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  • 1.
    Amiri, Shahnaz
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Energiteknik.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Energiteknik.
    Possibilities and consequences of deregulation of the European electricity market for connection of heat sparse areas to district heating systems2010Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 87, nr 7, s. 2401-2410Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the study is to analyse the conditions for connection of residential buildings in heat sparse areas to district heating systems in order to increase electricity production in municipal combined heat and power plants. The European electricity market has been assumed to be fully deregulated. The relation between connection of heat sparse areas, increased electricity and heat production as well as electricity prices, fuel prices and emissions rights is investigated. The results of the study show that there is potential to expand the district heating market to areas with lower heat concentrations in the cities of Gavle, Sandviken and Borlange in Sweden, with both economic and environmental benefits. The expansion provides a substantial heat demand of approximately 181 GWh/year, which results in an electricity power production of approximately 43 GWh/year. Since the detached and stand-alone houses in the studied heat sparse areas have been heated either by oil boiler or by direct electricity, connection to district heating also provides a substantial reduction in emissions of CO(2). The largest reductions in CO(2) emissions are found to be 211 ktonnes/year assuming coal-fired condensing power as marginal electricity production. Connection of heat sparse areas to district heating decrease the system costs and provide a profitability by approximately 22 million EURO/year for the studied municipalities if the price of electricity is at a European level, i.e. 110 EURO/MWh. Sensitivity analysis shows, among other things, that a strong relation exists between the price of electricity and the profitability of connecting heat sparse areas to district heating systems.

  • 2.
    Joudi, Ali
    et al.
    Energy and Environmental Technology, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden .
    Cehlin, Mathias
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Energiteknik.
    Rönnelid, Mats
    Energy and Environmental Technology, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden .
    Reflective coatings for interior and exterior of buildings and improving thermal performance2013Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 103, s. 562-570Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of reducing building energy usage and thriving for more energy efficient architectures, has nurtured creative solutions and smart choices of materials in the last few decades. Among those are optimizing surface optical properties for both interior and exterior claddings of the building. Development in the coil-coating steel industries has now made it possible to allocate correct optical properties for steel clad buildings with improved thermal performance. Although the importance of the exterior coating and solar gain are thoroughly studied in many literatures, the effect of interior cladding are less tackled, especially when considering a combination of both interior and exterior reflective coatings. This paper contemplates the thermal behavior of small cabins with reflective coatings on both interior and exterior cladding, under different conditions and climates with the aim to clarify and point out to the potential energy saving by smart choices of clad coatings.

  • 3.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Department of Management and Engineering, Division of Energy Systems, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Gebremedhin, Alemayehu
    Department of Management and Engineering, Division of Energy Systems, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Klugman, Sofia
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö, Ämnesavdelningen för energi- och maskinteknik.
    Henning, Dag
    Optensys Energianalys, Linköping, Sweden.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Department of Management and Engineering, Division of Energy Systems, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Regional energy system optimization - Potential for a regional heat market2009Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 86, nr 4, s. 441-451Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy supply companies and industrial plants are likely to face new situations due to, for example, the introduction of new energy legislation, increased fuel prices and increased environmental awareness. These new prerequisites provide companies with new challenges but also new possibilities from which to benefit. Increased energy efficiency within companies and increased cooperation between different operators are two alternatives to meet the new conditions. A region characterized by a high density of energy-intensive processes is used in this study to find the economic potential of connecting three industrial plants and four energy companies, within three local district heating systems, to a regional heat market, in which different operators provide heat to a joint district heating grid. Also, different investment alternatives are studied. The results show that the economical potential for a heat market amounts to between 5 and 26 million EUR/year with payback times ranging from two to eleven years. However, the investment costs and the net benefit for the total system need to be allotted to the different operators, as they benefit economically to different extents from the introduction of a heat market. It is also shown that the emissions of CO(2) from the joint system would decrease compared to separate operation of the systems. However, the valuation of CO(2) emissions from electricity production is important as the difference of emitted CO(2) between the accounting methods exceeds 650 kton/year for some scenarios. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 4.
    Klugman, Sofia
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö, Ämnesavdelningen för energi- och maskinteknik.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Division of Energy Systems, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Division of Energy Systems, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    A Scandinavian chemical wood-pulp mill: Part 1. Energy audit aiming at efficiency measures2007Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 84, nr 3, s. 326-339Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A Swedish wood-pulp mill is surveyed in terms of energy supply and use in order to determine the energy-saving potential. Conservation measures are of increasing interest to Swedish industry, as energy prices have continued to rise in recent years. The electricity price particularly increased after the deregulation of the Scandinavian electricity market in 1996. The deregulation expanded to all of the EU in July 2004, which may increase the Swedish electricity price further until it reaches the generally higher European price level. Furthermore, oil prices have increased and the emissions trading scheme for CO2 adds to the incentive to reduce oil consumption. The energy system at the surveyed pulp mill is described in terms of electricity and process heat production and use. The total energy-saving potential is estimated and some saving points are identified. The heat that today is wasted at the mill has been surveyed in order to find potential for heat integration or heat export. The result shows that the mill probably could become self-sufficient in electricity. Particularly important in that endeavor is updating old pumps.

  • 5.
    Klugman, Sofia
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö, Ämnesavdelningen för energi- och maskinteknik.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Division of Energy Systems, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Division of Energy Systems, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    A Scandinavian chemical wood-pulp mill: Part 2. International and model mills comparison2007Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 84, nr 3, s. 340-350Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The energy use at a Swedish chemical wood-pulp mill is compared internationally and for two model mills that aim to use the most efficient available technology. The international comparison is performed between Canadian and Scandinavian pulp-mills on a general level, and on a closer level among eleven Swedish and Finnish non-integrated sulfate pulp-mills, the type of mill considered in the case study. The two model mills that are used for comparison are one Swedish and one Canadian. The Scandinavian pulp-mills are somewhat more energy efficient than the Canadian mills. Still, the variation in energy use is remarkably large among the Scandinavian mills, which indicates that the energy-saving potential is great. If all Swedish freestanding sulfate pulp-mills became as energy efficient as the most efficient Scandinavian mill, electricity savings corresponding to nearly 1% of the national electricity use would be obtained. In the model mills comparison it was found that large amounts of heat could be saved, particularly in the evaporation plant.

  • 6.
    Lidberg, Tina
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    Högskolan Dalarna; KTH.
    Myhren, Jonn Are
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Högskolan Dalarna; Umeå universitet.
    Ödlund, L.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Environmental impact of energy refurbishment of buildings within different district heating systems2018Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 227, s. 231-238Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The refurbishment of existing buildings is often considered a way to reduce energy use and CO2 emissions in the building stock. This study analyses the primary energy and CO2 impact of refurbishing a multi-family house with different refurbishment packages, given various district heating systems. Four models of typical district heating systems were defined to represent the Swedish district heating sector. The refurbishment packages were chosen to represent typical, yet innovative ways to improve the energy efficiency and indoor climate of a multi-family house. The study was made from a system perspective, including the valuation of changes in electricity use on the margin. The results show a significant difference in primary energy use for the different refurbishment packages, depending on both the package itself as well as the type of district heating system. While the packages with heat pumps had the lowest final energy use per m2 of floor area, air heat recovery proved to reduce primary energy use and emissions of CO2-equivalents more, independent of the type of district heating system, as it leads to a smaller increase in electricity use.

  • 7.
    Petrovic, Bojana
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap. Department of Energy and Construction Technology, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Myhren, Jonn Are
    Department of Energy and Construction Technology, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Zhang, Xingxing
    Department of Energy and Construction Technology, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Wallhagen, Marita
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap.
    Eriksson, Ola
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap.
    Life cycle assessment of a wooden single-family house in Sweden2019Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 251, artikel-id 113253Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To understand the reasons behind the large environmental impact from buildings the whole life cycle needs to be considered. Therefore, this study evaluates the carbon dioxide emissions in all stages of a single-family house in Sweden from the production of building materials, followed by construction and user stages until the end-of-life of the building in a life cycle assessment (LCA). The methodology applied is attributional life cycle assessment (LCA) based on ‘One Click LCA’ tool and a calculated life span of 100 years. Global warming potential (GWP) and primary energy (PE) are calculated by using specific data from the case study, furthermore the data regarding building materials are based on Environmental Product Declarations (EPDs). The results show that the selection of wood-based materials has a significantly lower impact on the carbon dioxide emissions in comparison with non-wood based materials. The total emissions for this single-family house in Sweden are 6 kg CO 2 e/m 2 /year. The production stage of building materials, including building systems and installations represent 30% of the total carbon dioxide equivalent emissions, while the maintenance and replacement part represents 37%. However, energy use during the in-use stage of the house recorded lower environmental impact (21%) due to the Swedish electricity mix that is mostly based on energy sources with low carbon dioxide emissions. The water consumption, construction and the end-of-life stages have shown minor contribution to the buildings total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (12%). The primary energy indicator shows the largest share in the operational phase of the house. © 2019

  • 8.
    Soam, Shveta
    et al.
    DBT-IOC Centre for Advanced Bioenergy Research, Research & Development Centre, Indian Oil Corporation Limited, Faridabad, India.
    Kapoor, M.
    DBT-IOC Centre for Advanced Bioenergy Research, Research & Development Centre, Indian Oil Corporation Limited, Faridabad, India.
    Kumar, R.
    DBT-IOC Centre for Advanced Bioenergy Research, Research & Development Centre, Indian Oil Corporation Limited, Faridabad, India.
    Börjesson, P.
    Environmental and Energy Systems Studies, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Gupta, R. P.
    DBT-IOC Centre for Advanced Bioenergy Research, Research & Development Centre, Indian Oil Corporation Limited, Faridabad, India.
    Tuli, D. K.
    DBT-IOC Centre for Advanced Bioenergy Research, Research & Development Centre, Indian Oil Corporation Limited, Faridabad, India.
    Global warming potential and energy analysis of second generation ethanol production from rice straw in India2016Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 184, s. 353-364Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental sustainability of cellulosic ethanol production from rice straw in India is conducted using life cycle assessment (LCA). Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, net energy ratio (NER) and net energy balance (NEB) are studied for ethanol production system using two diverse pretreatment technologies, i.e. dilute acid (DA) and steam explosion (SE) followed by separate hydrolysis and fermentation. 1 ton of rice straw is the reference flow of study and 1 MJ transportation fuel is the functional unit while comparing the results with gasoline. The inventory data is collected based on several experiments conducted at our pilot plant and is a novel contribution to country specific LCA. Using DA and SE, the ethanol yields from the processing of 1 ton straw are 239 and 253 L and life cycle GHG emissions are 292 and 288 kg CO2 eq./ton straw respectively. The results indicated that production of enzyme used in hydrolysis is the major contributor to GHG emissions in both DA (54%) and SE (57%) methods of ethanol production. The net energy input during the life cycle of ethanol is 1736 and 1377 MJ/ton straw in DA and SE respectively. The major GHG emissions and energy benefits are obtained using lignin produced in the plant to generate electricity resulting in displacement of the coal based electricity. With a higher xylose recovery in the SE, it gives larger amount of ethanol and also generates more surplus electricity. Enzyme production and its use are identified as GHG emission and energy consumption hotspot in the ethanol production process. While comparing the results with gasoline, DA and SE resulted in a reduction of 77 and 89% GHG emissions and NER of 2.3 and 2.7 respectively. The E5 blending would reduce GHG emissions by 4.3% (DA) and 4.8% (SE) whereas; E20 blend would lead to a reduction of 17.4% (DA) and 18.8% (SE) respectively. Sensitivity analysis indicates that with every 12.5% increase in the price of rice straw from the base case, there is a 2.3% increase in GHG emissions and vice versa. 1 FPU/g WIS increase during hydrolysis gives 2.9% increase in ethanol production, but at the same time there is an increase of 5% emissions from enzyme production. The results of the study conclude that cellulosic ethanol production technology in India is sustainable from GHG reduction and energy efficiency perspective.

  • 9.
    Weinberger, Gottfried
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Energisystem.
    Amiri, Shahnaz
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Energisystem. Department of Management and Engineering, Division of Energy Systems, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Energisystem. Department of Management and Engineering, Division of Energy Systems, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    On the benefit of integration of a district heating system with industrial excess heat: an economic and environmental analysis2017Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 191, s. 454-468Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy-related cooperation using industrial excess heat (IEH) in district heating (DH) networks shows economic and environmental benefits. A rarely investigated approach is the energy cooperation which incorporates a jointly operated CHP plant also producing process steam for nearby industry. The present study aims to evaluate economic and environmental effects on the Hofors DH system with jointly operated CHP plant when the nearby steel mill extends the supply of recovered IEH. Various IEH supply opportunities with different capacities of hot water and steam were designed and compared with existing IEH utilization, plant heat and electricity production and DH system performance. The energy system model MODEST is used for cost-optimization. A parametric study is used to analyze influences of increasing IEH cost and fluctuating electricity prices. The results show advantages for the DH system to utilize IEH for deliveries of DH and process steam and the cogeneration of electricity. Economic and environmental benefits are decreased total system cost (-1.67 MEUR/a), less use of fuels and electricity, and reduced CO2 emissions with a maximal reachable amount of 28,200 ton/a when the use of biofuel is assumed as limited resource and the substituted marginal electricity production is based on coal condensing power plants. The results also show that industrial steam is a preferred heat supply source as long as the steam cost is below the alternative heat production cost, irrespective of the electricity price. While the cost-effective utilization of industrial hot water for DH is more sensitive and affected by a beneficial CHP production based on higher electricity price segments, it is also shown that utilization of continuously supplied industrial hot water is limited during seasons of low DH demand.

  • 10.
    Weinberger, Gottfried
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Energisystem.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Energisystem.
    Investigating influential techno-economic factors for combined heat and power production using optimization and metamodeling2018Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 232, s. 555-571Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the interaction of a wide range of electricity and fuel prices and technical factors of combined heat and power production in a district heating system. A linear programming-based optimization model with the objective to minimize system cost was used to study the energy systems in the cities of Gävle and Sandviken in Sweden. The comprehensive outcomes from optimization and parametric studies have been analyzed using a polynomial-based metamodel. System costs include variable costs for the production and revenues for sale of heat and electricity. The metamodel is used as an analytical and explanatory tool to interpret input-output relationships. Municipal district heating systems of Gävle and Sandviken in Sweden are studied as an interconnected regional system with improved and new combined heat and power plants. The results show that effects from electricity and fuel prices are important, but that variations in energy system cost may also be caused by many cross-factor interactions with technical factors. A comparative system performance analysis with defined cases and optimal factor setting shows a substantial increase in the electricity production, here by up to 650 GWh annually. The profitability of investing in a new plant depends highly on the considered investment risk and electricity and fuel market prices. CO2 emission savings by up to 466 kton annually can be accomplished if marginal electricity production from coal-condensing power plants is avoided and biofuel is released at the same time.

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