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  • 1.
    Blarke, Morten B
    et al.
    Aalborg University.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Intermittency-friendly and high-efficiency cogeneration: Operational optimisation of cogeneration with compression heat pump, flue gas heat recovery, and intermediate cold storage2011Inngår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 36, nr 12, s. 6867-6878Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper develops, implements, and applies a mathematical model for economic unit dispatch for a novel cogeneration concept (CHP-HP-FG-CS (CHP with compression heat pump and cold storage using flue gas heat)) that increases the plant's operational flexibility. The CHP-HP-FG-CS concept is a high-efficiency and widely applicable option in distributed cogeneration better supporting the co-existence between cogenerators and intermittent renewables in the energy system. The concept involves integrating an efficient high-temperature compression heat pump that uses only waste heat recovered from flue gases as low-temperature heat source, and an intermediate cold thermal storage allowing for non-concurrent operation of the cogeneration unit and the heat pump unit. The model is applied for a paradigmatic case study that shows how the integration of a heat pump affects the operational strategy of a cogeneration plant. It is found that CHP-HP-FG-CS offers significant reductions in fuel consumption (-8.9%) and operational production costs (-11.4%). The plant's fuel-to-energy efficiency increases from 88.9 to 95.5%, which is state-of-the-art. The plant's intermittency-friendliness coefficient Rc improves only marginally due to the constrained nature of the low-temperature heat source and the associated small capacity of the heat pump unit. Significant improvements in Rc are found when increasing the heat pump capacity assuming the availability of an unconstrained heat source

  • 2.
    Gustafsson, Mattias
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Energisystem. Gävle Energi AB, Gävle, Sweden .
    Rönnelid, Mats
    Energy Technology, Högskolan Dalarna, Falun, Sweden.
    Trygg, Louise
    Linköpings universitet.
    Karlsson, Björn
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Energisystem.
    CO2 emission evaluation of energy conserving measures in buildings connected to a district heating system: case study of a multi-dwelling building in Sweden2016Inngår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 111, s. 341-350Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    When taking action to fulfill the directives from the European Union, energy conserving measures will be implemented in the building sector. If buildings are connected to district heating systems, a reduced heat demand will influence the electricity production if the reduced heat demand is covered by combined heat and power plants.

    This study analyze five different energy conserving measures in a multi-dwelling building regarding how they affect the marginal production units in the district heating system in Gävle, Sweden. For CO2 emission evaluations, two different combinations of heat and electricity conserving measures are compared to an installation of an exhaust air heat pump.

    The different energy conserving measures affect the district heating system in different ways. The results show that installing an exhaust air heat pump affects the use/production of electricity in the district heating system most and electricity conserving measures result in reduced use of electricity in the building, reduced use of electricity for production of heat in the district heating system and an increase of electricity production.

    The conclusion is that electricity use in the building is the most important factor to consider when energy conserving measures are introduced in buildings within the district heating system in Gävle.

  • 3.
    Han, Song
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Eva, Thorin
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Bozena, Guziana
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Tuomas, Huopana
    University of Eastern Finland.
    Jinyue, Yan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    A dynamic model to optimize a regional energy system with waste and crops as energy resources for greenhouse gases mitigation2012Inngår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 46, nr 1, s. 522-532Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A dynamic model of a regional energy system has been developed to support sustainable waste treatmentwith greenhouse gases (GHG) mitigation, addressing the possibility for development towardsa regional fossil fuel-free society between 2011 and 2030. The model is based on conventional mixedinteger linear programming (MILP) techniques to minimize the total cost of regional energy systems. TheCO2 emission component in the developed model includes both fossil and biogenic origins whenconsidering waste, fossil fuels and other renewable sources for energy production. A case study for thecounty of Västmanland in central Sweden is performed to demonstrate the applicability of the developedMILP model in five distinct scenarios. The results show significant potential for mitigating CO2 emissionby gradually replacing fossil fuels with different renewable energy sources. The MILP model can be usefulfor providing strategies for treating wastes sustainably and mitigating GHG emissions in a regionalenergy system, which can function as decision bases for formulating GHG reduction policies andassessing the associated economic implications.

  • 4.
    Hasan, A S M Monjurul
    et al.
    University of Technology Sydney, Australia.
    Tuhin, Rashedul Amin
    East West University, Bangladesh.
    Ullah, Mahfuz
    University of Science & Technology, Bangladesh.
    Sakib, Taiyeb Hasan
    Islamic University of Technology, Bangladesh.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik. Linköping University.
    Trianni, Andrea
    University of Technology Sydney, Australia.
    A comprehensive investigation of energy management practices within energy intensive industries in Bangladesh2021Inngår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 232, artikkel-id 120932Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial energy efficiency is acknowledged as a cost-effective mean contributing to sustainable development and industrial competitiveness. Implementing energy management practices becomes even more imperative for developing countries, considering their energy usage trends and economic development forecasts. Based on the circumstances, an empirical investigation is conducted on energy efficiency and management practices, as well as barriers and drivers to energy efficiency in the energy-intensive industries of Bangladesh. The study finds that majority of the companies barely implement the energy management practices. Energy audits represent the mostly implemented energy management practice at the industries, though a comprehensive approach on a detailed level is still lacking. In addition, this study finds that the number of dedicated and specialised energy professionals employed in the industries is yet negligible. The cumulated results show that energy efficiency is mostly disrupted due to inadequate support from preeminent administration and bureaucratic intricacy. Energy blueprint cost-saving due to less use of energy and rules and regulations were distinctively signified as most imperative drivers for energy efficiency. On the other hand, lack of information is found to be the most significant barrier to consult energy service companies. Analysis of the country's energy usage and supply-demand relationship points towards insufficient energy efficiency measures and energy management practices in the country. The study also finds that energy efficiency could be improved by 8%–10% through the practice of energy management. Our findings, besides pointing out specific issues to be tackled in the specific context of investigation, pave the way for further research over industrial energy efficiency in developing countries.

  • 5.
    Johansson, Maria
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem.
    Söderström, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem.
    Options for the Swedish steel industry: Energy efficiency measures and fuel conversion2011Inngår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 36, nr 1, s. 191-198Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The processes of iron and steel making are energy intensive and consume large quantities of electricity and fossil fuels. In order to meet future climate targets and energy prices, the iron and steel industry has to improve its energy and resource efficiency. For the iron and steel industry to utilize its energy resources more efficiently and at the same time reduce its CO2 emissions a number of options are available. In this paper, opportunities for both integrated and scrap-based steel plants are presented and some of the options are electricity production, fuel conversion, methane reforming of coke oven gas and partnership in industrial symbiosis. The options are evaluated from a system perspective and more specific measures are reported for two Swedish case companies: SSAB Strip Products and Sandvik AB. The survey shows that both case companies have great potentials to reduce their CO2 emissions.

  • 6.
    Johansson, Maria T.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Energiteknik. Department of Management and Engineering, Division of Energy Systems, Linköping University.
    Bio-synthetic natural gas as fuel in steel industry reheating furnaces: A case study of economic performance and effects on global CO2 emissions2013Inngår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 57, s. 699-708Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is of great concern for society today. Manufacturing industries and construction account for approximately 20% of global CO2 emissions and, consequently, it is important that this sector investigate options to reduce its CO2 emissions. One option could be to substitute fossil fuels with renewable alternatives. This paper describes a case study in which four future energy market scenarios predicting 2030 were used to analyse whether it would be profitable for a steel plant to produce bio-SNG (bio-synthetic natural gas) in a biomass gasifier and to substitute LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) with bio-SNG as fuel in reheating furnaces. The effects on global CO2 emissions were analysed from a perspective in which biomass is considered a limited resource. The results from the analysis show that investment in a biomass gasifier and fuel conversion would not be profitable in any of the scenarios. Depending on the scenario, the production cost for bio-SNG ranged between 22 and 36 EUR/GJ. Fuel substitution would reduce global CO2 emission if the marginal biomass user is a producer of transportation fuel. However, if the marginal user of biomass is a coal power plant with wood co-firing, the result would be increased global CO2 emissions.

  • 7.
    Kabanshi, Alan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Energisystem.
    Ameen, Arman
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Energisystem.
    Hayati, Abolfazl
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Energisystem.
    Yang, Bin
    Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Cooling energy simulation and analysis of an intermittent ventilation strategy under different climates2018Inngår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 156, s. 84-94Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy use on heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) accounts for about 50% of building energy use. To have a sustainable built environment, energy efficient ventilation systems that deliver good indoor environmental quality are needed. This study evaluates the cooling energy saving potential of a newly proposed ventilation system called Intermittent Air Jet Strategy (IAJS) and compares its performance against a mixing ventilation (MV) system in a classroom located in three cities with different climates, Singapore with ‘hot and humid’, Ahvaz with ‘hot and dry’ and Lisbon with “moderate” climate. The results show a significant reduction of cooling energy need and flexibility in control strategies with IAJS as a primary system in hot and humid climates like Singapore. Hot and dry climate with short cool periods like Ahvaz show possible application and considerable energy savings with IAJS as a primary system under optimized variable setpoints, but moderate climates have an increased risk of occupant discomfort likely due to increased draft especially during the cool season.  Thus, IAJS as a secondary system that operates only during cooling season may be conducive for moderate climates like Lisbon. Additionally, the results show that supply fan energy savings can also be realized if well implemented. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 8.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    et al.
    International Institute for Applied System Analysis, Austria; Luleå University of Technology.
    Starfelt, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Kinderman, Georg
    International Institute for Applied System Analysis, Austria.
    McCallum, Ian
    International Institute for Applied System Analysis, Austria.
    Obersteiner, Mickael
    International Institute for Applied System Analysis, Austria.
    Lundgren, Joachim
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Optimal location of lignocellulosic ethanol refineries with polygeneration in Sweden2010Inngår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 35, nr 6, s. 2709-2716Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The integration of ethanol production with combined heat and power plants is considered in this paper. An energy balance process model has been used to generate data for the production of ethanol, electricity, heat and biogas. The geographical position of such plants becomes of importance when using local biomass and delivering transportation fuel and heat. An optimization model has thus been used to determine the optimal locations for such plants in Sweden. The entire energy supply and demand chain from biomass outtake to gas stations filling is included in the optimization. Input parameters have been studied for their influence on both the final ethanol cost and the optimal locations of the plants. The results show that the biomass cost, biomass availability and district heating price are crucial for the positioning of the plant and the ethanol to be competitive against imported ethanol. The optimal location to set up polygeneration plants is demonstrated to be in areas where the biomass cost is competitive and in the vicinity of small to medium size cities. Carbon tax does not influence the ethanol cost, but solicits the production of ethanol in Sweden, and changes thus the geography of the plant locations.

  • 9.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    et al.
    LTH; International Institute for Applied System Analysis, A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria.
    Starfelt, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalen University.
    Kindermann, G.
    International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg.
    McCallum, I.
    International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg.
    Obersteiner, M.
    International Institute for Applied System Analysis, A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Energivetenskap.
    Optimal location of lignocellulosic ethanol refineries with polygeneration in Sweden2010Inngår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 35, nr 6, s. 2709-2716Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The integration of ethanol production with combined heat and power plants is considered in this paper. An energy balance process model has been used to generate data for the production of ethanol, electricity, heat and biogas. The geographical position of such plants becomes of importance when using local biomass and delivering transportation fuel and heat. An optimization model has thus been used to determine the optimal locations for such plants in Sweden. The entire energy supply and demand chain from biomass outtake to gas stations filling is included in the optimization. Input parameters have been studied for their influence on both the final ethanol cost and the optimal locations of the plants. The results show that the biomass cost, biomass availability and district heating price are crucial for the positioning of the plant and the ethanol to be competitive against imported ethanol. The optimal location to set up polygeneration plants is demonstrated to be in areas where the biomass cost is competitive and in the vicinity of small to medium size cities. Carbon tax does not influence the ethanol cost, but solicits the production of ethanol in Sweden, and changes thus the geography of the plant locations.

  • 10.
    Lidberg, Tina
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Energisystem. Dalarna University.
    Olofsson, T.
    School of Technology and Business Studies, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden; Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Trygg, Louise
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Energisystem. Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    System impact of energy efficient building refurbishment within a district heated region2016Inngår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 106, s. 45-53Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The energy efficiency of the European building stock needs to be increased in order to fulfill the climate goals of the European Union. To be able to evaluate the impact of energy efficient refurbishment in matters of greenhouse gas emissions, it is necessary to apply a system perspective where not only the building but also the surrounding energy system is taken into consideration. This study examines the impact that energy efficient refurbishment of multi-family buildings has on the district heating and the electricity production. It also investigates the impact on electricity utilization and emissions of greenhouse gases. The results from the simulation of four energy efficiency building refurbishment packages were used to evaluate the impact on the district heating system. The packages were chosen to show the difference between refurbishment actions that increase the use of electricity when lowering the heat demand, and actions that lower the heat demand without increasing the electricity use. The energy system cost optimization modeling tool MODEST (Model for Optimization of Dynamic Energy Systems with Time-Dependent Components and Boundary Conditions) was used. When comparing two refurbishment packages with the same annual district heating use, this study shows that a package including changes in the building envelope decreases the greenhouse gas emissions more than a package including ventilation measures.

  • 11.
    Malmqvist, Tove
    et al.
    Royal Inst Technol KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Glaumann, Mauritz
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Teknisk miljövetenskap. Royal Inst Technol KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Svenfelt, Åsa
    Royal Inst Technol KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Carlson, Per-Olof
    ACC Glasradgivare AB, Nacka, Sweden.
    Erlandsson, Martin
    IVL Swedish Environm Res Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, Johnny
    Ramboll Consultants, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Winzell, Helene
    Helene Wintzell AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Finnveden, Göran
    Royal Inst Technol KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindholm, Torbjörn
    Chalmers, Environm & Energy Dept, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Malmström, Tor-Göran
    Royal Inst Technol KTH, Dept Bldg Technol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    A Swedish environmental rating tool for buildings2011Inngår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 36, nr 4, s. 1893-1899Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2003, a joint effort between the Swedish government, a number of companies in the building and construction sectors, some municipalities, insurance companies and banks set a target that by 2009, all new buildings and 30% of existing Swedish buildings should be rated using a voluntary environmental rating tool. In a major research programme finished in 2008, a tool was developed to be used in this context. The tool covers three assessment areas: Energy, Indoor environment and Material & Chemicals. These areas are split into 11 aspects with one or a few indicators. Rating criteria are specified for each indicator, stipulating requirements for a rating Gold, Silver, Bronze and Rated. Indicator results can then be aggregated to aspect, area and a single raring for building level for enhanced result communication. The tool builds on previous experiences regarding environmental building rating tools and therefore includes some special characteristics which aim to tackle some of the criticism directed towards the first generation of such tools. At the time of writing, the first buildings have received official ratings and an independent stakeholder group is promoting broader implementation of the tool. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 12.
    Sandström, Maria
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik. Högskolan Dalarna.
    Huang, Pei
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Bales, Chris
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Evaluation of hosting capacity of the power grid for electric vehicles – A case study in a Swedish residential area2023Inngår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 284, artikkel-id 129293Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The deployment of electric vehicles (EVs) is growing significantly in recent years. The increasing EV charging loads pose great stress on power grids in Sweden, as many existing power grids are not designed to host such large shares of new electric loads. Hence, studies investigating the impact of EV charging are needed. This study conducts a case study based on an existing Swedish residential power grid using real-life EV charging data to estimate the local grid hosting capacity (HC) for EVs. A combined time-series and stochastic HC assessment method is used with voltage deviation, cable loading and transformer loading as the performance indices. Uncertainty in EV charging locations and individual charging behaviour have been considered via Monte Carlo simulations. The power grid HC is analysed and compared under three charging strategies and four EV penetration levels. Study results show that a charging strategy based on low electricity prices gave lower HC due to simultaneous EV loads compared to the other two strategies: charging directly after plugging in the EV and an even charging load through the plug-in session. This implies the need for coordinated charging controls of EV fleets or diversified power tariffs to balance power on a large scale.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 13.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Energisystem.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Schlossplatz 1, Laxenburg A-2361, Austria.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalen University.
    Kindermann, Georg
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Schlossplatz 1, Laxenburg A-2361, Austria.
    Optimal localisation of biofuel production on a European scale2012Inngår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 41, nr 1, s. 462-472Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the development and use of an optimisation model suitable for analysis of biofuel production scenarios in the EU, with the aim of examining second generation biofuel production. Two policy instruments are considered – targeted biofuel support and a CO2 cost. The results show that over 3% of the total transport fuel demand can be met by second generation biofuels at a cost of approximately 65-73 EUR/MWh. With current energy prices, this demands biofuel support comparable to existing tax exemptions (around 30 EUR/MWh), or a CO2 cost of around 60 EUR/tCO2. Parameters having large effect on biofuel production include feedstock availability, fossil fuel price and capital costs. It is concluded that in order to avoid suboptimal energy systems, heat and electricity applications should also be included when evaluating optimal bioenergy use. It is also concluded that while forceful policies promoting biofuels may lead to a high biofuel share at reasonable costs, this is not a certain path towards maximised CO2 emission mitigation. Policies aiming to promote the use of bioenergy thus need to be carefully designed in order to avoid conflicts between different parts of the EU targets for renewable energy and CO2 emission mitigation.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 14.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linkoping University.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Austria.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Kindermann, Georg
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Austria.
    Optimal localisation of biofuel production on a European scale2012Inngår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 41, nr 1, s. 462-472Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the development and use of an optimisation model suitable for analysis of biofuel production scenarios in the EU, with the aim of examining second generation biofuel production. Two policy instruments are considered - targeted biofuel support and a CO2 cost. The results show that over 3% of the total transport fuel demand can be met by second generation biofuels at a cost of approximately 65-73 EUR/MWh. With current energy prices, this demands biofuel support comparable to existing tax exemptions (around 30 EUR/MWh), or a CO2 cost of around 60 EUR/t(CO2). Parameters having large effect on biofuel production include feedstock availability, fossil fuel price and capital costs. It is concluded that in order to avoid suboptimal energy systems, heat and electricity applications should also be included when evaluating optimal bioenergy use. It is also concluded that while forceful policies promoting biofuels may lead to a high biofuel share at reasonable costs, this is not a certain path towards maximised CO2 emission mitigation. Policies aiming to promote the use of bioenergy thus need to be carefully designed in order to avoid conflicts between different parts of the EU targets for renewable energy and CO2 emission mitigation. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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