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  • 1.
    Agndal, Henrik
    et al.
    School of Business, Economics and Law, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Åge, Lars-Johan
    Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eklinder-Frick, Jens
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Two decades of business negotiation research: an overview and suggestions for future studies2017In: The journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, ISSN 0885-8624, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 487-504Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This article present a review of articles on business negotiation published between 1995 and 2015.

    Design/methodology/approach: This literature review is based on 490 article on business negotiation.

    Findings: When analyzing the conceptual underpinnings of this field, two paradigms emerge as dominant. The most prominent paradigm is a cognitive, psychological approach, typically relying on experiments and statistical testing of findings. The second dominating paradigm is a behavioral one, largely concerned with mathematical modelling and game-theoretical models.

    Practical implications: Besides offering a description of the characteristics adhered to the business negotiation field, this paper will also suggest recommendations for further research and specify areas in which the research field needs further conceptual and empirical development.

    Originality/value: This literature review serves to be the first representation of the characteristics adhered to the budding research field of business negotiation.

  • 2.
    Eklinder-Frick, Jens
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Development, production and use in policy initiated innovation2015In: The journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 30, no 8, p. 973-986Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore and describe the forces which promote or obstruct a policy initiated innovation process in the context of a regional strategic network (RSN). Design/methodology/approach An innovation requires that an invention survives in relevant developing, producing, and using settings. This is analyzed as resource interaction in these three settings. Data are obtained from a case study of an innovation process undertaken from 2007 to 2011 where 24 respondents representing the involved actors in the development of a GIS technology platform were interviewed in separate meetings lasting 60-100 minutes. Primary sources of secondary data have also been analyzed. Findings The strategy imposed by the RSN enabled knowledge to be exchanged between the involved actors but problems remained regarding resource interaction of the relevant settings. The studied case showed that achieving resource interaction between the producing and using settings was particularly challenging when the innovation processes is policy initiated and thus involves both private and public sector. This serves to explain why policy initiatives to turn scientific knowledge into commercialized innovation often fall short of their objectives. Originality/value Research investigating policy initiated innovation and regional economic growth often focus on achieving information exchange between the actors that make up the innovation systems. This paper sheds light on the resource interaction between the members of regional strategic networks and how his can facilitate innovation processes.

  • 3.
    Fang, Tony
    et al.
    Stockholm Business School, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Schaumburg, Josephine
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fjellström, Daniella
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    International business negotiations in Brazil2017In: The journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 591-605Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of the present study was to explore an innovative strategy for studying the Brazilian negotiator’s unique and paradoxical characteristics from a cultural point of view in order to acquire a better understanding of the nature of international business negotiations in Brazil.

    Design/methodology/approach

    The study is of a qualitative nature, using a multiple-case study design at three levels (small-, medium-, and large scale negotiations). Interviews were conducted with Brazilian and German managers to capture the emic-etic view of the Brazilian negotiator. The Strategic Trinity Model was developed to assess the behavior of the Brazilian negotiator in agreement with three metaphors: “African Capoeirista”, “Portuguese Bureaucrat”, and “Indigenous Warrior”.

    Findings

    The three roles “African Capoeirista”, “Portuguese Bureaucrat”, and “Indigenous Warrior” comprised similar as well as contradicting characteristics. The Brazilian negotiator chose naturally and even paradoxically from these role features, effectively negotiating any given situation, context, and time. During the pre- and post-negotiation phases, traits of the “African Capoeirista” and “Indigenous Warrior” were the most salient. During the formal negotiation phase, however, the characteristics of the “African Capoeirista” and the “Portuguese Bureaucrat” dominated.

    Research limitations/implications

    International business negotiations in Brazil call for an in-depth comprehension of the paradoxical roles that local negotiators take on in order to achieve better negotiation outcomes.

    Originality/value

    The present study unveiled the contradicting Brazilian negotiating style in international business negotiations, thus acquiring a better understanding of the negotiation process in the Brazilian market.

  • 4.
    Gustavsson, Bengt
    et al.
    Department of Business Administration, Stockholm University (Stockholms universitet, Redovisning).
    Åge, Lars-Johan
    Department of Marketing & Strategy, Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Conceptualizing for managerial relevance in B2B research: a grounded theory approach2014In: The journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 29, no 7/8, p. 626-632Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - This study aims to formulate recommendations for business-to-business (B2B) researchers, with the potential to increase the extent to which B2B research is relevant to managers.

    Design/methodology/approach - These recommendations are derived from and inspired by the grounded theory methodology.

    Findings - In this article, we argue that conceptualizations which are potentially relevant to managers are those that discover new perspectives, simplify complexity, enable managers to take action and have an instant grab. To accomplish this as researchers, the authors emphasize fostering a beginner's mind, creating umbrella models, increasing the level of abstraction of concepts and finding the core process in data.

    Originality/value - In this article, we translate the basic principles within the grounded theory methodology into more general recommendations that can be used by B2B researchers.

  • 5.
    Lövblad, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Hyder, Akmal. S.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Lönnstedt, Lars
    Department of Forest Products, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Affective Commitment in Industrial Customer-Supplier Relations: A Psychological Contract Approach2012In: The journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 275-285Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this conceptual paper is to develop the construct of affective commitment in business-to-business relationships between customers and suppliers, as well as to introduce the psychological contract as a central antecedent to affective commitment.

    Design/methodology/approach

    A review of the literature on psychological contracts and relationship marketing relating to affective relationship commitment was conducted to make a theoretical contribution in a buyer-supplier relationship context.

    Findings

    By focusing on the individual and incorporating relevant mental processes, theories on affective commitment have been developed. A model and propositions concerning the impact of psychological contracts on affective relationship commitment are suggested, where the psychological contract plays a central role in mediating the effects of several antecedents to affective commitment.

    Research limitations/implications

    By focusing on the individual’s role in affective relationship commitment, this paper contrasts with much of the earlier research, which has used the firm as the unit of analysis. For practitioners, using such an approach will provide a more realistic view of the dynamics in the relationship.

    Originality/value

    This study makes two main contributions. First, it develops conceptual clarity of the affective commitment construct by putting a clear focus on the individual. Second, it proposes a model that describes the influence of several antecedents to affective commitment, suggesting a central role of psychological contracts in explaining the presence of affective commitment in business-to-business relationships.

  • 6.
    Molin, Jonas
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Åge, Lars-Johan
    Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Business streamlining - an integrated model of service sourcing2017In: The journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 194-205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The purchasing of services is a significantly under-researched area. The purpose of this study is to suggest a conceptual model of service sourcing relationships, including the post-contract phase. Design/methodology/approach A qualitative methodology involving two longitudinal case studies that were analyzed with a grounded theory approach in order to build a conceptual model. Findings The proposed model consists of a core process that is termed ?business streamlining? and denotes the process by which four interrelated dimensions are managed in order to making the business processes of the buying organization simpler and more effective and/or productive. Research limitations/implications Although the research methodology is qualitative and does not allow statistical generalization, the study does provide valuable insights into the management of the service (out-) sourcing process. Practical implications The model proposed in this study can be utilized by managers to impose a useful conceptual structure on otherwise fluid and intangible processes, which makes them easier to analyze and facilitates strategic corporate decision-making. Originality/value The paper proposes a model that grasps the dynamics and reality of service (out-) sourcing relationships, including the ongoing relationship management process.

  • 7.
    Åge, Lars-Johan
    Department of Marketing and Strategy, Stockholm School of Economics.
    How and why managers use conceptual devices in business-to-business research2014In: The journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 29, no 7/8, p. 633-641Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - This study aims to analyze how and why managers adopt and use business-to-business (B2B) research.

    Design/methodology/approach - Data were collected through participant observations, focus groups and interviews in three organizations that had used a certain conceptual model from B2B research.

    Findings - The study suggests that managers use B2B research in an action-oriented, flexible and dynamic manner. Such conceptual or translational use is characterized by managers' creative translation of the research to match the problems they are facing at that particular time.

    Research limitations/implications -This study suggests that researchers and managers are on equal footing, and can contribute to one another in an active and creative way.

    Practical implications - Through translating research into their specific context, managers can find a new spectrum of research usage in their organization, but can also contribute to research in an interactive and creative way. Originality/value - This study gives empirical examples for how and why a certain piece of B2B research has been used by managers in three organizations. Moreover, this study contributes to existing models relating to marketing use by giving examples of the active translation process in which managers adopt the research to their specific challenges.

  • 8. Åge, Lars-Johan
    et al.
    Cederlund, Cecilia Anna
    Department of Marketing and Strategy, Stockholm School of Economics.
    Editorial2014In: The journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 29, no 7/8, p. 561-Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporary managers regularly face complex multifunctional problems. Unfortunately, researchers are not always there to help them. The research conducted within the business-to-business (B2B) field is often of a high quality and magnitude, but does not always seem to reach managers to a great extent. There are also signs that the gap between managers and researchers could be especially significant when it comes to industrial marketing (Brennan and Turnbull, 2000, 2002; Ankers and Brennan, 2002). We believe that this development could jeopardize the long-term health of the B2B marketing field and that further elaboration is called for; hence, this special issue. We are not alone −82 per cent of B2B marketing researchers believe it is “important” or “very important” for research to be of potential value to managers (Brennan and Turnbull, 2000).

    Despite the fact that almost all published articles have a section on how results could be of use for managers, these managerial implications are somehow out of reach for most managers. This special issue is dedicated to exploring and enhancing the understanding of the gap between managers and researchers – why it is there, what it consists of – and presenting various perspectives on how it can be bridged, or at least narrowed.

    The first two articles serve as introductions to the discussion of this issue, by giving a feel for what managerial implications typically look like in contemporary articles within our field. The first article, by Salminen, Oinonen and Haimala, provides insights into the character of managerial implications in articles on the theme of solution business; it does this by applying Jaworski’s (2011) framework for role-relevant research to classify the implications. Baraldi, La Rocca and Perna’s article assesses the characteristics of managerial implications in 60 most-cited articles within B2B marketing. The implications are classified in terms of features that the authors believe have an impact on the ready to use quality of findings for managers (e.g. how easy is it to find implications in the text, the extent to which scientific language is used and how concrete the implications are, etc.).

    While these first two articles concern the researcher side of the gap – that is, the characteristics of what is “posted to managers” under the managerial implications headline – the third article, by Kusuula, Närvänen, Saarijärvi and Yrjölä, accounts for the manager side of the gap; that is, top executives’ perceptions regarding academia’s results, as addressed to them. Using these opinions as a backdrop, the authors list the relevance challenges for B2B marketing by using a framework developed by Arndt (1985) regarding scientific balance.

    The six remaining articles in this special issue focus on how the gap between managers and researchers can be narrowed. Brennan, Tzempelikos and Wilson’s article takes a process view of research and lists critical structural elements and communication areas in which further improvement is needed for academia to reach out to managers. Their recommendations concern four groups of stakeholders: researchers, practitioners, policymakers and academic managers.

    The next five articles have a distinct common theme: one of the major reasons for the widening division between researchers and practitioners is the fact that managers’ realities are characterized by an immense complexity that research has not been able to keep up with. The authors of these articles are unanimous in arguing that the relevance of our research will increase if it manages to embrace complexity to a greater extent, rather than reducing it at early stages in the research process. These articles also underscore the need to reconsider the nature of the methodological approach that researchers use.

    The first in this set of articles, by Guiette, Matthyssens and Vandenbempt, argues that complexity calls for a more mindful approach to organizing (by both researchers and practitioners) to better understand and manage strategic change processes. By this, they mean that (business) marketing on a strategic level has little to offer in the way of guidance, taking complexity, interdependence and emergence into account. The next two articles emphasize the need for broader, more condensed and abstract conceptualizations to grasp this complexity, which will enhance the relevance for managers. For better real-world-based theories, Gummesson argues that we should strive to establish comprehensive and abstract theories that have the potential to “boil down” complexity to its core, and that this can be accomplished by case theory, and more involved (action) research.

    Based on the grounded theory methodology, Gustavsson and Åge deliver further recommendations for research in terms of how to create abstract conceptualizations that are able to capture core processes, and they also discuss the possible intricacies involved in such endeavors. The study by Åge shows how managers in three different companies have actually used such abstract conceptualizations as creative devices to tackle challenges. Cederlund emphasizes the role of managerial relevance in the research process – an underrated opportunity for theoretical developments within B2B marketing – which ties together the discussions in the preceding four articles. By placing practice in a research process perspective, she highlights the epistemological remedies for closing the relevance gap and illustrates why managerial relevance is not prioritized on the research agenda.

    In total, the nine contribute to this special issue’s aim of providing a more nuanced picture of what managerial relevance is and why it is needed. Our aim is to create the platform for a discussion that favors the development of the B2B marketing filed.

  • 9.
    Åge, Lars-Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eklinder-Frick, Jens
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Goal-oriented balancing: happy–happy negotiations beyond win–win situations2017In: The journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 525-534Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose This paper aims to suggest a dynamic model incorporating the important dimensions that exist in negotiation processes. Design/methodology/approach To produce a general and conceptual theory of negotiation, the grounded theory methodology is deployed. Findings The core process in this model is dubbed ?goal-oriented balancing? and describes how he negotiator is continuously balancing opposing, and seemingly contrasting, forces in a situation specific and dynamic manner to reach agreements. Based on these findings, this study also suggests a concept to describe negotiations that is focused on collaboration and that is not an oxymoron as is the concept of ?win?win?. Practical implications This conceptual model can be used by managers and practitioners to navigate in a negotiation process. Originality/value This is the first grounded theory study in negotiation research and attempt to describe negotiation processes as dynamic events in which different dimensions are managed simultaneously.

  • 10.
    Åge, Lars-Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Herbst, Uta
    Department of Marketing, University of Potsdam, Potsdam, Germany.
    Hedberg, Per
    Guest editorial2017In: The journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 485-486Article in journal (Other academic)
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