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  • 1.
    Bansal, Manisha
    et al.
    M.R.S.P.T.U, Bathinda (Punjab), India.
    Bansal, Manjeet
    M.R.S.P.T.U, Bathinda (Punjab), India.
    Bahrami, Alireza
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Krishan, Bal
    M.R.S.P.T.U, Bathinda (Punjab), India.
    Garg, Rishav
    Galgotias College of Engineering and Technology, Greater Noida (Uttar Pradesh), India.
    Özkılıç, Yasin Onuralp
    Faculty of Engineering, Necmettin Erbakan University, 42100, Konya Turkey.
    Althaqafi, Essam
    College of Engineering, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia.
    Influence of pozzolanic addition on strength and microstructure of metakaolin-based concrete2024Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 19, nr 4, artikel-id e0298761Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The intent of this study is to explore the physical properties and long-term performance of concrete made with metakaolin (MK) as a binder, using microsilica (MS) and nanosilica (NS) as substitutes for a portion of the ordinary Portland cement (OPC) content. The dosage of MS was varied from 5% to 15% for OPC-MK-MS blends, and the dosage of NS was varied from 0.5% to 1.5% for OPC-MK-NS blends. Incorporation of these pozzolans accelerated the hardening process and reduced the flowability, consistency, and setting time of the cement paste. In addition, it produced a denser matrix, improving the strength of the concrete matrix, as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The use of MS enhanced the strength by 10.37%, and the utilization of NS increased the strength by 11.48% at 28 days. It also reduced the penetrability of the matrix with a maximum reduction in the water absorption (35.82%) and improved the resistance to the sulfate attack for specimens containing 1% NS in the presence of 10% MK. Based on these results, NS in the presence of MK can be used to obtain cementitious structures with the enhanced strength and durability.

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  • 2.
    Bergsten, Eva L.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Larsson, Johan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Kwak, Lydia
    Unit of Intervention and Implementation Research, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet.
    Implementation of an ergonomics intervention in a Swedish flight baggage handling company: a process evaluation2018Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, nr 3, artikel-id e0191760Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To conduct a process evaluation of the implementation of an ergonomics training program aimed at increasing the use of loading assist devices in flight baggage handling.

    Methods: Feasibility (recruitment, reach, context, dose delivered, dose received, satisfaction); intermediate outcomes (skills, confidence and behaviors); and barriers and facilitators of the training intervention were assessed by qualitative and quantitative methods.

    Results: Implementation proved feasible regarding dose delivered, dose received and satisfaction. Confidence among participants in the training program in using and talking about devices, observed use of devices among colleagues, and internal feedback on work behavior increased significantly (p<0.01). Main facilitators were self-efficacy, motivation, and perceived utility of training among the trainees. Barriers included lack of peer support, opportunities to observe and practice behaviors, and follow-up activities; as well as staff reduction and job insecurity.

    Conclusions: In identifying important barriers and facilitators for a successful outcome, our study can help supporting the effectiveness of future interventions. Our results show that barriers caused by organizational changes may likely be alleviated by recruiting motivated trainees and securing strong organizational support for the implementation.   

      

  • 3.
    Birgisdóttir, Dröfn
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Bylund-Grenklo, Tove
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för vårdvetenskap, Med-Vårdvetenskap.
    Kreicbergs, Ulrika
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Stockholm; Karolinska institutet.
    Steineck, Gunnar
    Karolinska institutet; Lunds universitet.
    Fürst, Carl Johan
    Lunds universitet.
    Kristensson, Jimmie
    Lunds universitet.
    Family cohesion predicts long-term health and well-being after losing a parent to cancer as a teenager: A nationwide population-based study2023Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 18, nr 4, artikel-id e0283327Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Parentally bereaved children are at increased risk of negative consequences, and the mediating factors most consistently identified are found to be related to family function after the loss, including cohesion. However, existing evidence is limited, especially with respect to children and youths’ own perception of family cohesion and its long-term effects on health and well-being. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate self-reported family cohesion the first year after the loss of a parent to cancer and its association to long-term psychological health and well-being among young adults that were bereaved during their teenage years.

    Method and participants

    In this nationwide population-based study, 622 of 851 (73%) young adults (aged 18–26) responded to a study-specific questionnaire six to nine years after losing a parent to cancer at the age of 13 to 16. Associations were assessed with modified Poisson regression.

    Results

    Bereaved youth that reported poor family cohesion the first year after losing a parent to cancer had a higher risk of reporting symptoms of moderate to severe depression six to nine years after the loss compared to those reporting good family cohesion. They also had a higher risk of reporting low levels of well-being, symptoms of anxiety, problematic sleeping and emotional numbness once a week or more at the time of the survey. These results remained statistically significant after adjusting for a variety of possible confounding factors.

    Conclusion

    Self-reported poor family cohesion the first year after the loss of a parent to cancer was strongly associated with long-term negative psychological health-related outcomes among bereaved youth. To pay attention to family cohesion and, if needed, to provide support to strengthen family cohesion in families facing bereavement might prevent long-term suffering for their teenage children.

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  • 4.
    Calamnius, Linda
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Biologi. Institute of Freshwater Research, Department of Aquatic Resources, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundin, Mikael
    Harmångers Machine & Marine, Stocka, Sweden; Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Fjälling, Arne
    Institute of Freshwater Research, Department of Aquatic Resources, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Königson, Sara
    Institute of Coastal Research, Department of Aquatic Resources, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Lysekil, Sweden.
    Pontoon trap for salmon and trout equipped with a seal exclusion device catches larger salmons2018Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, nr 7, artikel-id e0201164Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The growing seal populations of the Baltic have led to more frequent interactions with coastal fisheries. The motivation for seals to interact with fishing gear is high. It provides high densities of fish. A successful means of mitigating the conflict is the pontoon trap. Seal visits here have been frequent. Seals have access to most parts of the trap system including the middle chamber, which is an overhead environment. Concerns have been raised about seals possible entanglement in this specific part of the trap. As a means of keeping seals from entering the middle chamber, two different Seal Exclusion Devices (SEDs) were tested. A diamond mesh SED and a square mesh SED, which was rotated 45. The aim was to compare the functionality of the different SEDs with respect to seal deterrent abilities and catch composition. The hypothesis tested were (i) that seals would not be able to enter the middle chamber, (ii) that the catch would increase and (iii) that the SED would deter larger fish from swimming into the middle chamber. Catch data and underwater film were collected. Larger salmons were caught in traps equipped with SEDs. The SEDs did not affect the number of caught fish or the total catch per soak day. © 2018 Calamnius et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  • 5.
    Elcadi, Guilherme H.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Rehabilitation medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hallman, David
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Aasa, Ulrika
    5 Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Fahlström, Martin
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation and Department of Clinical Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden .
    Crenshaw, Albert G.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Oxygenation and hemodynamics do not underlie early muscle fatigue for patients with work-related muscle pain2014Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, nr 4, s. e95582-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Patients suffering from work-related muscle pain (WRMP) fatigue earlier during exercise than healthy controls. Inadequate oxygen consumption and/or inadequate blood supply can influence the ability of the muscles to withstand fatigue. However, it remains unknown if oxygenation and hemodynamics are associated with early fatigue in muscles of WRMP patients. In the present study we applied near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) on the extensor carpi radialis (ECR) and trapezius (TD) muscles of patients with WRMP (n = 18) and healthy controls (n = 17). Our objective was to determine if there were group differences in endurance times for a low-level contraction of 15% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) – sustained for 12-13 min, and to see if these differences were associated with differences in muscle oxygenation and hemodynamics. At baseline, oxygen saturation (StO2%) was similar between groups for the ECR, but StO2% was significantly lower for TD for the WRMP patients (76%) compared to controls (85%) (P < 0.01). Also, baseline ECR blood flow was similar in the two groups. For both muscles there were a larger number of patients, compared to controls, that did not maintain the 15% MVC for the allotted time. Consequently, the endurance times were significantly shorter for the WRMP patients than controls (medians, ECR: 347 s vs. 582 s; TD: 430 s vs. 723 s respectively). Responses in StO2% during the contractions were not significantly different between groups for either muscle, i.e. no apparent difference in oxygen consumption. Overall, we interpret our findings to indicate that the early fatigue for our WRMP patients was not associated with muscle oxygenation and hemodynamics.

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  • 6.
    Eslami, Bahareh
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för socialt arbete och kriminologi, Socialt arbete. Division of Public Health Science, Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Di Rosa, Mirko
    Laboratory of Geriatric Pharmacoepidemiology, National Institute of Health and Science on Aging, IRCCS INRCA, Ancona, Italy.
    Barros, Henrique
    EPIUnit, Instituto de Saúde Pública da Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal.
    Torres-Gonzalez, Francisco
    Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Stankunas, Mindaugas
    Department of Health Management, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania; Health Service Management Department, School of Medicine, University of Griffith, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia.
    Ioannidi-Kapolou, Elisabeth
    Department of Sociology, National School of Public Health, Athens, Greece.
    Lindert, Jutta
    Department of Public Health, University of Emden, Emden, Germany; Women’s Studies Research Center, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA, United States of America.
    Soares, Joaquim J. F.
    Division of Public Health Science, Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Lamura, Giovanni
    Centre for Socio-Economic Research on Ageing, National Institute of Health and Science on Aging, IRCCS INRCA, Ancona, Italy.
    Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella
    Centre for Socio-Economic Research on Ageing, National Institute of Health and Science on Aging, IRCCS INRCA, Ancona, Italy.
    Lifetime abuse and somatic symptoms among older women and men in Europe2019Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, nr 8, artikel-id e0220741Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Research suggests that survivors of interpersonal violence have an increasing experience of bodily symptoms. This study aims to scrutinise the association between lifetime abuse and somatic symptoms among older women and men, considering demographics/socio-economic, social support and health variables. Methods: A sample of 4,467 community-dwelling persons aged 60–84 years (57.3% women) living in seven European countries (Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Portugal, Spain, Sweden) was recruited for this cross-sectional study. Lifetime abuse (psychological, physical, sexual, financial and injury) was assessed on the basis of the UK study of elder abuse and the Conflict Tactics Scale-2, while somatic symptoms were assessed by the Giessen Complaint List short version. Results: Women reported somatic symptoms more frequently than men. Multiple regression analyses revealed that lifetime exposure to psychological abuse was associated with higher levels of somatic symptoms among both women and men, while experiencing lifetime sexual abuse was associated with somatic symptoms only among older women, after adjusting for other demographic and socio-economic variables. Country of residence, older age, and low socio-economic status were other independent factors contributing to a higher level of somatic symptoms. Conclusions: The positive association between the experience of abuse during lifetime and the reporting of higher levels of somatic symptoms, in particular among older women, seems to suggest that such complaints in later life might also be related to the experience of mistreatment and not only to ageing and related diseases. Violence prevention throughout lifetime could help to prevent somatic symptoms in later life. 

  • 7.
    Forinder, Ulla
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Claesson, Lovisa
    Szybek, Katharina
    Lindahl Norberg, Annika
    Exploring the Content of Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms among Parents after Paediatric Stem Cell Transplant2015Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, nr 5, artikel-id e0126905Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study the aim was to explore the content in a trauma reported in a self-report questionnaire by parents of children with a life threatening illness. Semi-structured interviews were performed, with the aim to explore the specific cognitive and behavioral content of the trauma related symptoms reported by the individual informant. The transcripts of the interviews were analyzed with content analysis using a direct approach with a-priori categories according to the B and C categories of the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for PTSD. The results give us the picture of a complex situation, where the self-report instrument PCL captured a spectrum of qualitatively different cognitions. The parents described traumatic thoughts and images relating not only to experiences in the past (i.e., truly post-traumatic), but also to current stressors and expected future events.

  • 8.
    Giusti, Matteo
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap.
    Human-nature relationships in context. Experiential, psychological, and contextual dimensions that shape children’s desire to protect nature2019Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, nr 12, artikel-id e0225951Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    What relationship with nature shapes children’s desire to protect the environment? This study crosses conventional disciplinary boundaries to explore this question. I use qualitative and quantitative methods to analyse experiential, psychological, and contextual dimensions of Human-Nature Connection (HNC) before and after children participate in a project of nature conservation. The results from the interviews (N=25) suggest that experiential aspects of saving animals enhance children’s appreciation and understanding for animals, nature, and nature conservation. However, the analysis of children’s psychological HNC (N=158) shows no statistical difference before and after children participate in the project. Analysing the third dimension – children’s contextual HNC – provides further insights. Including children’s contextual relations with home, nature, and city, not only improves the prediction of their desire to work for nature, but also exposes a form of Human-Nature Disconnection (HND) shaped by children’s closeness to cities that negatively influence it. Overall, combining experiential, psychological, and contextual dimensions of HNC provides rich insights to advance the conceptualisation and assessment of human-nature relationships. People’s relationship with nature is better conceived and analysed as systems of relations between mind, body, culture, and environment, which progress through complex dynamics. Future assessments of HNC and HND would benefit from short-term qualitative and long-term quantitative evaluations that explicitly acknowledge their spatial and cultural contexts. This approach would offer novel and valuable insights to promote the psychological and social determinants of resilient sustainable society.

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  • 9.
    Giusti, Matteo
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap.
    Samuelsson, Karl
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap.
    The regenerative compatibility: a synergy between healthy ecosystems, environmental attitudes, and restorative experiences2020Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 15, nr 1, artikel-id e0227311Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban nature is and will be the most common provider of nature interactions for humankind. The restorative benefits of nature exposure are renown and creating human habitats that simultaneously support people’s wellbeing and ecological sustainability is an urgent priority. In this study, we investigate how the relationship between environmental attitudes and healthy ecosystems influences restorative experiences combining a place-based online survey with geographical data on ecosystem health in Stockholm (Sweden). Using spatial regression, we predict the 544 restorative experiences (from 325 respondents), with people’s environmental attitudes, natural land covers, ecosystem health, and the statistical interactions among these variables as predictors. Our results show that restorative experiences can happen anywhere in the urban landscape, but when they occur in natural environments, the combined levels of biodiversity and ecological connectivity are better predicting factor than the mere presence of nature. That is, healthy ecosystems seem to be more important than just any nature for restorative experiences. Moreover, the statistical interaction between one’s environmental attitudes and natural environments predict almost all restorative experiences better than when these variables are independent predictors. This suggests that there is synergistic compatibility between environmental attitudes and healthy ecosystems that triggers restorative processes. We call this synergy regenerative compatibility. Regenerative compatibility is an unexploited potential that emerges when people’s attitudes and ecosystems are aligned in sustainability. We consider regenerative compatibility a valuable leverage point to transform towards ecologically sustainable and healthy urban systems. To this end, we encourage multifaceted policy interventions that regenerate human-nature relationships holistically rather than implement atomistic solutions.

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  • 10.
    Gupta, Nidhi
    et al.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Heiden, Marina
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Aadahl, Mette
    Research Centre for Prevention and Health, The Capital Region of Denmark, Glostrup, Denmark; Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Korshøj, Mette
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Birk Jørgensen, Marie
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark; Institute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    What is the effect on obesity indicators from replacing prolonged sedentary time with brief sedentary bouts, standing and different types of physical activity during working days?: A cross-sectional accelerometer-based study among blue-collar workers2016Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, nr 5, artikel-id e0154935Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    The aim of the study was to investigate if (a) substituting total sedentary time or long sedentary bouts with standing or various types of physical activity and (b) substituting long sedentary bouts with brief sedentary bouts; is associated with obesity indicators using a cross sectional isotemporal substitution approach among blue-collar workers.

    Methods

    A total of 692 workers from transportation, manufacturing and cleaning sectors wore an Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometer on the thigh for 1–4 working days. The sedentary (sit and lie), standing, walking, and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) time on working days was computed using validated Acti4 software. The total sedentary time and uninterrupted sedentary time spent in brief (≤5 mins), moderate (>5 and ≤30 mins), and long (>30mins) bouts, were determined for the whole day and during work and non-work time separately. The obesity indicators, BMI (kg/m2), waist circumference (cm) and fat percentage were objectively measured. Isotemporal substitution modelling was utilized to determine the linear association with obesity indicators of replacing 30 min of total sedentary time or long sedentary bouts with standing, walking or MVPA and separately replacing 30 min of long sedentary bouts with brief sedentary bouts.

    Results

    Workers [mean (standard deviation, SD); age = 45.1 (9.9) years, BMI = 27.5 (4.9) kg/m2, %BF = 29.6 (9.5), waist circumference = 94.4 (13.0) cm] sat for 2.4 hours (~32% of the measured time, SD = 1.8 hours) across the day during work period and 5.5 hours (~62% of the measured time, SD = 1.5 hours) during non-work period. Most of the sedentary time was accrued in moderate bouts [work = 1.40 (SD = 1.09) hours] during work and in long bouts during non-work [2.7 (SD = 1.4) hours], while least in long sedentary bouts during work [work = 0.5 (SD = 0.9)] and in brief sedentary bouts [0.5 hours (SD = 0.3)] during non-work. Significant associations with all obesity indicators were found when 30 min of total sedentary time or long sedentary bouts were replaced with standing time (~1–2% lower) or MVPA (~4–9% lower) during whole day, work, and non-work periods. The exception was that a statistically significant association was not observed with any obesity indicator when replacing total sedentary time or long sedentary bouts with standing time during the work period. Significant beneficial associations were found when replacing the long sedentary bouts with brief sedentary bouts (~3–5% lower) during all domains.

    Conclusion

    Replacing total sedentary time and long sedentary bouts, respectively, not only with MVPA but also standing time appears to be beneficially associated with obesity indicators among blue-collar workers. Additionally, replacing long sedentary bouts with brief sedentary bouts was also beneficially associated with obesity indicators. Studies using prospective design are needed to confirm the findings.

  • 11.
    Gupta, Nidhi
    et al.
    National Research Centre for Working Environment, Copenhagen Denmark.
    Storda Christiansen, Caroline
    National Research Centre for Working Environment, Copenhagen Denmark.
    Hallman, David
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Korshøj, Mette
    National Research Centre for Working Environment, Copenhagen Denmark.
    Gomes Carneiro, Isabella
    National Research Centre for Working Environment, Copenhagen Denmark.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for Working Environment, Copenhagen Denmark.
    Is Objectively Measured Sitting Time Associated with Low Back Pain?: A Cross-Sectional Investigation in the NOMAD study2015Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, nr 3, artikel-id e0121159Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Studies on the association between sitting time and low back pain (LBP) have found contrasting results. This may be due to the lack of objectively measured sitting time or because socioeconomic confounders were not considered in the analysis.

    Objectives: To investigate the association between objectively measured sitting time (daily total, and occupational and leisure-time periods) and LBP among blue-collar workers.

    Methods: Two-hundred-and-one blue-collar workers wore two accelerometers (GT3X+ Actigraph) for up to four consecutive working days to obtain objective measures of sitting time, estimated via Acti4 software. Workers reported their LBP intensity the past month on a scale from 0 (no pain) to 9 (worst imaginable pain) and were categorized into either low (≤5) or high (>5) LBP intensity groups. In the multivariate-adjusted binary logistic regression analysis, total sitting time, occupational and leisure-time sitting were both modeled as continuous (hours/day) and categorical variables (i.e. low, moderate and high sitting time).

    Results: The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed a significant positive association between total sitting time (hours) and high LBP intensity (odds ratio; OR=1.43, 95%CI=1.15-1.77, P=0.01). Similar results were obtained for leisure-time sitting (OR=1.45, 95%CI= 1.10-1.91, P=0.01), and a similar but non-significant trend was obtained for occupational sitting time (OR=1.34, 95%CI 0.99-1.82, P=0.06). In the analysis on categorized sitting time, high sitting time was positively associated with high LBP for total (OR=3.31, 95%CI= 1.18-9.28, P=0.03), leisure (OR=5.31, 95%CI= 1.57-17.90, P=0.01), and occupational (OR=3.26, 95%CI= 0.89-11.98, P=0.08) sitting time, referencing those with low sitting time.

    Conclusion: Sitting time is positively associated with LBP intensity among blue-collar workers. Future studies using a prospective design with objective measures of occupational sitting time are recommended.

  • 12.
    Gustafsson, Patrik
    et al.
    Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences (Orthopaedics), Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Crenshaw, Albert G.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Edmunsson, David
    Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences (Orthopaedics), Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Toolanen, Göran
    Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences (Orthopaedics), Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Crnalic, Sead
    Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences (Orthopaedics), Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Muscle oxygenation in Type 1 diabetic and non-diabetic patients with and without chronic compartment syndrome2017Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, nr 10, artikel-id e0186790Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Type 1 diabetic patients and non-diabetic patients were referred for evaluation for chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) based on clinical examination and complaints of activity-related leg pain in the region of the tibialis anterior muscle. Previous studies using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) showed greater deoxygenation during exercise for CECS patients versus healthy controls; however, this comparison has not been done for diabetic CECS patients.

    Methods. We used NIRS to test for differences in oxygenation kinetics for Type 1 diabetic patients diagnosed with (CECS-diabetics, n = 9) versus diabetic patients without (CON-diabetics, n = 10) leg anterior chronic exertional compartment syndrome. Comparisons were also made between non-diabetic CECS patients (n = 11) and healthy controls (CON, n = 10). The experimental protocol consisted of thigh arterial cuff occlusion (AO, 1-minute duration), and treadmill running to reproduce symptoms. NIRS variables generated were resting StO2%, and oxygen recovery following AO. Also, during and following treadmill running the magnitude of deoxygenation and oxygen recovery, respectively, were determined.

    Results. There was no difference in resting StO2%between CECS-diabetics (78.2±12.6%) vs. CONdiabetics (69.1±20.8%), or between CECS (69.3±16.2) vs. CON (75.9±11.2%). However, oxygen recovery following AO was significantly slower for CECS (1.8±0.8%/sec) vs. CON (3.8±1.7%/sec) (P = 0.002); these data were not different between the diabetic groups. StO2%during exercise was lower (greater deoxygenation) for CECS-diabetics (6.3±8.6%) vs. CON-diabetics (40.4±22.0%), and for CECS (11.3±16.8%) vs. CON (34.1±21.2%) (P<0.05 for both). The rate of oxygen recovery post exercise was faster for CECS-diabetics (3.5±2.6%/sec) vs. CON-diabetics (1.4±0.8%/sec) (P = 0.04), and there was a tendency of difference for CECS (3.1±1.4%/sec) vs. CON (1.9±1.3%/sec) (P = 0.05).

    Conclusion. The greater deoxygenation during treadmill running for the CECS-diabetics group (vs. CON-diabetics) is in line with previous studies (and with the present study) that compared non-diabetic CECS patients with healthy controls. Our findings could suggest that NIRS may be useful as a diagnostic tool for assessing Type 1 diabetic patients suspected of CECS.

  • 13.
    Gyllström Krekula, Linda
    et al.
    Social Work in Health Care, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics (LIME), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Forinder, Ulla
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för socialt arbete och psykologi, Socialt arbete. Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society (NVS), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tibell, Annika
    Program Management Office (PMO), New Karolinska, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm , Sweden; Department of Learning, Informatics, Managemen t and Ethics (LIME), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    What do people agree to when stating willingness to donate?: On the medical interventions enabling organ donation after death2018Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, nr 8, artikel-id e0202544Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose of the study

    The purpose of this study is to explore donor relatives’ experiences of the medical interventions enabling organ donation, as well as to examine the donor relatives’ attitudes towards donating their own organs, and whether or not their experiences have influenced their own inclination to donate.

    Methods

    The experiences of donor relatives were explored via in-depth interviews. The interviews covered every step from the deceased family member being struck by a severe bleeding in the brain till after the organ recovery, including the medical interventions enabling organ donation. The interviews were analysed through qualitative and quantitative content analysis.

    Results

    Brain death and organ donation proved to be hard to understand for many donor relatives. The prolonged interventions provided after death in order to enable organ donation misled some relatives to believe that their family member still was alive. In general, the understanding for what treatment aimed at saving the family member and what interventions aimed at maintaining organ viability was low. However, most donor relatives were either inspired to, or reinforced in their willingness to, donate their own organs after having experienced the loss of a family member who donated organs.

    Conclusions

    There is a need for greater transparency regarding the whole chain of events during the donation process. Yet, having experienced the donation process closely did not discourage the donor relatives from donating their own organs–but rather inspired a willingness to donate. This indicates an acceptance of the medical procedures necessary in order to enable organ donation after death.

  • 14.
    Hadrevi, Jenny
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Ghafouri, Bijar
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University.
    Larsson, Britt
    Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences (IMH), Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University.
    Gerdle, Björn
    Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences (IMH), Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University and Pain and Rehabilitation Centre, County Council of Östergötland.
    Hellström, Fredrik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Multivariate modeling of proteins related to trapezius myalgia, a comparative study of female cleaners with or without pain2013Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, nr 9, s. e73285-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The prevalence of chronic trapezius myalgia is high in women with high exposure to awkward working positions, repetitive movements and movements with high precision demands. The mechanisms behind chronic trapezius myalgia are not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to explore the differences in protein content between healthy and myalgic trapezius muscle using proteomics. Muscle biopsies from 12 female cleaners with work-related trapezius myalgia and 12 pain free female cleaners were obtained from the descending part of the trapezius. Proteins were separated with two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and selected proteins were identified with mass spectrometry. In order to discriminate the two groups, quantified proteins were fitted to a multivariate analysis: partial least square discriminate analysis. The model separated 28 unique proteins which were related to glycolysis, the tricaboxylic acid cycle, to the contractile apparatus, the cytoskeleton and to acute response proteins. The results suggest altered metabolism, a higher abundance of proteins related to inflammation in myalgic cleaners compared to healthy, and a possible alteration of the contractile apparatus. This explorative proteomic screening of proteins related to chronic pain in the trapezius muscle provides new important aspects of the pathophysiology behind chronic trapezius myalgia.

  • 15.
    Hallman, David
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Birk Jørgensen, Marie
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    On the health paradox of occupational and leisure-time physical activity using objective measurements: effects on autonomic imbalance2017Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, nr 5, artikel-id e0177042Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    Leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) has considerable benefits for cardiovascular health and longevity, while occupational physical activity (OPA) is associated with an elevated cardiovascular risk. This “health paradox” may be explained by different effects on the autonomic nervous system from OPA and LTPA. Thus, we aimed to investigate whether objectively measured OPA and LTPA are differentially associated with autonomic regulation among workers.

    Methods

    The study comprised 514 blue-collar workers from the Danish cohort DPHACTO. Physical activity (i.e. walking, climbing stairs, running and cycling) was assessed objectively using accelerometers worn on the thigh, hip and trunk over multiple working days. During this period, a heart rate monitor was used to sample heart period intervals from the ECG signal. Heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV) indices were analyzed during nocturnal sleep as markers of autonomic regulation. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the main effects of OPA and LTPA and their interaction on heart rate and HRV, adjusting for multiple confounders.

    Results

    Statistically significant interaction was found between OPA and LTPA on heart rate (adjusted p<0.0001) and HRV indices in time (rMSSD, adjusted p = 0.004) and frequency-domains (HF, adjusted p = 0.022; LF, adjusted p = 0.033). The beneficial effect of LTPA on nocturnal heart rate and HRV clearly diminished with higher levels of OPA, and high levels of both OPA and LTPA had a detrimental effect.

    Conclusion

    We found contrasting associations for objectively measured OPA and LTPA with heart rate and HRV during sleep. Differential effects of OPA and LTPA on autonomic regulation may contribute to the physical activity health paradox.

  • 16.
    Hu, J.
    et al.
    Department of Electrical Engineering, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou, China; State Key Laboratory of Wheat and Maize Crop Science, Zhengzhou, China .
    Chen, R.
    Department of Electrical Engineering, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou, China .
    Wang, S.
    Department of Electrical Engineering, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou, China .
    Wang, T.
    Department of Electrical Engineering, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou, China .
    Zhao, Y.
    Hanan Mechancial and Electrical Vocational College, Zhengzhou, China.
    Li, J.
    Department of Electrical Engineering, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou, China .
    Hu, X.
    School of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, McGill University, Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, QC, Canada .
    Liang, Hao
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Zhu, J.
    Department of Electrical Engineering, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou, China .
    Sun, X.
    Department of Electrical Engineering, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou, China .
    Ma, L.
    Department of Electrical Engineering, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou, China .
    Jiang, M.
    College of Life Sciences, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou, China.
    Detection of clenbuterol hydrochloride residuals in pork liver using a customized surface plasmon resonance bioanalyzer2015Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, nr 3, artikel-id e0122005Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A surface plasmon resonance (SPR) immunoassay with an immobilization of self-assembled molecular identification membrane for the detection of residual Clenbuterol Hydrochloride (CLB) in pork liver was systematically investigated and experimentally validated for its high performance. SPR immunoassay with a regular competitive inhibition assay cannot be directly verified to detect CLB residuals. In this study, the binding of Au film with mercaptopropionic acid was investigated using the known form of the strong S-Au covalent bonds formed by the chemical radical of the mercaptopropionic acid and the Au film. After that, the immunoglobulin IgG of swine (SwIgG-CLB) was bonded with the mercaptopropionic acid by covalent -CO-NH- amide bonding. The modified comprehensive analysis of how the membrane structure works was introduced together with the customized SPR bioanalyzer. In order to evaluate the performance of this biomembrane structure, the concentrations of CLBcontained solutions of 0 ng•mL-1, 10 ng•mL-1, 20 ng•mL-1, 33.3 ng•mL-1, and 40 ng•mL-1 were prepared by adding CLB reagents into the solutions of CLB antibody (Clenbuterol Hydrochloride Antibody, CLB-Ab), successively and then the response unit (RU) was measured individually. Using the data collected from the linear CCD array, the fitting curve was established with the R-Square value of 0.9929. Correspondingly, the recovery rate ranged from 88.48% to 103.21% was experimented and the limit of detection of CLB in 1.26 ng•mL-1 was obtained efficiently. It was concluded that the detection method associated with biomembrane properties is expected to contribute much to the determination of residual CLB in pork liver quantitatively by using the customized SPR bioanalyzer. © 2015 Hu et al.

  • 17. Hu, Jiandong
    et al.
    Wang, Tingting
    Wang, Shun
    Chen, Mingwen
    Wang, Manping
    Mu, Linying
    Chen, Hongyin
    Hu, Xinran
    Liang, Hao
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Zhu, Juanhua
    Jiang, Min
    Development of a Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensing Approach for the Rapid Detection of Porcine Circovirus Type2 in Sample Solutions2014Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, nr 10, s. e111292-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A sensitive and label-free analytical approach for the detection of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) instead of PCV2 antibody in serum sample was systematically investigated in this research based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) with an establishment of special molecular identification membrane. The experimental device for constructing the biosensing analyzer is composed of an integrated biosensor, a home-made microfluidic module, and an electrical control circuit incorporated with a photoelectric converter. In order to detect the PCV2 using the surface plasmon resonance immunoassay, the mercaptopropionic acid has been used to bind the Au film in advance through the known form of the strong S-Au covalent bonds formed by the chemical radical of the mercaptopropionic acid and the Au film. PCV2 antibodies were bonded with the mercaptopropionic acid by covalent -CO-NH- amide bonding. For the purpose of evaluating the performance of this approach, the known concentrations of PCV2 Cap protein of 10 mu g/mL, 7.5 mu g/mL, 5 mu g/mL, 2.5 mu g/mL, 1 mu g/mL, and 0.5 mu g/mL were prepared by diluting with PBS successively and then the delta response units (Delta RUs) were measured individually. Using the data collected from the linear CCD array, the Delta RUs gave a linear response over a wide concentration range of standard known concentrations of PCV2 Cap protein with the R-Squared value of 0.99625. The theoretical limit of detection was calculated to be 0.04 mu g/mL for the surface plasmon resonance biosensing approach. Correspondingly, the recovery rate ranged from 81.0% to 89.3% was obtained. In contrast to the PCV2 detection kits, this surface plasmon resonance biosensing system was validated through linearity, precision and recovery, which demonstrated that the surface plasmon resonance immunoassay is reliable and robust. It was concluded that the detection method which is associated with biomembrane properties is expected to contribute much to determine the PCV2 in sample solutions instead of PCV2 antibody in serum samples quantitatively.

  • 18.
    Hurtig, Anders
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöpsykologi. Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Department of Education, Health and Social Science, University of Dalarna, Falun, Sweden.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöpsykologi. Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ljung, Robert
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöpsykologi.
    Hygge, Staffan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöpsykologi.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Department of Behavioral Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Student's second-language grade may depend on classroom listening position2016Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, nr 6, artikel-id e0156533Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this experiment was to explore whether listening positions (close or distant location from the sound source) in the classroom, and classroom reverberation, influence students’ score on a test for second-language (L2) listening comprehension (i.e., comprehension of English in Swedish speaking participants). The listening comprehension test administered was part of a standardized national test of English used in the Swedish school system. A total of 125 high school pupils, 15 years old, participated. Listening position was manipulated within subjects, classroom reverberation between subjects. The results showed that L2 listening comprehension decreased as distance from the sound source increased. The effect of reverberation was qualified by the participants’ baseline L2 proficiency. A shorter reverberation was beneficial to participants with high L2 proficiency, while the opposite pattern was found among the participants with low L2 proficiency. The results indicate that listening comprehension scores—and hence students’ grade in English—may depend on students’ classroom listening position.

  • 19.
    Jackson, Jennie
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsa, psykologi och idrottsvetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsa, psykologi och idrottsvetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Rydström, Klara
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Johansson, Kristina
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Protocol for an observational study of working conditions and musculoskeletal health in Swedish online retail warehousing from the perspective of sex/gender and place of birth2024Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 19, nr 2, artikel-id e0297569Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    European and International sustainable development agendas aim to reduce inequalities in working conditions and work-related health, yet disparate occupational health outcomes are evident between both men and women and domestic- and foreign-born workers. In Sweden, major growth in online retail warehousing has increased occupational opportunities for foreign-born workers. The rapid change has left research lagging on working conditions, i.e., employment conditions, facility design, work organisation, physical and psychosocial work environment conditions, and their effects on worker health. Further, no known studies have considered patterns of inequality related to these factors. The overall aim of this study is to describe working conditions and musculoskeletal health in online retail warehousing, determine the extent to which differences exist related to sex/gender and place of birth (as a proxy for race/ethnicity), and examine factors at the organisational and individual levels to understand why any differences exist.

    Three online retail warehouses, each employing 50-150 operations workers performing receiving, order picking, order packing and dispatching tasks will be recruited. Warehouses will, to the extent possible, differ in their extent of digital technology use. Employment conditions, facility design (including digital tool use), work organisation, physical and psychosocial work environment conditions and worker health will be assessed by survey, interview and technical measurements. Analysis of quantitative data stratified by sex and place of birth will consider the extent to which inequalities exist. Focus group interviews with operations employees and in-depth interviews with managers, union and health and safety representatives will be conducted to assess how employee working conditions and musculoskeletal health are related to inequality regimes of sex/gender and/or race/ethnicity in organisational processes and practices in online retail warehousing. The study is pre-registered with the Open Science Framework.

    This study will describe working conditions and health in online retail warehouse workers and consider the extent to which patterns of inequality exist based on sex/gender and place of birth.

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  • 20.
    Jordal, Malin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för vårdvetenskap, Med-Vårdvetenskap. Uppsala universitet.
    Sigurjonsson, Hannes
    Karolinska institutet.
    Griffin, Gabriele
    Uppsala universitet.
    Wahlberg, Anna
    Uppsala universitet.
    The benefits and disappointments following clitoral reconstruction after female genital cutting: A qualitative interview study from Sweden2021Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 16, nr 7, artikel-id e0254855Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Female genital cutting or mutilation refers to the cutting of girls' external genitalia. Due to migration from contexts where female genital cutting is common, it is estimated that around 38 000 cut women and girls live in Sweden. Clitoral reconstruction, a relatively new form of surgical healthcare offered to women with female genital cutting, was established in Sweden in 2014. This surgery aims at restoring clitoral function and anatomy, but there is yet a dearth of evidence demonstrating the effects of the surgery. The aim of this study was to explore how women undergoing clitoral reconstruction in Sweden between 2016 and 2019 experienced the surgical process and its aftereffects from a physical, sexual and psychosocial perspective. Eighteen women who had undergone clitoral reconstruction at a university hospital in Sweden agreed to participate in the study. The women were interviewed using semi-structured interviews, which were recorded, transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis. The results, based on self-categorization and labelling theory, demonstrated both benefits and disappointments following the surgery. Several women reported positive outcomes in terms of sexual, psychosocial and aesthetic terms. They experienced reduced genital pain, improvements in their sex lives, and a sense of feeling more empowered and at ease in their bodies. Yet, some women reported aesthetic, functional and process-related disappointment related to clitoral reconstruction. Nonetheless, the women expressed gratitude for the possibility of undergoing the surgery. In conclusion, the women reported that they experienced physical, sexual and psychosocial benefits of the surgery.

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  • 21.
    Kalezic, Ivana
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Department of Surgical and Perioperative Science, Sport Medicine Unit, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Steffens, Heinz
    Changes in Tetrodotoxin-Resistant C-Fibre Activity during Fatiguing Isometric Contractions in the Rat2013Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, nr 9, artikel-id e73980Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    It is by now well established that tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-R) afferent fibres from muscle in the rat exhibit a multisensitive profile, including nociception. TTX-R afferent fibres play an important role in motor control, via spinal and supraspinal loops, but their activation and function during muscle exercise and fatigue are still unknown. Therefore, the specific effect of isometric fatiguing muscle contraction on the responsiveness of TTX-R C-fibres has been investigated in this study. To quantify the TTX-R afferent input we recorded the cord dorsum potential (CDP), which is the result of the electrical fields set up within the spinal cord by the depolarisation of the interneurons located in the dorsal horn, activated by an incoming volley of TTX-R muscle afferents. The changes in TTX-R CDP size before, during and after fatiguing electrical stimulation of the gastrocnemius-soleus (GS) muscle have been taken as a measure of TTX-R C-unit activation. At the end of the fatiguing protocol, following an exponential drop in force, TTX-R CDP area decreased in the majority of trials (9/14) to 0.75 +/- 0.03% (mean +/- SEM) of the pre-fatigue value. Recovery to the control size of the TTX-R CDP was incomplete after 10 min. Furthermore, fatiguing trials could sensitise a fraction of the TTX-R C-fibres responding to muscle pinch. The results suggest a long-lasting activation of the TTX-R muscle afferents after fatiguing stimulation. The role of this behaviour in chronic muscle fatigue in connection with pain development is discussed. Accumulation of metabolites released into the interstitium during fatiguing stimulation might be one of the reasons underlying the C-fibres' long-lasting activation.

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  • 22.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Hallman, David
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Lyskov, Eugene
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Hygge, Staffan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöpsykologi.
    Can cognitive activities during breaks in repetitive manual work accelerate recovery from fatigue? A controlled experiment2014Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, nr 11, artikel-id e112090Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Neurophysiologic theory and some empirical evidence suggests that fatigue caused by physical work maybe more effectively recovered during “diverting” periods of cognitive activity than during passive rest; a phenomenon of great interest in working life. We investigated the extent to which development and recovery of fatigue during repeated bouts of an occupationally relevant reaching task was influenced by the complexity of a cognitive activity between these bouts. Eighteen male volunteers performed three sessions, consisting of six 7-min bouts of reaching alternating with 3minutes of a memory test differing in complexity between sessions. Throughout the session, recordings were made of upper trapezius muscle activity using electromyography (EMG), heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV) using electrocardiography,arterial blood pressure, and perceived fatigue (Borg CR10 scale and SOFI). A test battery before, immediately after and 1 hour after the work period included measurements of shoulder elevation strength (MVC), pressure pain threshold (PPT) over the trapezius muscles, and a submaximal isometric contraction. As intended, perceived fatigue, HRV, and EMG amplitude increased during the physical work bouts. Recovery did occur between the bouts, but fatigue accumulated throughout the work period. Neither EMG changes nor recovery of perceived fatigue during breaks were influenced by cognitive task complexity, while heart rate and HRV recovered the most during breaks with the most difficult task. Recovery of perceived fatigue after the 1 hour work period was also most pronounced for the most difficult cognitive condition, while MVC and PPT showed ambiguous patterns, and EMG recovered similarly after all three cognitive protocols. Thus, we could confirm that cognitive tasks between bouts of fatiguing physical work can,indeed, accelerate recovery of central components of fatigue, even if benefits may be moderate. Our results encourage further research into combinations of physical and mental tasks in an occupational context.

  • 23.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Waleh Åström, Amanda
    Strömberg, Annika
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Heiden, Marina
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Cost and statistical efficiency of posture assessment by inclinometry and observation, exemplified by paper mill work2023Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 18, nr 10, artikel-id e0292261Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Postures at work are paramount in ergonomics. They can be determined using observation and inclinometry in a variety of measurement scenarios that may differ both in costs associated with collecting and processing data, and in efficiency, i.e. the precision of the eventual outcome. The trade-off between cost and efficiency has rarely been addressed in research despite the obvious interest of obtaining precise data at low costs. Median trunk and upper arm inclination were determined for full shifts in 28 paper mill workers using both observation and inclinometry. Costs were estimated using comprehensive cost equations; and efficiency, i.e. the inverted standard deviation of the group mean, was assessed on basis of exposure variance components. Cost and efficiency were estimated in simulations of six sampling scenarios: two for inclinometry (sampling from one or three shifts) and four for observation (one or three observers rating one or three shifts). Each of the six scenarios was evaluated for 1 through 50 workers. Cost-efficiency relationships between the scenarios were intricate. As an example, inclinometry was always more cost-efficient than observation for trunk inclination, except for observation strategies involving only few workers; while for arm inclination, observation by three observers of one shift per worker outperformed inclinometry on three shifts up to a budget of €20000, after which inclinometry prevailed. At a budget of €10000, the best sampling scenario for arm inclination was 2.5 times more efficient than the worst. Arm inclination could be determined with better cost-efficiency than trunk inclination. Our study illustrates that the cost-efficiency of different posture measurement strategies can be assessed and compared using easily accessible diagrams. While the numeric examples in our study are specific to the investigated occupation, exposure variables, and sampling logistics, we believe that inclinometry will, in general, outperform observation. In any specific case, we recommend a thorough analysis, using the comparison procedure proposed in the present study, of feasible strategies for obtaining data, in order to arrive at an informed decision support.

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  • 24.
    Meinertz Dantoft, Thomas
    et al.
    Danish Research Centre for Chemical Sensitivities, Copenhagen University Hospital, Gentofte, Denmark; Center for Biological Sequence Analysis, Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
    Skovbjerg, Sine
    Research Centre for Prevention and Health, Capital Region, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Andersson, Linus
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lind, Nina
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Nordin, Steven
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Brix, Susanne
    Center for Biological Sequence Analysis, Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
    Inflammatory mediator profiling of n-butanol exposed upper airways in individuals with multiple chemical sensitivity2015Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, nr 11, artikel-id e0143534Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS) is a chronic condition characterized by reports of recurrent symptoms in response to low level exposure to various chemical substances. Recent findings suggests that dysregulation of the immune system may play a role in MCS pathophysiology.

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine baseline and low dose n-butanol-induced upper airway inflammatory response profiles in MCS subjects versus healthy controls.

    METHOD: Eighteen participants with MCS and 18 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Epithelial lining fluid was collected from the nasal cavity at three time points: baseline, within 15 minutes after being exposed to 3.7 ppm n-butanol in an exposure chamber and four hours after exposure termination. A total of 19 cytokines and chemokines were quantified. Furthermore, at baseline and during the exposure session, participants rated the perceived intensity, valence and levels of symptoms and autonomic recordings were obtained.

    RESULTS: The physiological and psychophysical measurements during the n-butanol exposure session verified a specific response in MCS individuals only. However, MCS subjects and healthy controls displayed similar upper airway inflammatory mediator profiles (P>0.05) at baseline. Likewise, direct comparison of mediator levels in the MCS group and controls after n-butanol exposure revealed no significant group differences.

    CONCLUSION: We demonstrate no abnormal upper airway inflammatory mediator levels in MCS subjects before or after a symptom-eliciting exposure to low dose n-butanol, implying that upper airways of MCS subjects are functionally intact at the level of cytokine and chemokine production and secretory capacity. This suggests that previous findings of increased cytokine plasma levels in MCS are unlikely to be caused by systemic priming via excessive upper airway inflammatory processes.

  • 25.
    Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella
    et al.
    Centre of Socio-Economic Research on Ageing, Italian National Institute of Health and Science on Aging, I.N.R.C.A., Ancona, Italy.
    Chiatti, Carlos
    Italian National Institute of Health and Science on Aging, I.N.R.C.A., Ancona, Italy.
    Lamura, Giovanni
    Centre of Socio-Economic Research on Ageing, Italian National Institute of Health and Science on Aging, I.N.R.C.A., Ancona, Italy.
    Torres-Gonzales, Francisco
    Centro de Investigación Biomedica en Red de Salud Mental (CIBERSAM), University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Stankunas, Mindaugas
    Department of Health Management, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Lindert, Jutta
    Department of Public Health Science, Protestant University of Applied Sciences, Ludwigsburg, Germany.
    Ioannidi-Kapolou, Elisabeth
    Department of Sociology, National School of Public Health, Athens, Greece.
    Barros, Henrique
    Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Medical School, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.
    Macassa, Gloria
    Mid Sweden University and Karolinska Institute.
    Soares, Joaquim
    Mittuniversitetet, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Social Support, Socio-Economic Status, Health and Abuse among Older People in Seven European Countries: Social support and elder abuse in Europe2013Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, nr 1, s. e54856-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Social support has a strong impact on individuals, not least on older individuals with health problems. A lack of support network and poor family or social relations may be crucial in later life, and represent risk factors for elder abuse. This study focused on the associations between social support, demographics/socio-economics, health variables and elder mistreatment.

    Methods

    The cross-sectional data was collected by means of interviews or interviews/self-response during January-July 2009, among a sample of 4,467 not demented individuals aged 60–84 years living in seven European countries (Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Portugal, Spain, and Sweden).

    Results

    Multivariate analyses showed that women and persons living in large households and with a spouse/partner or other persons were more likely to experience high levels of social support. Moreover, frequent use of health care services and low scores on depression or discomfort due to physical complaints were indicators of high social support. Low levels of social support were related to older age and abuse, particularly psychological abuse.

    Conclusions

    High levels of social support may represent a protective factor in reducing both the vulnerability of older people and risk of elder mistreatment. On the basis of these results, policy makers, clinicians and researchers could act by developing intervention programmes that facilitate friendships and social activities in old age.

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  • 26.
    Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella
    et al.
    Centre for Socio-Economic Research on Ageing, Italian National Institute of Health and Science on Aging, Ancona, Italy.
    Di Rosa, Mirko
    Scientific Direction, Italian National Institute of Health and Science on Aging, Ancona, Italy.
    Lamura, Giovanni
    Centre for Socio-Economic Research on Ageing, Italian National Institute of Health and Science on Aging, Ancona, Italy.
    Torres-Gonzales, Francisco
    Centro de Investigaciones Biomedicas en Red de Salud Mental (CIBERSAM), University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Lindert, Jutta
    Department of Public Health, University of Emden, Emden, Germany; Women's Studies Research Center, Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts, USA.
    Stankunas, Mindaugas
    Department of Health Management, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania; Health Service Management Department, Centre for Health Innovation, School of Medicine, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia.
    Ioannidi-Kapolou, Elisabeth
    Department of Sociology, National School of Public Health, Athens, Greece.
    Barros, Henrique
    Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Medical School, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.
    Macassa, Gloria
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Folkhälsovetenskap. Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Soares, Joaquim J F
    Department of Health Sciences, Section of Public Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    Abuse of older men in seven European countries: a multilevel approach in the framework of an ecological model2016Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, nr 1, artikel-id e0146425Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Several studies on elder abuse indicate that a large number of victims are women, but others report that men in later life are also significantly abused, especially when they show symptoms of disability and poor health, and require help for their daily activities as a result. This study focused on the prevalence of different types of abuse experienced by men and on a comparison of male victims and non-victims concerning demographic/socio-economic characteristics, lifestyle/health variables, social support and quality of life. Additionally, the study identified factors associated with different types of abuse experienced by men and characteristics associated with the victims.

    METHODS: The cross-sectional data concerning abuse in the past 12 months were collected by means of interviews and self-response during January-July 2009, from a sample of 4,467 not demented individuals aged between 60-84 years living in seven European countries (Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Portugal, Spain and Sweden). We used a multilevel approach, within the framework of an Ecological Model, to explore the phenomenon of abuse against males as the complex result of factors from multiple levels: individual, relational, community and societal.

    RESULTS: Multivariate analyses showed that older men educated to higher levels, blue-collar workers and men living in a rented accommodation were more often victims than those educated to lower levels, low-rank white-collar workers and home owners, respectively. In addition, high scores for factors such as somatic and anxiety symptoms seemed linked with an increased probability of being abused. Conversely, factors such as increased age, worries about daily expenses (financial strain) and greater social support seemed linked with a decreased probability of being abused.

    CONCLUSIONS: Male elder abuse is under-recognized, under-detected and under-reported, mainly due to the vulnerability of older men and to social/cultural norms supporting traditional male characteristics of stoicism and strength. Further specific research on the topic is necessary in the light of the present findings. Such research should focus, in particular, on societal/community aspects, as well as individual and family ones, as allowed by the framework of the Ecological Model, which in turn could represent a useful method also for developing prevention strategies for elder abuse.

  • 27.
    Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella
    et al.
    National Institute of Health and Science on Aging, IRCCS INRCA, Italy.
    Di Rosa, Mirko
    National Institute of Health and Science on Aging, IRCCS INRCA, Italy.
    Macassa, Gloria
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för folkhälso- och idrottsvetenskap, Folkhälsovetenskap.
    Eslami, Bahareh
    Mid Sweden University.
    Torres-Gonzales, Francisco
    University of Granada, Spain.
    Stankunas, Mindaugas
    Lithuanian University of Health Sciences; University of Griffith, Australia..
    Lindert, Jutta
    University of Emden, Germany; Brandeis University, United States of America.
    Ioannidi-Kapolou, Elisabeth
    National School of Public Health, Greece.
    Barros, Henrique
    Instituto de Saúde Pública da Universidade do Porto, Portugal.
    Lamura, Giovanni
    National Institute of Health and Science on Aging, IRCCS INRCA, Italy.
    J F Soares, Joaquim
    Mid Sweden University.
    The prevalence, severity and chronicity of abuse towards older men: Insights from a multinational European survey2021Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 16, nr 4, artikel-id e0250039Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Elder abuse is a growing public health question among policy makers and practitioners in many countries. Research findings usually indicate women as victims, whereas male elder abuse still remains under-detected and under-reported. We aimed to investigate the prevalence, severity and chronicity of abuse (psychological, physical, physical injury, sexual, and financial) against older men, and to scrutinize factors (e.g. demographics) associated with high chronicity of any abuse.

    METHODS: Randomly selected older men (n = 1908) aged 60-84 years from seven European cities (Ancona, Athens, Granada, Kaunas, Stuttgart, Porto, Stockholm) were interviewed in 2009 via a cross-sectional study concerning abuse exposure during the past 12 months.

    RESULTS: Findings suggested that prevalence of abuse towards older men varied between 0.3% (sexual) and 20.3% (psychological), with severe acts between 0.2% (sexual) and 8.2% (psychological). On the whole, higher chronicity values were for injury, followed by psychological, financial, physical, and sexual abuse. Being from Sweden, experiencing anxiety and having a spouse/cohabitant/woman as perpetrator were associated with a greater "risk" for high chronicity of any abuse. For men, severity and chronicity of abuse were in some cases relatively high.

    CONCLUSIONS: Abuse towards older men, in the light of severe and repeated acts occurring, should be a source of concern for family, caring staff, social work practice and policy makers, in order to develop together adequate prevention and treatment strategies.

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  • 28.
    Narusyte, Jurgita
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet.
    Ropponen, Annina
    University of Eastern Finland.
    Silventoinen, Karri
    University of Helsinki.
    Alexanderson, Kristina
    Karolinska institutet.
    Kaprio, Jaakko
    University of Helsinki; National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.
    Samuelsson, Åsa
    Karolinska institutet.
    Svedberg, Pia
    Karolinska institutet.
    Genetic Liability to Disability Pension in Women and Men: A Prospective Population-Based Twin Study2011Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 6, nr 8, artikel-id e23143Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Previous studies of risk factors for disability pension (DP) have mainly focused on psychosocial, or environmental, factors, while the relative importance of genetic effects has been less studied. Sex differences in biological mechanisms have not been investigated at all.

    Methods: The study sample included 46,454 Swedish twins, consisting of 23,227 complete twin pairs, born 1928–1958, who were followed during 1993–2008. Data on DP, including diagnoses, were obtained from the National Social Insurance Agency. Within-pair similarity in liability to DP was assessed by calculating intraclass correlations. Genetic and environmental influences on liability to DP were estimated by applying discrete-time frailty modeling.

    Results: During follow-up, 7,669 individuals were granted DP (18.8% women and 14.1% men). Intraclass correlations were generally higher in MZ pairs than DZ pairs, while DZ same-sexed pairs were more similar than opposite-sexed pairs. The best-fitting model indicated that genetic factors contributed 49% (95% CI: 39–59) to the variance in DP due to mental diagnoses, 35% (95% CI: 29–41) due to musculoskeletal diagnoses, and 27% (95% CI: 20–33) due to all other diagnoses. In both sexes, genetic effects common to all ages explained one-third, whereas age-specific factors almost two-thirds, of the total variance in liability to DP irrespective of diagnosis. Sex differences in liability to DP were indicated, in that partly different sets of genes were found to operate in women and men, even though the magnitude of genetic variance explained was equal for both sexes.

    Conclusions: The findings of the study suggest that genetic effects are important for liability to DP due to different diagnoses. Moreover, genetic contributions to liability to DP tend to differ between women and men, even though the overall relative contribution of genetic influences does not differ by sex. Hence, the pathways leading to DP might differ between women and men.

  • 29.
    Nybergh, Lotta
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Karolinska institutet.
    Jensen, Irene
    Karolinska institutet.
    Hellman, Therese
    Uppsala universitet.
    Experiences of interventions and rehabilitation activities in connection with return-to-work from a gender perspective. A focus group study among employees on sick leave for common mental disorders2021Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 16, nr 6, artikel-id e0253049Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Common mental disorders present the main reason for registered sick leave in Sweden today, and women are at a higher risk of such sick leave than men. The aim of this paper is to explore how employees on sick leave for common mental disorders experience interventions and rehabilitation activities during return-to-work, as well as to explore similarities and differences between the experiences of the interviewed women and men.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: A qualitative design was applied with semi-structured focus group interviews. Seven focus groups were conducted with a total of 28 participants (13 women and 15 men). The focus group discussions were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim, and data analyzed with conventional content analysis. Similarities and differences in the women's and men's experiences were written down in reflective notes during all steps of the analysis.

    RESULTS: The results comprise of one main category, "To be met with respect and recognition", and subcategories at two levels. Both similarities and differences emerged in how women and men sick-listed because of common mental disorders experienced return-to-work interventions and rehabilitation activities. It was important for both women and men to be met with respect and recognition, which was essential to all forms of help that the participants discussed during the focus group interviews. Women expressed a need for home-related interventions, whereas men expressed a need for organizational interventions to counter feelings of resignation at work. Women could also more easily understand their mental health condition as compared with men.

    CONCLUSION: A key implication of this study is that research on interventions and rehabilitation activities during return-to-work among employees on sick leave for common mental disorders should consider whether the findings are relevant equally to both women and men. Similarly, return-to-work professionals may need to consider possible differences among women and men on sick leave for common mental disorders, and to further customize offered interventions and rehabilitation activities. Doing so may help enhance the effectiveness of such interventions.

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  • 30.
    Nöstl, Anatole
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöpsykologi.
    Marsh, John E.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöpsykologi. University of Central Lancashire.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöpsykologi. Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University.
    What we expect is not always what we get: Evidence for both the direction-of-change and the specific-stimulus hypotheses of auditory attentional capture2014Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, nr 11, s. e111997-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Participants were requested to respond to a sequence of visual targets while listening to a well-known lullaby. One of the notes in the lullaby was occasionally exchanged with a pattern deviant. Experiment 1 found that deviants capture attention as a function of the pitch difference between the deviant and the replaced/expected tone. However, when the pitch difference between the expected tone and the deviant tone is held constant, a violation to the direction-of-pitch change across tones can also capture attention (Experiment 2). Moreover, in more complex auditory environments, wherein it is difficult to build a coherent neural model of the sound environment from which expectations are formed, deviations can capture attention but it appears to matter less whether this is a violation from a specific stimulus or a violation of the current direction-of-change (Experiment 3). The results support the expectation violation account of auditory distraction and suggest that there are at least two different expectations that can be violated: One appears to be bound to a specific stimulus and the other would seem to be bound to a more global cross-stimulus rule such as the direction-of-change based on a sequence of preceding sound events. Factors like base-rate probability of tones within the sound environment might become the driving mechanism of attentional capture - rather than violated expectations - in complex sound environments.

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  • 31.
    Nöstl, Anatole
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Byggvetenskap - tillämpad psykologi.
    Marsh, John
    University of Central Lancashire.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Byggvetenskap - tillämpad psykologi.
    Expectations Modulate the Magnitude of Attentional Capture by Auditory Events2012Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, nr 11, s. e48569-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    What determines the magnitude of attentional capture by deviant sound events? We combined the cross-modal oddball distraction paradigm with sequence learning to address this question. Participants responded to visual targets, each preceded by tones that formed a repetitive cross-trial standard sequence. In Experiment 1, with the standard tone sequence …-660-440-660-880-… Hz, either the 440 Hz or the 880 Hz standard was occasionally replaced by one of two deviant tones (220 Hz and 1100 Hz), that either differed slightly (by 220 Hz) or markedly (by 660 Hz) from the replaced standard. In Experiment 2, with the standard tone sequence …-220-660-440-660-880-660-1100-… Hz, the 440 Hz and the 880 Hz standard was occasionally replaced by either a 220 Hz or a 1100 Hz pattern deviant. In both experiments, a high-pitch deviant was more captivating when it replaced a low-pitch standard, and a low-pitch deviant was more captivating when it replaced a high-pitch standard. These results indicate that the magnitude of attentional capture by deviant sound events depends on the discrepancy between the deviant event and the expected event, not on perceived local change.

  • 32.
    Olsson, Tina M.
    et al.
    Jönköpings universitet; Göteborgs universitet.
    Sundell, Knut
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för socialt arbete och kriminologi, Socialt arbete.
    Publication bias, time-lag bias, and place-of-publication bias in social intervention research: An exploratory study of 527 Swedish articles published between 1990–20192023Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 18, nr 2, artikel-id e0281110Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Publication and related biases constitute serious threats to the validity of research synthesis. If research syntheses are based on a biased selection of the available research, there is an increased risk of producing misleading results. The purpose fo this study is to explore the extent of positive outcome bias, time-lag bias, and place-of-publication bias in published research on the effects of psychological, social, and behavioral interventions. The results are based on 527 Swedish outcome trials published in peer-reviewed journals between 1990 and 2019. We found no difference in the number of studies reporting significant compared to non-significant findings or in the number of studies reporting strong effect sizes in the published literature. We found no evidence of time-lag bias or place-of-publication bias in our results. The average reported effect size remained constant over time as did the proportion of studies reporting significant effects.

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  • 33.
    Possmark, Sofie
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet.
    Sellberg, Fanny
    Karolinska institutet.
    Ghaderi, Ata
    Karolinska institutet.
    Tynelius, Per
    Karolinska institutet; Stockholm City Council.
    Willmer, Mikaela
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för vårdvetenskap, Med-Vårdvetenskap.
    Rasmussen, Finn
    Karolinska institutet.
    Persson, Margareta
    Umeå universitet; Stockholm City Council.
    Berglind, Daniel
    Karolinska institutet.
    Physical activity in women attending a dissonance-based intervention after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass: A 2-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial2021Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 16, nr 11, artikel-id e0255556Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The majority of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) patients are not sufficiently physically active post-surgery, yet little support from the Swedish healthcare system is offered. We investigated if a dissonance-based group intervention, aiming to increase health-related quality of life after surgery, had any effect on patients’ physical activity two years post-RYGB.

    Methods

    Women undergoing RYGB surgery were recruited from five Swedish hospitals and randomized to intervention or control group (standard post-surgery care). The dissonance-based intervention was conducted three months post-RYGB and consisted of four group sessions, each with a specific topic, of which one addressed physical activity. ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometers were used to measure physical activity at pre-RYGB, one- and two-years post-surgery.

    Results

    At pre-RYGB, 259 women were recruited and randomized (intervention n = 156 and control n = 103). Participants had a mean age of 44.7 years (SD 10.3) and pre-RYGB body mass index of 40.8 (SD 4.5) kg/m2. At two-years follow-up, 99 participants (63.5%) in intervention group and 68 (66.0%) in control group had valid accelerometer-measurements. Pre- to post-surgery increases were seen in all physical activity outcomes, but no statistically significant differences between the groups were observed at the two-years follow-up, and intervention effects were poor (d = 0.02–0.35).

    Conclusion

    To our knowledge, this is the first dissonance-based intervention targeting women undergoing RYGB surgery. At two-years follow-up, we did not observe any differences in physical activity levels between the intervention group and control group.

    Trial registration number: ISRCTN16417174.

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  • 34.
    Puglisi, Ivana
    et al.
    Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Catania, Catania, Italy; Dipartimento di Agraria, Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Feo di Vito, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    De Patrizio, Alessandro
    Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.
    Schena, Leonardo
    Dipartimento di Agraria, Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Feo di Vito, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Jung, Thomas
    Phytophthora Research Center Mendel University, Brno, Czech Republic; Phytophthora Research and Consultancy, Nußdorf, Germany .
    Evoli, Maria
    Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.
    Pane, Antonella
    Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.
    Van Hoa, Nguyen
    Southern Horticultural Research Institute, My Tho, Tien Giang, Vietnam.
    Van Tri, Mai
    Southern Horticultural Research Institute, My Tho, Tien Giang, Vietnam.
    Wright, Sandra A. I.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Biologi.
    Ramstedt, Mauritz
    Department of Forest Mycology and Plant Pathology, Swedish Agricultural University (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Olsson, Christer
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Faedda, Roberto
    Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.
    Magnano di San Lio, Gaetano
    Dipartimento di Agraria, Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Feo di Vito, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Cacciola, Santa Olga
    Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.
    Two previously unknown Phytophthora species associated with brown rot of Pomelo (Citrus grandis) fruits in Vietnam2017Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, nr 2, artikel-id e0172085Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Two distinct Phytophthora taxa were found to be associated with brown rot of pomelo (Citrus grandis), a new disease of this ancestral Citrus species, in the Vinh Long province, Mekong River Delta area, southern Vietnam. On the basis of morphological characters and using the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of the rDNA and the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) as barcode genes, one of the two taxa was provisionally named as Phytophthora sp. prodigiosa, being closely related to but distinct from P. insolita, a species in Phytophthora Clade 9, while the other one, was closely related to but distinct from the Clade 2 species P. meadii and was informally designated as Phytophthora sp. mekongensis. Isolates of P. sp. prodigiosa and P. sp. mekongensis were also obtained from necrotic fibrous roots of Volkamer lemon (C. volkameriana) rootstocks grafted with 'King' mandarin (Citrus nobilis) and from trees of pomelo, respectively, in other provinces of the Mekong River Delta, indicating a widespread occurrence of both Phytophthora species in this citrus-growing area. Koch's postulates were fulfilled via pathogenicity tests on fruits of various Citrus species, including pomelo, grapefruit (Citrus x paradisi), sweet orange (Citrus x sinensis) and bergamot (Citrus x bergamia) as well as on the rootstock of 2-year-old trees of pomelo and sweet orange on 'Carrizo' citrange (C. sinensis 'Washington Navel' x Poncirus trifoliata). This is the first report of a Phytophthora species from Clade 2 other than P. citricola and P. citrophthora as causal agent of fruit brown rot of Citrus worldwide and the first report of P. insolita complex in Vietnam. Results indicate that likely Vietnam is still an unexplored reservoir of Phytophthora diversity.

  • 35.
    Rashid, Mamunur
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för folkhälso- och idrottsvetenskap, Folkhälsovetenskap.
    Kristofferzon, Marja-Leena
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för vårdvetenskap, Med-Vårdvetenskap.
    Nilsson, Annika
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för vårdvetenskap, Med-Vårdvetenskap.
    Predictors of return to work among women with long-term neck/shoulder and/or back pain: a 1-year prospective study2021Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 16, nr 11, artikel-id e0260490Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Sick leave due to musculoskeletal pain, particularly in the neck/shoulders and back, is one of the major public health problems in Western countries such as Sweden. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of return to work (RTW) among women on sick leave due to long-term neck/shoulder and/or back pain.

    Methods

    This was a prospective cohort study with a 1-year follow-up. The study participants were recruited from a local Swedish Social Insurance Agency register and had all been on sick leave for ≥ 1 month due to long-term (≥ 3 months) neck/shoulder and/or back pain. Data on predictors and outcome were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. A total of 208 women aged 23–64 years were included at baseline, and 141 responded at the 1-year follow-up. Cluster analyses were performed to identify one predictor from each cluster for use in the regression model.

    Results

    At the 1-year follow-up, 94 of the 141 women had RTW and 47 had not. Women who engaged in more coping through increasing behavioral activities (OR: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.03–1.25) and those who more strongly believed they would return to the same work within 6 months (OR: 1.22, 95% CI: 1.10–1.37) had an increased probability of RTW. Receiving more social support outside work (OR: 0.50, 95% CI: 0.28–0.92) decreased the odds of RTW at the 1-year follow-up.  

    Conclusions

    Behavioral activities, beliefs about returning to the same work, and social support outside work were predictors of RTW at the 1-year follow-up. Healthcare professionals should consider these predictors in their efforts to prevent prolonged sick leave and to promote RTW in this population.

    Keywords: Follow-up study, Musculoskeletal pain, Prognostic factors, Return to work, and Sickness absence.

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  • 36.
    Rostami, Amir
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Mondani, Hernan
    Stockholms universitet.
    The Complexity of Crime Network Data: a Case Study of Its Consequences for Crime Control and the Study of Networks2015Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, nr 3, artikel-id e0119309Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The field of social network analysis has received increasing attention during the past decades and has been used to tackle a variety of research questions, from prevention of sexually transmitted diseases to humanitarian relief operations. In particular, social network analyses are becoming an important component in studies of criminal networks and in criminal intelligence analysis. At the same time, intelligence analyses and assessments have become a vital component of modern approaches in policing, with policy implications for crime prevention, especially in the fight against organized crime. In this study, we have a unique opportunity to examine one specific Swedish street gang with three different datasets. These datasets are the most common information sources in studies of criminal networks: intelligence, surveillance and co-offending data. We use the data sources to build networks, and compare them by computing distance, centrality, and clustering measures. This study shows the complexity factor by which different data sources about the same object of study have a fundamental impact on the results. The same individuals have different importance ranking depending on the dataset and measure. Consequently, the data source plays a vital role in grasping the complexity of the phenomenon under study. Researchers, policy makers, and practitioners should therefore pay greater attention to the biases affecting the sources of the analysis, and be cautious when drawing conclusions based on intelligence assessments and limited network data. This study contributes to strengthening social network analysis as a reliable tool for understanding and analyzing criminality and criminal networks.

  • 37.
    Rudolfsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Björklund, Martin
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Svedmark, Åsa
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Djupsjöbacka, Mats
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Direction-specific impairments in cervical range of motion in women with chronic neck pain: influence of head posture and gravitationally induced torque2017Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, nr 1, artikel-id e0170274Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Cervical range of motion (ROM) is commonly assessed in clinical practice and research. In a previous study we decomposed active cervical sagittal ROM into contributions from lower and upper levels of the cervical spine and found level- and direction-specific impairments in women with chronic non-specific neck pain. The present study aimed to validate these results and investigate if the specific impairments can be explained by the neutral posture (defining zero flexion/extension) or a movement strategy to avoid large gravitationally induced torques on the cervical spine.

    Methods: Kinematics of the head and thorax was assessed in sitting during maximal sagittal cervical flexion/extension (high torque condition) and maximal protraction (low torque condition) in 120 women with chronic non-specific neck pain and 40 controls. We derived the lower and upper cervical angles, and the head centre of mass (HCM), from a 3-segment kinematic model. Neutral head posture was assessed using a standardized procedure.

    Findings: Previous findings of level- and direction-specific impairments in neck pain were confirmed. Neutral head posture was equal between groups and did not explain the direction-specific impairments. The relative magnitude of group difference in HCM migration did not differ between high and low torques conditions, lending no support for our hypothesis that impairments in sagittal ROM are due to torque avoidance behaviour.

    Interpretation: The direction- and level-specific impairments in cervical sagittal ROM can be generalised to the population of women with non-specific neck pain. Further research is necessary to clarify if torque avoidance behaviour can explain the impairments.

  • 38.
    Sand, Olivia
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper.
    Andersson, Mikael
    Uppsala universitet, Sjukgymnastik.
    Arakelian, Erebouni
    Uppsala universitet, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Cashin, Peter
    Uppsala universitet, Gastrointestinalkirurgi.
    Semenas, Egidijus
    Uppsala universitet, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Graf, Wilhelm
    Uppsala universitet, Gastrointestinalkirurgi.
    Severe pulmonary complications after cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy are common and contribute to decreased overall survival2021Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 16, nr 12, artikel-id e0261852Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Extensive abdominal surgery is associated with the risk of postoperative pulmonary complications. This study aims to explore the incidence and risk factors for developing postoperative pulmonary complications after cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy and to analyze how these complications affect overall survival.

    METHODS: Data were collected on 417 patients undergoing surgery between 2007 and2017 at Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden. Postoperative pulmonary complications were graded according to the Clavien-Dindo classification system where Grade ≥ 3 was considered a severe complication. A logistic regression analysis was used to analyze risk factors for postoperative pulmonary complications and a Cox proportional hazards model to assess impact on survival.

    RESULTS: Seventy-two patients (17%) developed severe postoperative pulmonary complications. Risk factors were full thickness diaphragmatic injury and/or diaphragmatic resection [OR 5.393, 95% CI 2.924-9.948, p = < 0.001]. Severe postoperative pulmonary complications, in combination with non-pulmonary complications, contributed to decreased overall survival [HR 2.285, 95% CI 1.232-4.241, p = 0.009].

    CONCLUSIONS: Severe postoperative pulmonary complications were common and contributed to decreased overall survival. Full thickness diaphragmatic injury and/or diaphragmatic resection were the main risk factors. This finding emphasizes the need for further research on the mechanisms behind pulmonary complications and their association with mortality.

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  • 39.
    Shariful Islam, Md
    et al.
    Infectious Diseases Division, icddr,b, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Rashid, Mamunur
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för folkhälso- och idrottsvetenskap, Folkhälsovetenskap.
    Sizear, Monaemul Islam
    Public Health Foundation, Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh, ThinkWell, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Hassan, Raafat
    BRAC James P Grant School of Public Health, BRAC University, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Rahman, Mahbubur
    Infectious Diseases Division, icddr,b, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Parvez, Sarker Masud
    Infectious Diseases Division, icddr,b, Dhaka, Bangladesh, Central Queensland Public Health Unit, Central Queensland Hospital and Health Service, Rockhampton, Queensland, Australia.
    Hore, Shuvon Chandra
    Dhaka Metropolitan Police, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Haque, Rehnuma
    Infectious Diseases Division, icddr,b, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Jahan, Farjana
    Infectious Diseases Division, icddr,b, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Chowdhury, Supta
    National Nutrition Services, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Huda, Tarique Mohammad Nurul
    Infectious Diseases Division, icddr,b, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Saif-Ur-Rahman, K. M.
    Health Systems and Population Studies Division, icddr’b, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Khan, Arifuzzaman
    Central Queensland Public Health Unit, Central Queensland Hospital and Health Service, Rockhampton, Queensland, Australia, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.
    Cigarette smoking and associated factors among men in five South Asian countries: A pooled analysis of nationally representative surveys2022Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 17, nr 11, artikel-id e0277758Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Smoking is one of the leading causes of premature deaths worldwide. The cigarette is the commonest form of tobacco smoking. This study investigated the factors associated with cigarette smoking among men in five South Asian countries. We analyzed nationally representative cross-sectional study (Demographic and Health Survey) data conducted in Afghanistan, India, Maldives, Nepal, and Pakistan from 2015–2018. Our study population was men aged between 15 and 49 years. The outcome variable was the prevalence of cigarette smoking. We performed both pooled and country-specific analyses using multivariable logistic regression. The prevalence of cigarette smoking among men is the highest (41.2%) in the Maldives and the lowest (20.1%) in Pakistan. Our pooled analysis found that higher age, lower education, lower wealth status, and involvement in any occupations were strongly associated with cigarette smoking (p-value <0.001). However, we did not find a significant association between age and wealth status in Afghanistan, occupations in Nepal and Pakistan, and education in Pakistan with cigarette smoking when country-specific analyses were performed. In this study, socioeconomic position, age, and urban area are strongly associated with cigarette smoking in South Asian countries. The country-specific circumstances should be considered in planning and designing national smoking control strategies and interventions. However, improving access to smoking cessation services could be an effective intervention for all studied countries, Afghanistan, India, Maldives, Nepal, and Pakistan.

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  • 40.
    Sikström, Sverker
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Stoinski, Laura Mai
    University of Konstanz, Germany.
    Karlsson, Kristina
    Stockholm University.
    Stille, Lotta
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Willander, Johan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Psykologi.
    Weighting power by preference eliminates gender differences2020Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 15, nr 11, artikel-id e0234961Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Power can be applied in different domains (e.g., politics, work, romantic relationships, family etc.), however, we do not always reflect on which domains we have power in and how important power in these domains is. A dominant idea is that men have more power than women. This notion may be biased because the concept of power is associated with public life. We introduce the concept of preference-weighted power (PWP), a measure of power that includes different domains in life, weighted by the domains' subjective importance. Two studies investigated power from this perspective. In Study 1, participants generated words related to power, which were quantified/categorized by latent semantic analysis to develop a semantic measure of the power construct. In Study 2, we computed a PWP index by weighting the participants' self-rated power in different power domains with the importance of having power in that domain. Together the studies suggest that men have more perceived power in the public domain, however, this domain has a lower preference weighting than the private domain where women have more power than men. Finally, when preferences for power in different domains were considered, no gender differences were observed. These results emphasize gender difference in different domains and may change how we perceive men's and women's power in our society. 

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  • 41.
    Silvestro, Daniele
    et al.
    Department of Plant and Environmental Science, Villum Kann Rasmussen Foundation ‘‘VKR’’ Research Centre ‘‘Pro-Active Plants’’ and Center for Synthetic Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg C, Denmark.
    Andersen, Tonni Grube
    Department of Plant and Environmental Science, Center for Dynamic Molecular Interactions ‘‘DynaMo’’, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg C, Denmark.
    Schaller, Hubert
    Université de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.
    Jensen, Poul Erik
    Department of Plant and Environmental Science, Villum Kann Rasmussen Foundation ‘‘VKR’’ Research Centre ‘‘Pro-Active Plants’’ and Center for Synthetic Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg C, Denmark.
    Plant Sterol Metabolism. Δ7-Sterol-C5-Desaturase (STE1/DWARF7), Δ5,7-Sterol-Δ7-Reductase (DWARF5) and Δ24-Sterol-Δ24-Reductase (DIMINUTO/DWARF1) Show Multiple Subcellular Localizations in Arabidopsis thaliana (Heynh) L2013Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, nr 2, artikel-id e56429Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sterols are crucial lipid components that regulate membrane permeability and fluidity and are the precursors of bioactive steroids. The plant sterols exist as three major forms, free sterols, steryl glycosides and steryl esters. The storage of steryl esters in lipid droplets has been shown to contribute to cellular sterol homeostasis. To further document cellular aspects of sterol biosynthesis in plants, we addressed the question of the subcellular localization of the enzymes implicated in the final steps of the post-squalene biosynthetic pathway. In order to create a clear localization map of steroidogenic enzymes in cells, the coding regions of Δ7-sterol-C5-desaturase (STE1/DWARF7), Δ24-sterol-Δ24-reductase (DIMINUTO/DWARF1) and Δ5,7-sterol-Δ7-reductase (DWARF5) were fused to the yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) and transformed into Arabidopsis thaliana mutant lines deficient in the corresponding enzymes. All fusion proteins were found to localize in the endoplasmic reticulum in functionally complemented plants. The results show that both Δ5,7-sterol-Δ7-reductase and Δ24-sterol-Δ24-reductase are in addition localized to the plasma membrane, whereas Δ7-sterol-C5-desaturase was clearly detected in lipid particles. These findings raise new challenging questions about the spatial and dynamic cellular organization of sterol biosynthesis in plants.

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  • 42.
    Sjölund, Britt-Marie
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för hälso- och vårdvetenskap, Medicin- och vårdvetenskap. Aging Research Center (ARC), Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society (NVS), Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wimo, Anders
    Division of Neurogeriatrics, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society (NVS), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Aging Research Center (ARC), Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society (NVS), Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Engström, Maria
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för hälso- och vårdvetenskap, Medicin- och vårdvetenskap.
    von Strauss, Eva
    The Swedish Red Cross University College, Stockholm, Sweden; Aging Research Center (ARC), Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society (NVS), Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Incidence of ADL Disability in Older Persons, Physical Activities as a Protective Factor and the Need for Informal and Formal Care: Results from the SNAC-N Project2015Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, nr 9, artikel-id e0138901Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to examine 1) the incidence of disability in Activities of Daily Living (ADL), in persons 78 years and older 2) explore whether being physical active earlier is a significant predictor of being disability free at follow-up and 3) describe the amount of informal and formal care in relation to ADL-disability.

    METHODS: Data were used from a longitudinal community-based study in Nordanstig (SNAC-N), a part of the Swedish National Study on Aging and Care (SNAC). To study objectives 1) and 2) all ADL-independent participants at baseline (N = 307) were included; for objective 3) all participants 78 years and older were included (N = 316). Data were collected at baseline and at 3- and 6-year follow-ups. ADL-disability was defined as a need for assistance in one or more activities. Informal and formal care were measured using the Resource utilization in Dementia (RUD)-instrument.

    RESULTS: The incidence rates for men were similar in the age groups 78-81and 84 years and older, 42.3 vs. 42.5/1000 person-years. For women the incidence rate for ADL-disability increased significantly from the age group 78-81 to the age group 84 years and older, 20.8 vs.118.3/1000 person-years. In the age group 78-81 years, being physically active earlier (aOR 6.2) and during the past 12 month (aOR 2.9) were both significant preventive factors for ADL-disability. Both informal and formal care increased with ADL-disability and the amount of informal care was greater than formal care. The incidence rate for ADL-disability increases with age for women and being physically active is a protective factor for ADL-disability.

    CONCLUSION: The incidence rate for ADL-disability increases with age for women, and being physical active is a protective factor for ADL-disability.

  • 43.
    Staats, Henk
    et al.
    Department of Social and Organizational Psychology, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands.
    Jahncke, Helena
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Herzog, Tom
    Department of Psychology, Grand Valley State University, Allendale, MichiganUSA.
    Hartig, Terry
    Institute for Housing and Urban Research, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Urban options for psychological restoration: common strategies in everyday situations2016Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, nr 1, artikel-id e0146213Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES:Given the need for knowledge on the restorative potential of urban settings, we sought to estimate the effects of personal and contextual factors on preferences and restoration likelihood assessments for different urban activities-in-environments. We also sought to study the generality of these effects across different countries.

    METHODS:We conducted a true experiment with convenience samples of university students in the Netherlands (n = 80), Sweden (n = 100), and the USA (n = 316). In each country, the experiment had a mixed design with activities-in-environments (sitting in a park, sitting in a cafe, walking in a shopping mall, walking along a busy street) manipulated within-subjects and the need for restoration (attentional fatigue, no attentional fatigue) and immediate social context (in company, alone) manipulated between-subjects. The manipulations relied on previously tested scenarios describing everyday situations that participants were instructed to remember and imagine themselves being in. For each imagined situation (activity-in-environment with antecedent fatigue condition and immediate social context), subjects provided two criterion measures: general preference and the likelihood of achieving psychological restoration.

    RESULTS:The settings received different preference and restoration likelihood ratings as expected, affirming that a busy street, often used in comparisons with natural settings, is not representative of the restorative potential of urban settings. Being with a close friend and attentional fatigue both moderated ratings for specific settings. Findings of additional moderation by country of residence caution against broad generalizations regarding preferences for and the expected restorative effects of different urban settings.

    CONCLUSIONS:Preferences and restoration likelihood ratings for urban activity-environment combinations are subject to multiple personal and contextual determinants, including level of attentional fatigue, being alone versus in company, and broader aspects of the urban context that vary across cities and countries. Claims regarding a lack of restorative quality in urban environments are problematic.

  • 44.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Byggvetenskap - tillämpad psykologi.
    Hedblom, Daniel
    The University of Chicago.
    Holmgren, Mattias
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Byggvetenskap - tillämpad psykologi.
    Haga, Andreas
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Byggvetenskap - tillämpad psykologi.
    Langeborg, Linda
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för socialt arbete och psykologi, Psykologi.
    Nöstl, Anatole
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Byggvetenskap - tillämpad psykologi.
    Kågström, Jonas
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Who needs cream and sugar when there is eco-labeling?: Taste and willingness to pay for 'eco-friendly' coffee2013Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, nr 12, s. e80719-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 45.
    Todaro, M. Antonio
    et al.
    Department of Biology, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy.
    Dal Zotto, Matteo
    Department of Biology, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy.
    Jondelius, Ulf
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för zoologi.
    Hochberg, Rick
    Department of Biology, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA 01854, USA.
    Hummon, William D.
    Department of Biological Sciences,Ohio University, Athens, Ohio, United States of America.
    Kånneby, Tobias
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för zoologi.
    Rocha, Carlos E. F.
    Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Biocieˆncias, Universidade de Sa˜o Paulo, Sa˜o Paulo, Brazil.
    Gastrotricha: A Marine Sister for a Freshwater Puzzle2012Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, nr 2, artikel-id e31740Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Within an evolutionary framework of Gastrotricha Marinellina flagellata and Redudasys fornerise bear special interest, as they are the only Macrodasyida that inhabit freshwater ecosystems. Notwithstanding, these rare animals are poorly known; found only once (Austria and Brazil), they are currently systematised as incertae sedis. Here we report on the rediscovery of Redudasys fornerise, provide an account on morphological novelties and present a hypothesis on its phylogenetic relationship based on molecular data. Specimens were surveyed using DIC microscopy and SEM, and used to obtain the 18 S rRNA gene sequence; molecular data was analyzed cladistically in conjunction with data from 42 additional species belonging to the near complete Macrodasyida taxonomic spectrum. Morphological analysis, while providing new information on taxonomically relevant traits (adhesive tubes, protonephridia and sensorial bristles), failed to detect elements of the male system, thus stressing the parthenogenetic nature of the Brazilian species. Phylogenetic analysis, carried out with ML, MP and Bayesian approaches, yielded topologies with strong nodal support and highly congruent with each other. Among the supported groups is the previously undocumented clade showing the alliance between Redudasys fornerise and Dactylopodola agadasys; other strongly sustained clades include the densely sampled families Thaumastodermatidae and Turbanellidae and most genera. A reconsideration of the morphological traits of Dactylopodola agadasys in light of the new information on Redudasys fornerise makes the alliance between these two taxa very likely. As a result, we create Anandrodasys gen. nov. to contain members of the previously described D. agadasys and erect Redudasyidae fam. nov. to reflect this novel relationship between Anandrodasys and Redudasys. From an ecological perspective, the derived position of Redudasys, which is deeply nested within the Macrodasyida clade, unequivocally demonstrates that invasion of freshwater by gastrotrichs has taken place at least twice, in contrast with the single event hypothesis recently put forward.

  • 46.
    Todaro, M. Antonio
    et al.
    Department of Biology, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy.
    Kånneby, Tobias
    Department of Invertebrate Zoology, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dal Zotto, Matteo
    Department of Biology, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy.
    Jondelius, Ulf
    Department of Invertebrate Zoology, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Phylogeny of Thaumastodermatidae (Gastrotricha: Macrodasyida) Inferred from Nuclear and Mitochondrial Sequence Data2011Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 6, nr 3, artikel-id e17892Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Phylogenetic relationships within Gastrotricha are poorly known. Attempts to shed light on this subject using morphological traits have led to hypotheses lacking satisfactory statistical support; it seemed therefore that a different approach was needed.

    Methodology/Principal Findings

    In this paper we attempt to elucidate the relationships within the taxonomically vast family Thaumastodermatidae (Macrodasyida) using molecular sequence data. The study includes representatives of all the extant genera of the family and for the first time uses a multi-gene approach to infer evolutionary liaisons within Gastrotricha. The final data set comprises sequences of three genes (18S, 28S rDNA and COI mtDNA) from 41 species, including 29 thaumastodermatids, 11 non-thaumastodermatid macrodasyidans and a single chaetonotidan. Molecular data was analyzed as a combined set of 3 genes and as individual genes, using Bayesian and maximum likelihood approaches. Two different outgroups were used: Xenotrichula intermedia (Chaetonotida) and members of the putative basal Dactylopodola (Macrodasyida). Thaumastodermatidae and all other sampled macrodasyidan families were found monophyletic except for Cephalodasyidae. Within Thaumastodermatidae Diplodasyinae and Thaumastodermatinae are monophyletic and so are most genera. Oregodasys turns out to be the most basal group within Thaumastodermatinae in analyses of the concatenated data set as well as in analyses of the nuclear genes. Thaumastoderma appears as the sister taxon to the remaining species. Surprisingly, Tetranchyroderma is non-monophyletic in our analyses as one group of species clusters with Ptychostomella while another appears as the sister group of Pseudostomella.

    Conclusions/Significance

    Results in general agree with the current classification; however, a revision of the more derived thaumastodermatid taxa seems necessary. We also found that the ostensible COI sequences from several species do not conform to the general invertebrate or any other published mitochondrial genetic code; they may be mitochondrially derived nuclear genes (numts), or one or more modifications of the mitochondrial genetic code within Gastrotricha.

  • 47.
    Wijk, Katarina
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Bergsten, Eva L.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Hallman, David
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Individual determinants of satisfaction with the work environment after relocation to activity-based workplaces: a prospective study2023Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 18, nr 3, artikel-id e0281771Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Relocation to activity-based workplaces influences work environment satisfaction, but individual determinants of changes in satisfaction remain unknown. The aim of the present study was to determine whether age, gender, education, occupational position, or office type before relocation can predict work environment satisfaction among employees and managers relocated to activity-based offices. Respondents (n=422) rated work environment satisfaction three months before and nine months after relocation. The findings indicate that, on average, satisfaction decreased after relocation, while for some workers it increased. Occupational position and office type at baseline predicted changes in satisfaction with the work environment; specifically, managers and those working in open-plan offices before relocation reported a smaller decline in satisfaction after relocation, compared to those relocating from private offices. Participants with no university education were more satisfied with the physical and psychosocial work environment in activity-based workplaces than those with a university degree. 

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  • 48.
    Willmer, Mikaela
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för hälso- och vårdvetenskap, Medicin- och vårdvetenskap.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för hälso- och vårdvetenskap, Medicin- och vårdvetenskap.
    ‘The only chance of a normal weight life’: A qualitative analysis of online forum discussions about bariatric surgery2018Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, nr 10, artikel-id e0206066Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The only effective weight loss treatment for severe obesity is bariatric surgery, with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass being the most common method. Patients often have unrealistic expectations of surgery and expect a “miracle cure” even though the procedure requires major lifelong lifestyle changes. Most patients access information about the procedure online, and come into contact with others who have had the surgery.

    Objective

    The objective of this study was to describe shared values, feelings, and thoughts among visitors to a web-based forum for those undergoing bariatric surgery.

    Methods

    In this cross-sectional observation study using qualitative contents analysis, the material consisted of an online discussion forum thread about bariatric surgery, with 498 posts. These were saved in a document, read and re-read. Through coding of meaningful units of text, themes were established.

    Results

    Four themes were constructed during data analysis: a) A new life-anticipating dramatic changes of body and mind; b) Negotiating the system and playing the waiting game; c) A means to an end-managing the pre-operative diet; and d) Managing the attitudes of others. Posters described the process of bariatric surgery as a journey, riddled with roadblocks, setbacks and trials, but also with joy and expectations of a new life.

    Conclusion

    Professionals who encounter this group should be aware of their need for support throughout the process, and investigate the possibility of both pre- and postoperative support groups, either online or face-to-face. The results also show that the posters on the forum had very high, and often unrealistic, expectations on how the surgery would change their lives. It is important for those who encounter this group before surgery to be aware of this tendency and to take measures to ensure that patients undergo the surgery with realistic expectations.

  • 49.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Uppsala universitet, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Institutet för miljömedicin, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Richter, Hans O.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Neck/shoulder discomfort due to visually demanding near work is influenced by previous neck pain, task duration, astigmatism, eye discomfort and accommodation2017Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, nr 8, artikel-id e0182439Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Visually demanding near work can cause eye discomfort, and eye and neck/shoulder discomfort during, e.g., computer work are associated. Here, to investigate direct effects of experimental near work on eye and neck/shoulder discomfort, 33 individuals with chronic neck pain and 33 healthy control subjects performed four visual tasks, rating eye and neck/shoulder discomfort at baseline and after each task. The cumulative performance time (reflected in the temporal order of the tasks), astigmatism, concurrent eye discomfort, and extent of accommodation all aggravated neck/shoulder discomfort. There was an interaction effect between the temporal order and eye discomfort: participants with a greater mean increase in eye discomfort also developed more neck/shoulder discomfort with time. Since moderate musculoskeletal symptoms are a risk factor for more severe symptoms, it is important to ensure a good visual environment in occupations involving visually demanding near work.

  • 50.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Department of Medical Sciences, Section of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Richter, Hans
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Temporal co-variation between eye lens accommodation and trapezius muscle activity during a dynamic near-far visual task2015Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, nr 5, artikel-id e0126578Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Near work is associated with increased activity in the neck and shoulder muscles, but the underlying mechanism is still unknown. This study was designed to determine whether a dynamic change in focus, alternating between a nearby and a more distant visual target, produces a direct parallel change in trapezius muscle activity. Fourteen healthy controls and 12 patients with a history of visual and neck/shoulder symptoms performed a Near-Far visual task under three different viewing conditions; one neutral condition with no trial lenses, one condition with negative trial lenses to create increased accommodation, and one condition with positive trial lenses to create decreased accommodation. Eye lens accommodation and trapezius muscle activity were continuously recorded. The trapezius muscle activity was significantly higher during Near than during Far focusing periods for both groups within the neutral viewing condition, and there was a significant co-variation in time between accommodation and trapezius muscle activity within the neutral and positive viewing conditions for the control group. In conclusion, these results reveal a connection between Near focusing and increased muscle activity during dynamic changes in focus between a nearby and a far target. A direct link, from the accommodation/vergence system to the trapezius muscles cannot be ruled out, but the connection may also be explained by an increased need for eye-neck (head) stabilization when focusing on a nearby target as compared to a more distant target.

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