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  • 1.
    Abdulgadir, Foosey
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Cultural Clash and Colonial Consequences: A Comprehensive Analysis of Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall Apart2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores Chinua Achebe's novel Things Fall Apart (1958) within the context of postcolonial theory, focusing on the clash between traditional Igbo culture and the forces of European imperialism. Achebe's work serves as a response to Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness (1899) and challenges the stereotypical portrayal of Africans. This thesis delves into the impact of missionaries and Christianity on Igbo society, analyzing the mechanisms through which they established influence and sparked conflicts with traditional beliefs. Employing a postcolonial framework, the study scrutinizes power dynamics, colonial strategies, and the consequences of cultural clashes.

    The study’s findings critically assess European colonialism by highlighting how missionaries utilized Christianity for colonization, revealing conflicts between African and European cultures and prompting reflection on the repercussions of cultural interactions in pre- and postcolonial Africa. The research reveals the multifaceted impact of missionaries and Christianity on Igbo society, employing tactics such as education-driven conversion, economic dependence, cultural stigmatization, exploitation of social divisions, and legal/political influence. These strategies were designed to subvert traditional beliefs, reshape cultural values, and establish Christianity as a dominant force, resulting in significant cultural conflicts within the Igbo community.

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  • 2.
    Ahlqvist, Fredrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Flodin, Madeleine
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Dystopiernas möjligheter: En litteraturdidaktisk studie om hur dystopisk skönlitteratur kan användas i ämnesövergripande arbete2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I det här arbetet undersöker vi hur man kan arbeta med dystopisk skönlitteratur som primärt verktyg i ämnesövergripande arbete på gymnasiet. Vi undersöker också hur ett sådant arbete kan främja elevernas kritiska tänkande och hur det kan gynna lärare i yrket. Uppsatsen vilar på en teoretisk grund vilken utgår från ett sociokulturellt lärande. Teoretikerna vi använder som stöd är Roger Säljö och Lev Vygotskij. Vi använder de skönlitterära verken Brave New World av Aldous Huxley, Kallocain av Karin Boye, 1984 av George Orwell och The Hunger Games av Suzanne Collins, som exempel i ett ämnesövergripande arbete. I studien har vi kommit fram till att ett ämnesövergripande arbete med dystopisk skönlitteratur som nyckeltext fungerar mellan svenska och flera olika kurser på gymnasiet. Vi har även kommit fram till att arbete med dystopisk skönlitteratur kan gynna elevers kritiska tänkande, vissa berättelser mer än andra. Genom att använda dystopisk skönlitteratur som nyckeltext i ett ämnesövergripande arbete får läraren avlastning i arbetsbördan. Det finns även dubbel kompetens att tillgå i ett sådant arbete, även för eleverna som genom textsamtal utifrån olika perspektiv har bättre förutsättningar till högre måluppfyllelse. 

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  • 3.
    Andreas, Santesson Papadopoulos
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    When Escapism Becomes Neurotic: A Psychoanalytic Reading of Defense Mechanisms Employed in The Picture of Dorian Gray as a Medium to Escape Reality2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Using psychoanalysis as a theoretical framework, this essay examines the subject of escapism in The Picture of Dorian Gray by Oscar Wilde. Defense mechanisms of the ego, first thought of by Sigmund Freud, allow for a clearer understanding of what takes place during the plot. By taking the author’s background into account, along with clues in the plot of the novel, a more realistic reading of the novel is made possible instead of a supernatural take. A psychoanalytic perspective allows the essay to explore why and how the protagonist chooses to escape in the novel. The main focus of the analysis is how the protagonist of the novel carries the theme of escapism with increased intensity as the plot progresses. The essay considers why and how Dorian chooses to escape reality and utilizes the theoretical framework for two defense mechanisms used as an aid during escapist activities. Dorian progressively uses the defense mechanisms known as repression and rationalization to support his escapist behavior and protect his ego from anxiety derived from internal and external conflicts.

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  • 4.
    Backeby, Elina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Thor, Lisa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Aktiva pojkar och passiva flickor - genusnormer i berättelser: En textanalys av tre läseböcker ur ett genusperspektiv2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Skolan har ett viktigt uppdrag att motverka traditionella könsmönster och främja jämställdhet. Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka hur tre av skolans läseböcker från tre olika decennier framställer kvinnor och flickor samt män och pojkar. De tre utvalda läseböckerna är Pojken och Tigern: en Sverige-saga (1986), Djurspanarna B (2001) och Nyckeln till skatten 3B (2013). Vi har även granskat om läseböckerna svarar mot de aktuella läroplanernas krav för demokrati och jämställdhet. För att kunna analysera empirin utgick vi från Hirdmans genusteori som handlar om isärhållning av könen och hierarkin där mannen framställs som normen. Studien genomfördes med en kvalitativ textanalys med kvantitativa inslag.

     

    Resultatet visar att endast en av de tre utvalda läseböckerna svarar mot den nutida läroplanens krav att motverka traditionella könsmönster. De andra två läseböckerna främjar snarare än motverkar traditionella könsmönster då män, pojkar, kvinnor och flickor tillskrivs egenskaper och handlingar som traditionellt förväntas utifrån deras könstillhörighet. 

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  • 5.
    Backlund, Anna-Pia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, English.
    The Impermanence of Norms: A Study of Fahrenheit 451 Based on Foucauldian Concepts2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 1953 Ray Bradbury wrote the novel Fahrenheit 451. The plot is set in a fictional, North American future. This essay aims to show that what is considered normal regarding fundamental values such as knowledge, love, and respect in this imaginary future society is different from what was considered normal in North America in the 1950s when Bradbury wrote the book. The norms differ to such an extent that it is possible to claim that Fahrenheit 451 is set in a new episteme. Episteme is a term used by the French philosopher Michel Foucault. It designates a time in which society has an underlying understanding of what is considered normal. According to Michel Foucault, the year 1953 when Bradbury wrote the book, belonged to the episteme of Modernity. This essay aims to illustrate that in the future fictional society of Fahrenheit 451, the norm regarding some aspects of the culture has changed to the extent that there is reason to call the era a new episteme, and that a proper name would be the episteme of Ignorance. This name signals the lack of regard for knowledge in the society of Fahrenheit 451. This essay's analytical tools are Michel Foucault’s terms, theories, and concepts. 

    Keywords: Episteme, Michel Foucault, Ray Bradbury, Fahrenheit 451, knowledge, ignorance, norms, power.  

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  • 6.
    Blohm, Seth
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Capitalism, Industrialism, and Hard Times: Satire and Social Critique in Charles Dickens’ Hard Times2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay will analyze a selection of characters from Charles Dickens’ novel Hard Times. Characterizations will be analyzed by using a Marxist theoretical framework, e.g., characters’ relations to Marxist concepts such as class struggle, alienation, and stratification will be studied. The purpose of this essay is to use Marxist concepts in order to understand Dickens’ satire and critique of capitalism. This is done by applying a theory criticizing capitalism, namely Marxist theory, to some of the novel’s characters and analyzing these characters according to their relations to the main features of Marxist theory. A few characters are selected for analysis, to distinguish characteristics or traits that satirize society. Moreover, the essay will investigate whether the author alludes to Marxist concepts when satirizing contemporary society. The characters portrayed in the novel are all exposed to a society characterized by hardship, inequality, and class struggle. These concepts are all features of a society that Marxism critiques. Accordingly, the thesis is that Marxist concepts are implicit in the text and do play a role in Dickens’ satirizing of his contemporary, capitalist, industrialized society, despitenot being mentioned explicitly.

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  • 7.
    Brantlin, Annette
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    The Traumatised Self in Elizabeth Bowen’s The Heat of the Day: Analysing identity and trauma by using psychoanalysis and trauma theory2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines individual and collective trauma in Elizabeth Bowen’s novel The Heat of the Day, published in 1948. The main purpose of this paper is to analyse how the duality of identities is portrayed, and which elements of repression compulsion and individual and collective trauma are present in Elizabeth Bowen’s novel The Heat of the Day by using elements from Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytical theory and Cathy Caruth’s trauma theory as theoretical frameworks. This thesis argues that the characters’ fragmented identities caused by repression compulsions as a result of individual and collective traumas reflect the individual and the wider society’s difficulties in recovering from the collective war trauma and defining a new postwar identity. Thus, this thesis suggests that Bowen’s novel could be read as an anti-war novel.

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  • 8.
    Broman, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Kråkflickan och Raskolnikov: En komparativ studie av Brott och straff och Victoria Bergman- trilogin2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie behandlar de fyra böckerna Brott och straff av Fjodor Dostojevskij, Kråkflickan, Hungerelden och Pythians anvisningar alla tre skrivna av Jerker Eriksson och Håkan Axlander- Sundquist. Jag utför en illustrativ komparativ analys av mördarnas psyke och böckernas struktur samt undersöker det didaktiska värdet av att göra denna studie.

    Genom att psykologiskt analysera böckernas mördare har jag kunnat göra en psykologisk profil till de fyra. Raskolnikov som är dubbelmördare i kriminalromanen Brott och straff har en narcissistisk, schizofren läggning som beror på att hans omedvetna strider med det medvetna om det moraliska i att mörda. Viggo Dürer, den onda mördaren av ett femtiotal barn, som figurerar i trilogin är klart psykopatisk med en könsidentitetskonflikt. Victoria Bergman, den trasiga föräldramördaren som är huvudperson i Kråkflickan, Hungerelden och Pythians anvisningar lider av dissociativ personlighetsstörning till följd av upprepade övergrepp i barndomen. Hon är hjälten och detektiven på samma gång. Hennes dotter Madeleine, bortadopterad från födseln, är den som utför ett tiotal mord i trilogin. Med en liknande uppväxt som sin mamma är hon närmast psykopatisk och mördar med motivet hämnd. Victoria Bergman- trilogin faller inom ramen för både en detektivroman och en pusseldeckare, då läsaren får följa offer, förövare och detektiv och samtidigt själv ikläda sig rollen som den undersökande brottsutredaren.

    Det didaktiska värdet i min studie anser jag vara högt, då den för mig öppnat dörrar att som pedagog lättare ska kunna introducera äldre litteratur som ingår i kanon. Äldre litteratur kan komparativt studeras med hjälp av nyare som ligger närmare elevernas världsbild och då är lättare att ta till sig. All litteratur i min studie kan användas som underlag till värdegrundsdiskussioner och därmed låter eleverna uppnå en större förståelse för sin omvärld och sig själva. 

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  • 9.
    Bröndum, Krister
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    The Blurring of Human and Artificial Intelligence in Philip K. Dick’s Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the blurred boundaries between human and artificial intelligence in Philip K. Dick’s novel Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep. A postmodern theoretical and critical approach that employs Jean Baudrillard’s concepts of simulacra and hyperreality and Jaques Derrida’s deconstructive theory provides the conceptual framework for the analysis. The primary focus is on the main character, Rick Deckard, as he grapples with identity, ethics, and the very nature of humanity in a world where androids are indistinguishable from humans. The essay identifies two focus points in the novel. The first analyzes and deconstructs the real versus artificial (human/android) dichotomy in the book and shows how isreconstructs the essence of identity and reality. The second focus point is the novel’s portrayal of empathy, supposedly a defining human trait and yet one mimicked by androids so well that it is practically useless as a criterion for distinguishing androids from humans. The conclusion drawn by this analysis is that Rick Deckard and the characters he meets may indeed illustrate Baudrillard’s hyperreality, depicting a world where humans are willfully stunting their own emotions and autonomy, lost in the false reality that society has constructed. Furthermore, the ethical dilemmas raised by playing God with life, even if it is artificial, align with Derrida’s deconstructive views of how non-binary all life is. This is especially seen in the contrasting depictions of Rachael (android) and Resch (human). Derrida’s views on humanity’s dissimulation of the cruelty of its exploitations, justified by humanity’s own parameters for what is deemed right and wrong, is also seen in Deckard’s moral struggles and the cruelty androids must endure as described by Rachael. This is lastly compared and contrasted with the contemporary development of AI and its potential dangers, shedding light on ethical considerations. While the AI available to us today is far from the kind of artificial intelligence Dick presents in the form of androids, it is, perhaps, not too soon for us to begin considering the moral and ethical implications now so that should the day come, we will be ready and avoid the crisis humanity has fallen into in Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep.         

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  • 10.
    Burns, Brian
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Hybridization of the Self, Colonial Discourse and the Deconstruction of Value Systems: A Postcolonial Literary Theory Perspective of Literature inculpating Colonialism2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this essay is to provide a perspective on literature inculpating colonialism using postcolonial literary theory and method. The subject material incorporates four novels studied during the literature modules for the English course at Högskolan Gävle (HIG). The four novels combine to highlight various issues that affect the Self-identity through hybridization and colonial discourse as well as the detrimental nature of the colonial project for indigenous value systems during the period of colonialism. There is also application of theories and concepts raised in academic literature from within and outside the curriculum of HIG. The use of the postcolonial literary methodology provides a critical perspective of the aforementioned literature while implementing theories associated with that movement such as hybridity and the redefining of borders as well as focusing on the social, cultural, political and religious impact of the coloniser’s activities in the colonies as raised in the novels. 

    The most significant findings of this essay include the roles of isolation and disconnection within the colonial project and the subsequential effects on the colonised and their descendants. There are findings and observations of the level of strategic application of universalistic colonial discourse and the intrinsic application of the language used in the objectification of the indigenous and the subjugation of their value systems. The role of perception is also highlighted including findings on the social implications for the colonies inhabitants, both dissident and conformist, raised within the chosen literature and this essay. The essay also examines the application of various strands of literary theory incorporated within postcolonialism including poststructuralism and psychoanalytic criticism as well as anthropology material. 

    The conclusion of this essay culminates with the conflicting interpretations of progress as a universalism that counters the theories of postcolonialists and poststructuralists and their subsequent refusal to succumb to literature’s prevalence. The subjectivity of the postcolonial literary theorist and the self-imposed parameters restrict the interpretation of the colonial and postcolonial literature. The aforementioned progress defined by improved standards of health, education and social justice is lacking in presence in both the postcolonial literature and the accompanying literary theory counterpart. Subsequently, the disconnected voice of isolation and the split/double identity take precedence over higher standards of living and the appreciation of access to improved human rights and social justice within postcolonial society.

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    Hybridization of the Self, Colonial Discourse and the Deconstruction of Value Systems
  • 11.
    Cananau, Iulian
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, English.
    Between Womanhood and Citizenship: A Conceptual-Historicist Approach to Antebellum Women's Literature of Protest2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the tension between the antebellum ideas of “womanhood” and “citizenship” as represented in three classic texts of women’s literature of protest: the “Declaration of Sentiments” of the Seneca Falls Convention, Margaret Fuller’s Woman in the Nineteenth Century, and Harriet Jacobs’s Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl. After a brief discussion of what is meant by “literature of protest” and the reasons why these texts belong to this category, I proceed to read them and their historical context following a method inspired by Reinhart Koselleck’s history of concepts (Begriffsgeschichte); I approach “womanhood” and “citizenship” as concepts whose semantic fields can and should be analyzed in their diachronic and synchronic dimensions. Here, however, I will focus on the latter, in an attempt to account for conflicts as well as commonalities between them.

  • 12.
    Cananau, Iulian
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, English.
    Black holes in the American space; or nostalgic journeys through the wonders of time in Andrei Codrescu’s recent poetry2022Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Andrei Codrescu is an American litterateur of many labels: commentator, raconteur, humorist, flâneur, essayist, novelist, film maker, editor, professor, and Jewish-Romanian émigré. He is above all a poet and a memoirist. For a few years now the bard has been revisiting old amours, places, and times from the vantage points of age, Facebook, and bilingualism: New York (and other American cities), Allan Ginsberg, Ted Berrigan, Lucian Blaga, the Romanian language, and poetry itself among many others. In this paper, I explore the poetic incursions into the past, present and future in Codrescu’s latest poems in English and Romanian, collected in no time like now, Metroul F [Subway F], and Visul diacritic [The Diacritical Dream]. His nostalgia is neither resigned nor dramatic, but youthfully wonder-struck by the mysteries of then and now. As he put it in an interview from 2010, “Beauty is there when you bring your senses to increase the mystery of what arrests your attention.” The attempt to chase down wastelands seems futile in this poetry of wonder, yet the poet occasionally despairs of things like AI, cellphones, verbal and mental clichés, “the human illusion of singularity,” and the annoyingly persisting habit of stuffing the future with the placebo pills of hope and progress. In keeping with the topic of this conference, I stop by these and other shadows of wasteland that populate Codrescu’s poetic universe at this time of retrospection. Here’s a foretaste from his poem “funny not funny”:“American space bent around the black holes I made in it. / Many people found that funny. I not so much but not not funny.”

  • 13.
    Cananau, Iulian
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, English.
    Constituting Americanness: A History of the Concept and Its Representations in Antebellum American Literature2015Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book is based on my PhD dissertation, entitled Representations of the Concept of “Americanness” in the Canon of Antebellum American Literature. It is a work in cultural history and literary theory that suggests a fresh and potentially fruitful approach to the old notion of Americanness, an idea that lay at the foundation of American studies in mid-twentieth century, only to be exposed as “ideological fiction” by the New Americanists. Surprisingly, neither its advocates nor its critics have made the scholarly effort necessary to theorize or conceptualize Americanness. 

    The subtitle indicates what is distinctive about this project: this is a study of the concept of Americanness. Thus, following Reinhart Koselleck’s history of concepts (Begriffsgeschichte), I propose that “Americanness” is not an ordinary word, but a concept with a broad, albeit historically specific, semantic field. Thus, in the three decades before the Civil War, the semantic field of “Americanness” was constituted at the intersection of several concepts, in different stages of their respective histories; among these, nation, representation, individualism, sympathy, race, and womanhood. By tracing the representations of these concepts in literary texts of the antebellum era, paying attention to their overlapping with the rhetoric of national identification, I uncover some of the meaning of “Americanness” in that period. 

    As far as literary history writing is concerned, Begriffsgeschichte has a double potential: first, to explain the source of confusion between historically different semantic loads of the same concept and, second, to check the critic’s tendency to relativize concepts and therefore make the past a little too familiar. The concept-focused close reading of literary works of the past involves a reformulation of the text/context binary so as to account for contingencies without diminishing the importance of exegesis (a crippling tendency in contemporary literary studies); ultimately, this work aims to reconsider the relationship between history and literature.

    To lay out the meaning of “Americanness” I analyze a wide range of antebellum texts by Emerson, Melville, Thoreau, Douglass, Whitman, Stowe, Jacobs, Hawthorne, Poe, and Fuller, against the background of critical reception and recent scholarship. Thus, to college students and faculty, this book offers a period study of major American writers of the antebellum era.

  • 14.
    Cananau, Iulian
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, English.
    Critical Thinking and English Literature in Higher Education: The Theoretical Models and the Swedish Syllabi2021In: Nordic Journal of English Studies, ISSN 1502-7694, E-ISSN 1654-6970, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 99-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Critical thinking is an ever-growing interdisciplinary field of research. This paper introduces key aspects of the vast scholarship on critical thinking in higher education to the academic community of English literary studies in Sweden. Its aim is to provide a sound framework for research-based discussions of the potential for critical thinking in literature courses. To achieve this goal, the paper first presents a synopsis of the main theoretical models of critical thinking in higher education: as cognitive-argumentative skills, as cognitive-argumentative skills and psychosocial dispositions, as resistance to oppression, and as a crucial step toward critical acting and being. These models and approaches are then used to identify the conceptions of critical thinking that inform the learning objectives in undergraduate-level English literature syllabi in Sweden. The study finds that the cognitive-argumentative-skills approach dominates the conceptualization of critical thinking in English literature syllabi, but the other three models are also present in various degrees. The article ends with a call for a systematic discussion of the curricular and teaching practices that cultivate critical thinking in English literary studies.

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  • 15.
    Cananau, Iulian
    University of Bucharest.
    Democratic Taste and Mid-Nineteenth Century American Literature2005In: University of Bucharest Review - A Journal of Literary and Cultural Studies, ISSN 1454-9328, Vol. VII, no 3, p. 133-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper looks at the high/low brow paradigm in a period rich in cultural life and literary creation, 1845-1855. In America, more than anywhere else at that time, taste was intimately connected with democracy. In discussing this relationship at the level of literary works, I focus on successful American writers’ often conflicting views on democratic aspirations in connection with their literary achievement. The paper further traces the politics of taste at the level of the American public and addresses several questions among which: Was the mid-19th century audience less segmented than it has been since the Gilded Age? And if so, to what extent did participatory culture account for it? What role did nationalism play in shaping American literary taste between 1845 and 1855?

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  • 16.
    Cananau, Iulian
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, English.
    Exorcising COVID in Queens near Corona Park: Tropes of discontinuity in Andrei Codrescu's poems of the plague2023Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A longtime NPR commentator, Andrei Codrescu is a Romanian-born American poet, novelist, essayist, screenwriter, creative writing professor, and translator. “Our funniest /saddest contemporary bard,” as Marjorie Perloff affectionately called him, has spent more than half a century observing American life and history and faithfully recording his reflections on, and interactions with, his adoptive country with Dadaist humor, wit, sound criticism, and a touch of youthful wonder. 

    The main title of this paper is taken from the contributor information in the May 2020 issue of The Brooklyn Rail, which featured two poems by Andrei Codrescu. Throughout the national and global Covid crisis, he continued to cast spells, play with words, observe, reflect, hope, and sometimes despair, keeping poetic chronicles of “The Plague” with the avowed intention to soothe and heal. Many of them are collected in Too Late for Nightmares, his new volume of poetry released on September 1, 2022. In keeping with the topic of the conference, I am going to explore the tropes of discontinuity in these poems paying special attention to Codrescu’s older quarrels with consumerism, the blind faith in the new technology, the disappearance of the “outside” now complete with the virtual irrelevance of the body, the illusion of singularity, and the habit of stuffing the future with the placebo pill of progress. 

  • 17.
    Cananau, Iulian
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, English.
    Fictionalisations of American Populism: From Edward Bellamy's Utopia to Angie Thomas's Black Lives Matter Novel2022In: Populism, Democracy, and the Humanities: Interdisciplinary Explorations and Critical Enquiries / [ed] Iulian Cananau and Peder Thalén, Lanham, Maryland, USA: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2022, p. 183-201Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter discusses three best-selling fictional novels published at key moments in the history of American populism. The first one, Edward Bellamy’s Looking Backward 2000-1887, is a famous utopia and protest novel that helped crystalize the populist movement and exerted influence on the political agenda and organization of the People’s Party in the early 1890s. The second, It Can’t Happen Here, is a realist dystopia written by Nobel Prize laureate Sinclair Lewis in 1935, in an epoch marked by the successes and failures of President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal and the rise of fascism and communism in the United States and abroad. It was also the time when the populist label had been extended to a special kind of left-wing political profile, one centered on the charismatic leader whose discourse and policies were tainted by demagoguery and authoritarianism. Huey P. Long, the colorful political boss from Louisiana, and Father Charles Coughlin, a Roman Catholic priest turned radio star from Detroit who spoke admiringly of Hitler and Mussolini, are prime examples of that species. The third novel is African American writer Angie Thomas’s bestselling work of young adult fiction The Hate U Give from 2017. This book dramatizes a black teenager’s trauma of witnessing the absurd killing of her friend by a white police officer and follows the protagonist’s transition from innocent bystander to antiracist rioter and protest leader. The narrative and its screen adaptation from 2018 may have played an important role in galvanizing the public opinion in support of the Black Lives Matter movement.   

    Reading these novels and reflecting over their relationship with populism may shed light on the perceptions and manifestations of American populism, based on two opposite approaches to the national democratic project: a view that American democracy has yet to be realized and an anti-democratic one fueled by irrational resentments. In addition, approaching the history of American populism though these novels enables one to focus less on the “supply” side of populist politics (i.e. the populist leader and the populist party), as most analysts and commentators of populism do, and more on the “demand” side of it (i.e. the people/voters’ perception of and need for populist politics and politicians). Out of the many and often contradictory definitions of populism in political science, one is selected, argued for and used throughout the essay.

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  • 18.
    Cananau, Iulian
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, English.
    Funny not funny.Humor, pathos, and poetic duty in Andrei Codrescu’ too late for nightmares: A roundtable in memory of Professor Octavian Roske2023Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Cananau, Iulian
    University of Bucharest.
    On Some Positivities of Americanness2007In: Old/New Worlds: Spaces of Transition / [ed] Rodoca Mihaila, Irina Grigorescu Pana, Bucharest: Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 2007, p. 65-74Chapter in book (Refereed)
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  • 20.
    Cananau, Iulian
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, English.
    On the Path to Citizenship: A Conceptual Historicist Reading of Antebellum Women's Protest Literature2020In: Orbis Litterarum, ISSN 0105-7510, E-ISSN 1600-0730, Vol. 75, no 1, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This essay introduces a new approach to the history of pro‐ test literature, and to literary history writing in general. My case studies investigate three antebellum American works by women that express discontent with women’s condition: the “Declaration of Sentiments” of the Seneca Falls Convention (1848), Margaret Fuller’s Woman in the Nineteenth Century (1845), and Harriet Jacobs’s Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl (published in 1861, but written probably between 1852 and 1857). Drawing on Reinhart Koselleck’s theory and practice of conceptual history, the essay includes an analysis of the semantic field of citizenship in these works with an aim to explore the textual politics of their protest within the con‐ ceptual and ideological context of antebellum America.

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  • 21.
    Cananau, Iulian
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, English.
    "Partialist" and "Universalist": Figurations of U.S. Exceptionalism in Antebellum Writing2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, I investigate the tension between particularism and universalism at the core of antebellum American exceptionalism. “Particularism” is herein understood as a broader term encompassing “nationalism”, “jingoism”, “sectarianism”, as well as “individualism” and “self-interest”.  As for “universalism”, it is conceived neither in theological terms as the doctrine that all people will be eventually saved, nor as a kind of foreign policy, but as virtually synonymous to “universality”, or the condition and quality of being universal. Taking my cues from one of Emerson’s famous paradoxes, namely that “every man is a partialist… and… every man is a universalist also” (in the essay “Nominalist and Realist”), I proceed to identify and compare representations of particularism and universalism in antebellum writings on U.S. national identity by Emerson, Fuller, Simms, Douglass, and Delany.

  • 22.
    Cananau, Iulian
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, English.
    Putting Context to New Use in Literary Studies: A Conceptual-Historicist Interpretation of Poe's 'Man of the Crowd'2017In: Partial Answers, ISSN 1565-3668, E-ISSN 1936-9247, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 241-261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Poe’s adherence to a strict aesthetic formalism used to be problematic for studies of the relationship between his work and its American context; the methodology of New Historicism has helped to surmount this problem but sometimes with excessive emphasis on socio-historical contexts. This essay examines critical practices at work in the interpretation of Poe’s canonical piece “The Man of the Crowd” in light of the recent debates in literary studies around the problem of context and contextualization in general and the “hegemony” of new historicism in particular. It then suggests an alternative method of reading literary texts and their contexts — one based on Reinhart Koselleck’s history of concepts. It offers an analysis of “The Man of the Crowd” as an illustration of this method.

  • 23.
    Cananau, Iulian
    University of Bucharest.
    Representations of Citizenship in Antebellum African American Writing2006In: University of Bucharest Review - A Journal of Literary and Cultural Studies, ISSN 1454-9328, Vol. VIII, no 3, p. 104-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Citizenship has its origins not in modernity, but in the political thought and practice of the ancient Greeks and Romans. However, with the advent of the nation state in late eighteenth century, the idea of citizenship took on new meanings and started to play a crucial role in modern history. The first nation modernity produced, the United States provides an ideal setting for studying modern citizenship. The Civil War (1861-1865) was the traumatic event that marked its history. In the decades preceding it, along with American political culture and other institutions, U.S. citizenship was caught up in the whirling vortex of political, legal, and literary discourses of national identity. This paper starts from the national discourses that defined citizenship in pre-Civil War America later attempting to identify and analyze the ways in which two African American literary texts (Frederick Douglass’s My Bondage and My Freedom and Harriet Jacobs’s Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl) represented the idea of citizenship. The purpose is to show that the two slave narratives, which have only recently earned their position in the nineteenth century literary canon, were deeply involved in the national debate and, in spite of their presumed marginality, textually representative for the problematic idea of citizenship before the Civil War. The two narratives went far beyond mere illustration; they actively engaged the world of their readers and thus, their representations of the idea o citizenship purport to the nation’s past and future.

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  • 24.
    Cananau, Iulian
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, English.
    Searching for a point d'appui: Constructions of National Identity in Antebellum American Literature2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the decades before the Civil War, American society witnessed the intensification of political and social tensions over issues such as slavery, Irish immigration, laborers’ rights, and women’s rights; the major economic transformations and the drive toward the new order of free enterprise capitalism (especially in the North); the expansionist policies materialized as Indian removal or military aggression against a neighboring country. Such disruptive forces were taking a heavy toll on the national fabric. At least this is what some American literati feared; through all the tumult and vitality of antebellum America, they discerned a sort of moral groundlessness. The America(s) they imagined seem to point to this ethical dimension as their common denominator. Thoreau is one of those antebellum writers who peeped into the American conscience and tried to find a “point d’appui”, a new ethical foundation for the national project that was underway. This paper investigates his and others’ literary re-constructions of America.

  • 25.
    Cananau, Iulian
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, English.
    The Conversational Framework, Democratic Education, and Pedagogic Design in the American Literature Survey: A Case Study2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This presentation attempts to probe the applicability of Diana Laurillard’s “conversational” model of collaborative learning to the teaching of the American Literature Survey at the University of Gävle. For the purpose of exemplification, I have selected a unit on race and gender representations in late nineteenth-century fiction, with a focus on Mark Twain’s Pudd’nhead Wilson and Charlotte Perkins Gilman’s “The Yellow Wallpaper”, respectively. Given that the vast majority of students who take up this course are enrolled in the teacher training program, an important research question is how this pedagogic framework might contribute to developing and consolidating democratic values and practices in their future roles as high school teachers of English in Sweden. This aim converges with the curricular objective that civic values and attitudes should underpin the teaching of all subjects in the Swedish school system. The study is part of a project entitled “Democratic Vistas in the Classroom: Teaching American Literature in Swedish Higher Education”.

  • 26.
    Cananau, Iulian
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, English.
    Two Fictionalizations of American Populism: Edward Bellamy’s Looking Backward (1888) and Sinclair Lewis’s It Can’t Happen Here (1935)2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses two best-selling fictional novels published at key moments in the history of American populism. The first one, Edward Bellamy’s Looking Backward 2000-1887, is a famous utopia and protest novel that helped crystalize the populist movement and exerted influence on the political agenda and organization of the People’s Party in the early 1890s. The other, It Can’t Happen Here, is a realist dystopia written by Nobel Prize laureate Sinclair Lewis in 1935, in an epoch marked by the successes and failures of President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal and the rise of fascism and communism in the United States and abroad. It was also the time when the populist label had been extended to a special kind of left-wing political profile, one centered on the charismatic leader whose discourse and policies were tainted by demagoguery and authoritarianism. Huey P. Long, the colorful political boss from Louisiana, and Father Charles Coughlin, a Roman Catholic priest turned radio star from Detroit who spoke admiringly of Hitler and Mussolini, are prime examples of that species. Reading these two novels and reflecting over their relationship with populism may shed light on the transformation of the perception of American populism in its first fifty years of existence, from a progressive reform movement to an anti-democratic movement fueled by irrational resentments. In addition, approaching the history of American populism though these novels enables one to focus less on the “supply” side of populist politics (i.e. the populist leader and the populist party), as most analysts and commentators of populism do, and more on the “demand” side of it (i.e. the people/voters’ perception of and need for populist politics and politicians). Out of the many and often contradictory definitions of populism in political science, one will be selected, argued for and used throughout the essay.

  • 27.
    Cananau, Iulian
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, English.
    Sims, Caroline
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Teaching Literature, Implementing Multicultural Education2017In: Kunskap, motstånd, möjlighet: Humanistisk forskning i dag / [ed] Ulrika Serrander & Peder Thalén, Halmstad: Molin & Sorgenfrei, 2017, 1, p. 297-316Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Cananau, Iulian
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, English.
    Thalén, PederUniversity of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Religious studies.
    Populism, Democracy, and the Humanities: Interdisciplinary Explorations and Critical Enquiries2022Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this volume, twelve Sweden-based researchers reflect on the phenomenon and concept of populism in relation to democracy and the humanities from the multiple vantage points of various disciplinary backgrounds: philosophy, history of ideas, media and communication, journalism, political science, gender studies, organization science, education theory, popular culture, and literary studies. While the study of populism has attracted a lot of attention in political science, this topic has been rarely explored by scholars in the humanities. Rather than contribute to the already established area of populism studies in social and political sciences, our authors take a more open and exploratory stance through which they attempt to open up new fields and directions for inquiry from an interdisciplinary humanistic perspective.

  • 29.
    Dündar, Hayri
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Dystopia as a vital peek into the future: The importance of dispatching antiquated morals and establishing new ethics2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay analyzes and tries to untangle the meaning and intention of dystopian literature, by analyzing two novels (Neal Shusterman‟s “Unwind” and Aldous Huxley‟s “Brave New World”). From this analysis, whether or not the futures portrayed in dystopian literature relate to our own future is riddled out, furthermore the importance of the authors‟ intention is debated and a conclusion is reached. As the dystopian future unravels, ethnicity, gender, class and sexual orientation, to mention a few factors, find their own place in the new world; this essay tries to establish their roles in the new society. When discussing the characters in the novels, Bourdieu‟s theories on fields, habitus and social capital are used to figure out what they are competing for and in what ways they struggle for the reward. Furthermore, the development of dystopian imagining is discussed and its function as a reflection of contemporary society and the state of science. Delineating the roles of social classes in dystopias is an important task in figuring out whether social power still reduces minorities depending on class or gender. Our antiquated morals and ethics aren‟t suitable anymore and need to be reformed; this is discussed based on dystopian literature and the image of the future. Furthermore, this essay gets into detail with the reduction of man and by what means we are enslaved and made to believe in the faux utopias. In the end, the conclusion reached is that dystopian literature delivers a hefty and important point that needs to be heeded and used as a rare look into the future.

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  • 30.
    Eklöf, Niklas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Lovecraft och kosmisk skräck i klassrummet: ”Skuggan över Innsmouth”2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna uppsats tittar jag på vad det är som kännetecknar genren kosmisk skräck, och hur det kan användas i ett klassrum på gymnasienivå. Genom att undersöka hur, vad och varför man lär ut litteratur så knyter jag samman detta med det faktiska som kosmisk skräck innehåller och därav kan erbjuda i klassrummet. Detta exemplifieras genom att analysera ”Skuggan över Innsmouth” vilket är en novell skriven av författaren H.P. Lovecraft som anses vara skaparen av genren kosmisk skräck. Genom att ta en av Lovecrafts mest populära texter kan vi få tydliga exempel av det innehåll som existerar inom kosmisk skräck.

  • 31.
    Eklöf, Niklas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    The Loman Family’s State of Mind: A Psychoanalytical Reading of Arthur Miller's Death of a Salesman2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay will analyse the members of the Loman family of Death of a Salesman from a Freudian psychoanalytical perspective. The purpose is to understand what goes on inside the mind of these characters through Freud’s structural model of personality, the Id, Ego and Superego. The members of the Loman family are no longer happy with their lives. It becomes evident that the family members were not always acting rationally and never took appropriate measures to improve their happiness. They do not know why they are feeling the way they feel and act as they do. The thesis is that by looking at the Loman family through Freudian psychoanalysis of the personality and its defence mechanics, we will get an explanation as to why the family is acting the way that they are, and what might have led them to this point.

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  • 32.
    Ellen, Bäckman
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Transformative Lesbian Experiences in Alice Walker’s The Color Purple: A Look at Celie’s Development2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Color Purple (1982) focuses on highlighting Celie’s journey throughout life as an oppressed black woman living in the South in the United States in the early 1900s. Celie is abused mentally, physically, and sexually by her stepfather Alphonso and her husband Mr. _____. This is the oppression she has faced, which holds back her search for her own identity. Black feminism, lesbian feminism and queer theory are explained and used in order to understand how to analyze The Color Purple. Gender performance, compulsory heterosexuality and lesbianism are all important concepts that are used to analyze Celie’s oppression and development. This paper highlights the factors that have aided Celie in her search for selfhood, which are motherhood, female solidarity, black lesbian shamelessness and especially her lesbian relationship with the singer Shug. The analysis concludes that Shug was both the catalyst and one of the driving forces which enabled Celie to find her voice.

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  • 33.
    Erikson, Kajsa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    No Need for Penis-Envy: A Feminist Psychoanalytic Reading of The Bell Jar2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay analyzes Esther Greenwood’s identity crisis, mental illness, and recovery in Sylvia Plath’s novel The Bell Jar (1963) from a feminist psychoanalytic perspective. The purpose is to understand the cultural and psychological mechanisms behind the main character’s situation. Esther is a talented and hardworking student who dreams of a literary career in 1950’s America. At the age of nineteen, events and realizations launch Esther into an identity crisis that leads to severe depression. Why she falls ill, and the nature of her illness and recovery, are up for interpretation. The thesis of this essay is that Esther Greenwood’s identity crisis, mental illness, and recovery can be explained using a feminist interpretation of Freud’s theories of hysteria and melancholia, and the development of the differences between the sexes, which includes the Freudian concepts of castration, bisexuality, and the Oedipus complex. 

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  • 34.
    Eriksson, Rhode
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Sepänaho, Sanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Lärares medvetna val av högläsningsbok: Med fokus på genusmedvetenhet2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka lärares genusmedvetenhet inför valet av högläsningsbok. Studien ämnar besvara om lärare väljer att läsa litteratur som utmanar den rådande genusordningen samt om lärare använder högläsningsboken för att synliggöra och diskutera genusfrågor med eleverna. Underlaget för undersökningen är baserat på enkätundersökning och semistrukturerade intervjuer med grundskollärare för de yngre åldrarna. Resultatet av undersökningen visar att de flesta deltagande lärare stödjer användandet av litteratur med utmanande könsmönster. Det finns ett fåtal lärare som motsätter sig att högläsningsboken ska innehålla utmanande genusroller. Slutsatser som kan dras utifrån resultatet tyder på att de flesta lärare i undersökningen anser att genusmedvetenhet inför valet av högläsningsbok är viktigt. Detta betyder dock inte att det läses litteratur som utmanar den rådande genusordningen. De flesta lärare i undersökningen ansåg att diskussionen kring bokens innehåll var av störst betydelse.

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  • 35.
    Eriksson, Tina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    The Consequences of Trauma in Toni Morrison’s Beloved: A Psychoanalytic Reading of Sethe and Denver2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay’s main focus is on Sethe and her daughter Denver in Toni Morrison’s Beloved (1987) and how they try to survive the trauma that comes from slavery. By using psychoanalysis as a theoretical framework, the essay examines what psychological reactions Sethe and Denver have as two traumatised characters, and what happens to them psychologically when they are forced to face the repressed. Through the encounter with Sethe’s dead daughter, Beloved, Sethe and Denver face the repressed within them. They use defence mechanisms and core issues as a reaction and a means of coping with trauma. By analyzing the characters through concepts of defence mechanisms and core issues (which were coined by Sigmund Freud), a deeper understanding of the characters' experiences when facing their trauma can be acquired. By creating the repressed into a ghost of flesh and blood, the abstraction of repression is transformed into something concrete which creates visibility for what normally operates within the psyche. Moreover, the narrative also benefits from Morrison’s choice of making the abstract more concrete as the enslaved characters’ experiences are in focus in a solid and comprehensible way. The combination of magic and realism in Beloved also contributes to the discourse about slavery since both its history and its psychological effects are in focus in the novel

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  • 36.
    Farstad, Britt Johanne
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Swedish and Gender studies.
    En existentiell smäll: Att se världen ur nya perspektiv2021In: Människan i en existentiell kultur: En antologi om Människa-Kultur-Religionsprogrammet vid Högskolan i Gävle / [ed] Olov Dahlin, Sara Duppils, Jari Ristiniemi, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2021, p. 209-226Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Artikeln diskuterar Margareth Atwoods roman Syndaflodens år i ett didaktiskt perspektiv. Romanens huvudteman presenteras och studenternas syn på romanen som ämnesdidaktiskt verktyg diskuteras. Studenterna finner att romanen har hög grad av samhällsrelevans, den medvetandegör skeenden i samtiden och erbjuder en plattform därolika framtidsscenarion kan diskuteras. Atwoods roman aktualiserar samtidens problem som miljöhot, genetisk manipulation av djur och växter, övervakning, en accelererande teknologisering av tillvaron, samt kapitalism. Den utnyttjar mytologiska föreställningar och skapar en fiktiv bild av världen dömd för undergång. Läsandet av romanen öppnar för religiösa och existentiella frågeställningar och för ämnesövergripande didaktiska förhållningssätt där frågeställningarna kan behandlas med olika ämnesrelevanta metoder och perspektivval.

  • 37.
    Forsell, Philip
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Swedish and Gender studies.
    Antikens manliga ideal och attribut i nutiden: En studie om manliga attribut inom populärkulturen samt gymnasieelevers associationer till män och manlighet2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats utreder två frågeställningar rörande män och manlighet inom fiktion. Syftet med denna text är att försöka få en insikt i hur män porträtteras inom film och skönlitteratur, samt hur associationer påverkar gymnasielevers uppfattning av innebörden av att vara man. Skönlitteratur och film som inkluderar karaktärerna Odysseus, Batman, James Bond och Sherlock Holmes samt teoretisk litteratur med fokus på både genus och didaktik används för att besvara frågeställningarna. Dessutom används ett kvantitativt frågeformulär för att få in information om gymnasieelevers syn på män och manlighet. En av slutsatserna som kan dras utifrån undersökningsresultatet är att ideal och egenskaper som användes för att skapa fiktiva manliga karaktärer i antikens Grekland fortfarande är närvarande i moderna fiktiva karaktärer. En annan slutsats är att populärkulturen har en stor inverkan på vilka associationer till män och manlighet som människor har.

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  • 38.
    Garzon, Anneli
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Bumbaroska, Ivana
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Patientens upplevelse av existentiell smärta vid cancer: Litteraturstudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

     

    Background: Cancer is one of the most common diseases in Sweden, where there is an uncontrolled mutation of cells that lead to tumour formation. The disease alters the patient`s life and can cause social, emotional and spiritual consequences.

     

    Method: A descriptive literature review, with 22 articles from different countries, with the aim to describe cancer patient`s experiences of existential pain was performed.

     

    Results: The study results are presented in two themes: Suffering that affects the body, psyche and social life with subthemes: physical, psychological and social suffering and Spiritual suffering with subthemes:Thoughts on spirituality, to experience acceptance, to find meaning and hope. Themes and subthemes are describing patient`s experiences of existential pain in cancer. Physical suffering was expressed in the form of fatigue and other side effects from cancer treatment. The physical impairment leading to mental and social suffering that was expressed in the form of anxiety, guilt, shame, isolation, anxiety, thoughts about death and depression. These experiences led to an unpredictable future where meaning, hope, and acceptance was important to achieve to be able to handle the situation and reduce the spiritual suffering.

     

    Conclusion: It is important that nurses focus on all dimensions in the care as physically, socially, psychologically, existentially to provide as good care as possible. The patients felt that existential pain needs more attention and that it is the nurse's responsibility to help patients with their existential questions and needs. Environment, good relationship, responsiveness and lead to good conversation that helps patients to create hope, acceptance, meaning, that leads to relief of the existential pain.

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  • 39.
    Gebara, Jonny
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, English.
    Male Patriarchy and "Othering": Brave New World from a Postcolonial and Feminist Perspective2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to show how Brave New World, a dystopia by Aldous Huxley, has strong postcolonial traces within it. Edward Said's concept of Orientalism and Gayatri Spivak's analyses of Bertha Mason, the fictional representation of the colonial female subject in nineteenth-century English literature, tie up the similarities in how the Reservation and Linda are portrayed within the book. Comparing Gayatri Spivak's theories with Huxley's writings adds a new perspective to the novel. This essay will also include a close reading of the book and aims to unveil how specifik events concerning Linda and the part of the world referred to as "the reservation" are in link with "Orientalism", "othering" and feminism. The argument will be that both Linda and "the reservations" description in the novel are in frame with British imperialistic writings and male patriarchy.

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  • 40.
    Gergin, Elias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Management.
    Att må bra på jobbet: En fallstudie om arbetsmiljöarbetet och hälsofrämjande processer inom servicebranschen2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den psykiska hälsans vikt, i människans välmående är av stor betydelse för att den enskilda individen skall kunna leverera på sina arbetsuppgifter. Då den psykiska ohälsan idag är ett av de snabbt växande hoten mot människans hälsa är det ett ämne som är viktigt att lyfta fram kring arbetsplatsen. Studien syftar undersöka arbetsmiljöarbetet inom servicebranschen samt identifiera förbättringsmöjligheter i befintliga hälsofrämjande processer. Arbetet är en fallstudie av kvalitativ natur som använder intervjuer och observationer för insamling av empiriska data. Empirin lyfter fram att medarbetare i allmänhet uppfattar arbetsmiljön på Sodexo som god. Framförallt i relation till flertalet försök från ledningen att skapa gemenskap på arbetsplatsen. Detta gjordes på både ett fysiskt plan genom att endast ha ett bord att samlas kring och gemensamma raster samt ett psykiskt plan genom att uppmärksamma födelsedagar och individuella prestationer. Studien konkluderar att medarbetarnas välmående speglas av ledningens engagemang i de hälsofrämjande processerna. Genom att identifiera riskerna i ett tidigt stadie minskas nivåer av negativa permanenta hälsotillstånd såsom depressioner, stress och dåliga arbetsförhållanden.

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  • 41.
    Gibson, Kristopher
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    A Critique of Stanley Fish’s Reader-Response Reading of John Milton’s Paradise Lost2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The essay critically examines Stanley Fish’s reader-response reading of Paradise Lost.In particular Fish’s main thesis that John Milton’s sole purpose in Paradise Lost is toeducate the reader on their position as fallen.The essay then examines two key claimsthat Fish employs to arrive at his conclusion, namely: (1) Fish’s notion of intendedreadership and authorial intent for Paradise Lost; and (2) Fish’s claims of readerresponse to Paradise Lost in two selected contexts (i) the reader response to Satan in thebeginning of Paradise Lost (ii) the reader response to an aspect of narration in ParadiseLost i.e. the poem’s epic voice. Based on the analysis of these two key claims the essayfinds Fish’s thesis unsubstantiated and in need of further argument.

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  • 42.
    Glennon, Shane
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, English.
    Fangoso Lagoons: Hyperreality and Imaginary Stations in The Crying of Lot 492022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay analyses Thomas Pynchon’s novel The Crying of Lot 49 (1966) in relation to postmodern literary theory, specifically the concepts of hyperreality and imaginary stations. In Simulacra and Simulation (1981), Jean Baudrillard proposes that the Disneyland theme park in California is an imaginary station that conceals the fact that it is the world outside of Disneyland that is hyperreal. These ideas were developed further in relation to California by Umberto Eco in Travels from Hyperreality (1986). Baudrillard’s model is applied in this essay to the housing development of Fangoso Lagoons in The Crying of Lot 49. By analysing the mediums through which it is portrayed, how it is described and the events that occur there, Fangoso Lagoons is found to be similar to Baudrillard’s example of Disneyland because it is presented as an amazing, fantastic and bizarre spectacle. However, the true hyperreality lies outside of the development, in the novel’s semi-fictional California. This essay argues that Fangoso Lagoons is presented as hyperreal, similar to Baudrillard’s example of Disneyland or Umberto Eco’s example of Hearst Castle, but that it is in fact an imaginary station. As Baudrillard and Eco propose, the purpose of the imaginary station is to make the world outside appear as real through contrast. The imaginary station achieves this by feeding reality energy to its hyperreal surroundings.

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  • 43.
    Goode, Cathrine
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Marcusson, Veronica
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Sjuksköterskans erfarenheter av och attityder till patienter med schizofreni: En beskrivande litteraturstudie2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Schizofreni är en psykossjukdom som drabbar flera människor världen över. Syftetmed litteraturstudien var att beskriva sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av och attityderpatienter med schizofreni. Metoden är en litteraturstudie med ett resultat innehållande10 vetenskapliga artiklar från databasen PubMed.

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  • 44.
    Griffin, Louise
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Pinto Guillaume, Mimmi
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    ”Tjejer och killar samma lika, fast ändå inte?”: En studie om lärares medvetenhet om och syn på barnlitteratur ur ett normkritiskt köns- och genusperspektiv2022Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to shed light on teachers' awareness of and views on the choice of children's literature for the classroom for preschool class and grades 1–3, with a theoretical basis in a norm-critical gender perspective. The representation of gender in the children's literature available in the classroom and the representation of gender in two books that the teacher chooses during the interview will be analyzed. The empirical material consists of qualitative semi-structured interviews and two quantitative content analyzes of children's literature. The theoretical framework for the study is social constructivism, gender theory and feminist gender constructionism. The results show that the teachers to some extent choose to let students read and listen to norm-breaking literature, but the choice is made based on different perceptions of what norm-critical gender perspective entails. Three of the classrooms show a larger representation of male main characters and one of the classrooms shows a larger representation of female main characters in the classroom library. All teachers show to some extent an awareness of the uneven representation between female and male main characters. The results from the quantitative content analysis from a norm-critical gender perspective show that the books that the teachers chose include both norm-breaking and stereotypical main characters. The books with one main character include norm-breaking main characters, while the books with several main characters include both.  

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    Tjejer och killar samma lika, fast ändå inte? Louise Griffin & Mimmi Pinto Guillaume
  • 45.
    Grönborg, Ann-Sofie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Renberg, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Norm eller obestämd form?: En analys av norm och avvikelse gällande genus, etnicitet och sexualitet i barnlitteratur2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta arbete är att undersöka hur familjekonstellationer med avseende på genus, etnicitet och sexualitet framställs i nyutgiven skönlitteratur för barn i åldrarna 10–12 år, och hur gestaltningarna korrelerar med värdegrunden i läroplanen Lgr 11. De teorier som använts till analysen är dekonstruktion, feministisk litteraturteori, postkolonialism och queerteori, där dekonstruktion även fungerat som metod. Till analysen har fem skönlitterära böcker valts ut. Med avseende på genus visar analysen att kärnfamiljsmammor och kärnfamiljspappor är den vanligaste representationen av föräldrar. De beskrivs oftast normativt med stereotypa drag samtidigt som många avvikande egenskaper även gestaltas. Flickor beskrivs vanligtvis som modiga och framåt, även om de på stereotypt sätt framställs som intresserade av utseende och kärlek. Få återgivningar av pojkar ges och inga specifika drag kan ses som mer framträdande. Gällande etnicitet nämner endast en bok explicit karaktärer med avvikande etnicitet. Angående sexualitet är heteronormativitet den enda representation som återfinns i materialet, med ett undantag. De vuxnas sexualitet ges i princip inget utrymme i skönlitteraturen medan barnens sexualitet och lust får ta något större plats. Analysen av skönlitteraturen visar att böckerna ur vissa aspekter korrelerar med läroplanen.

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  • 46.
    Gustrén, Cia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, English.
    Getting out of Strange Spaces: A Reconstructive Reading of Paul Auster’s Oracle Night2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As the title of this essay suggests, Paul Auster’s 2003 novel Oracle Night is studied with regard to what is here considered to be a search for a way out of estrangement. This search, as narrated from the point of view of the protagonist, is followed by a certain recognition of the limits of human existence – which may be essentially meaningless but is nevertheless portrayed as an intentional state of being, not least through the act of writing as a means of subjectification. Thus, the novel is read with a special focus on the thematic representation of writing and human subjectivity. These overarching themes may be approached with reference to two different philosophies or theoretical positions – postmodernism and existentialism. The purpose of the essay is to study the extent to which Oracle Night may be understood in terms of an existentialist (reconstructive) critique of, or challenge to, a postmodernist (deconstructive) perspective. In order to follow this line of inquiry, the analytic method rests on narrative thematics. This kind of narratological study answers the question what Auster’s novel is about and in what ways the theoretical perspectives in question are expressed in the novel. Thematic motifs are examined within the frame of a six-step model of narrative units. These units are based on Carsten Springer’s (2001) elaboration on the theme of identity crisis in Auster’s fiction and made it possible to put different motifs into a context and convey the point of view of the text in a systematic way.   

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  • 47.
    Haidar, Maha
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    The Multiple Burdens of Joyce: An Intersectional Feminist Analysis of Joyce’s Life in Crossing the River2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay analyses the life of Joyce, the protagonist in “Somewhere in England”, the fourth section of Crossing the River by Caryl Phillips, using an intersectional feminist perspective. It attempts to show how patriarchy, classism, and racism intersect to shape Joyce’s life and to limit her possibilities. The essay argues that at the beginning, Joyce is too naïve to fully understand the power structures prevailing in her society, and therefore, she is different from those around her. However, she successively experiences not only patriarchal oppression but also class and race oppressions. The result is that Joyce accepts her social position when she understands that it is difficult for an individual woman to challenge the intersected multiple oppressions of the capitalist, supremacist, patriarchal society.

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  • 48.
    Hallström, Linnea
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, English.
    Representations of motherhood in Erdrich’s Love Medicine and Morisson’s Beloved2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is a comparative analysis of the African American author Toni Morrison’s novel Beloved and the Native American writer Louise Erdrich’s novel Love Medicine. The focus of this essay will be the theme motherhood. A feminist theoretical and critical approach are used throughout the thesis and focus is laid upon the third wave of feminism which: “borrows from post-structural and contemporary gender and race theories (…) to expand on marginalized populations’ experiences.” (Purdue OWL). In the novel Love Medicine the characters Marie and Lulu are examined. Both characters are strong independent women and through them the author challenges the Western-European image of motherhood, family and female characteristics. In the novel Beloved, the characters Sethe and Baby Suggs are studied with two focus points. The first is the impact that motherhood can have on the development of the self and how Morrison shows this through the character Sethe. The second focus point is the effects that come from slavery and mainly the effects that can come from the denial of motherhood. These novels manage to challenge the western norm of motherhood through different aspects and in different ways.

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  • 49.
    Hennig, Emma
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Hiding in Plain Sight: A Gynocritical Reading of Rochester’s Narrative in Jean Rhys’s Wide Sargasso Sea2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay is the result of a close-reading of the male protagonist’s narrative in Jean Rhys’s novel Wide Sargasso Sea (1966). His narrative was examined through an interpretive lens layered with a combination of several critical onsets that form the pillars of Elaine Showalter’s theory of a metaphysical female crescent outside of male consciousness. With a combination of gynocriticism, postcolonial feminism, cultural theory and psychoanalysis, this essay charted the inner expedition of the male protagonist as he travels to the Caribbean and marries his new wife. The findings showed how his inner journey takes him to the borderlands of his consciousness and language. On the other side of the border is the female crescent, the wild zone, where women and wilderness taunt him and hide from him in plain sight. Stretching himself to the limits of his conscious mind, the male protagonist Rochester loses his grip on reality and gets overwhelmed by feelings of fear and anger.

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  • 50.
    Hillin-Bertäng, Lina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Swedish and Gender studies.
    Jackson, Lina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Swedish and Gender studies.
    Högläsning i skolans årskurs F-3: En studie över verksamma lärares tillämpning av högläsning som undervisningsmetod2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Då vi skribenter tagit del av PISA-undersökningar vilka visar att elevers läsförståelse de senaste åren sjunkit vill vidärför ta reda på hur verksamma lärare inom årskurs F-3 arbetar med högläsning. Vårt intresse för högläsning väcktes under våra verksamhetsförlagda arbetsplatsutbildningar (VFU), egna erfarenheter och upplevelser.

    Detta examensarbete bygger på teorier från det sociokulturella perspektivet där teorin utgår från socialt samspel samt från dialogismen som lyfter fram dialogens betydelse. Vår studie visar hur högläsning används av verksamma lärare inom årskurs F-3. Studien utgår från enkätundersökningar, fyra ostrukturerade intervjuer och fyra ostrukturerade observationer som analyseras med hjälp av den fenomenografiska analysmetoden. En femte intervju genomfördes över mail då läraren inte använde högläsning som undervisningsmetod och därför var observation ogenomförbar. Alla som har deltagit i vår studie undervisar i årskurs F-3.

    Resultatet av vår studie visar att majoriteten av alla som deltagit använder högläsning som undervisningsmetod samt har en positiv syn på högläsning. Antalet tillfällen i veckan samt tidsåtgång skiljer sig åt mellan de olika informanterna. Huruvida informanterna tillåter respektive inte tillåter sidoaktiviteter skiljer sig även detta åt. Alla informanter har sina egna sätt att få eleverna att aktivt lyssna, men majoriteten använder olika röstlägen och gester under högläsning.

    Forskning visar att högläsning stärker elevernas språkutveckling, eleverna får ett ökat ordförråd samt en ökad ordförståelse. Eleverna lär sig olika texters uppbyggnad, skillnaden på tal-och skriftspråk samt att eleverna får en förståelse för att alla individer är olika.

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