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  • 1.
    Amin, Shoaib
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. Department of Signal Processing, School of Electrical Engineering, KTH.
    Händel, Peter
    Department of Signal Processing, School of Electrical Engineering, KTH.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Digital Predistortion of Single and Concurrent Dual Band Radio Frequency GaN Amplifiers with Strong Nonlinear Memory Effects2017In: IEEE transactions on microwave theory and techniques, ISSN 0018-9480, E-ISSN 1557-9670, Vol. 65, no 7, p. 2453-2464, article id 7855827Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrical anomalies due to trapping effects in Gallium Nitride (GaN) power amplifiers (PAs)give rise to long-term or strong memory effects. We propose novel models based on infinite impulse response (IIR) fixed pole expansion techniques for the behavioural modeling and digital pre-distortion of single-input-single-output (SISO) and concurrent dual-bandGaN PAs. Experimental results show that the proposed models outperform the corresponding finite impulse response (FIR) models by up to 17 dB for the same number of model parameters. For the linearization of a SISO GaN PA the proposed models give adjacent channel power ratios (ACPRs) that are 7 to 17 dBlower than the FIR models. For the concurrent dual-band case, the proposed models give ACPRs that are 9to 14 dB lower than the FIR models.

  • 2.
    Amin, Shoaib
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. KTH.
    Landin, Per
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Händel, Peter
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. ACCESS Linnaeus Centre, Signal Processing Lab, KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Behavioral Modeling and Linearization of Crosstalk and Memory Effects in RF MIMO Transmitters2014In: IEEE transactions on microwave theory and techniques, ISSN 0018-9480, E-ISSN 1557-9670, Vol. 62, no 4, p. 810-823Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes three novel models for behavioral modeling and digital pre-distortion (DPD) of nonlinear 2$,times,$ 2 multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) transmitters in the presence of crosstalk. The proposed models are extensions of the single-input single-output generalized memory polynomial model. Three types of crosstalk effects were studied and characterized as linear, nonlinear, and nonlinear & linear crosstalk. A comparative study was performed with previously published models for the linearization of crosstalk in a nonlinear 2 $,times,$2 MIMO transmitter. The experiments indicate that, depending on the type of crosstalk, the selection of the correct model in the transmitter is necessary for behavioral modeling and sufficient DPD performance. The effects of coherent and partially noncoherent signal generation on the performance of DPD were also studied. For crosstalk levels of ${-}{hbox{30}}$ dB, the difference in the normalized mean square error and adjacent channel power ratio was found to be 3–4 dB between coherent and partially noncoherent signal generation.

  • 3.
    Bengtsson, Olof
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Litwin, Andrej
    Olsson, Jörgen
    Small Signal and Power Evaluation of Novel BiCMOS Compatible, Short Channel LDMOS Technology2003In: IEEE transactions on microwave theory and techniques, ISSN 0018-9480, E-ISSN 1557-9670, Vol. 51, no 3, p. 1052-1056Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe a very short-channel 0.15-mum LDMOS transistor with a breakdown voltage of up to 60 V, manufactured in a standard 0.35-mum BiCMOS process. At 1900 MHz and a 12-V supply voltage, the 0.4-mm-gatewidth device with shortest drain drift region gives 100-mW output power P-1 dB at a drain efficiency of 43%. It has a transducer power gain of over 20 dB. The maximum current gain cutoff frequency f(T) is 15 GHz, and the maximum available gain cutoff frequency f(MAX) is 38 GHz. We show the dependence of f(T), an f(MAX) of gate and drain bias for transistors with different-drain drift region length. The LDMOS process module does not affect the performance or the models of other devices. We present for the first time a simple way to create high-voltage high-performance LDMOS transistors for an RF power amplifier use even in a very downscaled silicon technology.

  • 4.
    Isaksson, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Wisell, David
    Rönnow, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    A Comparative Analysis of Behavioral Models for RF Power Amplifiers2006In: IEEE transactions on microwave theory and techniques, ISSN 0018-9480, E-ISSN 1557-9670, Vol. 54, no 1, p. 348-359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A comparative study of nonlinear behavioral models with memory for radio-frequency power amplifier (PAs) is presented. The models are static polynomial, parallel Hammerstein (PH), Volterra, and radial basis-function neural network (RBFNN). Two PAs were investigated: one was designed for the third-generation (3G) mobile telecommunication systems and one was designed for the second-generation (2G). The RBFNN reduced the total model error slightly more than the PH, but the error out of band was significantly lower for the PH. The Volterra was found to give a lower model error than did a PH of the same nonlinear order and memory depth. The PH could give a lower model error than the best Volterra, since the former could be identified with a higher nonlinear order and memory depth. The qualitative conclusions are the same for the 2G and 3G PAs, but the model errors are smaller for the latter. For the 3G PA, a static polynomial gave a low model error as low as the best PH and lower than the RBFNN for the hardest cross validation. The models with memory, PH, and RBFNN, showed better cross-validation performance, in terms of lower model errors, than a static polynomial for the hardest cross validation of the 2G PA.

  • 5.
    Isaksson, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Wisell, David
    Rönnow, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Wide-Band Dynamic Modeling of Power Amplifiers Using Radial-Basis Function Neural Networks2005In: IEEE transactions on microwave theory and techniques, ISSN 0018-9480, E-ISSN 1557-9670, Vol. 53, no 11, p. 3422-3428Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Khan, Zain Ahmed
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. Royal Institute of Technology, KTH.
    Zenteno, Efrain
    Universidad Católica San Pablo.
    Händel, Peter
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH).
    Isaksson, Magnus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Digital Predistortion for Joint Mitigation of I/Q Imbalance and MIMO Power Amplifier Distortion2017In: IEEE transactions on microwave theory and techniques, ISSN 0018-9480, E-ISSN 1557-9670, Vol. 65, no 1, p. 322-333, article id 7600411Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the joint effects of in-phase and quadrature (I/Q) imbalance and power amplifier (PA) distortion for RF multiple input multiple output (MIMO) transmitters in the presence of crosstalk. This paper proposes candidate models for the digital predistortion of static I/Q imbalanced sources exciting a dynamic MIMO Volterra system. The proposed models are enhanced using a novel technique based on subsample resolution to account for dynamic I/Q imbalance distortions. Finally, the computational complexity of the proposed models is analyzed for implementation suitability in digital platforms. It is shown that the error spectrum for the proposed models in subsample resolution reaches the noise floor of the measurements. The proposed models achieve a normalized mean squared error of -50 dB and an adjacent channel power ratio of -57 dB for signal bandwidths upto 65 MHz and crosstalk levels ranging to -10 dB. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed techniques in the joint mitigation of I/Q imbalance and PA distortion with crosstalk for a typical 2x2 MIMO telecommunication setup.

  • 7.
    Khan, Zain Ahmed
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. Department of Information Science and Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zenteno, Efrain
    Universidad Católica San Pablo, Arequipa, Peru.
    Händel, Peter
    Department of Information Science and Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Isaksson, Magnus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Extraction of the Third-Order 3x3 MIMO Volterra Kernel Outputs Using Multitone Signals2018In: IEEE transactions on microwave theory and techniques, ISSN 0018-9480, E-ISSN 1557-9670, Vol. 66, no 11, p. 4985-4999Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper uses multitone signals to simplify the analysis of 3×3 multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) Volterra systems by isolating the third-order kernel outputs from each other. Multitone signals fed to an MIMO Volterra system yield a spectrum that is a permutation of the sums of the input signal tones. This a priori knowledge is used to design multitone signals such that the third-order kernel outputs are isolated in the frequency domain. The signals are designed by deriving the conditions for the offset and spacing of the input frequency grids. The proposed technique is then validated for the six possible configurations of a 3x3 RF MIMO transmitter impaired by crosstalk effects. The proposed multitone signal design is used to extract the third-order kernel outputs, and their relative contributions are analyzed to determine the dominant crosstalk effects for each configuration.

  • 8.
    Landin, Per Niklas
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Fritzin, Jonas
    Linköping University.
    Van Moer, Wendy
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel.
    Isaksson, Magnus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Alvandpour, Atila
    Linköping University.
    Modeling and digital predistortion of class-D outphasing RF power amplifiers2012In: IEEE transactions on microwave theory and techniques, ISSN 0018-9480, E-ISSN 1557-9670, Vol. 60, no 6, p. 1907-1915Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a direct model structure for describing class-D outphasing power amplifiers (PAs) and a method for digitally predistorting these amplifiers. The direct model structure is based on modeling differences in gain and delay, nonlinear interactions between the two paths, and differences in the amplifier behavior. The digital predistortion method is designed to operate only on the input signals' phases, to correct for both amplitude and phase mismatches. This eliminates the need for additional voltage supplies to compensate for gain mismatch. Model and predistortion performance are evaluated on a 32-dBm peak-output-power class-D outphasing PA in CMOS with on-chip transformers. The excitation signal is a 5-MHz downlink WCDMA signal with peak-to-average power ratio of 9.5 dB. Using the proposed digital predistorter, the 5-MHz adjacent channel leakage power ratio (ACLR) was improved by 13.5 dB, from -32.1 to -45.6 dBc. The 10-MHz ACLR was improved by 6.4 dB, from -44.3 to -50.7 dBc, making the amplifier pass the 3GPP ACLR requirements.

  • 9.
    Landin, Per Niklas
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Van Moer, Wendy
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel.
    Isaksson, Magnus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Händel, Peter
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Peak-Power Controlled Digital Predistorters for RF Power Amplifiers2012In: IEEE transactions on microwave theory and techniques, ISSN 0018-9480, E-ISSN 1557-9670, Vol. 60, no 11, p. 3582-3590Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the issue of “predistorter blow-up,” i.e., uncontrolled peak expansion caused by the predistorter. To control the peak expansion, an extension of the multistep indirect learning architecture (MS-ILA) is proposed by adding a constraint that describes the allowed peak power of the predistortion signal. The resulting optimization problem is shown to be convex and an optimization method is formulated to solve it. Measurements on a class-AB power amplifier (PA) using orthogonal frequency-division multiplex signals show that the peak control works as intended and prevents the MS-ILA from generating high peaks when the PA is operated in compression. The restriction on the peak power also prevents the performance degradation occurring due to the “blow-up” problem. This makes the proposed controlled MS-ILA a safer option than the standard MS-ILA. In addition to controlling the peak input power to the PA, using the proposed method it was possible to increase the output power by 1.3 dB while fulfilling requirements of less than 40-dB adjacent channel leakage power ratio, compared to the standard five-step MS-ILA. Reduced peak power also reduces the requirements on linearity in signal generation, resolution in computations, and analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog conversion.

  • 10.
    Nader, Charles
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Landin, Per Niklas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Van Moer, Wendy
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel .
    Björsell, Niclas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Händel, Peter
    Royal Institute of Technology, Signal Processing Lab.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Peak-power Controlling Technique for Enhancing Digital Pre-distortion of RF Power Amplifiers2012In: IEEE transactions on microwave theory and techniques, ISSN 0018-9480, E-ISSN 1557-9670, Vol. 60, no 11, p. 3571-3581Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present a method to limit the generation of signal peak power at the output of a digital pre-distorter that is applied to a RF power amplifier (PA) operating in strong compression. The method can be considered as a joint crest-factor reduction and digital pre-distortion (DPD). A challenging characteristic of DPD when applied to a PA in strong compression is the generation of relatively high peaks due to the DPD expansion behavior. Such high peaks generation, which may be physically unrealistic, can easily damage the amplification system. Such a phenomenon, referred in this study as DPD-avalanche, is more noticed when the signal exciting the PA is compressed due to crest-factor reduction. The suggested method for controlling such DPD-avalanche is based on shaping the input signal to the DPD in such a way to keep the pre-distorted signal peak power below or near the maximum allowed peak power of the PA. The suggested method is tested experimentally on a Class-AB and a Doherty PA when excited with a wideband orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) signal. Scenarios for an OFDM signal with and without crest-factor reduction are evaluated. Measurement results when using the proposed DPD-avalanche controller show smooth deterioration of the in-band and out-of-band linearity compared to steep deterioration when no controller is used. In addition, the suggested controller offers a higher operating power range of the DPD while fulfilling out-of-band distortion requirements and preserving low in-band error.

  • 11.
    Nader, Charles
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Landin, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Van Moer, Wendy
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel.
    Björsell, Niklas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Händel, Peter
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Performance Evaluation of Peak-to-Average Power Ratio Reduction and Digital Pre-Distortion for OFDM Based Systems2011In: IEEE transactions on microwave theory and techniques, ISSN 0018-9480, E-ISSN 1557-9670, Vol. 59, no 2, p. 3504-3511Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we evaluate the effect of applying peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) reduction and digital pre-distortion (DPD) on two types of radio frequency power amplifiers when an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signal is used. The power amplifiers under test are a standard class-AB amplifier and a Doherty amplifier. The PAPR reduction methods are based on a state-of-the art convex optimization formulation and on the standard clipping and filtering technique. The DPD method consists of modeling the behavior of the power amplifier using a parallel Hammerstein model, and then extracting the inverse parameters based on the indirect learning architecture. To achieve better DPD performance, extracting the DPD parameters based on multiple-step iterations is investigated. The cases where PAPR reduction and DPD are applied separately and combined are studied and investigated. Power amplifier figures of merit are evaluated. Good performance is shown when combining both pre-processing techniques up to a certain operating point where DPD performance deteriorates due to generation of strong peaks in the signal. In addition, a difference in the power amplifier behavior is reported and analyzed.

  • 12.
    Nader, Charles
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Van Moer, Wendy
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel .
    Barbé, Kurt
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel .
    Björsell, Niclas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Händel, Peter
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Harmonic Sampling and Reconstruction of Wide-band Undersampled Waveforms: Breaking the Code2011In: IEEE transactions on microwave theory and techniques, ISSN 0018-9480, E-ISSN 1557-9670, Vol. 59, no 11, p. 2961-2969Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Tehrani, Ali Sotani
    et al.
    Chalmers, Department of Signals & Systems, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Cao, Haiying
    Chalmers, Department of Microtechnology & Nanoscience, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Afsardoost, Sepideh
    Chalmers, Department of Signals & Systems, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Thomas
    Chalmers, Department of Signals & Systems, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Isaksson, Magnus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Fager, Christian
    Chalmers, Department of Microtechnology & Nanoscience, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    A Comparative Analysis of the Complexity/Accuracy Tradeoff in Power Amplifier Behavioral Models2010In: IEEE transactions on microwave theory and techniques, ISSN 0018-9480, E-ISSN 1557-9670, Vol. 58, no 6, p. 1510-1520Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A comparative study of state-of-the-art behavioral models for microwave power amplifiers (PAs) is presented in this paper. After establishing a proper definition for accuracy and complexity for PA behavioral models, a short description on various behavioral models is presented. The main focus of this paper is on the modeling accuracy as a function of computational complexity. Data is collected from measurements on two PAs-a general-purpose amplifier and a Doherty PA designed for WiMAX-for different output power levels. The models are characterized in terms of accuracy and complexity for both in-band and out-of-band error. The results show that, among the models studied, the generalized memory polynomial behavioral model has the best tradeoff for accuracy versus complexity for both PAs, and can obtain high performance at half of the computational cost of all other models analyzed.

  • 14.
    Zenteno, Efrain
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. Department of Signal Processing, Royal Institute of Technology KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Isaksson, Magnus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Händel, Peter
    Department of Signal Processing, Royal Institute of Technology KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Output impedance mismatch effects on the linearity performance of digitally predistorted power amplifiers2015In: IEEE transactions on microwave theory and techniques, ISSN 0018-9480, E-ISSN 1557-9670, Vol. 63, no 2, p. 754-765Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the effects of load impedancemismatch in power amplifiers which linearity has been enhancedusing various digital predistortion (DPD) algorithms. Two different power amplifier architectures are considered: a class AB and a Doherty amplifier and three model structures for the DPD model are compared: memoryless polynomial (MLP), general memory polynomial (GMP) and Kautz-Volterra functions (KV). This paper provides a sensitivity analysis of the linearized amplifiers under load mismatch conditions and reports the performance when dynamic parameter identification for the DPD is used to compensate for the changes in the load impedance. In general,power amplifiers linearity is sensitive to load impedance mismatch. Linearity may degrade as much as 10 dB (in normalized mean square error) according to the magnitude and the phase of the reflection coefficient provided by the load impedance. However, depending on the amplifier design, the sensitivity toload impedance mismatch varies. While the Doherty amplifier studied show significant linearity degradations in the in-band and out-of-band distortions, the out-of-band distortions of the studied class AB were less sensitive to the load impedance mismatch. In adaptive DPD schemes, the performance obtained in the MLP model does not benefit from the updating scheme and the performance achieved is similar to a static case, where no updates are made. This stresses the memory requirements in the predistorter. When employing the GMP and the KV models in an adaptive DPD scheme, they tackle to a larger extent the linearity degradations due to load impedance mismatch.

  • 15.
    Zenteno, Efrain
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. Department of Signal Processing, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden; Electron- ics and Telecommunication Department, Universidad Catolica San Pablo, Arequipa, Peru.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    MIMO Subband Volterra Digital Predistortion for Concurrent Aggregated Carrier Communications2017In: IEEE transactions on microwave theory and techniques, ISSN 0018-9480, E-ISSN 1557-9670, Vol. 65, no 3, p. 967-979Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) nonlinear mitigation technique for closely spaced concurrent aggregated carrier systems. The transmitter architecture considers band-limited sources, where the predistorter and signal bandwidth are the same, thus reducing transmitter hardware cost and power consumption. The technique relies on multirate processing and linear filtering and uses the carrier frequencies to isolate the contribution of linear and nonlinear basis functions to the desired bands. This approach can be used with any MIMO model structure. In particular, models are linear in the parameters of low computational complexity. The technique was evaluated using three concurrent carriers of 50 MHz each fed to a Doherty amplifier. The results show significant reduction in the error vector magnitude and improvements for the transmitter efficiency using the proposed compensation technique.

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