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  • 1.
    Finér, L.
    et al.
    Joensuu Research Unit, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Finland.
    Helmisaari, H.-S.
    Vantaa Research Unit, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Finland.
    Lohmus, K.
    Institute of Geography, Tartu University, Estonia.
    Majdi, Hooshang
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Brunner, I.
    Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research, Switzerland.
    Borja, I.
    Norwegian Forest and Landscape Institute, Norway.
    Eldhuset, T.
    Norwegian Forest and Landscape Institute, Norway.
    Godbold, D.
    School of Environment and Natural Resources, University of Wales, UK.
    Grebenc, T.
    Slovenian Forestry Institute, Slovenia.
    Konopka, B.
    National Forest Centre, Forest Research Institute Zvolen T. G. Masaryka 22, Slovak Republic.
    Kraigher, H.
    Slovenian Forestry Institute, Slovenia.
    Möttönen, M.-R.
    Faculty of Forestry, University of Joensuu, Finland.
    Ohashi, M.
    School of Human Science and Environment, University of Hyogo, Japan.
    Oleksyn, J.
    Institute of Dendrology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland.
    Ostonen, I.
    Institute of Geography, Tartu University, Estonia.
    Uri, V.
    Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Estonia.
    Vanguelova, E.
    Environmental and Human Science Division, Forest Research, UK.
    Variation in fine root biomass of three European tree species: Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.)2007In: Plant Biosystems, ISSN 1126-3504, E-ISSN 1724-5575, Vol. 141, no 3, p. 394-405Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fine roots (< 2 mm) are very dynamic and play a key role in forest ecosystem carbon and nutrient cycling and accumulation. We reviewed root biomass data of three main European tree species European beech, (Fagus sylvatica L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), in order to identify the differences between species, and within and between vegetation zones, and to show the relationships between root biomass and the climatic, site and stand factors. The collected literature consisted of data from 36 beech, 71 spruce and 43 pine stands. The mean fine root biomass of beech was 389 g m(-2), and that of spruce and pine 297 g m(-2) and 277 g m(-2), respectively. Data from pine stands supported the hypothesis that: root biomass is higher in the temperate than in the boreal zone. The results indicated that the root biomass of deciduous trees is higher than that of conifers. The correlations between root biomass and site fertility characteristics seemed to be species specific. There was no correlation between soil acidity and root biomass. Beech fine root. biomass decreased with stand age whereas pine root biomass increased with stand age. Fine root biomass at tree level. correlated better than stand level root biomass with stand characteristics. The results showed that there exists a strong relationship between the fine root biomass and the above-ground biomass.

  • 2.
    Majdi, Hooshang
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Ecology, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Root and root-lignin degradation in a Norway spruce stand: effects of long-term nitrogen addition2007In: Plant Biosystems, ISSN 1126-3504, E-ISSN 1724-5575, Vol. 141, no 2, p. 214-221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mass loss, degradation of lignin and the qualitative change of the organic C structures of spruce root litter (2-5 mm in diameter) in O-horizon were studied for a period of 6 years (1995-2001) in a Norway spruce stand with a current deposition of 13 kg N and 12 kg S ha(-1) yr(-1). The stand was fertilized annually by addition of 100 kg N and 114 kg S ha(-1) (NS). Litterbags, acid detergent lignin (ADL), CuO-oxidation as well as C-13-NMR were used for measurements of mass loss, lignin concentration, degradation of lignin and changes of the organic C structures, respectively. The roots originating from the NS-treated plots lost 20% of their mass in the first year while in control (CON) plots the corresponding value was 10%. After 1879 days of decomposition the fertilized roots had a cumulative mass loss of 54% compared with the CON roots of 44%. The C/N ratios were significantly lower in the NS roots (35) than in the CON roots (59) after 1879 days of decomposition. The initial concentrations of ADL were 34.7 and 36.6 in CON and NS roots and increased to 50 and 56%, respectively, after 1879 days. Using CuO-oxidation method the degree of lignin degradation was significantly higher in the NS than CON roots after 853 days while C-13 NMR method showed no change. Our results indicate that CuO-oxidation and solid-state C-13 NMR methods give a qualitative measure of lignin decomposition, while the litterbag and ADL methods allow us to quantify mass loss and lignin concentration, respectively. It is concluded that the mass loss of root litter in fertilized plots is higher than needle litter decomposition in the same stand and the higher nitrogen concentration increases the lignin degradation.

  • 3.
    Ostonen, I.
    et al.
    Institute of Geography, University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Püttsepp, Ü.
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden; Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Estonia.
    Biel, C.
    RTA, Departament d’Horticultura Ambiental, Carretera de Cabrils, Spain.
    Alberton, O.
    Department of Soil Quality, Wageningen University, The Netherlands.
    Bakker, M.R.
    ENITA de Bordeaux, UMR 1220 TCEM (INRA-ENITAB), France.
    Lohmus, K.
    Institute of Geography, University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Majdi, Hooshang
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Metcalfe, D.
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Olsthoorn, A.F.M.
    Van Hall Larenstein University of Professional Education, The Netherlands.
    Pronk, A.
    Plant Research International, Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands.
    Vanguelova, A.
    Environmental & Human Sciences Division, Forest Research, UK.
    Weih, M.
    Department of Crop Production Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Brunner, I.
    Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research, Switzerland.
    Specific root length as an indicator of environmental change2007In: Plant Biosystems, ISSN 1126-3504, E-ISSN 1724-5575, Vol. 141, no 3, p. 426-442Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Specific root length (SRL, m g(-1)) is probably the most frequently measured morphological parameter of fine roots. It is believed to characterize economic aspects of the root system and to be indicative of environmental changes. The main objectives of this paper were to review and summarize the published SRL data for different tree species throughout Europe and to assess SRL under varying environmental conditions. Meta-analysis was used to summarize the response of SRL to the following manipulated environmental conditions: fertilization, irrigation, elevated temperature, elevated CO(2), Al-stress, reduced light, heavy metal stress and physical disturbance of soil. SRL was found to be strongly dependent on the fine root classes, i.e. on the ectomycorrhizal short roots (ECM), and on the roots < 0.5 mm, < 1 mm, < 2 mm and 1-2 mm in diameter SRL was largest for ECM and decreased with increasing diameter. Changes in soil factors influenced most strongly the SRL of ECM and roots < 0.5 mm. The variation in the SRL components, root diameter and root tissue density, and their impact on the SRL value were computed. Meta-analyses showed that SRL decreased significantly under fertilization and Al-stress; it responded negatively to reduced light, elevated temperature and CO(2). We suggest that SRL can be used successfully as an indicator of nutrient availability to trees in experimental conditions.

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