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  • 1.
    Boström, Maria
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet.
    Björklund, Christina
    Karolinska institutet.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Karolinska institutet.
    Nybergh, Lotta
    Karolinska institutet.
    Schäfer Elinder, Liselotte
    Karolinska institutet.
    Stigmar, Kjerstin
    Lunds universitet.
    Wåhlin, Charlotte
    Karolinska institutet; Linköpings universitet.
    Jensen, Irene
    Karolinska institutet.
    Kwak, Lydia
    Karolinska institutet.
    Health and work environment among female and male Swedish elementary school teachers - A cross-sectional study2019Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 17, nr 1, artikel-id E227Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Changes in teachers' work situation in Sweden since the 1990s may have contributed to an increase in common mental disorders (CMDs) and burnout. However, there is a lack of research in this field. The aim was to describe how Swedish elementary school teachers experience their health, organizational and social work environment, and the psychosocial safety climate at the workplace, and especially differences and similarities between female and male teachers.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were collected with the COPSOQ, OLBI, UWES and PSC-12 from 478 elementary teachers, 81.0% of them women, from twenty schools. The response rate was 96.4%.

    RESULTS: Teachers reported relatively good general health but experienced high stress, high work pace and emotional demands, low influence at work and a poor psychosocial safety climate. These factors were especially prominent among female teachers. Both women and men experienced good development possibilities and high work engagement.

    CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study can help us to develop a more sustainable work environment for female and male teachers. A more sustainable work environment might attract more people to the profession and incentivize existing teachers to remain in the profession.

  • 2.
    Hallman, David
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    van der Beek, Allard
    Department of Public and Occupational Health, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
    Jackson, Jennie
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Coenen, Pieter
    Department of Public and Occupational Health, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
    Calibration of self-reported time spent sitting, standing and walking among office workers: a compositional data analysis2019Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, nr 17, artikel-id 3111Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We developed and evaluated calibration models predicting objectively measured sitting, standing and walking time from self-reported data using a compositional data analysis (CoDA) approach. A total of 98 office workers (48 women) at the Swedish Transport Administration participated. At baseline and three-months follow-up, time spent sitting, standing and walking at work was assessed for five working days using a thigh-worn accelerometer (Actigraph), as well as by self-report (IPAQ). Individual compositions of time spent in the three behaviors were expressed by isometric log-ratios (ILR). Calibration models predicting objectively measured ILRs from self-reported ILRs were constructed using baseline data, and then validated using follow-up data. Un-calibrated self-reports were inaccurate; root-mean-square (RMS) errors of ILRs for sitting, standing and walking were 1.21, 1.24 and 1.03, respectively. Calibration reduced these errors to 36% (sitting), 40% (standing), and 24% (walking) of those prior to calibration. Calibration models remained effective for follow-up data, reducing RMS errors to 33% (sitting), 51% (standing), and 31% (walking). Thus, compositional calibration models were effective in reducing errors in self-reported physical behaviors during office work. Calibration of self-reports may present a cost-e_ective method for obtaining physical behavior data with satisfying accuracy in large-scale cohort and intervention studies.

  • 3.
    Hallman, David
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Niklas, Krause
    Departments of Epidemiology and Environmental Health Sciences, Fielding School of Public Health, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA.
    Jensen, Magnus Thorsten
    Department of Cardiology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Gentofte, Denmark.
    Gupta, Nidhi
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Birk Jørgensen, Marie
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Objectively measured sitting and standing in workers: Cross-sectional relationship with autonomic cardiac modulation2019Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, nr 4, artikel-id 650Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Excessive sitting and standing are proposed risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), possibly due to autonomic imbalance. This study examines the association of objectively measured sitting and standing with nocturnal autonomic cardiac modulation. The cross-sectional study examined 490 blue-collar workers in three Danish occupational sectors. Sitting and standing during work and leisure were assessed during 1–5 days using accelerometers. Heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) were obtained during nocturnal sleep as markers of resting autonomic modulation. The associations of sitting and standing still (h/day) with HR and HRV were assessed with linear regression models, adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, smoking, and physical activity. More sitting time during leisure was associated with elevated HR (p = 0.02), and showed a trend towards reduced HRV. More standing time at work was associated with lower HR (p = 0.02), and with increased parasympathetic indices of HRV (root mean squared successive differences of R-R intervals p = 0.05; high-frequency power p = 0.07). These findings, while cross-sectional and restricted to blue-collar workers, suggest that sitting at leisure is detrimental to autonomic cardiac modulation, but standing at work is beneficial. However, the small effect size is likely insufficient to mitigate the previously shown detrimental effects of prolonged standing on CVD.

  • 4.
    Hallman, David
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Sato, Tatiana
    Physical Therapy Department, Federal University of São Carlos (UFSCar), São Paulo, Brazil.
    Kristiansen, Jesper
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Gupta, Nidhi
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Skotte, Jørgen
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Prolonged sitting is associated with attenuated heart rate variability during sleep in blue-collar workers2015Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 12, nr 11, s. 14811-14827Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Prolonged sitting is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular diseases and mortality. However, research into the physiological determinants underlying this relationship is still in its infancy. The aim of the study was to determine the extent to which occupational and leisure-time sitting are associated with nocturnal heart rate variability (HRV) in blue-collar workers. The study included 138 blue-collar workers (mean age 45.5 (SD 9.4) years). Sitting-time was measured objectively for four days using tri-axial accelerometers (Actigraph GT3X+) worn on the thigh and trunk. During the same period, a heart rate monitor (Actiheart) was used to sample R-R intervals from the electrocardiogram. Time and frequency domain indices of HRV were only derived during nighttime sleep, and used as markers of cardiac autonomic modulation. Regression analyses with multiple adjustments (age, gender, body mass index, smoking, job-seniority, physical work-load, influence at work, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity) were used to investigate the association between sitting time and nocturnal HRV. We found that occupational sitting-time was negatively associated (p < 0.05) with time and frequency domain HRV indices. Sitting-time explained up to 6% of the variance in HRV, independent of the covariates. Leisure-time sitting was not significantly associated with any HRV indices (p > 0.05). In conclusion, objectively measured occupational sitting-time was associated with reduced nocturnal HRV in blue-collar workers. This indicates an attenuated cardiac autonomic regulation with increasing sitting-time at work regardless of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. The implications of this association for cardiovascular disease risk warrant further investigation via long-term prospective studies and intervention studies.

  • 5.
    Hedblom, Marcus
    et al.
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Gunnarsson, Bengt
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Schaefer, Martin
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Knez, Igor
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Psykologi.
    Thorsson, Pontus
    Division of Applied Acoustics, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lundström, Johan N.
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Monell Chemical Senses Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA; Department of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA; Stockholm University Brain Imaging Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sounds of Nature in the City: No Evidence of Bird Song Improving Stress Recovery2019Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, nr 8, artikel-id 1390Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Noise from city traffic is one of the most significant environmental stressors. Natural soundscapes, such as bird songs, have been suggested to potentially mitigate or mask noise. All previous studies on masking noise use self-evaluation data rather than physiological data. In this study, while respondents (n = 117) watched a 360 degrees virtual reality (VR) photograph of a park, they were exposed to different soundscapes and mild electrical shocks. The soundscapesbird song, bird song and traffic noise, and traffic noisewere played during a 10 min recovery period while their skin conductance levels were assessed as a measure of arousal/stress. No significant difference in stress recovery was found between the soundscapes although a tendency for less stress in bird song and more stress in traffic noise was noted. All three soundscapes, however, significantly reduced stress. This result could be attributed to the stress-reducing effect of the visual VR environment, to the noise levels being higher than 47 dBA (a level known to make masking ineffective), or to the respondents finding bird songs stressful. Reduction of stress in cities using masking with natural sounds requires further studies with not only larger samples but also sufficient methods to detect potential sex differences.

  • 6.
    Helmersson Bergmark, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Bergmark, Anders
    Stockholms universitet.
    Findahl, Olle
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för humaniora, Media- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    Extensive Internet Involvment: Addiction or Emerging Lifestyle?2011Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 8, nr 12, s. 4488-4501Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 7.
    Januario, Leticia
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap.
    Karstad, Kristina
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Dk.
    Rugulies, Reiner
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Dk.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Dk.
    Hallman, David
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Association between psychosocial working conditions and perceived physical exertion among eldercare workers: a cross-sectional multilevel analysis of nursing homes, wards and workers2019Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, nr 19, artikel-id 3610Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This cross-sectional multilevel study aims at investigating the associations between psychosocial working conditions of different workplace levels and perceived physical exertion among eldercare workers. Data were obtained from the ‘Danish Observational Study of Eldercare work and musculoskeletal disorderS’ (DOSES) study, including 536 eldercare workers, nested in 126 wards and 20 nursing homes. Psychosocial working conditions were measured by the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ). The physical workload was measured with a self-administered scale (0–10) rating perceived physical exertion. Multilevel linear mixed models were used to determine associations of psychosocial conditions between nursing homes, wards, and workers with physical exertion. Most of the variance in the perceived physical exertion was explained by differences between workers (83%), but some variance was explained by wards (11%) and nursing homes (6%). Workers employed in nursing homes with low influence (p = 0.01) and poor leadership (p = 0.02), and in wards with high quantitative demands (p = 0.03), high work pace (p < 0.001), and low justice (p = 0.01) were at increased risk of reporting higher physical exertion. The strongest associations were found for low influence, low quality of leadership, and high work pace at nursing homes and ward levels. In conclusion, improving specific psychosocial working conditions at nursing home and ward levels may be of particular importance to reduce excessive physical workload in eldercare workers

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