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  • 1.
    Andersson, Linus
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Not getting used to the smell – Chemical intolerance as lack of habituation2017Ingår i: Biological Psychology, ISSN 0301-0511, E-ISSN 1873-6246, Vol. 129, nr Suppl. C, s. 377-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Chemical intolerance is a prevalent, medically unexplained symptom characterized by diverse symptoms following weak chemical exposure. The symptom-eliciting exposures are often odorous, and include perfume, fabric softeners and fragrant flowers. Several explanatory mechanisms have been proposed, but empirical data is scarce. By reanalyzing data from previous studies, we aimed to find a criterion for chemical intolerance based on reactions to actual chemical exposure.

    Method:

    We grouped participants from six previous studies based on their pattern of habituation to weak olfactory (amylacetate and n-butanol) and trigeminal (CO2 and acrolein) compounds. In two studies utilizing event-related potentials, and one functional magnetic resonance imaging study, stimuli were presented intranasally using a dynamic olfactometer. An exposure chamber that allowed full body exposure was used in the remaining three studies.

    Results:

    Individuals who did not habituate to weak chemical exposure, compared with those who did, reported (1) increasing symptoms during the course of the exposure, (2) greater problems with odors in everyday life, and (3) greater levels of everyday distress. They (4) performed worse on cognitively demanding tasks during exposure, and differed in measures of (5) the autonomic nervoussystem(respiratoryrateandpulseratevariability),(6)low-level inflammation and oxidative stress, and (7) the so called pain matrix of the brain.

    Discussion:

    Lack of habituation to weak chemical exposure may be a fruitful method of defining a sub-group of chemical intolerance.

  • 2.
    Aue, Tatjana
    et al.
    University of Geneva, Switzerland; University of Chicago, IL, USA.
    Flykt, Anders
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och psykologi, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi. University of Geneva, Switzerland; Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Scherer, Klaus R.
    University of Geneva, Switzerland.
    First evidence for differential and sequential efferent effects of stimulus relevance and goal conduciveness appraisal2007Ingår i: Biological Psychology, ISSN 0301-0511, E-ISSN 1873-6246, Vol. 74, nr 3, s. 347-357Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    n the context of a memory task, participants were presented with pictures displaying biological and cultural threat stimuli or neutral stimuli (stimulus relevance manipulation) with superimposed symbols signaling monetary gains or losses (goal conduciveness manipulation). Results for heart rate and facial electromyogram show differential efferent effects of the respective appraisal outcomes and provide first evidence for sequential processing, as postulated by Scherer's component process model of emotion. Specifically, as predicted, muscle activity over the brow and cheek regions marking the process of relevance appraisal occurred significantly earlier than facial muscle activity markers of goal conduciveNess appraisal. Heart rate, in contrast, was influenced by the stimulus relevance manipulation only.

  • 3.
    Flykt, Anders
    et al.
    Psychology Section, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; Psychology section, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Esteves, Francisco
    Psychology Section, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Organizational and Social Psychology, ISCTE, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Öhman, Arne
    Psychology Section, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Skin conductance responses to masked conditioned stimuli: phylogenetic/ontogenetic factors versus direction of threat?2007Ingår i: Biological Psychology, ISSN 0301-0511, E-ISSN 1873-6246, Vol. 74, nr 3, s. 328-336Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Evolutionarily old threat stimuli are likely to require less conscious information processing than threat stimuli of a more recent date. To test thisproposal two differential conditioning experiments, with biological threat stimuli (e.g. snakes) in half the groups and cultural threat stimuli (e.g.guns) in the other half, were conducted. The conditioned (CS+) and the control (CS) stimuli were backward masked during the extinction phase toprevent conscious recognition. The differential skin conductance responding for both biological and cultural threat stimuli survived the maskingprocedure when the conditioned stimuli were directed towards the participants (Experiment 1), but for neither type of CS when stimuli were notdirected towards the participants (Experiment 2). These findings are discussed in relation to the previous finding by O ̈hman and co-workers and inrelation to imminence of threat.

  • 4.
    Lowden, Arne
    et al.
    IPM—National Institute for Psychosocial Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Holmbäck, Ulf
    Department of Medical Sciences, Nutrition, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    IPM—National Institute for Psychosocial Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Forslund, Jeanette
    Department of Medical Sciences, Nutrition, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    Department of Medical Sciences, Nutrition, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Forslund, Anders
    Department of Medical Sciences, Nutrition, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Performance and sleepiness during a 24 h wake in constant conditions are affected by diet2004Ingår i: Biological Psychology, ISSN 0301-0511, E-ISSN 1873-6246, Vol. 65, nr 3, s. 251-263Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the effects of high-carbohydrate (HC) and high-fat (HF) diet on cognitive performance, and subjective and objective sleepiness. Seven male participants were kept awake for 24 h in a metabolic ward. Meals were given every 4 h and cognitive performance and sleepiness ratings were assessed hourly. The Karolinska Drowsiness Test (KDT, EEG derived) was performed twice after meal. Performance in simple reaction time showed a significant interaction of diet and the post-prandial period, a slower reaction time was observed for the HC-diet 3.5 h after meal intake. Diet did not affect EEG measures but a general post-prandial increase of objective sleepiness was observed 3.5 h after meal servings. The HC-diet was significantly associated with an increase of subjective sleepiness. The study demonstrated that the HC-diet caused larger oscillation in performance and increased sleepiness as compared to HF-diet throughout day and night.

  • 5.
    Marois, Alexandre
    et al.
    Université Laval, Québec, Canada.
    Marsh, John E.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap. University of Central Lancashire, Preston, United Kingdom.
    Vachon, François
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap. Université Laval, Québec, Canada.
    Is auditory distraction by changing-state and deviant sounds underpinned by the same mechanism?: Evidence from pupillometry2019Ingår i: Biological Psychology, ISSN 0301-0511, E-ISSN 1873-6246, Vol. 141, s. 64-74Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The mere presence of task-irrelevant auditory stimuli is known to interfere with cognitive functioning. Disruption can be caused by changing auditory distractors (the changing-state effect) or by a sound that deviates from the auditory background (the deviation effect). The unitary account of auditory distraction explains both phenomena in terms of attentional capture whereas the duplex-mechanism account posits that they reflect two fundamentally different forms of distraction in which only the deviation effect is caused by attentional capture. To test these predictions, we exploited a physiological index of attention orienting: the pupillary dilation response (PDR). Participants performed visual serial recall while ignoring sequences of spoken letters. These sequences either comprised repeated or changing letters, and one letter could sometimes be replaced by pink noise (the deviant). Recall was poorer in both changing-state and deviant trials. Interestingly, the PDR was elicited by deviant sounds but not changing-state sounds, while a tonic increase in pupil size was found throughout changing-state trials. This physiological dissociation of the changing-state and the deviation effects suggests they are subtended by distinct mechanisms thereby procuring support for the duplex-mechanism account over the unitary account. 

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