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  • 1.
    Deng, Hongling
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Mineralogi, petrologi och tektonik.
    Koyi, Hemin
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Mineralogi, petrologi och tektonik.
    Nilfouroushan, Faramarz
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Mineralogi, petrologi och tektonik.
    Superimposed folding and thrusting by two phases of mutually orthogonal or oblique shortening in analogue models2016In: Journal of Structural Geology, ISSN 0191-8141, E-ISSN 1873-1201, Vol. 83, p. 28-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Orogens may suffer more than one phase shortening resulting in superposition of structures of different generations. Superimposition of orthogonal or oblique shortening is studied using sandbox and centrifuge modelling. Results of sand models show that in orthogonal superimposition, the two resulting structural trends are approximately orthogonal to each other. In oblique superimposition, structures trend obliquely to each other in the relatively thin areas of the model (foreland), and mutually orthogonal in areas where the model is thickened during the first phase of shortening (i.e. the hinterland). Thrusts formed during the first shortening phase may be reactivated during the later shortening phase. Spacing of the later phase structures is not as wide as expected, considering they across the pre-existing thickened wedge. Superposition of structures results in formation of type 1 fold interference pattern. Bedding is curved outwards both in the dome and basin structures. Folded layers are dipping and plunging outwards in a dome, while they are dipping and plunging inwards in a basin. In the areas between two adjacent domes or basins (i.e. where an anticline is superimposed by a syncline or a syncline is superimposed by an anticline), bedding is curved inwards, and the anticlines plunge inwards and the synclines outwards. The latter feature could be helpful to determine the age relationship for type 2 fold interference pattern. In tectonic regions where multiple phases of shortening have occurred, the orogenic-scale dome-and-basin and arrowhead-shaped interference patterns are commonly formed, as in the models. However, in some areas, the fold interference pattern might be modified by a later phase of thrusting. Similar to models results, superimposition of two and/or even more deformation phases may not be recorded by structures all over the tectonic area.

  • 2.
    Liu, Zhina
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Berggrundsgeologi.
    Koyi, Hemin
    Uppsala universitet, Berggrundsgeologi.
    Swantesson, Jan
    Karlstad University.
    Nilfouroushan, Faramarz
    Uppsala universitet, Berggrundsgeologi.
    Reshetyuk, Yuriy
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Kinematics and 3-D internal deformation of granular slopes: analogue models and natural landslides2013In: Journal of Structural Geology, ISSN 0191-8141, E-ISSN 1873-1201, Vol. 53, p. 27-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study uses results from a series of analogue models, and field observations, scanned data and sections of natural landslides to investigate the kinematics and internal deformation during the failure of an unstable slope. The models simulate collapse of granular slopes and focus on the spatial and temporal distribution of their internal structures. Using a series of systematically designed models, we have studied the effect of friction and deformability of the runout base on internal deformation within a granular slope. The results of these different models show that the collapse of granular slopes resulted in different-generation extensional faults at the back of the slope, and contractional structures (overturned folds, sheath folds and thrusts) at the toe of the slope. The failure surfaces and the volume of the failure mass changed both spatially and temporally. Younger failure surfaces formed in the back of the older ones by incorporating additional new material from the head of the slope. Our model results also show that the nature of the runout base has a significant influence on the runout distance, topography and internal deformation of a granular slope. Model results are compared with natural landslides where local profiles were dug in order to decipher the internal structures of the failure mass. The natural cases show similar structural distribution at the head and toe of the failure mass. As in model results, our field observations indicate the presence of at least two generations of failure surfaces where the older ones are steeper.

  • 3.
    Nilfouroushan, Faramarz
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet; Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap.
    Koyi, Hemin
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Swantesson, Jan O. H.
    Ekofilosofi.
    Talbot, Christoffer
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Effect of basal friction and volumetric strain in models of convergent settings measured by laser scanner2008In: Journal of Structural Geology, ISSN 0191-8141, E-ISSN 1873-1201, Vol. 30, p. 366-379Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Schreurs, Guido
    et al.
    Institute of Geological Sciences, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Buiter, Susanne J. H.
    Geodynamics Team, Geological Survey of Norway, Trondheim, Norway; The Centre for Earth Evolution and Dynamics, University of Oslo, Blindern, Oslo, Norway.
    Boutelier, Jennifer
    Department of Geology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
    Burberry, Caroline
    Hans Ramberg Tectonic Laboratory, Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Callot, Jean-Paul
    IFP Energies Nouvelles, Rueil Malmaison, Cedex, France.
    Cavozzi, Cristian
    NEXT – Natural and Experimental Tectonics Research Group, Department of Physics and Earth Sciences, “Macedonio Melloni”, University of Parma, Parma, Italy .
    Cerca, Mariano
    Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Centro de Geociencias, Juriquilla, Queretaro, Mexico.
    Chen, Jian-Hong
    Department of Geosciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Cristallini, Ernesto
    Departamento de Ciencias Geológicas, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Cruden, Alexander R.
    Department of Geology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
    Cruz, Leonardo
    Department of Geological and Environmental Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.
    Daniel, Jean-Marc
    IFP Energies Nouvelles, Rueil Malmaison, Cedex, France.
    Da Poian, Gabriela
    Departamento de Ciencias Geológicas, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Garcia, Victor H.
    Departamento de Ciencias Geológicas, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Gomes, Caroline J. S.
    Departamento de Geologia, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
    Grall, Céline
    IFP Energies Nouvelles, Rueil Malmaison, Cedex, France.
    Guillot, Yannick
    Université Lille-Nord de France, Laboratoire Géosystèmes, Villeneuve d’Ascq, Cedex, France.
    Guzmán, Cecilia
    Departamento de Ciencias Geológicas, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Nur Hidayah, Triyani
    Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ, USA.
    Hilley, George
    Department of Geological and Environmental Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.
    Klinkmüller, Matthias
    Institute of Geological Sciences, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Koyi, Hemin A.
    Hans Ramberg Tectonic Laboratory, Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lu, Chia-Yu
    Department of Geosciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Maillot, Bertrand
    Laboratoire Géosciences et Environnement Cergy, Université de Cergy-Pontoise, Neuville-sur-Oise, Cergy-Pontoise, Cedex, France.
    Meriaux, Catherine
    School of Earth, Atmosphere and Environment, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
    Nilfouroushan, Faramarz
    Hans Ramberg Tectonic Laboratory, Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Pan, Chang-Chih
    Department of Geosciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Pillot, Daniel
    IFP Energies Nouvelles, Rueil Malmaison, Cedex, France.
    Portillo, Rodrigo
    Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Centro de Geociencias, Juriquilla, Queretaro, Mexico.
    Rosenau, Matthias
    Helmholtz-Centre Potsdam, GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam, Germany.
    Schellart, Wouter P.
    School of Earth, Atmosphere and Environment, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
    Schlische, Roy W.
    Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ, USA.
    Take, Andy
    Department of Civil Engineering, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada.
    Vendeville, Bruno
    Université Lille, Laboratoire d’Océanologie et de Géosciences, Lille, France.
    Vergnaud, Marine
    IFP Energies Nouvelles, Rueil Malmaison, Cedex, France.
    Vettori, Matteo
    NEXT – Natural and Experimental Tectonics Research Group, Department of Physics and Earth Sciences “Macedonio Melloni”, University of Parma, Parma, Italy.
    Wang, Shih-Hsien
    Department of Geosciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Withjack, Martha O.
    Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ, USA.
    Yagupsky, Daniel
    Departamento de Ciencias Geológicas, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Yamada, Yasuhiro
    Department of Civil and Earth Resources Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.
    Benchmarking analogue models of brittle thrust wedges2016In: Journal of Structural Geology, ISSN 0191-8141, E-ISSN 1873-1201, Vol. 92, p. 116-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We performed a quantitative comparison of brittle thrust wedge experiments to evaluate the variabilityamong analogue models and to appraise the reproducibility and limits of model interpretation. Fifteenanalogue modeling laboratories participated in this benchmark initiative. Each laboratory received ashipment of the same type of quartz and corundum sand and all laboratories adhered to a stringentmodel building protocol and used the same type of foil to cover base and sidewalls of the sandbox. Sievestructure, sifting height,filling rate, and details on off-scraping of excess sand followed prescribedprocedures.Our analogue benchmark shows that even for simple plane-strain experiments with prescribedstringent model construction techniques, quantitative model results show variability, most notably forsurface slope, thrust spacing and number of forward and backthrusts. One of the sources of the variabilityin model results is related to slight variations in how sand is deposited in the sandbox. Small changes insifting height, sifting rate, and scraping will result in slightly heterogeneous material bulk densities,which will affect the mechanical properties of the sand, and will result in lateral and vertical differencesin peak and boundary friction angles, as well as cohesion values once the model is constructed. Initialvariations in basal friction are inferred to play the most important role in causing model variability.Our comparison shows that the human factor plays a decisive role, and even when one modeler re-peats the same experiment, quantitative model results still show variability. Our observations highlightthe limits of up-scaling quantitative analogue model results to nature or for making comparisons withnumerical models. The frictional behavior of sand is highly sensitive to small variations in material stateor experimental set-up, and hence, it will remain difficult to scale quantitative results such as number ofthrusts, thrust spacing, and pop-up width from model to nature.

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