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  • 1.
    Björn, Catrine
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Centre for Research & Development, Uppsala University/County Council of Gävleborg, Gävle, Sweden.
    Josephson, Malin
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Wadensten, Barbro
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Rissén, Dag
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Centre for Research & Development, Uppsala University/County Council of Gävleborg, Gävle, Sweden.
    Prominent attractive qualities of nurses’ work in operating room departments: a questionnaire study2015In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 52, no 4, p. 877-889Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The shortage of nurses in operating room departments (ORs) in Sweden and other countries can lead to reduced capacity and quality in healthcare, as well as more intense work for those on the job. Little is known about what nurses in ORs perceive as crucial for their workplace to be attractive.

    OBJECTIVE: To capture attractive qualities of nurses work in ORs and to adapt the Attractive Work Questionnaire (AWQ).

    METHODS: The AWQ, rating attractive qualities of work, were completed by 147 (68%) nurses in four Swedish ORs. Principal Component Analyses were performed to determine the underlying structure of the data.

    RESULTS: The factors in the area Work conditions were: relations, leadership, equipment, salary, organisation, physical work environment, location, and working hours; in the area Work content: mental work, autonomy and work rate; and in the area Job satisfaction: status and acknowledgement. The Principal Component Analysis showed consistency with the original AWQ. Cronbach’s alpha varied between 0.57-0.90.

    CONCLUSIONS: The AWQ captured attractive qualities for nurses in ORs, some less discussed regarding nurse retention, i.e. equipment, physical work environment and location. The results suggest that the questionnaire is reliable and valid and can be a useful tool in identifying attractive work.

  • 2.
    Boman, Tomas
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work. Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Örebro University.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Danermark, Berth
    Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Boman, Eva
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Can people with disabilities gain from education?: Similarities and differences between occupational attainment among persons with and without disabilities2014In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 193-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: More knowledge is needed ofoccupational attainment of persons with disabilities, i.e. the relationship between their educational level and their profession, and factors of importance for this relationship.

    Objective: To compare occupational attainment among persons with and without a disability.

    Method: 3 396 informants with disabilities and 19 004 non-disabled informants participated (control group) in a survey study by Statistics Sweden.The informants with disabilities were divided into six groups.

    Results: Occupational attainment did not differ between the disability groups, neither between persons with and without a disability. Follow-up analysis showed that men with disabilities with primary or secondary school had an occupation above their educational level to a significantlylarger extent than women with disabilities. This pattern was even clearer in comparison with the control group. Persons without disabilities, with secondary or higher education, were more successful in the labor market than persons with disabilities. Occupational attainment increased with age in both groups.

    Conclusions: Young women with disabilities who only have primary or secondary education run a higher risk of having a job that is below their educational level than men at the same educational level. This indicates discriminating mechanisms in the society related to gender and ability.

  • 3.
    Ciccarelli, Marina
    et al.
    Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Straker, Leon
    Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Pollock, Clare
    Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    ITKids Part I: Children's occupations and use of information and communication technologies2011In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 401-412Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Reports in the popular media are that school children use modern information and communication technology (ICT) on a regular basis for a variety of purposes, however little has been documented in the scientific literature about how school children spend their time and the different types of ICT they use.

    Method: This paper describes the observed occupations and ICT use of nine Australian primary school children in their natural environments at school and away-from-school during one school day, and compares self-reported exposures with direct observations. Self-reported discomfort scores were obtained throughout the day.

    Results: The study identified that paper-based ICT (Old ICT) was used mostly for productive occupations at school, while electronics-based (New ICT) was used mostly during leisure in away-from-school locations. Tasks involving no ICT (Non ICT) accounted for the largest proportion of time in both locations during self-care, leisure and instrumental occupations. End-of-day self-reported time performing different occupations was consistent with data from independent observations. Self reported time using Old ICT and New ICT was marginally over-estimated, and time spent using Non-ICT was marginally under-estimated.

    Conclusion: The children in this study used a variety of ICT in the performance of daily occupations in their natural environments. New ICT use was primarily for leisure, but time spent was less than reported among other child studies. Discomfort reports among the participants were low. Children’s self-reports of daily occupations and ICT use has utility as an exposure assessment metric.

  • 4.
    Ciccarelli, Marina
    et al.
    Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Straker, Leon
    Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Pollock, Clare
    Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    ITKids Part II: Variation of postures and muscle activity in children using different information and communication technologies2011In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 413-427Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There are concerns that insufficient variation in postural and muscle activity associated with modern information and communication technology (ICT) tasks presents a risk for musculoskeletal ill-health among school children. However, scientific knowledge on physical exposure variation in this group is limited.

    Method: Postures of the head, upper back and upper arm, and muscle activity of the right and left upper trapezius and right forearm extensors were measured over 10-12 hours in nine school children using different types of ICT at school and away-from-school. Variation in postures and muscle activity was quantified using two indices, EVAsd and APDF(90-10).

    Results: Paper-based (Old) ICT tasks produced postures that were less neutral but more variable than electronics-based (New ICT) and Non-ICT tasks. Non-ICT tasks involved mean postures similar to New ICT tasks, but with greater variation. Variation of muscle activity was similar between ICT types in the right and left upper trapezius muscles. Non-ICT tasks produced more muscle activity variation in the right forearm extensor group compared to New and Old ICT tasks.

    Conclusion: Different ICT tasks produce different degrees of variation of postures and muscle activity. Combining tasks that use different ICT may increase overall exposure variation. More research is needed to determine what degree of postural and muscle activity variation is associated with reduced risk of musculoskeletal ill-health.

  • 5.
    Ericsson, Pernilla
    et al.
    Work and Environmental Medicine, Umeå University Hospital, Umeå, Sweden.
    Björklund, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Wahlström, Jens
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Exposure assessment in different occupational groups at a hospital using Quick Exposure Check (QEC): a pilot study2012In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 41, no Suppl. 1, p. 5718-5720Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to test the feasibility and sensitivity of the ergonomic exposure assessment tool Quick Exposure Check (QEC), a pilot-study was conducted. The aim was to test QEC in different occupational groups to compare the exposure in the most common work task with the exposure in the work task perceived as the most strenuous for the neck/shoulder region, and to test intra-observer reliability. One experienced ergonomist observed 23 workers. The mean observation time was 45 minutes, waiting time and time for complementary questions included. The exposure scores varied between the different occupational groups as well as between workers within the occupational groups. Eighteen workers rated their most common work task as also being the most strenuous for the neck/shoulder region. For the remaining five workers, the mean exposure score were higher both for the neck and shoulder/arm in the most common work task. Intra-observer reliability shows agreement in 86% of the exposure interactions in the neck and in 71% in the shoulder/arm. QEC seems to fulfill the expectations of being a quick, sensible and practical exposure assessment tool that covers physical risk factors in the neck, upper extremities and low back.

  • 6.
    Evstigneeva, Maria
    et al.
    Saint Petersburg State University, Russia.
    Aleksandrov, Aleksandr
    Saint Petersburg State University, Russia.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Lyskov, Eugene
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Concurrent cognitive task may improve motor work performance and reduce muscle fatigue2012In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 41, no Suppl. 1, p. 2893-2896Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Performance of certain cognitive tasks either during physical load or in rest pauses between boosts might lead to slowing of muscle fatigue and fatigue related decline in performance. Seventeen right-handed healthy volunteers (age 24±1.4, 8 males) participated in this study, aiming to investigate the effect of the level of the cognitive information processing – 1) passive perception of audio stimuli, 2) active stimuli discrimination, 3) active stimuli discrimination following motor response - on motor task performance (handgrip test 30% and 7% of MVC) and muscle fatigue development. Cognitive tasks show the following effects on motor work: i) Perceived fatigue during 30 % MVC (fatiguing) condition developed slower if participant pressed button in response to deviant acoustic stimuli, as compared to passive listening. Counting task, an active task without motor component, took the intermediate position and did not differ significantly from two other cognitive tasks. ii) MVC after 30% MVC (fatiguing) condition tended to decrease stronger when accompanied with passive listening in comparison with both active tasks. iii) Motor task performance during 30% MVC (fatiguing) condition was better for active cognitive task with motor component than for passive task. Active task without motor component took the intermediate position and did not differ significantly from both the other cognitive tasks.

  • 7.
    Forsman, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bernmark, Eva
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet.
    Nilsson, Birgitta
    Innventia AB.
    Pousette, Sandra
    Innventia AB.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Participative development of packages in the food industry – evaluation of ergonomics and productivity by objective measurements2012In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 41, p. 1751-1755Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rationalizations generally have a negative effect on health and known risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders. These effects may be reduced by paying attention to modifiers as worker participation and a resonant management style. In this study a participatory approach was used in the food industry in order to improve ergonomics and productivity. The food industry shows a high prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders, and repetitive manual work occurs extensively. Prototypes of new packaging solutions were developed in three cases, and compared in a simulated production to the existing production system through direct measurements of working postures and muscle activity, ratings of physical load, and general productivity data. Measured and rated ergonomic exposures showed that workload was significantly lower for the prototypes, in all three cases. In two cases, the number of handling operations included in the packaging operations were greatly reduced with the prototype package, as were production costs. The impact on disorders of the obtained load reductions is difficult to assess, but we believe that in “critical” situations like this, even small improvements may have an effect. This study shows that workloads during manual handling of packages as well as production costs can be reduced by applying participative development of packages.

  • 8.
    Forsman, Mikael
    et al.
    Karolinska institute, Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Lodin, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Richter, Hans
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Co-variation in time between near-far accommodation of the lens and trapezius muscle activity2012In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 41, no Suppl. 1, p. 3393-3397Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Visual strain and discomfort may contribute to the generation of work-related musculoskeletal disorders among e.g. computer workers. A positive correlation on a group level between eye-lens accommodation and trapezius muscle activity has been reported. In this study we investigated the possibility of a direct, fast, connection between lens accommodation and trapezius muscles activity. The subjects focused alternately on Near and Far targets, with a mean switch time of 5 s, through four different lenses. The cross-correlation, R(tau) was computed, between the time signals of accommodation and electromyography (EMG) from 23 subjects. In the overall mean R(tau) of 736 curves, a small but significant correlation peak (0.019) with a delay (of the EMG signal) of about 0.3 s, revealed a small common component in the two signals. Among the lenses, the positive lens (3.5 D), showed the highest correlation peak (0.040). The correlation may be caused by a direct “hard-wired” connection between the ciliary and trapezius muscles. But it could also be caused indirectly by the subject’s need for a more stable head in a more demanding visual task. The latter is supported by the result that the correlation was the highest in the positive lens condition. The present correlation is however weak and it has probably a low practical importance.

  • 9.
    Jackson, Jennie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    The trade-off between meticulousness and methodological variance in normalization of low back EMG2012In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 41, no Suppl. 1, p. 2307-2314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Normalization of surface electromyography (EMG) is a common and recommended practice, however this methodological step itself introduces variability to a data set. Quantification of this variance is necessary to correctly interpret overall EMG variability. This information is also paramount to identifying experimentally and clinically relevant normalization task(s) which minimize induced variance yet are time-efficient. Purpose: The goal of this study was to quantify the within-day variance of two commonly reported, sub-maximal tasks utilised for low back EMG normalization: one collected with a high degree of meticulousness, and the other collected in a more rapid manner. Results: Only minimal differences were seen between tasks in the magnitude of within-day variance for EMG amplitude at all recording sites, save the right-side L5 location, which showed a significant difference (p=0.020). For trunk posture, within-day variance for the highly meticulous tasks was significantly higher than for the less-meticulous task (p=0.011). Conclusion: A less meticulous sub-maximal normalization task performed in a standing position was equal or superior to a more meticulously collected task in terms of kinematic task repeatability and within-day EMG variance. These findings are encouraging for field study applications where meticulous methods are not feasible, and provide a time saving strategy for lab studies.

  • 10.
    Jackson, Jennie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Punnett, Laura
    Department of Work Environment, University of Massachusetts Lowell.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Statistical precision of categorical PATH observations of trunk posture2012In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 41, no Suppl. 1, p. 5519-5521Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Field studies assessing biomechanical occupational exposures frequently utilize direct observation. PATH (Postures, Activities, Tools, and Handling) is a tool for systematically observing occupational exposures during non-cyclic or long, irregular-cycle jobs. While PATH has been used in many studies, its statistical performance under different data collection strategies has not yet been investigated. The purpose of the current study was to examine this issue. Methods: Data from labourers performing the four tasks comprising a ‘Jacking Pit Construction’ operation was extracted from a previously collected data set. Using a probability based re-sampling bootstrap approach, categorical trunk posture exposure data was compared across nine simulated data collection strategies. Results/Conclusion: At the operational level, dispersion curves showed consistent trends of increased precision with increased sizes of the data set and curves tended to intersect at the expected value seen in the parent data set. At the task level, curves did not always follow the predicted pattern, highlighting the potential pitfalls of using PATH for infrequent tasks and the striking effect that individual workers can have on group exposure estimates of such tasks.

  • 11.
    Jahncke, Helena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Björkeholm, Patrik
    Uppsala University, Department of Psychology.
    Marsh, John E.
    University of Central Lancashire, School of Psychology.
    Odelius, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental, and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Office noise: can headphones and masking sound attenuate distraction by background speech?2016In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 55, no 3, p. 505-513Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Background speech is one of the most disturbing noise sources at shared workplaces in terms of both annoyance and performance-related disruption. Therefore, it is important to identify techniques that can efficiently protect performance against distraction. It is also important that the techniques are perceived as satisfactory and are subjectively evaluated as effective in their capacity to reduce distraction.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study was to compare three methods of attenuating distraction from background speech: masking a background voice with nature sound through headphones, masking a background voice with other voices through headphones and merely wearing headphones (without masking) as a way to attenuate the background sound. Quiet was deployed as a baseline condition.

    METHODS: Thirty students participated in an experiment employing a repeated measures design.

    RESULTS: Performance (serial short-term memory) was impaired by background speech (1 voice), but this impairment was attenuated when the speech was masked – and in particular when it was masked by nature sound. Furthermore, perceived workload was lowest in the quiet condition and significantly higher in all other sound conditions. Notably, the headphones tested as a sound-attenuating device (i.e. without masking) did not protect against the effects of background speech on performance and subjective work load.

    CONCLUSIONS: Nature sound was the only masking condition that worked as a protector of performance, at least in the context of the serial recall task. However, despite the attenuation of distraction by nature sound, perceived workload was still high – suggesting that it is difficult to find a masker that is both effective and perceived as satisfactory.

  • 12.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Toomingas, Allan
    Karolinska Institutet, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Sweden.
    Norman, Kerstin
    Örebro University, Department of Public Health Sciences, Sweden.
    Hagman, Maud
    Karolinska Institutet, NASP, Sweden.
    Herlin, Rose-Marie
    Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Wigaeus-Tornqvist, Eva
    Royal Institute of Technology, School of Technology and Health, Sweden.
    Stress, energy and psychosocial conditions in different types of call centres2010In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 9-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to identify risk indicators for high stress and low mental energy as well as to describe psychosocial working conditions at different types of call centres.

    A cross sectional questionnaire study was conducted among 1183 operators from 28 call centres, in Sweden both external and internal, with different levels of task complexity, ownership and geographical location.

    The stress level was moderately high and the energy level fairly high. Stress levels tended to be lower and psychosocial conditions better with increasing level of task complexity. Fourteen per cent of the operators were in a state of high stress/low energy (“worn out”) and 47% in high stress/high energy (“committed under pressure”). Operators in a state of low stress/high energy (“committed without pressure”) were most likely to report a better health status. High stress and lack of energy was mainly associated with time pressure, low decision latitude, and lack of social and supervisor support.

    Time pressure in combination with lack of support and influence should be seen as a potential high risk situation for the development of a “worn-out” state among call centre operators. Management should make use of this knowledge in order to promote a long lasting efficient and healthy call centre work.

  • 13.
    Kjellberg, Katarina
    et al.
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of Occupational and Environmental Health, Karolinska Institutet.
    Palm, Peter
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Josephson, Malin
    Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University.
    Development of an instrument for assessing workstyle in checkout cashier work (BAsIK)2012In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 41, p. 663-668Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Checkout cashier work consists of handling a large number of items during a work shift, which implies repetitive movements of the shoulders, arms and hands/wrists, and a high work rate. The work is associated with a high prevalence of disorders in the neck and upper extremity. The concept of workstyle explains how ergonomic and psychosocial factors interact in the development of work-related upper extremity disorders. The aim of the project was to develop an instrument for the occupational health services to be used in the efforts to prevent upper extremity disorders in checkout cashier work. The instrument is based on the workstyle concept and is intended to be used as a tool to identify high-risk workstyle and needs for interventions, such as training and education. The instrument, BAsIK, consists of four parts; a questionnaire about workstyle, an observation protocol for work technique, a checklist about the design of the checkout and a questionnaire about work organization. The instrument was developed by selecting workstyle items developed for office work and adapting them to checkout cashier work, discussions with researchers and ergonomists, focus-group interviews with cashiers, observations of video recordings of cashiers, and studies of existing guidelines and checklists.

  • 14.
    Larsson, Johan
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Landstad, Bodil
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    To Control with Health - From Statistics to Strategy2009In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 49-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this study is to develop and test a generic model for workplace health management in organizations. Four private and four public organizations in northern Sweden were selected for the study. A model for health control was developed on the basis of a literature review and dialogues with the stakeholders in the workplaces. The model was then implemented at the workplaces during a two-year period. Interviews with leaders and sub-leaders were conducted on two occasions and were analyzed using content analysis and the constant comparison method. By using a grounded theory approach, three main categories were found: health closure and other health and working environment indicators, monetary accounting of health related indicators and changes in leadership behaviour and organizational practices. An important result was that the model influenced leadership values more than leadership and organizational methodologies. From the results a model for workplace health management is proposed, incorporating the planning, control, and improvement structures. The purpose of the model is to take health aspects into consideration when deciding organizational structure (work demands, control and social support). The model controls health by using health-related indicators with high frequency measuring whereas workplace health promotion is done in a structured way with a reflective model.

  • 15.
    Larsson, Johan
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, 831 25 Östersund, Sverige.
    Landstad, Bodil
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, 831 25 Östersund, Sverige.
    Wiklund, Håkan
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, 831 25 Östersund, Sverige.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, 831 25 Östersund, Sverige.
    Control charts as an early warning system for workplace health outcomes2011In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 409-425Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Introduction: Statistical Process Control (SPC) charts have not been widely used to monitor workplace health and work environments. This research and effort to develop a more accurate and easy to use management control system for employee health is important from a humanistic, societal and economic standpoint, as well as complying with laws that regulate work environments. Objective: The purpose of the study is to design and discuss control charts as an early warning system for workplace health outcomes to promote workplace health management. Another purpose is to discuss relevant factors in the concept of the Out-of-Control Action Plan (OCAP) as a response when a chart warns that the workplace process may be malfunctioning. Participants: Two Swedish organizations were selected as case study organizations: a department at a university and an elderly care operation in a municipality. Methods: This study was explorative and should be seen as a starting point in learning how to use control charts for workplace health management. Self-assessed general health and new sick-cases per employee were selected as indicators for the control charts. Results: An integrated early warning system with Cumulative Sums-and Shewhart-charts are presented to show a possible method as to how an early warning system can be structured through the use of statistical control charts. Conclusions: The conclusion of this study is that control charts, along with well-designed implementation, make up a powerful and useable managerial early-warning system which promotes workplace health and helps to prevent sickness absence.

  • 16.
    Lindberg, Per
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Vingård, Eva
    Uppsala University, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Indicators of healthy work environments - a systematic review2012In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 41, no Suppl. 1, p. 3032-3038Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to systematically review the scientific literature and search for indicators of healthy work environments. A number of major national and international databases for scientific publication were searched for research addressing indicators of healthy work environments. Altogether 19,768 publications were found. After excluding duplicates, non-relevant publications, or publications that did not comply with the inclusion criteria 24 peer-reviewed publications remained to be included in this systematic review. Only one study explicitly addressing indicators of healthy work environments was found. That study suggested that the presence of stress management programs in an organization might serve as indicator of a 'good place to work', as these organizations were more likely to offer programs that encouraged employee well-being, safety and skill development than those without stress management programs. The other 23 studies either investigated employee's views of what constitute a healthy workplace or were guidelines for how to create such a workplace. Summarizing, the nine most pronounced factors considered as important for a healthy workplace that emerged from these studies were, in descending order: collaboration/teamwork: growth and development of the individual; recognition; employee involvement; positive, accessible and fair leader; autonomy and empowerment; appropriate staffing; skilled communication; and safe physical work.

  • 17.
    Lodin, Camilla
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Karolinska Institutet, Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Richter, Hans
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Eye- and neck/shoulder-discomfort during visually demanding experimental near work2012In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 41, no Suppl. 1, p. 3388-3392Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Frequent use of digital information technology has an impact on eye- and neck/shoulder-discomfort. Studies with cross sectional and intervention design indicate an association between the two symptom categories. Still, whether visually demanding near work, per se, contributes to increased neck/shoulder discomfort remains a question of debate. The aim of this laboratory study was to assess if visually demanding experimental near work affects eye- and neck/shoulder-discomfort when the posture was adjusted for comfort and no movements were allowed. Thirty-three healthy subjects performed a visually demanding computer screen task (viewing task) under four different optical lens conditions: binocular -3.5 D and monocular -3.5 D, +3.5 D and ±0 D. During the experiment subjects were seated in an office chair (with neck support) that was individually adjusted for comfort. At baseline and after each viewing task, subjects reported their perceived eye- and neck/shoulderdiscomfort on Borg’s CR-10 scale. Results show a significant increase of eye discomfort between baseline and the first viewing task, and a significant increase in neck/shoulder discomfort from baseline throughout the first three viewing tasks. Further analysis is required to determent whether the neck/shoulder discomfort was induced by the demanding near work or the static posture, or a combination.

  • 18.
    Long, Jennifer
    et al.
    School of Optometry and Vision Science, UNSW, Australia.
    Richter, Hans
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Visual ergonomics at work and leisure2014In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 419-420Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Liv, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Wahlström, Jens
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Cost-efficient observation of working postures from video recordings – more videos, more observers or more views per observer?2012In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 41, no Suppl. 1, p. 2302-2306Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In ergonomics, assessing the working postures of an individual by observation is a very common practice. The present study investigated whether monetary resources devoted to an observational study should preferably be invested in collecting many video recordings of the work, or in having several observers estimate postures from available videos multiple times. On the basis of a data set of observed working postures among hairdressers, necessary information in terms of posture variability, observer variability, and costs for recording and observing videos was entered into equations providing the total cost of data collection and the precision (informative value) of the resulting estimates of two variables: percentages time with the arm elevated 90 degrees. In all 160 data collection strategies, differing with respect to the number of video recordings and the number of repeated observations of each recording, were simulated and compared for cost and precision. For both posture variables, the most cost-efficient strategy for a given budget was to engage 4 observers to look at available video recordings, rather than to have one observer look at more recordings. Since the latter strategy is the more common in ergonomics practice, we recommend reconsidering standard practice in observational posture assessment.

  • 20.
    Nordlöf, Hasse
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Wijk, Katarina
    Samhällsmedicin, Landstinget Gävleborg; Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och utbildningsstudier, Uppsala universitet.
    Westergren, Karl-Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Perceptions of work environment priorities: Are there any differences by company size? — An ecological study2015In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 52, no 3, p. 697-706Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Earlier studies suggest that the quality of handling occupational health and safety (OHS) activities differs between companies of different sizes. Company size is a proxy variable for other variables affecting OHS performance.

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate if there is an association between company size and perceptions of work environment prioritizations.

    METHODS: Data from 106 small- and medium-sized Swedish manufacturing companies was collected. One manager and one safety delegate at each company rated different aspects of their companies' work environment prioritizations with a 43-item questionnaire. Ratings were aggregated to a summary statistic for each company before analysis.

    RESULTS: No significant differences in perceptions of priority were found to be associated with company sizes. This is in contrast to earlier studies of objective differences. The respondents in small companies, however, showed significantly greater consensus in their ratings.

    CONCLUSIONS: Company size does not appear to be associated with perceptions of work environment prioritizations. Company size is an important proxy variable to study in order to understand what factors enable and obstruct safe and healthy workplaces. The work presented here should be viewed as an initial exploration to serve as direction for future academic work.

  • 21.
    Palm, Peter
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Johansson, Elin
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet.
    Kjellberg, Katarina
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet.
    Josephson, Malin
    Department of Medical Sciences Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University.
    Differences in cashiers work technique regarding wrist movements when scanning groceries2012In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 41, p. 5436-5438Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Checkout cashier work can be repetitive and hand-intensive. Differences in workstyle might explain why some cashiers develop symptoms and other do not. Work technique is one part of the workstyle concept. The aim of this study was to analyze if there were differences in work technique among cashiers in to what extent they use large or small wrist movements when scanning groceries. Wrist movements of 17 cashiers were video recorded. The results revealed large variation among the cashiers in if they use large or small wrist movements when handling the groceries. This indicated there is a potential for some cashiers to improve their work technique.

  • 22.
    Richter, Hans
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Neck pain brought into focus2014In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 413-418Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A time honored dictum states that the eyes "lead the body", i.e. that the body typically adjust its position to compensate for an impoverished retinal image (e. g., as due to optical blur, and/or inappropriately sized visual target). But only moderate or low level of evidence exists in support of this view. Inconclusive evidence does not, however, equal negative evidence. The accommodation/vergence system does exhibit signs of overload in contemporary working life, including eye discomfort, transient myopia, altered pattern of eye-lens oscillations, and associated phoria. Accommodation/vergence overload, caused by non-ergonomic near work, may also emerge as quickly as within one regular workday. Long-term musculoskeletal consequences of high accommodation/vergence demands have nevertheless not yet been studied in any detail. A research agenda which aims to provide multi-scientific evidence for eye-neck/shoulder interactions with public health implications and which also, in addition, study the eye-neck/shoulder mechanisms and elucidates the operating characteristics, should consequently be highly warranted. This new knowledge would be useful for physiotherapists, ergonomists and opticians, who in their profession treat patients experiencing vision-and musculoskeletal disorders. If both visual and the musculoskeletal aspects are given full and equal weight in the design and evaluation of work places, it is predicted to lead to an improved quality of life for the individual worker, and an enhanced productivity for the employer.

  • 23.
    Richter, Hans
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Lodin, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Karolinska institutet.
    Temporal aspects of increases in eye-neck activation levels during visually deficient near work2012In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 41, no Suppl. 1, p. 3379-3384Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In an experimental study two levels of oculomotor load were induced via optical trial lenses. Trapezius muscle activity was measured with bipolar surface electromyography and normalized to a submaximal contraction. Sixty-six subjects with a median age of 36 (range 19–47, std 8) viewed a black and white Gabor grating (5 c/deg) for two 7-min periods monocularly through a 0 D lens or binocularly through -3.5 D lenses. The effect of time was separately regressed to EMG in two different subgroups of responders: a High-Oculomotor-Load (HOL) and a Low-Oculomotor-Load (LOL) group. A linear regression model was fitted on group level with exposure time on the x-axis and normalized trapezius muscle EMG (%RVE) on the y-axis. The slope coefficient was significantly positive in the -D blur condition for only the HOL subgroup of responders: 0.926 + Time min 1-7x 0.088 (p = 0.002, r2 =0.865). There was no obvious sign of this activity to level off or to stabilize. These results suggest that professional information technology users that are exposed to a high level of oculomotor load, during extended times, are at an increased risk of exhibiting an increased trap.m. activity.

  • 24.
    Richter, Hans
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Long, Jennifer
    School of Optometry and Vision Science, UNSW Sydney, Sydney, AUSTRALIA.
    The pitfalls of the traditional office ergonomics model in the current mobile work environment:  Is visual ergonomic health literacy the remedy?2019In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile technology has revolutionised how we work. It is now relatively easy to work anywhere and anytime, but this has placed the onus on mobile (or flexible) workers to set up their own work environment for comfort and ease of use. Vision is an important driver of posture, and hence visual ergonomics principles are integral for setting up digital devices. If mobile workers do not have visual ergonomics knowledge, or are unable to apply visual ergonomics knowledge to appropriately set up their work environment, then they are at risk of developing visual-related occupational health issues due to exposure to adverse physical work environments.

    To address this potential health care issue, we propose the introduction of Visual Ergonomics Health Literacy. This would provide mobile workers (including school children) with the knowledge and skills to set up their work environment for comfort and ease of use, wherever they work. It is important to address this issue now before we have a widespread epidemic of discomfort and injury from not applying sound visual ergonomics principles to work environments.

  • 25.
    Richter, Hans O.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Zetterlund, Christina
    The Low Vision Centre, Örebro County Council, Örebro, Sweden, and Centre for Rehabilitation Research, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Lundqvist, Lars-Olov
    Centre for Rehabilitation Research, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Eye-neck interactions triggered by visually deficient computer work2011In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 67-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To study the joint occurrence of eye-and-neck/scapular area symptoms and their association with occupational risk factors in a cross-sectional sample of professional information technology users. Study population: The participants consisted of 3,971 employees who worked with computers for a minimum of one hour a day. 2,551 (73%) were men and 945 (27%) women, with an age range of 18 up to 64 years. The mean age was 38.1 (SD = 10.7) for men and 37.6 (SD = 12.0) for the women. The measures were obtained via a self-administered survey in combination with a visual examination conducted by an optometrist. Methods: Two complementary logistic regression analyses with forced entry was conducted on n = 3,496 (88% adjusted response rate) cases. The effect of ocular symptoms on the risk of reporting musculoskeletal symptoms, or vice versa, was examined first in two separate binominal logistic regression analyses. Age, Gender, Near work variable and Visual functioning variables were included in these analyzes. Variables associated with the risk of developing an increase in either symptom category were also examined in two additional binomial logistic regression analyses. Results: Exposure to spectacles (single vision, multifocal, or progressive correction) in combination with a visual acuity < 1 surfaced as a key mediator of symptoms from the neck/scapular area (p < 0.01). A vergence disparity (uncompensated vergence error) similarly was associated with an augmented risk of developing an increase in neck/scapular area symptoms (p < 0.05). The most influential risk factor for neck/scapular area symptoms were ocular symptoms and vice versa (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: The results support the hypothesis which postulates that eye-neck/scapular area symptoms interaction may be due to a functional coupling from and between the eye-neck/scapular area muscles [28].

  • 26.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Motor variability – an important issue in occupational life2012In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 41, no Suppl. 1, p. 2527-2534Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several recent reviews have reported that ‘repetitive movements’ is a risk factor for occupational musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) in the neck, shoulder and arm regions. More variation in biomechanical exposure is often suggested as an effective intervention in such settings. While increasing variation using extrinsic methods like job rotation may not always be possible in an industrial context, the intrinsic variability of the motor system may offer an alternative opportunity to increase variation. Motor variability (MV) refers to the natural variation in postures, movements and muscle activity observed to different extents in all tasks. The current review explores the state of the art in MV research from motor control, sports and occupational biomechanics literature to answer whether MV is important to consider in an occupational context, and if yes, whether this literature stimulates further studies to test if MV can be manipulated as a deliberate intervention for increasing biomechanical variation without jeopardizing production.

  • 27.
    Svensson, Sven
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Stubbs, Jonathan
    Nordic Occupational Safety and Rehabilitation Institute.
    Larsson, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    The association between subordinate perception of task and relation oriented leadership behaviors and sense of coherence among a sample of Swedish white-collar workers2018In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 61, no 2, p. 327-336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evidence suggests that leadership behaviours and sense of coherence influences subordinate health. The influence of leadership behaviours on subordinate sense of coherence has not been investigated in any detail. This cross-sectional quantitative study of managers and subordinates in a large governmental organisation focus on this potential association. The study used two common and empirically tested leadership styles: task oriented leadership and relations oriented leadership. In a logistic regression analysis, the association between types of leadership behaviour and SOC were analysed while controlling for age, gender, income, type of employment and organisational tenure. It was hypothesized that both task and relation oriented leadership behaviours would be positively associated with SOC, whereas a laissez faire leadership would be negatively associated with SOC. The hypotheses were not supported. Several implications for further research are discussed including capturing data about both subordinates’ preferred and perceived leadership behaviours.

  • 28.
    Toomingas, Allan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hagberg, Mats
    Occupational & Environmental Medicine University of Gothenburg.
    Heiden, Marina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Richter, Hans
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Westergren, Karl Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Wigaeus Tornqvist, Ewa
    School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University.
    Incidence and risk factors for symptoms from the eyes among professional computer users2012In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 41, no Suppl. 1, p. 3560-3562Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Personal computers are used by a majority of the working population in their professions. Little is known about risk-factors for incident symptoms from the eyes among professional computer users. The aim was to study the incidence and risk-factors for symptoms from the eyes among professional computer users. This study is a part of a comprehensive prospective follow-up study of factors associated with the incidence of symptoms among professional computer users. 1531 computer users of different professions at 46 companies were invited, whereof 1283 answered a baseline questionnaire (498 men; 785 women) and 1246 at least one of 10 monthly follow-up questionnaires. The computer work-station and equipment were generally of a good standard. The majority used CRT displays. During the follow-up period 329 subjects reported eye symptoms. The overall incidence rate in the whole study group was 0.38 per person-year, 0.23 in the subgroup of subjects who were symptom free at baseline and 1.06 among subjects who reported eye symptoms at baseline. In the bivariate analyses significant associations were found with all explanatory variables, except BMI. The reduced multivariate model showed significant associations with extended computer work, visual discomfort (dose-response), eye symptoms at baseline (higher risk), sex (women=higher risk) and nicotine use. The incidence of eye problems among professional computer users is high and related to both individual and work-related factors.

  • 29.
    Toomingas, Allan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Karolinska Institutet.
    Hagberg, Mats
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Heiden, Marina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Richter, Hans
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Westergren, Karl-Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Wigaeus Tornqvist, Ewa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Jönköping University, School of Health Sciences.
    Risk factors, incidence and persistence of symptoms from the eyes among professional computer users2014In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 291-301Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Symptoms from the eyes are common among computer users. Knowledge is scarce about these problems, however.

    OBJECTIVES:

    The aim was to study risk-factors, incidence and persistence of eye-symptoms among professionally active computer users.

    METHODS:

    This was a questionnaire based prospective study where 1283 males and females from different professions and companies answered a baseline questionnaire about individual factors and working conditions, e.g. duration of daily computer work, comfort of screen work, psychosocial factors. Subjects were at baseline and 10 follow-ups asked about the number of days with eye-symptoms during the preceding month.

    RESULTS:

    The incidence-rate of symptoms persisting minimum three days was 0.38/person-year. A multivariate Hazard-ratio model showed significant associations with extended continuous computer work, tasks with high demands on eye-hand coordination, low level of control, visual discomfort, female sex and nicotine use. Eye-symptoms at baseline was a strong risk factor for new symptoms.

    CONCLUSION:

    The incidence of eye-symptoms among professional computer users is high and related to both individual and work-related factors. The organization of computer work should secure frequent breaks from near-work at the computer screen. The severity of vision-related problems could in field studies be quantified by asking for the persistence of symptoms.

  • 30.
    Trask, Catherine
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Wahlström, Jens
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Heiden, Marina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Rezagholi, Mahmoud
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Modeling costs of exposure assessment methods in industrial environments2012In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 41, p. 6079-6086Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Documentation of posture measurement cost is rare and cost models that do exist are generally naïve. This paper provides a comprehensive cost model for ergonomic research, documents the monetary costs of three exposure assessment methods (inclinometry, video observation, and self-report), and discusses cost components. Trunk and shoulder posture were assessed for 27 aircraft baggage handlers for 3 full shifts each using three methods typical to ergonomics: self-report via questionnaire, observation via video film, and full-shift inclinometer registration. The model accounted for costs related to meetings to plan the study, administration, recruitment, equipment, training of data collectors, travel, and onsite data collection. Findings show that inclinometer was the most expensive method, followed by observation and then self report; the majority of costs (90%) were borne by researchers. Study design parameters such as sample size, measurement scheduling and spacing, concurrent measurements, location and travel, and equipment acquisition were shown to have wideranging impacts on costs. This study provided empirical cost data for use in cost models that can facilitate decision making and planning of future studies, and can be used to investigate cost efficiency in future studies

  • 31.
    Vingård, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Blomkvist, Vanja
    Uppsala universitet.
    Rosenblad, Andreas
    Uppsala universitet.
    Lindberg, Per
    Voss, Margareta
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Josephson, Malin
    Uppsala universitet.
    A physical fitness programme during paid working hours: impact on health, work ability and work among women working in the social service sector: A three year follow up study2009In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 339-344Article in journal (Refereed)
1 - 31 of 31
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