students’ learning, meaning that it is important that second language teachers are aware of the issues raised.

  • 38.
    Sabra, Sara
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Gender differences in young learners’ English skills in Swedish schools: A study of perceived and actual gender differences in skills, attitude towards and interest in the English language2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined gender differences in young learners of English in terms of skills, attitude and interest, and teachers’ perceptions of potential gender differences. To examine potential gender differences in skills, a three-part test was conducted with two third grade classes in a school in Sweden. A survey was conducted in the same third grade classes to map the students’ interest and attitude, and structured interviews were conducted with six different teachers to investigate their perception of potential gender differences in skills and interest and attitude. The results revealed that boys’ and girls’ skills were almost equal, although boys at an average acquired a slightly higher level of points in listening and reading comprehension, while more girls wrote at a higher level than boys in the writing assignment. Boys and girls were not equal in their attitude towards and interest in the English language, as girls were more positive towards the language while boys were more confident in their English skills. Teachers perceived no gender difference in interest and attitude, and most perceived none or slight difference in skills.

  • 39.
    Serrander, Ulrika
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för lingvistik och filologi.
    Bilingual lexical processing in single word production: Swedish learners of Spanish and the effects of L2 immersion2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Bilingual speakers cannot suppress activation from their dominant language while naming pictures in a foreign and less dominant language. Previous research has revealed that this cross-langauge activation is manifested through phonological facilitation, semantic interference and between language competition. However, this research is based exclusively on highly proficient bilinguals. The present study investigates cross-linguistic activation in Swedish learners of Spanish, grouped according to their length of Spanish immersion, and one of the groups is in its very inital stages of learning. Participants named pictures in Spanish in two picture-word interference experiments, one with only non-cognates, and one including cognates. This study addresses the following research questions; (1) do the two groups of participants differ significantly from one another in terms of cross-linguistic activation, (2) what does cross-language activation look like in initial stages of L2 acquisition, (3) how does cognate status affect cross-linguistic activation and does this differ between participants depending on length of immersion?

    The experiments show that cross-linguistic influence is dependent on length of immersion. The more immersed participants performed very similarly to what is usually the case in highly proficient bilinguals while the less immersed participants did not. The results of the less immersed participants are interpreted as manifestations of lexical processing in initial stages of L2 acquisition. Since this type of learner has never been tested before, there are no previous results to compare to. The results are discussed in relation to the large tradition of offline research which has shown that beginning learners predominantly process their L2 phonologically, and that conceptual processing is something requiring more L2 development.

    Furthermore, the cognate word induced longer naming latencies in all participants and it turned out that the cognate words were highly unfamiliar. Hence all participants are sensitive to word frequency effects, and this sensitive is greater in early stages of learning. Finally this study suggests that more research must be conducted to establish cross-linguistic influence between the many languages of multi-lingual subjects, even when these languages may not be present in the testing situation.

  • 40.
    Stål, Eva-Lena
    University of Gävle, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för svenska språket och engelska.
    Bedömning av muntlig språkbehärskning på SFI: processbarhetsteorin som komplement i bedömning2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna studie undersöks hur bedömning av muntlig performans sker i en befintlig verksamhet av svenska för invandrare (sfi), och på vilket sätt processbarhetsteorin kan ha relevans för bedömning av andraspråksinlärares muntliga performans. Studien baseras på ett pedagogiskt samtal med fyra verksamma sfi-lärare och en jämförelse av muntlig performans mellan två godkända och två ej godkända andraspråksinlärare på sfi:s kurs D utifrån processbarhetsteorin.

     

    Studien visar att lärarna inte använder något grammatiskt bedömningsverktyg utan istället förlitar sig på intuitiv bedömning av hur inlärarna förmedlar ett visst budskap. Jämförelsen utifrån PT visar att de godkända andraspråksinlärarna har nått högre nivå av processbarhet, vilket visar på större grammatisk kompetens av de godkända inlärarna, i jämförelse med de ej godkända inlärarna.

    I studien argumenteras för att processbarhetsteorin, i kombination med andra verktyg, är användbara både som bedömnings- och didaktiskt verktyg vid muntlig performans.

  • 41.
    Thomas, Kavita Elisheba
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, English.
    Comparing Explicit Exemplar-Based and Rule-Based Corrective Feedback: Introducing Analogy-Based Corrective Feedback2018In: The Modern language journal, ISSN 0026-7902, E-ISSN 1540-4781, Vol. 102, no 2, p. 371-391Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study introduces an approach to providing corrective feedback to L2 learners termed analogy-based corrective feedback that is motivated by analogical learning theories and syntactic alignment in dialogue. Learners are presented with a structurally similar synonymous version of their output where the erroneous form is corrected, and they must decode the analogy-based feedback to understand the correction. A quasi-experimental classroom-based study was conducted with upper secondary Swedish EFL learners (N = 49) to investigate the effectiveness of corrective feedback varying in mode (inductive exemplar-based or deductive rule-based) on English subject-verb agreement. Explicit correction, metalinguistic, and analogy-based corrective feedback, all explicitly providing evidence of error and including reformulation prompts, were assessed by timed and untimed grammaticality judgment and sentence completion tasks in a between-groups pretest, posttest, delayed posttest design with a control group. Results indicate significant delayed gains for all feedback types on the untimed grammaticality judgment task for ungrammatical items. No clear advantage was seen for rule-based or exemplar-based CF. Descriptive statistics indicate different trends over successive testing times, where analogy-based feedback often led to lowest performance on the immediate posttest but showed improvement on the delayed posttest, unlike the other two CF types.

  • 42.
    Thomas, Kavita Elisheba
    et al.
    University of Aberdeen.
    Noordzij, Matthijs
    University of Twente.
    Sripada, Somayajulu
    University of Aberdeen.
    Atlas.txt: Exploring Linguistic Grounding Techniques for Communicating Spatial Information to Blind Users2012In: Universal Access in the Information Society, ISSN 1615-5289, E-ISSN 1615-5297, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 85-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     This paper describes exploratory research into automatically describing geo-referenced information to blind

    people. The goal is to produce texts giving an overview describing the spatial layout, and a central concern of such texts

    is that they employ an appropriate linguistic reference frame which enables blind hearers to ground the information. We

    hypothesise that (1) directly perceivable reference frames are easier to ground and also that (2) spatial descriptions

    drawn from composite reference frame systems composed of more than one reference frame are easier to ground. An

    experiment exploring text comprehension on a range of texts employing different reference frame systems is presented.

    The main results indicate that the second hypothesis is supported. A prototype of a natural language generation system

    which generates texts describing geo-referenced information from data is described.

  • 43.
    Wirgell, Linnea
    University of Gävle, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences.
    "Authoritative" or "Neurotic": A Study of Adjectival Descriptions of the Three Main Characters in Bridget Jones's Diary, with Special Reference to Gender Differences 2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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