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  • 1.
    Djukic, Ika
    et al.
    Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, Birmensdorf, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Kepfer-Rojas, Sebastian
    Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark.
    Kappel Schmidt, Inger
    Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark.
    Steenberg Larsen, Klaus
    Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark.
    Beier, Claus
    Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark.
    Berg, Björn
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Biology. Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Verheyen, Kris
    Forest & Nature Lab, Department of Forest and Water Management, Ghent University, Gontrode, Belgium.
    Early stage litter decomposition across biomes2018In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 628-629, p. 1369-1394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Through litter decomposition enormous amounts of carbon is emitted to the atmosphere. Numerous large-scale decomposition experiments have been conducted focusing on this fundamental soil process in order to understand the controls on the terrestrial carbon transfer to the atmosphere. However, previous studies were mostly based on site-specific litter and methodologies, adding major uncertainty to syntheses, comparisons and meta-analyses across different experiments and sites. In the TeaComposition initiative, the potential litter decomposition is investigated by using standardized substrates (Rooibos and Green tea) for comparison of litter mass loss at 336 sites (ranging from −9 to +26 °C MAT and from 60 to 3113 mm MAP) across different ecosystems. In this study we tested the effect of climate (temperature and moisture), litter type and land-use on early stage decomposition (3 months) across nine biomes. We show that litter quality was the predominant controlling factor in early stage litter decomposition, which explained about 65% of the variability in litter decomposition at a global scale. The effect of climate, on the other hand, was not litter specific and explained <0.5% of the variation for Green tea and 5% for Rooibos tea, and was of significance only under unfavorable decomposition conditions (i.e. xeric versus mesic environments). When the data were aggregated at the biome scale, climate played a significant role on decomposition of both litter types (explaining 64% of the variation for Green tea and 72% for Rooibos tea). No significant effect of land-use on early stage litter decomposition was noted within the temperate biome. Our results indicate that multiple drivers are affecting early stage litter mass loss with litter quality being dominant. In order to be able to quantify the relative importance of the different drivers over time, long-term studies combined with experimental trials are needed.

  • 2.
    Hang, Jian
    et al.
    University of Hong Kong and Guangzhou University.
    Li, Yuguo
    University of Hong Kong.
    Buccolieri, Riccardo
    University of Salento, Italy.
    Sandberg, Mats
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Building science - installation technology.
    Di Sabatino, Silvana
    University of Salento, Italy.
    On the contribution of mean flow and turbulence to city breathability: the case of long streets with tall buildings2012In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 416, p. 362-373Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses the contribution of mean flow and turbulence to city breathability within urban canopy layers under the hypothesis that winds from rural/marine areas are sources of clean air (inhale effect) and main contributors to local-scale pollutant dilution (exhale effect). Using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations, several idealized long streets flanked by tall buildings are investigated for wind flow parallel to the street axis. Aspect ratios (building height/street width) ranging from 2 to 4 and street lengths ranging from neighborhood scales (~. 1. km in full scale) to city scales (~. 10. km in full scale) are analyzed. To assess the inhale effect, the age of air concept is applied to quantify the time taken by a parcel of rural/marine air to reach a reference location within the urban canopy layer. To simulate the exhale effect, removal of pollutants released from a ground level source is considered. Numerical results agree with wind tunnel observations showing that a bulk portion of rural/marine air enters the streets through windward entries, a smaller part of it leaves through street roofs and the remaining fraction blows through the street aiding pollutant dilution. Substantial differences between neighborhood-scale and city-scale configurations are found. For neighborhood-scale models, pollutant removal by rural/marine air is mainly associated to mean flow along the streets. Breathability improves in streets flanked by taller buildings since in this case more rural/marine air is captured inside canyons leading to stronger wind along the street. For city-scale models, pollutant removal due to turbulent fluctuations across street roofs competes with that due to mean flows along the street. Breathability improves in streets flanked by lower buildings in which less rural/marine air is driven out and pollutant removal by turbulent fluctuations is more effective. Based on these findings, suggestions for ventilation strategies for urban areas with tall buildings are provided.

  • 3.
    Svanberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    Department of Environmental Toxicology, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University.
    Mateo, Rafael
    Instituto de Investigación en Recursos Cinegéticos, IREC (CSIC-UCLM-JCCM).
    Hillström, Lars
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för naturvetenskap.
    Green, Andy J.
    Estación Biológica de Doñana-CSIC, Pabellon del Perú, Avenida Maria Luisa s/n, E-40013 Seville, Spain..
    Taggart, Mark
    School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Bld, St Machar Dr, Aberdeen, Scotland, AB24 3UU, UK.
    Raab, Andrea
    School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Bld, St Machar Dr, Aberdeen, Scotland, AB24 3UU, UK.
    Meharg, Andy A.
    School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Bld, St Machar Dr, Aberdeen, Scotland, AB24 3UU, UK.
    Lead isotopes and lead shot ingestion in the globally threatened marbled teal (Marmaronetta angustirostris) and white-headed duck (Oxyura leucocephala)2006In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 370, no 2-3, p. 416-424Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lead isotopic ratios (206Pb/207Pb, 208Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/206Pb) and concentrations in the livers and bones of marbled teal and white-headed duck were determined in order to establish the main Pb source in these waterfowl species. Lead concentrations in bone and liver were found to be very high in many of the white-headed ducks. Some of the marbled teal had high Pb levels in the bones but liver Pb levels were all low. Ingested Pb shot were found in both species but the white-headed duck had higher prevalence of shot in their gizzards than the marbled teal. The 206Pb/207Pb ratio in livers and bones of white-headed ducks showed no significant differences compared to the ratios obtained from Pb shot. Marbled teal liver and bone Pb ratios were similar to the Pb shot ratios, with no significant differences found. Marbled teal liver and bone ratios were, however, also similar to atmospheric Pb ratios described in Spain. The 206Pb/207Pb ratio in bones of marbled teal ducklings with the highest Pb concentrations tended to resemble the ratios of Pb shot, which supports the hypothesis that the Pb was derived from the mothers. We found that the Pb ratios of Pb shot and Pb ratios described in geological formations in the area overlapped. The principal source of Pb in many of these birds was, however, most likely derived from Pb shot, supported by the similar isotopic ratios, high Pb concentrations and evidence of ingested shot. There was a larger separation for the 206Pb/207Pb liver ratio between birds with and without ingested Pb shot compared to the 208Pb/207Pb liver ratio. The 206Pb/207Pb isotopic ratio hence seems to be the most useful ratio to determine recent Pb shot ingestion.

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