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  • 1.
    Ameen, Arman
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Larsson, Ulf
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Karimipanah, Taghi
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Experimental Investigation of Ventilation Performance of Different Air Distribution Systems in an Office Environment: Heating Mode2019Inngår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, nr 10, artikkel-id 1835Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A vital requirement for all-air ventilation systems are their functionality to operate both in cooling and heating mode. This article experimentally investigates two newly designed air distribution systems, corner impinging jet (CIJV) and hybrid displacement ventilation (HDV) in comparison against a mixing type air distribution system. These three different systems are examined and compared to one another to evaluate their performance based on local thermal comfort and ventilation effectiveness when operating in heating mode. The evaluated test room is an office environment with two workstations. One of the office walls, which has three windows, faces a cold climate chamber. The results show that CIJV and HDV perform similar to a mixing ventilation in terms of ventilation effectiveness close to the workstations. As for local thermal comfort evaluation, the results show a small advantage for CIJV in the occupied zone. Comparing C2-CIJV to C2-CMV the average draught rate (DR) in the occupied zone is 0.3% for C2-CIJV and 5.3% for C2-CMV with the highest difference reaching as high as 10% at the height of 1.7 m. The results indicate that these systems can perform as well as mixing ventilation when used in offices that require moderate heating. The results also show that downdraught from the windows greatly impacts on the overall airflow and temperature pattern in the room.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 2.
    Ameen, Arman
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Larsson, Ulf
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Karimipanah, Taghi
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Experimental investigation of ventilation performance of different air distribution systems in an office environment – cooling mode2019Inngår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, nr 7, artikkel-id 1354Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of a newly designed corner impinging jet air distribution method with an equilateral triangle cross section was evaluated experimentally and compared to that of two more traditional methods (mixing and displacement ventilation). At nine evenly chosen positions with four standard vertical points, air velocity, turbulence intensity, temperature, and tracer gas decay measurements were conducted for all systems. The results show that the new method behaves as a displacement ventilation system, with high air change effectiveness and stratified flow pattern and temperature field. Both local air change effectiveness and air exchange effectiveness of the corner impinging jet showed high quality and promising results, which is a good indicator of ventilation effectiveness. The results also indicate that there is a possibility to slightly lower the airflow rates for the new air distribution system, while still meeting the requirements for thermal comfort and indoor air quality, thereby reducing fan energy usage. The draught rate was also lower for corner impinging jet compared to the other tested air distribution methods. The findings of this research show that the corner impinging jet method can be used for office ventilation.

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  • 3.
    Andersen, Niklas
    et al.
    Energi Funktion Komfort Skandinavien AB, Nacka, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Ola
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöteknik.
    Hillman, Karl
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöteknik.
    Wallhagen, Marita
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöteknik.
    Wind turbines’ end-of-life: Quantification and characterisation of future waste materials on a national level2016Inngår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 9, nr 12, artikkel-id 999Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Globally, wind power is growing fast and in Sweden alone more than 3000 turbines have been installed since the mid-1990s. Although the number of decommissioned turbines so far is few, the high installation rate suggests that a similarly high decommissioning rate can be expected at some point in the future. If the waste material from these turbines is not handled sustainably the whole concept of wind power as a clean energy alternative is challenged. This study presents a generally applicable method and quantification based on statistics of the waste amounts from wind turbines in Sweden. The expected annual mean growth is 12% until 2026, followed by a mean increase of 41% until 2034. By then, annual waste amounts are estimated to 240,000 tonnes steel and iron (16% of currently recycled materials), 2300 tonnes aluminium (4%), 3300 tonnes copper (5%), 340 tonnes electronics (<1%) and 28,000 tonnes blade materials (barely recycled today). Three studied scenarios suggest that a well-functioning market for re-use may postpone the effects of these waste amounts until improved recycling systems are in place.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Harald
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik. Linköpings universitet.
    A numerical and experimental investigation of a confluent jets ventilation supply device in a conference room2022Inngår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 15, nr 5, artikkel-id 1630Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, confluent jets ventilation (CJV) supply devices with three different nozzle arrays (1 × 19, 2 × 19, 3 × 19) were investigated both numerically and experimentally at two different airflow and supply air temperature set-ups. The performance of the CJV supply devices was investigated concerning thermal comfort, indoor air quality (IAQ), and heat removal effectiveness in a conference room environment. A comparison between the experimental and numerical results showed that the v2−f model had the best agreement out of the investigated turbulence models. The numerical results showed that the size of the array had a great impact both on near-field development and on the conditions in the occupied zone. A larger array with multiple rows and a lower momentum conserved the inlet temperature and the mean age of the air better than a single-row array with a higher momentum. A larger array with multiple rows had a higher IAQ and a greater heat removal effectiveness in the occupied zone because the larger array conserved the mean age of air better and the buoyancy driven flow was slightly better at removing the heat. Because of the lower inlet velocities, they also had lower velocities at ankle level, which decreased the risk of draft and thermal discomfort.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 5.
    Andersson, Harald
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Kabanshi, Alan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik. Linköpings universitet.
    On the ventilation performance of low momentum confluent jets supply device in a classroom2020Inngår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 13, nr 20, artikkel-id 5415Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of three different confluent jets ventilation (CJV) supply devices was evaluated in a classroom environment concerning thermal comfort, indoor air quality (IAQ) and energy efficiency. The CJV supply devices have the acronyms: high-momentum confluent jets (HMCJ), low-momentum confluent jets (LMCJ) and low-momentum confluent jets modified by varying airflow direction (LMCJ-M). A mixing ventilation (MV) slot jet (SJ) supply device was used as a benchmark. Comparisons were made with identical set-up conditions in five cases with different supply temperatures (TS) (16–18 °C), airflow rates (2.2–6.3 ACH) and heat loads (17–47 W/m2). Performances were evaluated based on DR (draft rating), PMV (predicted mean vote), ACE (air change effectiveness) and heat removal effectiveness (HRE). The results show that CJV had higher HRE and IAQ than MV and LMCJ/LMCJ-M had higher ACE than HMCJ. The main effects of lower Ts were higher velocities, DR (HMCJ particularly) and HRE in the occupied zone as well as lower temperatures and PMV-values. HMCJ and LMCJ produce MV conditions at lower airflow rates (<4.2 ACH) and non-uniform conditions at higher airflow rates. LMCJ-M had 7% higher HRE than the other CJV supply devices and produced non-uniform conditions at lower airflow rates (<3.3 ACH). The non-uniform conditions resulted in LMCJ-M having the highest energy efficiency of all devices.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 6.
    Arushanyan, Yevgeniya
    et al.
    Division of Environmental Strategies Research, Department of Sustainable development, Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Architecture and Built Environment, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bjorklund, Anna
    Division of Environmental Strategies Research, Department of Sustainable development, Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Architecture and Built Environment, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Ola
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöteknik.
    Finnveden, Göran
    Division of Environmental Strategies Research, Department of Sustainable development, Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Architecture and Built Environment, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Soderman, Maria Ljunggren
    Division of Environmental Systems Analysis, Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Sundqvist, Jan-Olov
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Stenmarck, Åsa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Environmental Assessment of Possible Future Waste Management Scenarios2017Inngår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 10, nr 2, artikkel-id 247Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Waste management has developed in many countries and will continue to do so. Changes towards increased recovery of resources in order to meet climate targets and for society to transition to a circular economy are important driving forces. Scenarios are important tools for planning and assessing possible future developments and policies. This paper presents a comprehensive life cycle assessment (LCA) model for environmental assessments of scenarios and waste management policy instruments. It is unique by including almost all waste flows in a country and also allow for including waste prevention. The results show that the environmental impacts from future waste management scenarios in Sweden can differ a lot. Waste management will continue to contribute with environmental benefits, but less so in the more sustainable future scenarios, since the surrounding energy and transportation systems will be less polluting and also because less waste will be produced. Valuation results indicate that climate change, human toxicity and resource depletion are the most important environmental impact categories for the Swedish waste management system. Emissions of fossil CO2 from waste incineration will continue to be a major source of environmental impacts in these scenarios. The model is used for analyzing environmental impacts of several policy instruments including weight based collection fee, incineration tax, a resource tax and inclusion of waste in a green electricity certification system. The effect of the studied policy instruments in isolation are in most cases limited, suggesting that stronger policy instruments as well as combinations are necessary to reach policy goals as set out in for example the EU action plan on circular economy.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 7.
    Blomqvist, Stefan
    et al.
    Division of Energy Systems, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Amiri, Shahnaz
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik. Division of Energy Systems, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Division of Energy Systems, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ödlund, Louise
    Division of Energy Systems, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Analyzing the performance and control of a hydronic pavement system in a district heating network2019Inngår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, nr 11, artikkel-id 2078Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A hydronic pavement system (HPS) is an alternative method to clear snow and ice, which avoids the use of salt, sand, and fossil fuel in conventional snow clearance, and minimizes the risk of accidents. The aim is to analyze the performance of different control strategies for a 35,000 m2 HPS utilizing heat from a district heating and cooling (DHC) system. The key performance indicators are (1) energy performance of the HPS, and (2) primary energy use, (3) electricity production and (4) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the DHC system. The methodology uses a simulation model of the HPS and an optimization model of the DHC system. Three operational strategies are analyzed: A reference scenario based on the current control strategy, and scenarios where the HPS is shut down at temperatures below −10 ◦C and −5 ◦C. The study shows that the DHC return temperature is suitable for use. By operational strategies, use during peak demand in the DHC system can be avoided, resulting in reduced use of fossil fuel. Moreover, the energy use of the HPS could be reduced by 10% and the local GHG emissions by 25%. The study emphasizes that the HPS may have positive effects on global GHG emissions, as it enables electricity production from renewable resources. 

  • 8.
    Bouroussis, Constantinos A.
    et al.
    National Technical University Of Athens, Athens, Greece.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för företagande, innovation och hållbarhet.
    Simulations and Analysis of the Optimum Uniformity for Pedestrian Road Lighting Focusing on Energy Performance and Spill Light in the Roadside Environment2022Inngår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 15, nr 9, artikkel-id 2983Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Road lighting uniformity is an essential lighting quality parameter for motorists and pedestrians and varies with lighting design parameters. Increased road lighting uniformity may result in benefits, such as increased reassurance and perceived safety for pedestrians or an increased overall visual perception. However, no previous study has investigated how road lighting uniformity varies with lighting design scenarios or how the uniformity of various lighting design scenarios affects other essential parameters, such as energy performance and obtrusive light. This study aimed to investigate: (I) how uniformity varies with different road lighting design scenarios, and (II) how uniformity correlates with energy performance and risk for increasing spill light. The study is limited to pedestrian roads. We performed photometric calculations in ReluxDesktop for more than 1.5 million cases with single-sided pole arrangements and for various geometries of road width, pole distance, pole height, overhang, and luminaire tilt. The results were analyzed with a set of five relevant metrics that were calculated and analyzed together with uniformity. For the evaluation, we used the minimum luminaire power needed to achieve an average illuminance of 10 lx, the power density indicator (DP), edge illuminance ratio (REI), and we introduced two new indicators for spill light on the ground in the border areas: the extended edge illuminance ratio (extended REI) and the spill flux ratio (RSF). The results show that increased uniformity levels may significantly increase energy consumption and spill light, but that both these impacts can be relatively controlled if uniformity is kept under certain limits. The investigated cases also demonstrated that improper lighting planning significantly increases adverse effects, such as spill light. © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

  • 9.
    Cabral, Diogo
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Hayati, Abolfazl
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Gomes, João
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik. MG Sustainable Engineering AB, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Gorouh, Hossein Afzali
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman 76175 133, Iran.
    Nasseriyan, Pouriya
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman 76175 133, Iran.
    Salmanzadeh, Mazyar
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman 76175 133, Iran.
    Experimental Electrical Assessment Evaluation of a Vertical n-PERT Half-Size Bifacial Solar Cell String Receiver on a Parabolic Trough Solar Collector2023Inngår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 16, nr 4Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A two-trough parabolic-shaped concentrating photovoltaic solar collector with a vertical half-size ‘phosphorus-passivated emitter rear totally diffused’ bifacial cell string receiver was designed and built for household applications, with the aim of smooth the electrical ‘duck curve’. The study consisted in testing the concentrating photovoltaic solar collector outdoors, under real weather conditions, for its daily electrical peak power and efficiency, as well as for its electrical transversal and longitudinal Incidence Angle Modifier direction. The outdoor testing measurements were conducted in a parabolic trough with low concentration coupled with a central vertical half-size ‘phosphorus-passivated emitter rear totally diffused’ bifacial cell string receiver. Furthermore, the electrical transversal Incidence Angle Modifier showed to be very delicate due to the position and outline of the receiver, which led to an electrical peak efficiency close to 10% at ±25° (i.e., for an electrical power output of around 49.3 W/m2). To validate the measured parameters, a ray-tracing software has been used, where the measured Incidence Angle Modifiers have a very good agreement with the simulated Incidence Angle Modifiers (e.g., deviation of <4%). Consequently, the concentrating solar collector met the objective of lowering the Photovoltaic cell stress and high radiation intensity, by shifting the electrical peak power at normal (e.g., at 0°) to higher incidence angles (e.g., ±25°); this aids the electrical demand peak shaving, by having the highest electrical power production displaced from the highest intensity solar radiation during the day.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 10.
    Carlander, Jakob
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik. Linköpings universitet.
    Akander, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    Sweco Systems AB.
    Effects on Energy Demand in an Office Building Considering Location, Orientation, Façade Design and Internal Heat Gains: A Parametric Study2020Inngår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 13, nr 23, artikkel-id 6170Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    12.9% of the energy use in the EU originates from the commercial and public sector. It has therefore become a priority to optimize energy efficiency in these buildings. The purpose of this study has been to explore how energy demand in a new office building is affected by different internal heat gains, location, orientation, and façade design, and also to see how different indicators can change perspective on energy efficiency. The study was performed with simulations in IDA-ICE with different façade design and changes in internal heat gains (IHG), orientation, and location. Energy demand was then compared to two different indicators. Using a façade designed to lower solar heat gains had little effect on energy demand in the north of Sweden, but slightly more effect further south. The amount of internal heat gains had significant effect on energy demand. Making deeper studies on design and internal heat gains should therefore be prioritized in the beginning of new building projects so the most energy-efficient design can be chosen. When the indicator kWh/m2 was used, the cases with low internal heat gains were perceived as the most energy efficient, while when kWh/(m2 × hpers) (hpers = hours of use) was used, the cases with high occupancy and low electricity use were considered to be the most energy efficient. Therefore, revising the standardized indicator is of great importance.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 11.
    Carlander, Jakob
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Trygg, Kristina
    Linköping University.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik. Linköping University.
    Integration of measurements and time diaries as complementary measures to improve resolution of BES2019Inngår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, nr 11, artikkel-id 2072Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Building energy simulation (BES) models rely on a variety of different input data, and the more accurate the input data are, the more accurate the model will be in predicting energy use. The objective of this paper is to show a method for obtaining higher accuracy in building energy simulations of existing buildings by combining time diaries with data from logged measurements, and also to show that more variety is needed in template values of user input data in different kinds of buildings. The case studied in this article is a retirement home in Linköping, Sweden. Results from time diaries and interviews were combined with logged measurements of electricity, temperature, and CO2 levels to create detailed occupant behavior schedules for use in BES models. Two BES models were compared, one with highly detailed schedules of occupancy, electricity use, and airing, and one using standardized input data of occupant behavior. The largest differences between the models could be seen in energy losses due to airing and in household electricity use, where the one with standardized user input data had a higher amount of electricity use and less losses due to airing of 39% and 99%, respectively. Time diaries and interviews, together with logged measurements, can be great tools to detect behavior that affects energy use in buildings. They can also be used to create detailed schedules and behavioral models, and to help develop standardized user input data for more types of buildings. This will help improve the accuracy of BES models so the energy efficiency gap can be reduced. 

  • 12.
    Eriksson, Martin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Akander, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Investigating energy use in a city district in nordic climate using energy signature2022Inngår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 15, nr 5, artikkel-id 1907Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on multi-family buildings in a Swedish city district, erected between 1965 and 1973, which are now in need of renovation. For the two types of multi-family buildings in the district, tower buildings and low-rise buildings, dynamic energy use is predicted by using an energy signature method. The energy signature is then used to calculate the primary energy use number of the building stock, according to calculations methods dictated by Swedish building regulations. These regulations are also used to assess which multi-family buildings are in need of renovation, based on the buildings’ primary energy use. For buildings that need energy renovations, it is simulated so that the energy use of each multi-family building complies with these same building regulations. The proposed methodology for simulating energy renovation also determines new energy signature parameters, related to building heat loss coefficient, balance temperature and domestic hot water usage. The effects of simulated renovation are displayed in a duration diagram, revealing how a large-scale renovation affects the district’s heat load in different annual periods, which affects the local district heating system. Sensitivity analysis is also performed before and after simulated energy renovation. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 13.
    Eriksson, Ola
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöteknik.
    Energy and Waste Management2017Inngår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 10, nr 7, artikkel-id 1072Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Waste management and energy systems are often interlinked, either directly by waste-to-energy technologies, or indirectly as processes for recovery of resources-such as materials, oils, manure, or sludge-use energy in their processes or substitute conventional production of the commodities for which the recycling processes provide raw materials. A special issue in Energies on the topic of “ Energy andWaste Management” attained a lot of attention from the scientific community. In particular, papers contributing to improved understanding of the combined management of waste and energy were invited. In all, 9 papers were published out of 24 unique submissions. The papers cover technical topics such as leaching of heavy metals, pyrolysis, and production of synthetic natural gas in addition to different systems assessments of horse manure, incineration, and complex future scenarios at a national level. All papers except one focused on energy recovery from waste. That particular paper focused on waste management of infrastructure in an energy system (wind turbines). Published papers illustrate research in the field of energy and waste management on both a current detailed process level as well as on a future system level. Knowledge gained on both types is necessary to be able to make progress towards a circular economy.

  • 14.
    Eriksson, Ola
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöteknik.
    Finnveden, Göran
    Division of Environmental Strategies Research-fms, Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Sciences and Engineering (SEED), School of Architecture and the Built Environment, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Energy Recovery from Waste Incineration: The Importance of Technology Data and System Boundaries on CO2 Emissions2017Inngår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 10, nr 4, artikkel-id 539Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies on waste incineration as part of the energy system show that waste management and energy supply are highly dependent on each other, and that the preconditions for the energy system setup affects the avoided emissions and thereby even sometimes the total outcome of an environmental assessment. However, it has not been previously shown explicitly which key parameters are most crucial, how much each parameter affects results and conclusions and how different aspects depend on each other. The interconnection between waste incineration and the energy system is elaborated by testing parameters potentially crucial to the result: design of the incineration plant, avoided energy generation, degree of efficiency, electricity efficiency in combined heat and power plants (CHP), avoided fuel, emission level of the avoided electricity generation and avoided waste management. CO2 emissions have been calculated for incineration of 1 kWh mixed combustible waste. The results indicate that one of the most important factors is the electricity efficiency in CHP plants in combination with the emission level of the avoided electricity generation. A novel aspect of this study is the plant by plant comparison showing how different electricity efficiencies associated with different types of fuels and plants influence results. Since waste incineration typically have lower power to fuel ratios, this has implications for further analyses of waste incineration compared to other waste management practises and heat and power production technologies. New incineration capacity should substitute mixed landfill disposal and recovered energy should replace energy from inefficient high polluting plants. Electricity generation must not be lost, as it has to be compensated for by electricity production affecting the overall results.

  • 15.
    Eriksson, Ola
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöteknik.
    Hadin, Åsa
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöteknik.
    Hennessy, Jay
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Borås, Sweden; University of Mälardalen, Västerås, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Daniel
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöteknik.
    Life cycle assessment of horse manure treatment2016Inngår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 9, nr 12, artikkel-id 1011Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Horse manure consists of feces, urine, and varying amounts of various bedding materials. The management of horse manure causes environmental problems when emissions occur during the decomposition of organic material, in addition to nutrients not being recycled. The interest in horse manure undergoing anaerobic digestion and thereby producing biogas has increased with an increasing interest in biogas as a renewable fuel. This study aims to highlight the environmental impact of different treatment options for horse manure from a system perspective. The treatment methods investigated are: (1) unmanaged composting; (2) managed composting; (3) large-scale incineration in a waste-fired combined heat and power (CHP) plant; (4) drying and small-scale combustion; and (5) liquid anaerobic digestion with thermal pre-treatment. Following significant data uncertainty in the survey, the results are only indicative. No clear conclusions can be drawn regarding any preference in treatment methods, with the exception of their climate impact, for which anaerobic digestion is preferred. The overall conclusion is that more research is needed to ensure the quality of future surveys, thus an overall research effort from horse management to waste management.

  • 16.
    Gomes, João
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Assessment of the impact of stagnation temperatures in receiver prototypes of C-PVT collectors2019Inngår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, nr 15, s. 2967-2967Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Concentrating Photovoltaic Thermal (C-PVT) solar collectors produce both thermal and electric power from the same area while concentrating sunlight. This paper studies a C-PVT design where strings of series-connected solar cells are encapsulated with silicone in an aluminium receiver, inside of which the heat transfer fluid flows, and presents an evaluation on structural integrity and performance, after reaching stagnation temperatures. Eight test receivers were made, in which the following properties were varied: Size of the PV cells, type of silicone used to encapsulate the cells, existence of a strain relief between the cells, size of the gap between cells, and type of cell soldering (line or point). The test receivers were placed eight times in an oven for one hour at eight different monitored temperatures. The temperature of the last round was set at 220 °C, which exceeds the highest temperature the panel design reaches. Before and after each round in the oven, the following tests were conducted to the receivers: Electroluminescence (EL) test, IV-curve tracing, diode function, and visual inspection. The test results showed that the receivers made with the transparent silicone and strain relief between cells experienced less microcracks and lower power degradation. No prototype test receiver lost more than 30% of its initial power, despite some receivers displaying a large number of cell cracks. The transparent and more elastic silicone is better at protecting the solar cells from the mechanical stress of thermal expansion than the compared silicone alternative, which was stiffer. As expected, larger cells are more prone to develop microcracks after exposure to thermal stress. Additionally, existing microcracks tend to grow in size relatively fast under thermal stress. EL imaging taken during our experiment leads us to conclude that it is far more likely for existing cracks to expand than for new cracks to appear. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

  • 17.
    Gomes, João
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Cabral, Diogo
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Karlsson, Björn O.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Defining an Annual Energy Output Ratio between Solar Thermal Collectors and Photovoltaic Modules2022Inngår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 15, nr 15, artikkel-id 5577Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Photovoltaics (PV) and Solar Thermal (ST) collectors are sometimes competitors, as investment capacity, energy demand, and roof space are limited. Therefore, a ratio that quantifies the difference in annual energy output between ST and PV for different locations is useful. A market survey assessing the average price and performance both in 2013 and 2021 was conducted, showing a factor of 3 cell price decrease combined with a 20% efficiency increase, while ST showed negligible variation. Winsun simulations were conducted, and the results were plotted on the world map. Despite variations due to local climate, the ratio of energy production (ST/PV) increases at lower latitudes mainly due to (a) higher air temperature increasing ST output but decreasing the PV output; (b) solar radiation reducing ST efficiency to zero while having a minor impact on PV efficiency. The ratio was calculated for several ST operating temperatures. For latitudes lower than 66 degrees, the ratio of a flat plate at 50 degrees C to a PV module ranges from 1.85 to 4.46, while the ratio between a vacuum tube at 50 degrees C and a PV module ranges from 3.05 to 4.76. This ratio can support the decision between installing ST or PV while combining different factors such as energy value, system complexity, and installation cost.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 18.
    Gustafsson, Mattias
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Energisystem.
    Thygesen, Richard
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Energisystem.
    Karlsson, Björn
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Energisystem.
    Ödlund, Louise
    Division of Energy Systems, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Rev-Changes in Primary Energy Use and CO2 Emissions: An Impact Assessment for a Building with Focus on the Swedish Proposal for Nearly Zero Energy Buildings2017Inngår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 10, nr 7, artikkel-id 978Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the European Union's Energy Performance of Buildings Directive, the energy efficiency goal for buildings is set in terms of primary energy use. In the proposal from the National Board of Housing, Building, and Planning, for nearly zero energy buildings in Sweden, the use of primary energy is expressed as a primary energy number calculated with given primary energy factors. In this article, a multi-dwelling building is simulated and the difference in the primary energy number is investigated when the building uses heat from district heating systems or from heat pumps, alone or combined with solar thermal or solar photovoltaic systems. It is also investigated how the global CO2 emissions are influenced by the different energy system combinations and with different fuels used. It is concluded that the calculated primary energy number is lower for heat pump systems, but the global CO2 emissions are lowest when district heating uses mostly biofuels and is combined with solar PV systems. The difference is up to 140 tonnes/year. If the aim with the Swedish building code is to decrease the global CO2 emissions then the ratio between the primary energy factors for electricity and heat should be larger than three and considerably higher than today.

  • 19.
    Hadin, Åsa
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöteknik.
    Hillman, Karl
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöteknik.
    Eriksson, Ola
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöteknik.
    Prospects for Increased Energy Recovery from Horse Manure: A Case Study of Management Practices, Environmental Impact and Costs2017Inngår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 10, nr 12, artikkel-id 1935Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A transition to renewable energy sources and a circular economy has increased interest in renewable resources not usually considered as energy sources or plant nutrient resources. Horse manure exemplifies this, as it is sometimes recycled but not often used for energy purposes. The purpose of this study was to explore horse manure management in a Swedish municipality and prospects for energy recovery. The case study includes a survey of horse manure practices, environmental assessment of horse manure treatment in a biogas plant, including associated transport, compared to on-site unmanaged composting, and finally a simplified economic analysis. It was found that horse manure management was characterized by indoor collection of manure most of the year and storage on concrete slabs or in containers, followed by direct application on arable land. Softwood was predominantly used as bedding, and bedding accounted for a relatively small proportion (13%) of the total mix. Anaerobic digestion was indicated to reduce potential environmental impact in comparison to unmanaged composting, mainly due to biogas substituting use of fossil fuels. The relative environmental impact from transport of manure from horse facilities to anaerobic digestion plant was small. Results also indicate a relatively high cost for horse keepers to change from composting on site to anaerobic digestion in a centralized plant.

  • 20.
    Jalo, Noor
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Johansson, Ida
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Andrei, Mariana
    Linköpings universitet.
    Nehler, Therese
    Linköpings universitet.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik. Linköpings universitet.
    Barriers to and drivers of energy management in Swedish SMEs2021Inngår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 14, nr 21, artikkel-id 6925Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The energy efficiency gap is known as the difference between optimal level of energy efficiency and the actual level of achieved energy efficiency. Energy management has proven to further close the energy efficiency gap. Energy management may differ depending on whether it concerns a large, energy-intensive company or small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). SMEs are of high interest since they form a large share of the economy today. For SMEs, a lighter form of energy management, in the form of energy efficiency network participation, has proven to deliver sound energy efficiency impact, while for larger, energy-intensive firms, a certified energy management system may be more suitable. However, various barriers inhibit adoption of energy efficiency measures. While there is an array of research on barriers to and driving forces for energy efficiency in general, research on barriers to, and driving forces for, energy management is rare, one exception being a study of energy-intensive pulp and paper mills. This holds even more so for industrial SMEs. This paper aims to identify the barriers to, and drivers for, energy management in manufacturing SMEs. Results of this explorative study show that the top four barriers to energy management are lack of time/other priorities, non-energy-related working tasks are prioritized higher, slim organization, and lack of internal expert competences, i.e., mainly organizational barriers. The top four drivers for energy management are to reduce production waste, participation in energy efficiency networks, cost reduction from lower energy use, and commitment from top management. Furthermore, results show that energy management among the studied SMEs seems to not be as mature, even though the companies participated in an energy management capacity building program in the form of energy efficiency networks, which, in turn, shows a still largely untapped potential in the societal aim to reduce the energy efficiency and management gaps. The main contribution of this paper is a first novel attempt to explore barriers to, and drivers for, energy management among SMEs.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 21.
    Johansson, Ida
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Mardan, Nawzad
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Cornelis, Erwin
    Tractebel Engineering S.A., Brussels, Belgium.
    Kimura, Osamu
    Socio-Economic Research Center, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo, Japan.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Designing Policies and Programmes for Improved Energy Efficiency in Industrial SMEs2019Inngår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, nr 7, artikkel-id 1338Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change, due to anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, is driving policymakers to make decisions to promote more efficient energy use. Improved industrial energy efficiency is said to play a key role in the transition to more carbon-neutral energy systems. In most countries, industrial small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) represent 95% or more of the total number of companies. Thus, SMEs, apart from using energy, are a major driver in the economy with regard to innovation, GDP growth, employment, investments, exports, etc. Despite this, research and policy activities related to SMEs have been scarce, calling for contributions in the field. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to critically assess how adequate energy efficiency policy programmes for industrial SMEs could be designed. Results show that scientific publications in the field differ in scope and origin, but a major emphasis of the scientific papers has been on barriers to and drivers for energy efficiency. Scientific contributions from studies of energy policy programmes primarily cover energy audit programmes and show that the major energy efficiency measures from industrial SMEs are found in support processes. The review further reveals an imbalance in geographic scope of the papers within the field, where a vast majority of the papers emanate from Europe, calling for scientific publications from other parts of the world. The study synthesizes the findings into a general method on how to design efficiency programs for the sector.

  • 22.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut .
    LED (Light-Emitting Diode) road lighting in practice: An evaluation of compliance with regulations and improvements for further energy savings2016Inngår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 9, nr 5, artikkel-id 357Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Light-emitting diode (LED) road lighting has been widely implemented in recent years, but few studies have evaluated its performance after installation. This study investigated whether LED road lighting complies with minimum regulations in terms of traffic safety and whether improvements for energy efficiency are possible. Average road surface luminance (L), overall luminance uniformity (U0), longitudinal luminance uniformity (U1), power density (PD) and normalised power density (PN) were evaluated for 14 roads (seven designed for vehicular traffic and seven for pedestrians and bicycles). Energy savings were calculated as the percentage reduction to the minimum level of the existing lighting class or a lower lighting class and by applying a dimming schedule. The results showed that LED road lighting for vehicular traffic roads generally fulfilled the requirements, whereas that for pedestrian and bicycle roads generally corresponded to the lowest lighting class for L, and often did not meet the statutory requirements for U0 and UI. By adapting lighting levels to the minimum requirement of the existing lighting class or by dropping to a lower lighting class, vehicular traffic roads could save 6%-35% on L to lighting class M5 and 23%-61% on L to lighting class M6. A dimming schedule could lead to energy savings of 49%. There is little potential for savings on pedestrian and bicycle roads, except by implementing a dimming schedule. Thus, in general, for vehicular, pedestrian and bicycle roads, a dimming schedule can save more energy than can be achieved in general by reducing lighting class. Furthermore, since a dimming schedule can be adjusted to traffic intensity, any potential risk of compromising traffic safety is minimised.

  • 23.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Jönköping University, JTH, Byggnadsteknik och belysningsvetenskap.
    Synergies and trade-offs between sustainable development and energy performance of exterior lighting2020Inngår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 13, nr 9, artikkel-id 2245Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this review was tomap synergies and trade-offs between sustainable development and energy efficiency and savings regarding exterior lighting. Exterior lighting, such as public road and street lighting, requires significant amounts of energy and hinders sustainable development through its increasing of light pollution, ecological impact, and global climate change. Interlinkages between indicators in sustainability and energy that have positive interactions will lead to a mutual reinforcement in the decision-making process, and vice versa, interlinkages between trade-offs may lead to unwanted and conflicting effects. Very few studies have presented a clear vision of how exterior lighting should be contributing to, and not counteracting, the sustainable development of our planet. This study was conducted through a theoretical and systematic analysis that examined the interactions between sustainable development and energy performance based on a framework using indicators and variables, and by reviewing the current literature. Additionally, 17 indicators of energy efficiency and energy savings were identified and used in the analysis. Most interactions between variables for sustainable development and energy performance (52%) were found to be synergistic. The synergistic interactions were mostly found (71%) in the ecological and environmental dimension showing that environmental and ecological sustainability goes hand in hand with energy efficiency and savings. Trade-offs were found only in the economic and social dimensions accounting for 18% of the interactions identified. This review shows that the interactions between sustainable development and energy performance can be used to establish more efficient policies for decision-making processes regarding exterior lighting.

  • 24.
    Kabanshi, Alan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Choonya, Gasper
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Ameen, Arman
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Liu, Wei
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Mulenga, Enock
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Windows of Opportunities: Orientation, Sizing and PV-Shading of the Glazed Area to Reduce Cooling Energy Demand in Sub-Sahara Africa2023Inngår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 16, nr 9, artikkel-id 3834Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In hot climates, such as sub-Sahara Africa, window sizing and orientation pose challenges as they add, through solar insolation, to the building cooling energy demand and thus the cause of indoor overheating risk. This risk can be reduced through passive building-design-integrated measures, e.g., optimizing the window size, orientation and solar shading strategies. Through an IDA-ICE building performance simulation tool, the current study explores the impact of window size, optimization and building-integrated PV panels as shading strategies on cooling energy demands in three cities (Niamey, Nairobi and Harare) in sub-Sahara Africa. Results show that thermal comfort and cooling energy demand are sensitive to a window-to-wall ratio (WWR) > 70%, while the need for artificial lighting is negligible for a WWR > 50%, particularly in the north for cities in the Southern hemisphere and the south in the Northern hemisphere. A WWR > 70% in the east and west should be avoided unless shading devices are incorporated. Internal blinds perform better in improving occupant thermal comfort but increase artificial lighting while integrating PV panels, as external shading overhangs reduce cooling energy but also produce energy that can be utilized for building services, such as air conditioning. In this study, the results and implications of the optimization of window size, orientation and building-integrated shading and operation are discussed.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 25.
    Khosravi Bakhtiari, Hossein
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Akander, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Hayati, Abolfazl
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    On the Performance of Night Ventilation in a Historic Office Building in Nordic Climate2020Inngår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 13, nr 16, artikkel-id 4159Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of mechanical night ventilation on thermal comfort and electricity use for cooling of a typical historic office building in north-central Sweden was assessed. IDA-ICE simulation program was used to model the potential for improving thermal comfort and electricity savings by applying night ventilation cooling. Parametric study comprised different outdoor climates, flow rates, cooling machine’s coefficient of performance and ventilation units’ specific fan power values. Additionally, the effect of different door schemes (open or closed) on thermal comfort in offices was investigated. It was shown that night ventilation cannot meet the building’s total cooling demand and auxiliary active cooling is required, although the building is located in a cold climate. Night ventilation had the potential in decreasing the percentage of exceedance hours in offices by up to 33% and decreasing the total electricity use for cooling by up to 40%. More electricity is saved with higher night ventilation rates. There is, however, a maximum beneficial ventilation rate above which the increase in electricity use in fans outweighs the decrease in electricity use in cooling machine. It depends on thermal mass capacity of the building, cooling machine´s coefficient of performance, design ventilation rate, and available night ventilation cooling potential (ambient air temperature).

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 26.
    La Fleur, Lina
    et al.
    Division of Energy Systems, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Division of Energy Systems, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik. Division of Energy Systems, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Energy renovation versus demolition and construction of a new building—a comparative analysis of a Swedish multi-family building2019Inngår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, nr 11, artikkel-id 2218Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study addresses the life cycle costs (LCC) of energy renovation, and the demolition and construction of a new building. A comparison is made between LCC optimal energy renovations of four different building types with thermal performance, representing Swedish constructions from the 1940s, 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s, as well as the demolition of the building and construction of a new building that complies with the Swedish building code. A Swedish multi-family building from the 1960s is used as a reference building. LCC optimal energy renovations are identified with energy saving targets ranging between 10% and 70%, in addition to the lowest possible life cycle cost. The analyses show that an ambitious energy renovation is not cost-optimal in any of the studied buildings, if achieving the lowest LCC is the objective function. The cost of the demolition and construction of a new building is higher compared to energy renovation to the same energy performance. The higher rent in new buildings does not compensate for the higher cost of new construction. A more ambitious renovation is required in buildings that have a shape factor with a high internal volume to heated floor area ratio. © 2019 by the authors.

  • 27.
    Lane, Anna-Lena
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Boork, Magdalena
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Barriers, driving forces and non-energy benefits for battery storage in photovoltaic (PV) systems in modern agriculture2019Inngår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, nr 18, artikkel-id 3568Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Battery storage has been highlighted as one way to increase the share of renewables in energy systems. The use of local battery storage is also beneficial when reducing power variations in the grid, thereby contributing to more robust and cost-effective energy systems. The purpose of this paper is to investigate barriers, drivers and non-energy benefits (NEB) for investments in battery storage in photovoltaic systems (PV) in the context of farmers with PV systems in Sweden. The study is based on a questionnaire about barriers, driving forces and NEB for investment in battery storage connected to PV. The questionnaire was sent to farmers in Sweden who already have photovoltaics installed and about 100 persons answered, a response rate of 59%. The major barriers found are related to the technical and economic risks of investing in battery storage. One of the main conclusions is that the highest-ranked driver, i.e., to use a larger part of the produced electricity oneself, turns out to be the highest priority for the grid-owner seeking to reduce the need for extensive investments in the grid. The primary NEBs found were the possibility of becoming independent from grid electricity.

  • 28.
    Lidberg, Tina
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Umeå Universitet, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Ödlund, Louise
    Linköpings Universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem.
    Impact of Domestic Hot Water Systems on District Heating Temperatures2019Inngår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, nr 24, artikkel-id 4694Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    When buildings become more energy effective, the temperature levels of district heating systems need to be lower to decrease the losses from the distribution system and to keep district heating a competitive alternative on the heating market. For this reason, buildings that are refurbished need to be adapted to suit low-temperature district heating. The aim of this paper is to examine whether four different energy refurbishment packages (ERPs) can be used for lowering the temperature need of a multi-family buildings space heating and domestic hot water (DHW) system as well as to analyse the impact of the DHW circulation system on the return temperature. The results show that for all ERPs examined in this study, the space heating supply temperature agreed well with the temperature levels of a low-temperature district heating system. The results show that the temperature need of the DHW system will determine the supply temperature of the district heating system. In addition, the amount of days with heating demand decreases for all ERPs, which further increases the influence of the DHW system on the district heating system. In conclusion, the DHW system needs to be improved to enable the temperature levels of a low-temperature district heating system.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 29.
    Lindh, Ulrika Wänström
    et al.
    Department of Construction Engineering and Lighting Science, School of Engineering, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    Perceived lighting uniformity on pedestrian roads: From an architectural perspective2021Inngår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 14, nr 12, artikkel-id 3647Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Lighting uniformity is a key factor in traffic safety, and it could even result in energy savings for light installations. However, highly uniform horizontal road lighting for motorized vehicles may not be optimal for pedestrian roads. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the way in which pedestrians experience road lighting uniformity. Accordingly, we employed a qualitative approach to examine pedestrian road lighting uniformity. Visual analyses were used to exemplify and discuss the perceived uniformity. The case studies were performed on three pedestrian roads with similar light installations. The results show that the experience of road lighting uniformity differs substantially between the three roads. Based on the case studies, there are many aspects that need to be considered beyond the light falling on the horizontal surfaces. This study suggests that the visual experience of road lighting uniformity for pedestrians is difficult to estimate with photometric values because the visual impact of uniformity is highly influenced by the spatial context and landscape.

  • 30.
    Lundström, Lukas
    et al.
    Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi, Mälardalens högskola; Eskilstuna Kommunfastighet AB.
    Akander, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Bayesian calibration with augmented stochastic state-space models of district-heated multifamily buildings2020Inngår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 13, nr 1, artikkel-id 76Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Reliable energy models are needed to determine building energy performance. Relatively detailed energy models can be auto-generated based on 3D shape representations of existing buildings. However, parameters describing thermal performance of the building fabric, the technical systems, and occupant behavior are usually not readily available. Calibration with on-site measurements is needed to obtain reliable energy models that can offer insight into buildings' actual energy performances. Here, we present an energy model that is suitable for district-heated multifamily buildings, based on a 14-node thermal network implementation of the ISO 52016-1:2017 standard. To better account for modeling approximations and noisy inputs, the model is converted to a stochastic state-space model and augmented with four additional disturbance state variables. Uncertainty models are developed for the inputs solar heat gains, internal heat gains, and domestic hot water use. An iterated extended Kalman filtering algorithm is employed to enable nonlinear state estimation. A Bayesian calibration procedure is employed to enable assessment of parameter uncertainty and incorporation of regulating prior knowledge. A case study is presented to evaluate the performance of the developed framework: parameter estimation with both dynamic Hamiltonian Monte Carlo sampling and penalized maximum likelihood estimation, the behavior of the filtering algorithm, the impact of different commonly occurring data sources for domestic hot water use, and the impact of indoor air temperature readings.

  • 31.
    Lundström, Lukas
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Framtidens energi, Västerås, Sweden; Eskilstuna Kommunfastighet AB, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Akander, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Zambrano, Jesus
    Mälardalens högskola, Framtidens energi, Västerås, Sweden.
    Development of a space heating model suitable for the automated model generation of existing multifamily buildings: a case study in Nordic climate2019Inngår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, nr 3, artikkel-id 485Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Building energy performance modeling is essential for energy planning, management, and efficiency. This paper presents a space heating model suitable for auto-generating baseline models of existing multifamily buildings. Required data and parameter input are kept within such a level of detail that baseline models can be auto-generated from, and calibrated by, publicly accessible data sources. The proposed modeling framework consists of a thermal network, a typical hydronic radiator heating system, a simulation procedure, and data handling procedures. The thermal network is a lumped and simplified version of the ISO 52016-1:2017 standard. The data handling consists of procedures to acquire and make use of satellite-based solar radiation data, meteorological reanalysis data (air temperature, ground temperature, wind, albedo, and thermal radiation), and pre-processing procedures of boundary conditions to account for impact from shading objects, window blinds, wind- and stack-driven air leakage, and variable exterior surface heat transfer coefficients. The proposed model was compared with simulations conducted with the detailed building energy simulation software IDA ICE. The results show that the proposed model is able to accurately reproduce hourly energy use for space heating, indoor temperature, and operative temperature patterns obtained from the IDA ICE simulations. Thus, the proposed model can be expected to be able to model space heating, provided by hydronic heating systems, of existing buildings to a similar degree of confidence as established simulation software. Compared to IDA ICE, the developed model required one-thousandth of computation time for a full-year simulation of building model consisting of a single thermal zone. The fast computation time enables the use of the developed model for computation time sensitive applications, such as Monte-Carlo-based calibration methods. 

  • 32.
    Milić, Vlatko
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Amiri, Shahnaz
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik. Linköpings universitet.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik. Linköpings universitet.
    A systematic approach to predict the economic and environmental effects of the cost-optimal energy renovation of a historic building district on the district heating system2020Inngår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 13, nr 1, artikkel-id 276Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The economic and environmental performance of a district heating (DH) system is to a great extent affected by the size and dynamic behavior of the DH load. By implementing energy efficiency measures (EEMs) to increase a building&rsquo;s thermal performance and by performing cost-optimal energy renovation, the operation of the DH system will be altered. This study presents a systematic approach consisting of building categorization, life cycle cost (LCC) optimization, building energy simulation and energy system optimization procedures, investigating the profitability and environmental performance of cost-optimal energy renovation of a historic building district on the DH system. The results show that the proposed approach can successfully be used to predict the economic and environmental effects of cost-optimal energy renovation of a building district on the local DH system. The results revealed that the financial gains of the district are between 186 MSEK (23%) and 218 MSEK (27%) and the financial losses for the DH system vary between 117&ndash;194 MSEK (5&ndash;8%). However, the suggested renovation measures decrease the local and global CO2 emissions by 71&ndash;75 metric ton of CO2eq./year (4%) and 3545&ndash;3727 metric ton of CO2eq./year (41&ndash;43%), respectively. Total primary energy use was decreased from 57.2 GWh/year to 52.0&ndash;52.2 GWh/year.

  • 33.
    Moghaddam, Saman Abolghasemi
    et al.
    University of Coimbra, Portugal.
    Mattsson, Magnus
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Ameen, Arman
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Akander, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Gameiro Da Silva, Manuel
    University of Coimbra, Portugal.
    Simoes, Nuno
    University of Coimbra, Portugal.
    Low‐Emissivity Window Films as an Energy Retrofit Option for a Historical Stone Building in Cold Climate2021Inngår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 14, nr 22, artikkel-id 7584Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Low‐emissivity (low‐E) window films are designed to improve the thermal comfort andenergy performance of buildings. These films can be applied to different glazing systems withouthaving to change the whole window. This makes it possible to apply films to windows in old andhistorical buildings for which preservation regulations often require that windows should remainunchanged. This research aims to investigate the impacts of low‐E window films on the energyperformance and thermal comfort of a three‐story historical stone building in the cold climate ofSweden using the simulation software “IDA ICE”. On‐site measurements were taken to acquirethermal and optical properties of the windows. This research shows that the application of the lowemissivitywindow film on the outward‐facing surface of the inner pane of the double‐glazedwindows helped to reduce heat loss through the windows in winter and unwanted heat gains insummer by almost 36% and 35%, respectively. This resulted in a 6% reduction in the building’sannual energy consumption for heating purposes and a reduction in the percentage of totaloccupant hours with thermal dissatisfaction from 14% (without the film) to 11% (with the film).However, the relatively high price of the films and low price of district heating results in a ratherlong payback period of around 30 years. Thus, the films seem scarcely attractive from a purelyeconomic viewpoint, but may be warranted for energy/environmental and thermal comfort reasons.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 34.
    Monjurul Hasan, A. S. M.
    et al.
    Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Bangladesh Army International University of Science and Technology, Cumilla, Bangladesh.
    Rokonuzzaman, M.
    Institute for Intelligent Systems Research and Innovation, Deakin University, Victoria, Australia.
    Tuhin, R. A.
    Department of Computer Science and Engineering, East West University, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Salimullah, S. Md.
    Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Bangladesh Army International University of Science and Technology, Cumilla, Bangladesh.
    Ullah, M.
    Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Bangladesh Army International University of Science and Technology, Cumilla, Bangladesh.
    Sakib, T. H.
    Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Bangladesh Army International University of Science and Technology, Cumilla, Bangladesh.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik. Division of Energy Systems, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Drivers and barriers to industrial energy efficiency in textile industries of Bangladesh2019Inngår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, nr 9, artikkel-id 1775Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Bangladesh faced a substantial growth in primary energy demand in the last few years. According to several studies, energy generation is not the only means to address energy demand; efficient energy management practices are also very critical. A pertinent contribution in the energy management at the industrial sector ensures the proper utilization of energy. Energy management and its efficiency in the textile industries of Bangladesh are studied in this paper. The outcomes demonstrate several barriers to energy management practices which are inadequate technical cost-effective measures, inadequate capital expenditure, and poor research and development. However, this study also demonstrates that the risk of high energy prices in the future, assistance from energy professionals, and an energy management scheme constitute the important drivers for the implementation of energy efficiency measures in the studied textile mills. The studied textile industries seem unaccustomed to the dedicated energy service company concept, and insufficient information regarding energy service companies (ESCOs) and the shortage of trained professionals in energy management seem to be the reasons behind this. This paper likewise finds that 3–4% energy efficiency improvements can be gained with the help of energy management practices in these industries. 

  • 35.
    Nasseriyan, Pouriya
    et al.
    Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Iran.
    Afzali Gorouh, Hossein
    Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Iran.
    Gomes, João
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik. MG Sustainable Engineering AB.
    Cabral, Diogo
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Salmanzadeh, Mazyar
    Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Iran.
    Lehmann, Tiffany
    Polytech de Montpellier, France.
    Hayati, Abolfazl
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Numerical and Experimental Study of an Asymmetric CPC-PVT Solar Collector2020Inngår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 13, nr 7, artikkel-id 1669Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Photovoltaic (PV) panels and thermal collectors are commonly known as mature technologies to capture solar energy. The efficiency of PV cells decreases as operating cell temperature increases. Photovoltaic Thermal Collectors (PVT) offer a way to mitigate this performance reduction by coupling solar cells with a thermal absorber that can actively remove the excess heat from the solar cells to the Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF). In order for PVT collectors to effectively counter the negative effects of increased operating cell temperature, it is fundamental to have an adequate heat transfer from the cells to the HTF. This paper analyzes the operating temperature of the cells in a low concentrating PVT solar collector, by means of both experimental and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation results on the Solarus asymmetric Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) PowerCollector (PC). The PC solar collector features a Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) reflector geometry called the Maximum Reflector Concentration (MaReCo) geometry. This collector is suited for applications such as Domestic Hot Water (DHW). An experimental setup was installed in the outdoor testing laboratory at G&auml;vle University (Sweden) with the ability to measure ambient, cell and HTF temperature, flow rate and solar radiation. The experimental results were validated by means of an in-house developed CFD model. Based on the validated model, the effect of collector tilt angle, HTF, insulation (on the back side of the reflector), receiver material and front glass on the collector performance were considered. The impact of tilt angle is more pronounced on the thermal production than the electrical one. Furthermore, the HTF recirculation with an average temperature of 35.1C and 2.2 L/min flow rate showed that the electrical yield can increase by 25%. On the other hand, by using insulation, the thermal yield increases up to 3% when working at a temperature of 23 C above ambient.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 36.
    Ramirez Villegas, Ricardo
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap. Högskolan Dalarna.
    Eriksson, Ola
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Umeå universitet.
    Environmental payback of renovation strategies in a northern climate - the impact of nuclear power and fossil fuels in the electricity supply2020Inngår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 13, nr 1, artikkel-id 80Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to assess how the use of fossil and nuclear power in different renovation scenarios affects the environmental impacts of a multi-family dwelling in Sweden, and how changes in the electricity production with different energy carriers affect the environmental impact. In line with the Paris Agreement, the European Union has set an agenda to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by means of energy efficiency in buildings. It is estimated that by the year 2050, 80% of Europe's population will be living in buildings that already exist. This means it is important for the European Union to renovate buildings to improve energy efficiency. In this study, eight renovation scenarios, using six different Northern European electricity mixes, were analyzed using the standard of the European Committee for Standardization for life cycle assessment of buildings. This study covers all life cycle steps from cradle to grave. The renovation scenarios include combinations of photovoltaics, geothermal heat pumps, heat recovery ventilation, and improvement of the building envelope. The results show that while in some electricity mixes a reduction in the global warming potential can be achieved, it can be at the expense of an increase in radioactive waste production, and, in mixes with a high share of fossil fuels, the global warming potential of the scenarios increases with time, compared with that of the original building. It also shows that in most electricity mixes, scenarios that reduce the active heat demand of the building end up in reducing both the global warming potential and radioactive waste, making them less sensitive to changes in the energy system. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 37.
    Ramirez Villegas, Ricardo
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik. School of Technology and Business Studies, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Ola
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Umeå University, 90187 Umeå, Sweden.
    Life Cycle Assessment of Building Renovation Measures: Trade-off between Building Materials and Energy2019Inngår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, nr 3, artikkel-id 344Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The scope of this study is to assess how different energy efficient renovation strategies affect the environmental impacts of a multi-family house in a Nordic climate within district heating systems. The European Union has set ambitious targets to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions by the year 2030. There is special attention on reducing the life cycle emissions in the buildings sector. However, the focus has often been on new buildings, although existing buildings represent great potential within the building stock in Europe. In this study, four different renovation scenarios were analyzed with the commercially available life cycle assessment software that follows the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) standard. This study covers all life cycle steps from the cradle to the grave for a residential building in Borlange, Sweden, where renewable energy dominates. The four scenarios included reduced indoor temperature, improved thermal properties of building material components and heat recovery for the ventilation system. One finding is that changing installations gives an environmental impact comparable to renovations that include both ventilation and building facilities. In addition, the life cycle steps that have the greatest environmental impact in all scenarios are the operational energy use and the building and installation processes. Renovation measures had a major impact on energy use due to the cold climate and low solar irradiation in the heating season. An interesting aspect, however, is that the building materials and the construction processes gave a significant amount of environmental impact.

  • 38.
    Ramírez-Villegas, Ricardo
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap. School of Technology and Business Studies, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Ola
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Combined Environmental and Economic Assessment of Energy Efficiency Measures in a Multi-Dwelling Building2019Inngår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, nr 13, artikkel-id 2484Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to assess how different renovation scenarios affect the environmental and economic impacts of a multi-dwelling building in a Nordic climate, how these aspects are correlated and how different energy carriers affect different environmental impact categories. In order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, the European Union has set an agenda in order to reduce energy use in buildings. New buildings on the European market have a low replacement rate, which makes building renovation an important factor for achieving the European Union goals. In this study, eight renovation strategies were analyzed following the European Committee for Standardization standards for life cycle assessment and life cycle costs of buildings. This study covers all life cycle steps from cradle to grave. The renovation scenarios include combinations of photovoltaics, geothermal heat pumps, heat recovery ventilation and improved building envelopes. Results show that, depending on the energy carrier, reductions in global warming potential can be achieved at the expense of an increased nuclear waste disposal. It also shows that for the investigated renovation strategies in Sweden there is no correlation between the economic and the environmental performance of the building. Changing energy carriers in Sweden in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions can be a good alternative, but it makes the system more dependent on nuclear power.

  • 39.
    Rashid, Farhan Lafta
    et al.
    University of Kerbala, Iraq.
    Al-Gaheeshi, Asseel M. Rasheed
    University of Kerbala, Iraq.
    Mohammed, Hayder I.
    Imam Ja’afar Al-Sadiq University, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Ameen, Arman
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Heat Convection in a Channel-Opened Cavity with Two Heated Sources and Baffle2024Inngår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 17, nr 5, artikkel-id 1209Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study employs COMSOL software v 5.6 to investigate a novel approach to heat transfer via mixed convection in an open hollow structure with an unheated 90° baffle elbow. Two 20 W heat sources are strategically positioned on the cavity’s bottom and right-angled wall for this research. Notably, the orientation of the baffle perpendicular to the airflow is used to direct external, unrestricted flow into the square cavity. The research investigates a range of air velocities (0.1, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 m/s) and the intricate interaction between input air velocity, dual heated sources, and the presence of a right-angle baffle on critical thermodynamic variables, such as temperature distribution, isotherms, pressure variation, velocity profile, air density, and both local and mean Nusselt numbers. Validation of the applicable computational method is achieved by comparing it to two previous studies. Significant findings from numerical simulations indicate that the highest velocity profile is in the centre of the channel (2.3–2.68 m/s at an inflow velocity of 1.5 m/s), while the lowest profile is observed along the channel wall, with a notable disruption near the inlet caused by increased shear forces. The cavity neck temperature ranges from 380 to 640 K, with inflow air velocities varying from 0.1 to 1.5 m/s (Re is 812 to 12,182), respectively. In addition, the pressure fluctuates at the channel-cavity junction, decreasing steadily along the channel length and reaching a maximum at the intake, where the cavity neck pressure varies from 0.01 to 2.5 Pa with inflow air velocities changing from 0.1 to 1.5 m/s, respectively. The mean Nusselt number exhibits an upward trend as air velocity upon entry increases. The mean Nusselt number reaches up to 1500 when the entry air velocity reaches 1.5 m/s. Due to recirculation patterns, the presence of the 90° unheated baffle produces a remarkable cooling effect. The study establishes a direct correlation between input air velocity and internal temperature distribution, indicating that as air velocity increases, heat dissipation improves. This research advances our understanding of convective heat transfer phenomena in complex geometries and provides insights for optimising thermal management strategies for a variety of engineering applications.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 40.
    Rashid, Farhan Lafta
    et al.
    Petroleum Engineering Department, College of Engineering, University of Kerbala, Karbala 56001, Iraq.
    Al-Obaidi, Mudhar A.
    Technical Institute of Baquba, Middle Technical University, Baquba 32001, Iraq;Technical Instructor Training Institute, Middle Technical University, Baghdad 10074, Iraq.
    Mahdi, Ali Jafer
    Electrical and Electronic Engineering Department, University of Kerbala, Karbala 56001, Iraq;Department of Scientific Affairs, Al-Zahraa University for Women, Karbala 56001, Iraq.
    Ameen, Arman
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Advancements in Fresnel Lens Technology across Diverse Solar Energy Applications: A Comprehensive Review2024Inngår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 17, nr 3, artikkel-id 569Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Concentration of solar energy may be obtained by reflection, refraction, or a combination of the two. The collectors of a reflection system are designed to concentrate the sun’s rays onto a photovoltaic cell or steam tube. Refractive lenses concentrate light by having it travel through the lens. The sun’s rays are partially reflected and then refracted via a hybrid technique. Hybrid focus techniques have the potential to maximize power output. Fresnel lenses are an efficient tool for concentrating solar energy, which may then be used in a variety of applications. Development of both imaging and non-imaging devices is occurring at this time. Larger acceptance angles, better concentration ratios with less volume and shorter focal length, greater optical efficiency, etc., are only some of the advantages of non-imaging systems over imaging ones. This study encompasses numerical, experimental, and numerical and experimental studies on the use of Fresnel lenses in various solar energy systems to present a comprehensive picture of current scientific achievements in this field. The framework, design criteria, progress, and difficulties are all dissected in detail. Accordingly, some recommendations for further studies are suggested.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 41.
    Rashid, Farhan Lafta
    et al.
    Petroleum Engineering Department, College of Engineering, University of Kerbala, Karbala 56001, Iraq.
    Eleiwi, Muhammad Asmail
    Mechanical Engineering Department, College of Engineering, Tikrit University, Tikrit 34001, Iraq;Electromechanical Engineering Department, College of Engineering, University of Samarra, Samarra 34010, Iraq.
    Mohammed, Hayder I.
    Department of Physics, College of Education, University of Garmian, Kurdistan, Kalar 46021, Iraq.
    Ameen, Arman
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Ahmad, Shabbir
    Institute of Geophysics and Geomatics, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074, China;Department of Basic Sciences and Humanities, Muhammad Nawaz Sharif University of Engineering and Technology, Multan 60000, Pakistan.
    A Review of Using Solar Energy for Cooling Systems: Applications, Challenges, and Effects2023Inngår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 16, nr 24, artikkel-id 8075Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy security refers to a country’s capacity to provide the energy resources essential to its wellbeing, including a reliable supply at an affordable costs. Economic growth and development cannot occur without access to reliable energy sources. Energy availability is a proxy for a country’s standard of living and a key factor in its economic development and technical progress. Solar power is the most reliable and cost-effective option when it comes to meeting the world’s energy needs. Solar-powered cooling systems are one example of how solar energy may be used in the real world. Solar-powered air conditioners have become more popular in recent years. The problems caused by our reliance on fossil fuels may be surmounted with the help of solar cooling systems that use solar collectors. Solar cooling systems may utilize low-grade solar energy, making them popular in the construction industry. Solar cooling systems powered by photovoltaic–thermal (PVT) collectors have been the subject of much research to improve the thermodynamic and economic performance of solar cooling systems. This research focuses on exploring the potential of solar-generated heat for use in cooling systems. This study will also examine the current challenges involved with using solar energy in cooling applications, as well as the possible benefits that may help pave the way for more research and greater employment of heat gain from the solar system in various cooling applications.

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  • 42.
    Saribulut, Lutfu
    et al.
    Department of Electrical-Electronics Engineering, Adana Alparslan Turkes Science and Technology University, Adana 01250, Turkey.
    Ameen, Arman
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Voltage Sag Detection and Compensation Signal Extraction for Power Quality Mitigation Devices2023Inngår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 16, nr 16, artikkel-id 5999Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of voltage quality is continuously increasing in electrical networks due to the rising manufacturing costs resulting from system faults and disturbances in utility dynamics. Researchers generally prefer reference-frame transformation-based methods to detect and mitigate these disturbances. However, these methods are adversely affected during unbalanced loading and disturbances due to their direct dependence on system dynamics (currents and voltages). In this study, a new and simple method based on Clarke transformation is proposed to detect disturbances and generate compensation signals for Power Quality Mitigation Devices. The aim is to address the deficiencies of existing approaches. Firstly, the Clarke transformation is introduced through the vector presentation. Then, the mathematical derivation of the proposed method is provided to enhance readers’ understanding. The voltage sag detection and compensation signal extraction of its control algorithm for a Dynamic Voltage Restorer is illustrated graphically. Subsequently, a simple power system is created using a simulation program. Balanced and unbalanced voltage disturbances are applied to the test system to demonstrate the validation of the proposed method under distorted system conditions. The results of voltage sag detection and compensation signal extraction for both the proposed and existing methods are compared at the end of the case studies.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 43.
    Saribulut, Lutfu
    et al.
    Adana Alparslan Turkes Science and Technology University, Turkey.
    Ok, Gorkem
    Adana Alparslan Turkes Science and Technology University, Turkey.
    Ameen, Arman
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    A Case Study on National Electricity Blackout of Turkey2023Inngår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 16, nr 11, artikkel-id 4419Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The necessary precautions should be taken in order to prevent service interruption during the maintenance and repairing of electricity networks. Among these measures, emergencies that may occur in the network should be foreseen, hazard scenarios should be created, and solutions should be developed. If these are not done, a blackout, which first follows the local regions and eventually results in the collapse of the national electrical network, may take place. In this study, the national blackout of Turkey that occurred on 31 March 2015 is examined. The information about Turkey’s electrical infrastructure and its energy policies was provided, as well as the reliability assessment criteria for power systems and examples of significant blackouts that occurred worldwide. The direct relation between line voltage and system frequency was provided with mathematical derivation by using real data taken from a local industrial zone. Then, a case study is presented to demonstrate this direct relation. The causes, development process, and consequences of the blackout are discussed in detail, and some recommendations are offered to increase the security of the electrical infrastructure and to prevent future occurrences while ensuring the sustainability of the system.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 44.
    Sayadi, Sana
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Akander, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Hayati, Abolfazl
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Gustafsson, Mattias
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Comparison of Space Cooling Systems from Energy and Economic Perspectives for a Future City District in Sweden2023Inngår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 16, nr 9, artikkel-id 3852Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the performance of different cooling technologies from energy and economicperspectives were evaluated for six different prototype residential Nearly Zero Energy Buildings(NZEBs) within a planned future city district in central Sweden. This was carried out by assessingthe primary energy number and life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) for each building model and coolingtechnology. Projected future climate file representing the 2050s (mid-term future) was employed.Three cooling technologies (district cooling, compression chillers coupled/uncoupled with photovoltaic (PV) systems, and absorption chillers) were evaluated. Based on the results obtained fromprimary energy number and LCCA, compression chillers with PV systems appeared to be favorableas this technology depicted the least value for primary energy use and LCCA. Compared to compression chillers alone, the primary energy number and the life cycle cost were reduced by 13%, onaverage. Moreover, the district cooling system was found to be an agreeable choice for buildingswith large floor areas from an economic perspective. Apart from these, absorption chillers, utilizingenvironmentally sustainable district heating, displayed the highest primary energy use and life cycle cost which made them the least favorable choice. However, the reoccurring operational cost fromthe LCCA was about 60 and 50% of the total life cycle cost for district cooling and absorption chillers,respectively, while this value corresponds to 80% for the compression chillers, showing the high netpresent value for this technology but sensitive to future electricity prices.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 45.
    Sayadi, Sana
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik. Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Iran.
    Hayati, Abolfazl
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Salmanzadeh, Mazyar
    Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Iran.
    Optimization of window-to-wall ratio for buildings located in different climates: an IDA-Indoor Climate and Energy simulation study2021Inngår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 14, nr 7, artikkel-id 1974Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates different cases to obtain optimal Window-to-Wall ratio (WWR) in seven different climate conditions based on the Köppen–Geiger climate classification. The optimal WWR was decided based on the minimum amount of total energy use (total of cooling, heating, and lighting energy use) of a building model during a complete year. The impact of overhang and automatic blinds were assessed on the optimization of WWR for a building with integrated automatic lighting control. Moreover, three different windows with different U-values and features were employed in order to analyze their effect on the energy use and WWR of the building. IDA-Indoor Climate and Energy (IDA-ICE) was used to carry out the simulations. The software has been validated based on ASHRAE Standard 140. Based on each climate condition, orientation, employed window type, and comfort conditions, an optimal range with a specific combination of window with blind, overhang, or neither was found.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 46.
    Soam, Shveta
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap.
    Börjesson, Pål
    Lunds universitet.
    Considerations on potentials, greenhouse gas and energy performance of biofuels based on forest residues for heavy duty road transport in Sweden2020Inngår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 13, nr 24, artikkel-id 6701Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This case study investigates the potentials, greenhouse gas (GHG), and energy performance of forest residue biofuels produced by new and emerging production technologies, which are commercially implemented in Sweden for heavy transport. The biofuel options included are ethanol (ED 95), hydro-processed vegetable oil (HVO), and liquefied biogas (LBG) produced from logging residues in forestry and sawdust generated in sawmills. The calculated life cycle GHG emissions, based on the EU Renewable Energy Directive calculation methodology, for all three pathways are in the range of 6–11 g CO2eq./MJ, corresponding to 88–94% GHG emission reductions as compared to fossil fuel. Critical parameters are the enzyme configuration for ethanol, hydrogen supply systems and bio-oil technology for HVO, and gasifier size for LBG. The energy input is ranging from 0.16 to 0.43 MJ/MJ biofuel and the total conversion efficiency from the feedstock to biofuel, including high-value by-products (excluding heat), varies between 61 and 65%. The study concludes that the domestic biofuel potential from estimated accessible logging residues and sawdust is equivalent to 50–100% of the current use of fossil diesel in heavy-duty road transport in Sweden, depending on the biofuel production technology selected and excluding energy by-products. Thus, an expansion of forest-based biofuels is a promising strategy to meet the ambitious climate goals in the transport sector in Sweden.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 47.
    Steen Englund, Jessika
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Akander, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Measured and Simulated Energy Use in a Secondary School Building in Sweden — A Case Study of Validation, Airing, and Occupancy Behaviour2020Inngår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 13, nr 9, artikkel-id 2325Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this case study, the energy performance of a secondary school building from the 1960s in Gävle, Sweden, was modelled in the building energy simulation (BES) tool IDA ICE version 4.8 prior to major renovation planning. The objectives of the study were to validate the BES model during both occupied and unoccupied periods, investigate how to model airing and varying occupancy behaviour, and finally investigate energy use to identify potential energy-efficiency measures. The BES model was validated by using field measurements and evidence-based input. Thermal bridges, infiltration, mechanical ventilation, domestic hot water circulation losses, and space heating power were calculated and measured. A backcasting method was developed to model heat losses due to airing, opening windows and doors, and other occupancy behaviour through regression analysis between daily heat power and outdoor temperature. Validation results show good agreement: 3.4% discrepancy between space heating measurements and simulations during an unoccupied week. Corresponding monthly discrepancy varied between 5.5% and 10.6% during three months with occupants. Annual simulation indicates that the best potential renovation measures are changing to efficient windows, improved envelope airtightness, new controls of the HVAC system, and increased external wall thermal insulation.

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    fulltext
  • 48.
    Swing Gustafsson, Moa
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Energiteknik; Mälardalen University.
    Myhren, Jonn Are
    Högskolan Dalarna, Byggteknik.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Life cycle cost of heat supply to areas with detached houses: a comparison of district heating and heat pumps from an energy system perspective2018Inngår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 11, nr 12, artikkel-id 3266Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There are different views on whether district heating (DH) or heat pumps (HPs) is or are the best heating solution in order to reach a 100% renewable energy system. This article investigates the economic perspective, by calculating and comparing the energy system life cycle cost (LCC) for the two solutions in areas with detached houses. The LCC is calculated using Monte Carlo simulation, where all input data is varied according to predefined probability distributions. In addition to the parameter variations, 16 different scenarios are evaluated regarding the main fuel for the DH, the percentage of combined heat and power (CHP), the DH temperature level, and the type of electrical backup power. Although HP is the case with the lowest LCC for most of the scenarios, there are alternatives for each scenario in which either HP or DH has the lowest LCC. In alternative scenarios with additional electricity transmission costs, and a marginal cost perspective regarding the CHP investment, DH has the lowest LCC overall, taking into account all scenarios. The study concludes that the decision based on energy system economy on whether DH should expand into areas with detached houses must take local conditions into consideration.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 49.
    Swing Gustafsson, Moa
    et al.
    Dalarna University; Mälardalen University.
    Myhren, Jonn Are
    Dalarna University.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalen University.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    Linköpings universitet, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Life cycle cost of building energy renovation measures, considering future energy production scenarios2019Inngår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, nr 14, artikkel-id 2719Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A common way of calculating the life cycle cost (LCC) of building renovation measures is to approach it from the building side, where the energy system is considered by calculating the savings in the form of less bought energy. In this study a wider perspective is introduced. The LCC for three different energy renovation measures, mechanical ventilation with heat recovery and two different heat pump systems, are compared to a reference case, a building connected to the district heating system. The energy system supplying the building is assumed to be 100% renewable, where eight different future scenarios are considered. The LCC is calculated as the total cost for the renovation measures and the energy systems. All renovation measures result in a lower district heating demand, at the expense of an increased electricity demand. All renovation measures also result in an increased LCC, compared to the reference building. When aiming for a transformation towards a 100% renewable system in the future, this study shows the importance of having a system perspective, and also taking possible future production scenarios into consideration when evaluating building renovation measures that are carried out today, but will last for several years, in which the energy production system, hopefully, will change.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 50.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Energisystem. Department of Management and Engineering, Division of Energy Systems, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Palm, Jenny
    Department of Thematic Studies—Technology and Social Change, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Industrial Energy Management Decision Making for Improved Energy Efficiency: €”Strategic System Perspectives and Situated Action in Combination2015Inngår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 8, nr 6, s. 5694-5703Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Improved industrial energy efficiency is a cornerstone in climate change mitigation. Research results suggest that there is still major untapped potential for improved industrial energy efficiency. The major model used to explain the discrepancy between optimal level of energy efficiency and the current level is the barrier model, e.g., different barriers to energy efficiency inhibit adoption of cost-effective measures. The measures outlined in research and policy action plans are almost exclusively technology-oriented, but great potential for energy efficiency improvements is also found in operational measures. Both technology and operational measures are combined in successful energy management practices. Most research in the field of energy management is grounded in engineering science, and theoretical models on how energy management in industry is carried out are scarce. One way to further develop and improve energy management, both theoretically as well as practically, is to explore how a socio-technical perspective can contribute to this understanding. In this article we will further elaborate this potential of cross-pollinating these fields. The aim of this paper is to relate energy management to two theoretical models, situated action and transaction analysis. We conclude that the current model for energy management systems, the input-output model, is insufficient for understanding in-house industrial energy management practices. By the incorporation of situated action and transaction analysis to the currently used input-output model, an enhanced understanding of the complexity of energy management is gained. It is not possible to find a single energy management solution suitable for any industrial company, but rather the idea is to find a reflexive model that can be adjusted from time to time. An idea for such a reflexive model would contain the structural elements from energy management models with consideration for decisions being situated and impossible to predict.

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