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  • 1.
    Enmarker, Ingela
    et al.
    Department of Health Sciences, Nord-Trøndelag University College, Steinkjer, Norway; Center for Care Research, Steinkjer, Norway.
    Hellzén, Ove
    Department of Health Sciences, Nord-Trøndelag University College, Steinkjer, Norway; Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Ekker, Knut
    Department of Agriculture and Information Technology, Nord-Trøndelag University College, Steinkjer, Norway.
    T. Berg, Anne-Grethe
    Department of Clinical Medicine, Vivarium-Haukeland sykehus, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; Norway/Norwegian Food Safety Authority, Steinkjer, Norway.
    Depression in older cat and dog owners: The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT)-32015In: Aging & Mental Health, ISSN 1360-7863, E-ISSN 1364-6915, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 347-352Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Depression constitutes a major health problem for older people, in this study defined as people 65 years of age and older. Previous studies have shown that mental health among older people who live with animals could be improved, but contrary results exist as well. Therefore, the objective of the present population study was to compare the self-rated depression symptoms of both female and male non-pet owners, cat owners, and dog owners.

    Method: The participants in this cross-sectional population study included 12,093 people between the ages of 65 and 101. One thousand and eighty three participants owned cats and 814 participants owned dogs. Self-rated depression symptoms were measured using HADS-D, the scale of self-administered depression symptoms in HADS (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale).

    Results: The main results showed higher mean values on the HADS-D for cat owners than for both dog and non-pet owners. The latter group rated their depression symptoms the lowest. When dividing the ratings into low- and high-depression symptoms, the logistic regression analysis showed that it was more likely that males who owned cats perceived lower depression symptoms than females who owned cats. No interactions were recognized between pet ownership and subjective general health status, loneliness, or marital status.

    Conclusions: Our results provide a window into the differences in health factors between older females and males who own cats and dogs in rural areas. Results from population studies like ours might increase the available knowledge base when using cats and dogs in clinical environments such as nursing homes.

  • 2.
    Hedström, Mariann
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Section of Caring Sciences.
    Carlsson, Marianne
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Uppsala University, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Ekman, Anna
    Uppsala University Hospital, Department of medication and patient safety.
    Gillespie, Ulrika
    Uppsala University Hospital, Department of medication and patient safety.
    Mörk, Christina
    Uppsala County Council, Pharmaceutical Committee.
    Hulter Åsberg, Kerstin
    Uppsala University, Department of Neuroscience.
    Development of the PHASE-Proxy scale for rating drug-related signs and symptoms in severe cognitive impairment2018In: Aging & Mental Health, ISSN 1360-7863, E-ISSN 1364-6915, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 53-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: The need for assessment of possible drug-related signs and symptoms in older people with severe cognitive impairment has increased. In 2009, the PHASE-20 rating scale for identifying symptoms possibly related to medication was the first such scale to be found valid and reliable for use with elderly people. In this project, the aim was to develop and examine the psychometric properties and clinical utility of PHASE-Proxy, a similar scale for proxy use in assessing elderly people with cognitive impairment.

    METHODS: Three expert groups revised PHASE-20 into a preliminary proxy version, which was then tested for inter-rater reliability, internal consistency, and content validity. Its clinical usefulness was investigated by pharmacist-led medication reviews. Group interviews and a study-specific questionnaire with nursing home staff were used to investigate the feasibility of use.

    RESULTS: The PHASE-Proxy scale had satisfactory levels of inter-rater reliability (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient; rs = 0.8), and acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha coefficient; α = 0.73). The factor analysis resulted in a logical solution with seven factors, grouped into two dimensions: signs of emotional distress and signs of physical discomfort. The medication reviews, interviews, and questionnaires also found the proxy scale to be clinically useful, and feasible to use.

    CONCLUSION: The PHASE-Proxy scale appears to be a valid instrument that enables proxies to reliably assess nursing home residents who cannot participate in the assessment, to identify possible drug-related signs and symptoms. It also appears to be clinically useful and feasible for use in this population.

  • 3.
    Moe, Aud
    et al.
    Faculty of Health and Science, Nord-Trøndelag University College, Levanger, Norway; Department of Health Sciences, MidSweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Hellzén, Ove
    Faculty of Health and Science, Nord-Trøndelag University College, Levanger, Norway; Department of Health Sciences, MidSweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Ekker, Knut
    Faculty of Agricuclture and InformationTechnology, Nord-Trøndelag University College,S teinkjer, Norway.
    Enmarker, Ingela
    Faculty of Health Science, Nord-Trøndelag University Collage, Namsos, Norway.
    Inner strength in relation toperceived physical and mental health among the oldest old people with chronicillness2013In: Aging & Mental Health, ISSN 1360-7863, E-ISSN 1364-6915, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 189-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine inner strength, defined as connectedness, firmness, flexibility, and creativity, and its relation to mental and physical health in a sample of the oldest old chronically ill women and men living at home.

    Methods: A sample of 79 older women and 41 men in the age range of 80–101 years old (mean = 87.5) participated in this study. Inner strength measured by Resilience Scale, Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC), Purpose in Life Test (PIL), and Self-Transcendence Test (STS) was viewed in relation to mental and physical health (SF-36 Health Survey).

    Results: Experiencing connectedness, firmness, flexibility, and creativity were equal for women and men. SOC, PIL, and STS showed moderate inner strength. Medium and low resilience made the participants feel vulnerable. A significant correlation was observed between the variables for inner strength and mental health for women, men, and the total sample. STS was associated with mental and physical health for the total sample and for women.

    Conclusions: Although the oldest old women and men were vulnerable, they had inner strength. Encouraging participation using the inner strength of the oldest old can contribute to strengthen their experiences of independence, integrity, and enjoying life.

  • 4.
    Olsson, Annakarin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science.
    Lampic, Claudia
    Karolinska institutet.
    Skovdahl, Kirsti
    Örebro Universitet.
    Engström, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science.
    Persons with early-stage dementia reflect on being outdoors: a repeated interview study2013In: Aging & Mental Health, ISSN 1360-7863, E-ISSN 1364-6915, Vol. 17, no 7, p. 793-800Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives:The aim of this study was to describe how persons with early-stage dementia reflect on being outdoors.

    Method: Data were collected through repeated interviews with a purposive sample of 11 persons with early-stage dementia in Sweden during the period 2009–2010 and were analysed using qualitative content analysis.

    Results: Informants described being outdoors as a confirmation of the self. Confirmation of their ability to maintain desired activities, despite the dementia disease, was important to the informants. However, some confirmations were not positive; the realisation that one could no longer perform certain activities could be devastating. Two sub-themes emerged: shifting between ‘still being part of it all’ and a sense of grief and loss and striving to keep on despite perceived barriers. Past, but no longer possible, outdoor activities were greatly missed and the informants longed to be able to perform these activities once again. To resolve possible difficulties associated with being outdoors, the informants used various adaptation strategies. Despite the described barriers, being outdoors was of great value to them.

    Conclusion: Independent outdoor activities seem to contribute to the well-being and feelings of self-worth among persons with early-stage dementia who want to be and are able to be outdoors. If a person with dementia, despite cognitive limitations, wants and is able to engage in outdoor activities, it is important for relatives and health-care staff to encourage and facilitate this, for example, by discussing adaptation strategies to deal with orientation problems.

  • 5.
    Tuvesson, Hanna
    et al.
    Department of Health, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Hellström, A.
    Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Sjöberg, L.
    Aging Research Center, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sjölund, Britt-Marie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Aging Research Center, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nordell, E.
    Department of Geriatric Medicine, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden.
    Fagerström, C.
    Blekinge Centre of Competence, Blekinge County Hospital, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Life weariness and suicidal thoughts in late life: a national study in Sweden2018In: Aging & Mental Health, ISSN 1360-7863, E-ISSN 1364-6915, Vol. 22, no 10, p. 1365-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: This study aimed at investigating the point prevalence of life weariness and suicidal thoughts and their relationship with socio-demographic characteristics in a population of older adults in Sweden. Method: Data from 7913 individuals aged 60 years and older were drawn from the Swedish National Study on Aging and Care, a collaborative study in Sweden. Life weariness and suicidal thoughts were measured by one item derived from the Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale. A multinomial regression model was used to investigate the relationships of socio-demographic characteristics with life weariness and suicidal thoughts. Results: Living in urban and semi-urban areas, being of advanced age, being divorced and having lower educational levels were related to life weariness. Living in a residential care facility, being widowed or unmarried, being born in a non-Nordic European country and experiencing financial difficulties were related to both life weariness and suicidal thoughts. Sex was found to be unrelated to either life weariness or suicidal thoughts. Conclusion: This study found that several socio-demographic variables were associated with life weariness and suicidal thoughts among older adults. Specific attention to older individuals with these characteristics may be warranted as they might be more vulnerable to life weariness and suicidal thoughts.

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