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  • 1.
    Gronbladh, Leif
    et al.
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Uppsala, Sweden; University hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Öhlund, Lennart S.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science. Department of Health Sciences, Aalesund University College, Norway.
    Adherence and social antecedents in relation to outcome in Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT)2010In: Heroin Addiction and Related Clinical Problems, ISSN 1592-1638, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 9-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerous reports of the effectiveness of methadone in reducing opiate use as well as mortality, criminality, prostitution and the risk for HIV-infection have been published during the last forty years. However, poor adherence to treatment, continuing drug use and increasing rate of premature termination may lead to less than optimal outcome results or in too many cases death. The aim of this paper is to investigate which of the background variables, collected at the admission procedure, that can be used to tell which type of patient will adhere to the treatment regime and succeed or who will fail and who either need special considerations or ought not to be accepted for a methadone treatment (MMT). As much as 86 percent of the compliers in this study did benefit from the treatment and were rated as medium to very much improved according to CGI-I. The group not improved or worse had significantly more background problems such as school problems, a history of non-opioid abuse, many non-MMT treatment episodes, low age at drug debut and opioid debut than the group much or very much improved. Those moderately improved is usually situated somewhere in between the others.

  • 2.
    Grönbladh, Leif
    et al.
    University of Uppsala.
    Öhlund, Lennart
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science. Department of Health Sciences, Aalesund University College, Norway .
    Self-reported differences in side-effects for 110 heroin addicts during opioid addiction and during methadone treatment2011In: Heroin Addiction and Related Clinical Problems, ISSN 1592-1638, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 5-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) has been shown to be effective, poor compliance is always a threat. It has often been pointed out that one variable that inevitably reduces adherence to treatment regimes is the negative side-effects of the treatment. This study examines seventeen known side-effects in a sample of 110 former opiate addicts consecutively admitted to methadone maintenance treatment. Self-reported side-effects were collected through a questionnaire. Despite the considerable increase, from 23 to 74% of the sample, in the proportion that reported individual side-effects between the period of opiate use and that of methadone treatment, the overall result was a significant decrease in eleven symptoms, no change in four and a substantial increase in only two. In some individuals a symptom that is liable to be problematic actually does become problematic, while the same symptom becomes less frequent in the group as a whole. Weight gain is the symptom that increases most in the whole group and needs to be constantly monitored. Other side-effects that remain high and need to be kept under review in clinical practice are nervousness, decreased libido, daytime drowsiness, constipation and perspiration.

  • 3.
    Öhlund, Lennart S.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science.
    Gunne, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Uppsala, Sweden.
    The treatment goal in maintenance treatment of heroin addiction ought to be more than retention2013In: Heroin Addiction and Related Clinical Problems, ISSN 1592-1638, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 53-56Article in journal (Other academic)
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