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  • 1.
    Eckersten, Henrik
    et al.
    Department of Crop Production Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bolinder, Martin
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Johnsson, Holger
    Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Kätterer, Thomas
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Mårtensson, Kristina
    Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Collentine, Dennis
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Economics. Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Tidåker, Pernilla
    Swedish Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Research Institutes of Sweden (RISE), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Marstorp, Håkan
    Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nitrogen leaching and soil organic carbon sequestration of a Barley crop with improved N use efficiency - A regional case study2017In: Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica - Section B, ISSN 0906-4710, E-ISSN 1651-1913, Vol. 67, no 7, p. 615-627Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential of modified spring barley crops with improved nitrogen (N) use efficiency to reduce nitrogen (N) leaching and to increase soil organic carbon (SOC) storage was assessed at the regional scale. This was done using simulation model applications designed for reporting according to the Helcom (Helsinki Commission) and Kyoto protocols. Using model simulations based on modified crops N dynamics and SOC were assessed for three agro-ecological regions (latitudes ranging 55°20′–60°40′ N) in Sweden over a 20-year period. The modified N use properties of spring barley were implemented in the SOILNDB model (simulating soil C, N, water and heat, and plant N dynamics) by changing the parameters for root N uptake efficiency and plant N demand within a range given by previous model applications to different crops. A doubling of the daily N uptake efficiency and increased N demand (by ca 30%) reduced N leaching by 24%–31%, increased plant N content by 9%–12%, depending on region. The effects of the modified crop on SOC was simulated with the ICBM model, resulting in an increased SOC content (0–25 cm depth) by 57–79 kg C ha−1 y−1. The results suggest that a modified crop might reduce N leaching from spring barley area, in a range similar to the targets of relevant environmental protection directives, a result which held more in the northern than southern regions. The simulated SOC increase on a hectare basis was highest for the central region and least for the most northern region. For the total agricultural area the share of spring barley area was small and more crops would need to be modified to reach the emission reduction targets.

  • 2.
    Eckersten, Henrik
    et al.
    Department of Crop Production Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Marstorp, Håkan
    Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Collentine, Dennis
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Economics. Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Johnsson, Holger
    Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Kätterer, Thomas
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ecosystem C and N dynamics affected by a modified spring barley trait with increased nitrogen use - a simulation case study2018In: Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica - Section B, ISSN 0906-4710, E-ISSN 1651-1913, Vol. 68, no 3, p. 230-242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To what extent might a crop with increased plant N uptake efficiency and/or N demand increase plant biomass and soil carbon storage, decrease N leaching, and reduce the need for N fertilisation? This was assessed for a fertilised sandy loam site in central Sweden cultivated with spring barley for a four year period using a process based crop and soil simulation model (SOILN) calibrated to fit observations of field experiments with non-modified crops. Crop properties were changed in accordance with previous model applications to other crops with higher N uptake and utilisation efficiencies, to resemble potential effects of breeding. For the modified crops a doubling of daily uptake efficiency of soil mineral N and/or increase of radiation use efficiency by 30%, increased plant biomass by 3%-30%, decreased N leaching by 1%-30% and increased soil organic carbon (SOC) content by 1-12 g C m-2 year-1. The larger changes were mainly due to increased uptake efficiency. Fertilisation of the modified spring barley crop could be reduced while still producing the same plant biomass as the non-modified crop. The plant biomass to N leaching ratio of the modified crops increased. The simulated changes in plant biomass and SOC were sensitive to weather conditions suggesting that in situ experiments would need to cover a large range of weather conditions to evaluate the performance of new crop traits under climatic variability. The study suggests a strong need that field experiments are accompanied with model applications, when exploring the potential of the modified crops under variable conditions.

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