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  • 1.
    Chérif, Lobna
    et al.
    Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, Canada.
    Wood, Valerie
    Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, Canada.
    Marois, Alexandre
    École de psychologie, Université Laval, Québec, Canada.
    Labonté, Katherine
    École de psychologie, Université Laval, Québec, Canada.
    Vachon, François
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. École de psychologie, Université Laval, Québec, Canada.
    Multitasking in the military: Cognitive consequences and potential solutions2018In: Applied Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0888-4080, E-ISSN 1099-0720, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 429-439Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multitasking-the performance of several tasks at the same time-is becoming increasingly prevalent in workplaces. Multitasking is known to disrupt performance, particularly in complex and dynamic situations, which is exactly what most military occupations entail. Because military errors can be consequential, the detrimental impact of multitasking on cognitive functioning in such contexts should be taken seriously. This review pertains to high-consequence military occupations that require strong multitasking skills. More specifically, it highlights cognitive challenges arising from different forms of multitasking and discusses their underlying cognitive processes. Because such challenges are not expected to diminish, this review proposes context-relevant solutions to decrease occupational workload, either by reducing the cognitive load ensuing from the to-be-performed tasks or by improving soldiers' multitasking abilities. To ensure effective implementation of these solutions, we stress the need to design context-adapted tools and procedures, and to guide human resource managers in developing particular strategies.

  • 2.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Classroom experiments on the effects of different noise sources and sound levels on long-term recall and recognition in children2003In: Applied Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0888-4080, E-ISSN 1099-0720, Vol. 17, no 8, p. 895-914Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A total of 1358 children aged 12-14 years participated in ten noise experiments in their ordinary classrooms and were tested for recall and recognition of a text exactly one week later. Single and combined noise sources were presented for 15 min at 66 dBA L-eq (equivalent noise level). Single source presentations of aircraft and road traffic noise were also presented at 55 dBA L-eq. Data were analysed between subjects since the first within-subjects analysis revealed a noise after-effect or a asymmetric transfer effect. Overall, there was a strong noise effect on recall, and a smaller, but significant effect on recognition. In the single-source studies, aircraft and road traffic noise impaired recall at both noise levels. Train noise and verbal noise did not affect recognition or recall. Some of the pairwise combinations of aircraft noise with train or road traffic, with one or the other as the dominant source, interfered with recall and recognition. Item difficulty, item position and ability did not interact with the noise effect. Arousal, distraction, perceived effort, and perceived difficulty in reading and learning did not mediate the effects on recall and recognition.

  • 3.
    Keus van de Poll, Marijke
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Sjödin, Louise
    Gösta Ekman Laboratory, Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Mats
    Gösta Ekman Laboratory, Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Disruption of writing by background speech: does sound source location and number of voices matter?2019In: Applied Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0888-4080, E-ISSN 1099-0720, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 537-543Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is not unusual that people have to write in an environment where background speech is present. Background speech can vary in both speech intelligibility and location of the sound source. Earlier research has shown disruptive effects of background speech on writing performance. To expand and reinforce this knowledge, the present study investigated the role of number of voices and sound source location in the relation between background speech and writing performance. Participants wrote texts in quiet or in background speech existing of one or seven voices talking simultaneously, located in front of or behind them. Overall, one voice was more disruptive than seven voices talking simultaneously. Self-reports showed that sound from the front was more disruptive compared to sound from behind. Results are in line with theory of interference-by-process, attentional capture and the cross-modal theory of attention. The relevance of the results for open-office environments is discussed.

  • 4.
    Keus van de Poll, Marijke
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Effects of task interruption and background speech on word processed writing2016In: Applied Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0888-4080, E-ISSN 1099-0720, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 430-439Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Task interruptions and background speech, both part of the everyday situation in office environments, impair cognitive performance. The current experiments explored the combined effects of background speech and task interruptions on word processed writing-arguably, a task representative of office work. Participants wrote stories, in silence or in the presence of background speech (monologues, halfalogues and dialogues), and were occasionally interrupted by a secondary task. Writing speed was comparably low during the immediate period after the interruption (Experiments 1 and 2); it took 10-15s to regain full writing speed. Background speech had only a small effect on performance (Experiment 1), but a dialogue was more disruptive than a halfalogue (Experiment 2). Background speech did not add to the cost caused by task interruptions. However, subjective measures suggested that speech, just as interruptions, contributed to perceived workload. The findings are discussed in view of attentional capture and interference-by-process mechanisms.

  • 5.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Ljung, Robert
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Recall of words heard in noise2008In: Applied Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0888-4080, E-ISSN 1099-0720, Vol. 22, no 8, p. 1088-1098Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to explore if recall of words and recognition of sentences orally presented was affected by a background noise. A further aim was to investigate the role of working memory capacity in performance in these conditions. Thirty-two subjects performed a word recall and a sentence recognition test. They repeated each word to ensure that they had heard them. A reading span test measured their working memory capacity. Performance on the word recall task was impaired by the background noise. A high reading span score was associated with a smaller noise effect, especially on recall of the last part of the word list.

  • 6.
    Knez, Igor
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Irrelevant speech and indoor lighting: effects on cognitive performance and self-reported affect2002In: Applied Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0888-4080, E-ISSN 1099-0720, Vol. 16, no 6, p. 709-718Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Ljung, Robert
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Israelsson, Karl
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Speech Intelligibility and Recall of Spoken Material Heard at Different Signal-to-noise Ratios and the Role Played by Working Memory Capacity2013In: Applied Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0888-4080, E-ISSN 1099-0720, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 198-203Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Ljung, Robert
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Marsh, John E.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, Lancashire UK .
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Distraction of Counting by the Meaning of Background Speech: Are Spatial Memory Demands a Prerequisite?2015In: Applied Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0888-4080, E-ISSN 1099-0720, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 584-591Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reexamines the effects of background speech on counting. Previous studies have shown that background sound disrupts counting in comparison with silence, but the magnitude of disruption is no larger for spoken numbers compared with that for non-number speech (there is no effect of the meaning of background speech). The typical task used previously has been to count the number of sequentially presented visual events. We replicated the general finding in Experiment 1—that there is no effect of the meaning of background speech—in the context of the classic sequence counting task. In Experiment 2, the task was changed by having to-be-counted dots presented simultaneously and randomly across the visual field. Here, an effect attributable to the meaning of background speech emerged. Background speech that is similar in meaning to the focal task process contributes to the magnitude of disruption, but apparently only when spatial memory processes are a task prerequisite.

  • 9.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Eriksson, Mårten
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Effects of training on age estimation2007In: Applied Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0888-4080, E-ISSN 1099-0720, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 131-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the possibility to improve accuracy of age estimates through training. Thirty-four participants were divided into an experimental and a control group. The sessions included a pre-test before training, six feedback or no-feedback training tests and a post-test after training. The experimental group performed the feedback tests and the control group the no-feedback tests. Training was found to improve age estimation accuracy, particularly estimations of old stimuli, and training with feedback seemed to be superior to training without feedback. No difference was found between the groups at pre-test, but at post-test the experimental group exhibited greater accuracy in age estimation. Moreover, the experimental group increased its accuracy between the pre- and post-tests.

  • 10.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Halin, Niklas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Individual differences in susceptibility to the effects of speech on reading comprehension2010In: Applied Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0888-4080, E-ISSN 1099-0720, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 67-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Individuals with high working memory capacity (WMC) are less distracted by task-irrelevant speech than others. The mechanism behind this relationship, however, is not well understood, and it has only been found in a few paradigms. We used a Number updating task to measure WMC and two suppression mechanisms (immediate and delayed), and tested how they were associated with individual differences in susceptibility to the effects of speech on reading comprehension. The results revealed a negative relationship between WMC and susceptibility to speech distraction. Of the two suppression mechanisms, only immediate suppression was associated with speech distraction, suggesting that susceptibility to distraction is determined by the ability to immediately suppress the irrelevant speech. Furthermore, the relationship between WMC and speech distraction was mediated by the immediate suppression mechanism. The implications of these results and possible explanations of similar results found in other paradigms are discussed.

  • 11.
    Threadgold, Emma
    et al.
    School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Marsh, John E.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science. School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    McLatchie, Neil
    Department of Psychology, Lancaster University, Lancaster, UK.
    Ball, Linden J.
    School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Background music stints creativity: evidence from compound remote associate tasks2019In: Applied Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0888-4080, E-ISSN 1099-0720Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Summary Background music has been claimed to enhance people's creativity. In three experiments, we investigated the impact of background music on performance of Compound Remote Associate Tasks (CRATs), which are widely thought to tap creativity. Background music with foreign (unfamiliar) lyrics (Experiment 1), instrumental music without lyrics (Experiment 2), and music with familiar lyrics (Experiment 3) all significantly impaired CRAT performance in comparison with quiet background conditions. Furthermore, Experiment 3 demonstrated that background music impaired CRAT performance regardless of whether the music induced a positive mood or whether participants typically studied in the presence of music. The findings challenge the view that background music enhances creativity and are discussed in terms of an auditory distraction account (interference-by-process) and the processing disfluency account.

1 - 11 of 11
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