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  • 1.
    Smith, Anderson D.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology; Department of EKT;School of Information and Communication Technology;SE-16440 Kista, Sweden.
    Elgammal, Karim
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology; Department of Materials and Nano Physics;School of Information and Communication Technology;SE-16440 Kista, Sweden.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology; Department of Micro and Nano Systems;School of Electrical Engineering;SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Delin, Anna
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology; Department of Materials and Nano Physics;School of Information and Communication Technology;SE-16440 Kista, Sweden;Uppsala University.
    Fischer, Andreas C.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology; Department of Micro and Nano Systems;School of Electrical Engineering;SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Vaziri, Sam
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology; Department of EKT;School of Information and Communication Technology;SE-16440 Kista, Sweden.
    Forsberg, Fredrik
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology; Department of Micro and Nano Systems;School of Electrical Engineering;SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Råsander, Mikael
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology; Department of Materials and Nano Physics;School of Information and Communication Technology;SE-16440 Kista, Sweden;Department of Materials.
    Hugosson, Håkan Wilhelm
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology; Department of Materials and Nano Physics;School of Information and Communication Technology;SE-16440 Kista, Sweden.
    Bergqvist, Lars
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology; Department of Materials and Nano Physics;School of Information and Communication Technology;SE-16440 Kista, Sweden;SeRC (Swedish e-Science Research Center).
    Schröder, Stephan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology; Department of Micro and Nano Systems;School of Electrical Engineering;SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kataria, Satender
    University of Siegen, 57076 Siegen, Germany.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology; Department of EKT; School of Information and Communication Technology;SE-16440 Kista, Sweden.
    Lemme, Max C.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology; Department of EKT;School of Information and Communication Technology;SE-16440 Kista, Sweden;University of Siegen.
    Resistive graphene humidity sensors with rapid and direct electrical readout2015In: Nanoscale, ISSN 2040-3364, E-ISSN 2040-3372, Vol. 7, no 45, p. 19099-19109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate humidity sensing using a change of the electrical resistance of single-layer chemical vapor deposited (CVD) graphene that is placed on top of a SiO2 layer on a Si wafer. To investigate the selectivity of the sensor towards the most common constituents in air, its signal response was characterized individually for water vapor (H2O), nitrogen (N2), oxygen (O2), and argon (Ar). In order to assess the humidity sensing effect for a range from 1% relative humidity (RH) to 96% RH, the devices were characterized both in a vacuum chamber and in a humidity chamber at atmospheric pressure. The measured response and recovery times of the graphene humidity sensors are on the order of several hundred milliseconds. Density functional theory simulations are employed to further investigate the sensitivity of the graphene devices towards water vapor. The interaction between the electrostatic dipole moment of the water and the impurity bands in the SiO2 substrate leads to electrostatic doping of the graphene layer. The proposed graphene sensor provides rapid response direct electrical readout and is compatible with back end of the line (BEOL) integration on top of CMOS-based integrated circuits.

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