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  • 1.
    Assefa, Getachew
    et al.
    Division of Industrial Ecology, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Björklund, Anna
    Division of Industrial Ecology, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Ola
    Division of Industrial Ecology, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Frostell, Björn
    Division of Industrial Ecology, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    ORWARE: an aid to Environmental Technology Chain Assessment2005In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 265-274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses the ORWARE tool, a model originally developed for environmental systems analysis of waste management systems, and shows its prospect as a tool for environmental technology chain assessment. Different concepts of technology assessment are presented to put ORWARE into context in the discussion that has been going for more than two decades since the establishment of the US Congressional Office of Technology Assessment (OTA). An even-handed assessment is important in different ways such as reproducibility, reliability, credibility, etc. Conventional technology assessment (TA) relied on the judgements and intuition of the assessors. A computer-based tool such as ORWARE provides a basis for transparency and a structured management of input and output data that cover ecological and economic parameters. This permits consistent and coherent technology assessments. Using quantitative analysis as in ORWARE makes comparison and addition of values across chain of technologies easier. We illustrate the application of the model in environmental technology chain assessment through a study of alternative technical systems linking waste management to vehicle fuel production and use. The principles of material and substance flow modelling, life cycle perspective, and graphical modelling featured in ORWARE offer a generic structure for environmentally focused TA of chains and networks of technical processes.

  • 2.
    Bautista-Puig, Núria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Management. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Sanz-Casado, Elías
    University Carlos III of Madrid.
    Sustainability practices in Spanish higher education institutions: An overview of status and implementation2021In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 295, article id 126320Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Higher education institutions have been steadily progressing towards the integration of sustainable practices in their university system. Consequently, an increasing number of these institutions have recognized their responsibility and are incorporating sustainability into their operations, and practices, following a holistic approach. Despite these efforts in the implementation, there are still many challenges to pursue sustainability. In the Spanish framework, there is a lack of studies that investigate sustainable development in higher education by considering all the dimensions. Especially, the efforts of the Spanish Universities in research have been scarcely analysed in detail. This study analyze how Spanish Public and Private Universities (SUE) are integrating sustainability into their institutions by the following dimensions: Research (based on a search strategy proposed by considering the social, economic and environmental perspective); Internationalization (participation in GreenMetrics ranking and European Framework projects), University Governance (Strategic Plans); Assessment and Reporting (Sustainability Plans) and Campus Operations (Green offices).

    The findings reveal that some institutions present a higher production of scientific activity on the topic (e.g. UAB), while others with less production are more specialized (e.g. UA). The commitment of the universities has increased over time but it varies greatly among different kind of universities, especially in favour of the public institutions. By analyzing the correlation between sustainability practice, it was found that there are high association between some of the variables i.e. sustainability plan and having a green office. However, this study clearly demonstrates that although SD is recognized as being very important to HEIs and society, it is not yet embedded in the whole system’s strategies, activities, and policies.

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  • 3.
    Blanco-Portela, Norka
    et al.
    Department of Environmental Management, Universitaria Agustiniana, Colombia.
    Benayas, Javier
    Department of Ecology, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Spain.
    Pertierra, Luis R.
    Department of Biology, Geology, Physics and Chemistry, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Spain.
    Lozano, Rodrigo
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. Organisational Sustainability, Ltd., Cardiff, UK.
    Towards the integration of sustainability in Higher Education Institutions: a review of drivers of and barriers to organisational change and their comparison against those found of companies2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 166, p. 563-578Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, there have been a considerable number of efforts to integrate sustainability into Higher Education Institutions (HEIs); however, there are still challenges that need to be overcome. A process that has received an increasing attention has been the Organisational Change Management for Sustainability. This article is aimed at reviewing the main drivers of the integration of sustainable practices and the barriers to change slowing or stopping it. A systematic literature review was carried out using Web of Science de Thomson Reuters and in Scopus databases focusing on retrieving all papers on sustainability in HEIs published between 2000 and 2016. The drivers of and barriers found for the integration of sustainability in HEIs were compared to those previously described for companies. The similarities on drivers to change found in HEIs and companies were greater for external ones. A lower number of barriers to change were reported in the literature for HEIs than those reported for corporations, nonetheless, it was found that HEIs and companies have several common barriers to change. The article proposes a list of main drivers of and barriers to change, some general and others context specific. The findings on the drivers of the integration of sustainable practices in HEIs can serve to identify additional good practices at companies and vice versa. The barriers to change detected for the process of integration can help into anticipating, preventing and overcoming them. This knowledge can help institutions better plan and use their resources in working to becoming more sustainable.

  • 4.
    Brunke, Jean-Christian
    et al.
    Institute for Energy Economics and the Rational Use of Energy (IER), University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany .
    Johansson, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system. Department of Management and Engineering, Division of Energy Systems, Linköping University.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Department of Management and Engineering, Division of Energy Systems, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden .
    Empirical investigation of barriers and drivers to the adoption of energy conservation measures, energy management practices and energy services in the Swedish iron and steel industry2014In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 84, no 1, p. 509-525Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish iron and steel industry is focused on the production of advanced steel grades and accounts for about 5% of the country's final energy consumption. Energy efficiency is according to the European Commission a key element for the transition towards a resource-efficient economy. We investigated four aspects that are associated with the adoption of cost-effective energy conservation measures: barriers, drivers, energy management practices and energy services. We used questionnaires and follow-up telephone interviews to collect data from members of the Swedish steel association. The heterogeneous observations implied a classification into steel producers and downstream actors. For testing the significance, the Mann–Whitney U test was used. The most important barriers were internal economic and behavioural barriers. Energy service companies, in particular third-party financing, played a minor role. In contrast, high importance was attached to energy management as the most important drivers originated from within the company. Energy management practices showed that steel companies are actively engaged in the topic, but need to raise its prioritisation and awareness within the organisation. When sound energy management practices are included, the participants assessed the cost-effective energy conservation potential to be 9.7%, which was 2.4% higher than the potential for solely adopting cost-effective technologies.

  • 5.
    Brändström, Johan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    How circular is a value chain? Proposing a Material Efficiency Metric to evaluate business models2022In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 342, article id 130973Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of Circular Economy is a principle aiming to improve sustainable development by reducing resource use and impact on ecological systems. An increasing number of companies are applying this theory on design strategies and business models in order to close, slow and narrow material loops. To highlight the importance, guide practitioners, and evaluate the progress of circular economy, a high number of circularity metrics (C-metrics) have been developed. However, little attention has been given to creating a connection between quantification of circularity and environmental performance. Existing metrics also do not highlight the interplay between micro (product), meso (industrial symbiosis), and macro (regional) level circularity. Moreover, existing metrics do not capture all material loops and do not adopt a value chain perspective on material flows. To improve the connection between C-metrics and environmental performance, a framework connecting circular economy strategies and material flows was developed. Based on this framework, a material flow-based C-metric was designed aimed at converting mechanisms of closing, narrowing and slowing material loops into a single-point value. To evaluate its feasibility, the metric was tested on three circular business models that represent all three mechanisms in a value chain perspective. The results showed that the metric is feasible in more situations than existing metrics and that the circularity value is highly dependent on assumptions. In future studies, the metric should be tested and compared to Life Cycle Assessments on multiple system levels to ensure that it generates valid results. Furthermore, user input assumptions should be standardized to ensure metric reliability.

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  • 6.
    Brändström, Johan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Saidani, Michael
    Université Paris-Saclay, France.
    Comparison between circularity metrics and LCA: A case study on circular economy strategies2022In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 371, article id 133537Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of circular economy consists of a wide range of strategies that aim to reduce the environmental impact of production systems and consumption patterns through increased circularity of resources. Circularity is mostly associated with material efficiency strategies that either close, slow or narrow loops, and a multitude of circularity metrics have been developed to evaluate the efficiency of such strategies. Relatively little effort has been made to quantitatively assess the connection between circularity, material efficiency, and environmental sustainability. More knowledge is required about how material-based circularity metrics can be used to guide practitioners of the circular economy towards strategies that foster environmental sustainability. In this study, a novel structured approach is adopted to perform such a comparison by including closing, slowing, and narrowing strategies on a lawn mowing case. Four circularity metrics that can capture material strategies throughout product value chains (Material Efficiency Metric, Material Circularity Indicator, Circularity Potential Indicator and Circular Economy Indicator Prototype) are compared to three complementary midpoint categories using Life Cycle Assessment (Global Warming Potential, Material Resource Scarcity, and Human Non-Carcinogenic Toxicity). The results show that the studied circularity metrics generate accurate results when evaluating Material Resource Scarcity and that they rank the material efficiency strategies equally with all environmental impact categories. The circularity metrics are unable to capture the benefits of reduced energy and the correspondence to all impact categories is lower in scenarios with higher energy use. We conclude that the strength of the studied circularity metrics is twofold: i) promoting solutions that reduce material demand and waste creation and ii) highlighting the advantages of combining complementary circularity strategies. This research shows that the material-based circularity metrics can be valuable guidance tools for practitioners of circular economy, as they do not require methodological expertise and can align the results with Life Cycle Assessments in some specific situations. More comparisons between circularity metric results and Life Cycle Assessments are needed in future research to establish state-of-the-art circularity metrics for specific situations and purposes, including energy-focused circularity metrics.

  • 7.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    An urban ecology critique on the "Smart City" model2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 164, p. 95-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this letter is to raise some critical concerns and gaps in the booming literature on Smart Cities; concerns that we think deserve greater attention from scientists, policy makers and urban planners. Using an urban ecology lens, we provide some reflections that need to forgo any wider-scale implementation of the Smart City-model with the goal to enhance urban sustainability. We discuss that the Smart City literature must better include analysis around social sustainability issues for city dwellers. Focus here should start on health issues and more critical analysis about whom the Smart City is for. Also, the literature must address issues of resilience and cyber security, including how Smart City solutions may affect the autonomy of urban governance, personal integrity and how it may affect the resilience of infrastructures that provide inhabitants with basic needs, such as food, energy and water security. A third major gap in this literature is how smart city developments may change human-nature relations. Focus here should start on how Smart City technologies may hinder or support children’s learning towards a stronger psychological connection with nature. Discussions are also needed on how the Smart City model may affect pro-environmental behavior more broadly.

  • 8.
    Danevad, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Sapounas, Athanasios
    TNO, Building Physics & Systems, Molengraaffsingel 8, 2629 JD, Delft, the Netherlands.
    Hillman, Karl
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Life cycle assessment of greenhouse tomatoes for the Swedish market2023In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 431, article id 139819Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The food supply chain is responsible for a large share of the anthropogenic contribution to global warming, as well as being a major contributor to several other impact categories such as acidification and eutrophication. Therefore, it is necessary to find ways of limiting the impact from food production and the food supply chain. Many crops are not adapted to growing in regions with cold climate, which creates the need to either import them or to use production methods such as greenhouses to artificially create good conditions for the crops. Sweden is currently reliant on imports for many different crops, including tomatoes where most of the consumption is covered by import from the Netherlands. This study uses life cycle assessment to analyze the potential environmental impact of Swedish tomato consumption, by comparing several year-round domestic production scenarios with scenarios representing import from the Netherlands. This is done by using a greenhouse simulation software to simulate a theoretical greenhouse placed in both countries, and then using the simulation results in combination with data from the database EcoInvent to perform a life cycle assessment. The results showed that Swedish domestic production has the potential to decrease the environmental impact of tomatoes consumed in Sweden, when compared to import from the Netherlands. There were a couple of combinations of production scenarios and impact categories where the Dutch production performed better, but the Swedish production scenarios performed better in general. The results also clearly showed that scenarios using LED lighting systems consistently had a lower impact than similar production scenarios using high-pressure sodium lighting systems. The choice of energy sources was identified as a crucial factor when it comes to the environmental impact of the studied systems.

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  • 9.
    Djuric Ilic, Danica
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Trygg, Louise
    Linköping University.
    Broman, Göran
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Integration of biofuel production into district heating - Part I: An evaluation of biofuel production costs using four types of biofuel production plants as case studies2014In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 69, p. 176-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper evaluates the effects on profitability of biofuel production if biofuel producers would sell the waste heat from the production to a local district heating system. All analyses have been performed considering four different technology cases for biofuel production. Two technology cases include ethanol production which is followed by by-production of raw biogas. This biogas can be upgraded and sold as biofuel (the first technology case) or directly used for combined heat and power production (the second technology case). The third and the fourth technology cases are Fischer-Tropsch diesel and dimethyl ether production plants based on biomass gasification. Two different district heating price levels and two different future energy market scenarios were considered. The sensitivity analyses of the discount rate were performed as well. In the case of energy market conditions, the profitability depends above all on the price ratio between biomass (used as the feedstock for biofuel production) and crude oil (used as the feedstock for fossil diesel and gasoline production). The reason for this is that the gate biofuel prices (the prices on which the biofuel would be sold) were calculated assuming that the final prices at the filling stations are the same as the prices of the replaced fossil fuel. The price ratios between biomass and district heating, and between biomass and electricity, also have an influence on the profitability, since higher district heating and electricity prices lead to higher revenues from the heat/electricity by-produced. Due to high biofuel (ethanol + biogas) efficiency, the ethanol production plant which produces upgraded biogas has the lowest biofuel production costs. Those costs would be lower than the biofuel gate prices even if the support for transportation fuel produced from renewable energy sources were not included. If the raw biogas that is by-produced would instead be used directly for combined heat and power production, the revenues from the electricity and heat would increase, but at the same time the biofuel efficiency would be lower, which would lead to higher production costs. On the other hand, due to the fact that it has the highest heat efficiency compared to the other technologies, the ethanol production in this plant shows a high sensitivity to the district heating price level, and the economic benefit from introducing such a plant into a district heating system is most obvious. Assuming a low discount rate (6%), the introduction of such a plant into a district heating system would lead to between 28% and 52% (depending on the district heating price level and energy market scenario) lower biofuel production costs. Due to the lower revenues from the heat and electricity co-produced, and higher capital investments compared to the ethanol production plants, Fischer-Tropsch diesel and dimethyl ether productions are shown to be profitable only if high support for transportation fuel produced from renewable energy sources is included. The results also show that an increase of the discount rate from 6% to 10% does not have a significant influence on the biofuel production costs. Depending on the biofuel production plant, and on the energy market and district heating conditions, when the discount rate increases from 6% to 10%, the biofuel production costs increase within a range from 2.2% to 6.8%. 

  • 10.
    Djuric Ilic, Danica
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Trygg, Louise
    Linköping University.
    Broman, Göran
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Integration of biofuel production into district heating - Part II: An evaluation of the district heating production costs using Stockholm as a case study2014In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 69, p. 188-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biofuel production through polygeneration with heat as one of the by-products implies a possibility for cooperation between transport and district heating sectors by introducing large-scale biofuel production into district heating systems. The cooperation may have effects on both the biofuel production costs and the district heating production costs. This paper is the second part of the study that investigates those effects. The biofuel production costs evaluation, considering heat and electricity as by-products, was performed in the first part of the study. In this second part of the study, an evaluation of how such cooperation would influence the district heating production costs using Stockholm's district heating system as a case study was performed. The plants introduced in the district heating system were chosen depending on the future development of the transport sector. In order to perform sensitivity analyses of different energy market conditions, two energy market scenarios were applied. Despite the higher revenues from the sale of by-products, due to the capital intense investments required, the introduction of large-scale biofuel production into the district heating system does not guarantee economic benefits. Profitability is highly dependent on the types of biofuel production plants and energy market scenarios. The results show that large-scale biogas and ethanol production may lead to a significant reduction in the district heating production costs in both energy market scenarios, especially if support for transportation fuel produced from renewable energy sources is included. If the total biomass capacity of the biofuel production plants introduced into the district heating system is 900 MW, the district heating production costs would be negative and the whole public transport sector and more than 50% of the private cars in the region could be run on the ethanol and biogas produced. The profitability is shown to be lower if the raw biogas that is by-produced in the biofuel production plants is used for combined and power production instead of being sold as transportation fuel; however, this strategy may still result in profitability if the support for transportation fuel produced from renewable energy sources is included. Investments in Fischer-Tropsch diesel and dimethyl ether production are competitive to the investments in combined and power production only if high support for transportation fuel produced from renewable energy sources is included. 

  • 11.
    Djuric Ilic, Danica
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Trygg, Louise
    Linköping University.
    Broman, Göran
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden .
    Introduction of large-scale biofuel production in a district heating system - An opportunity for reduction of global greenhouse gas emissions2014In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 64, p. 552-561Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, cooperation between Stockholm's transport and district heating sectors is analysed. The cooperation concerns the integration of biofuel polygeneration production. A MODEST optimisation model framework is used, assuming various energy market and transport sector scenarios for the year 2030. The scenarios with biofuel production and increased biofuel use in the region are compared with reference scenarios where all new plants introduced into the district heating sector are combined heat and power plants, and the share of biofuel used in the transport sector is the same as today. The results show that the cooperation implies an opportunity to reduce fossil fuel consumption in the sectors by between 20% and 65%, depending on energy market conditions and assumed transport sector scenarios. If we consider biomass an unlimited resource, the potential for greenhouse gas emissions reduction is significant. However, considering that biomass is a limited resource, the increase of biomass use in the district heating system may lead to a decrease of biomass use in other energy systems. The potential for reduction of global greenhouse gas emissions is thus highly dependent on the alternative use of biomass. If this alternative is used for co-firing in coal condensing power plants, biomass use in combined heat and power plants would be more desirable than biofuel production through polygeneration. On the other hand, if this alternative is used for traditional biofuel production (without co-production of heat and electricity), the benefits of biofuel production through polygeneration from a greenhouse gas emissions perspective is superior. However, if carbon capture and storage technology is applied on the biofuel polygeneration plants, the introduction of large-scale biofuel production into the district heating system would result in a reduction of global greenhouse gas emissions independent of the assumed alternative use of biomass. 

  • 12.
    Djuric Ilic, Danica
    et al.
    Division of Energy Systems, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Ödlund, Louise
    Division of Energy Systems, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Åberg, Magnus
    Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    No zero burden assumption in a circular economy2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 182, p. 352-362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A majority of previous studies on environmental problems caused by waste generation have focused on waste disposal issues without fully highlighting the primary reasons behind the problems. As a consequence, efforts to reduce these problems are usually directed towards the stakeholders that provide waste treatment and disposal instead of the stakeholders that contribute to waste generation. In order to detect connections between different problems of sustainability and to suggest measures which may contribute to their solutions, this study provides a simplified overview of the mechanisms behind waste generation and management. The results from the study show that the only way to eliminate problems of sustainability is to apply an upstream approach by dealing with the primary problems which occur in the early stages of the system (e.g. overconsumption of products, as well as use of finite resources, toxic materials, and non-recyclable materials). By dealing with these problems, the emergence of secondary problems would be prevented. Thereby, stakeholders who have the highest possibility to contribute to the sustainable development of the waste generation and management are the stakeholders from the origin of the product's life cycles, such as product developers, manufacturing companies, product users and policy makers. Different trade-off situations such as contradictions between economics, recyclability, energy efficiency, make it even harder to deal with issues of sustainability related to the system and to detect the stakeholders who may contribute to the development. One of the main conclusions from this study is that when transforming society towards a circular economy, the traditional view of separate systems for production and waste management must be changed. In order to refer to all problems of sustainability and also cover the top steps of the waste hierarchy, life cycle assessment of waste management should include manufacture and use of products ending up as waste. Waste entering the waste management system with “zero burden” by releasing the previous actors of the waste life cycle from any responsibility related to the environment (i.e. by shifting the total environmental burden into the waste management system), does not capture the problems with waste generation.

  • 13.
    Eriksson, Ola
    et al.
    KTH, Industriell ekologi (flyttat 20130630).
    Carlsson Reich, M.
    Frostell, Björn
    KTH, Industriell ekologi (flyttat 20130630).
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, Industriell ekologi (flyttat 20130630).
    Assefa, Getachew
    KTH, Industriell ekologi (flyttat 20130630).
    Sundqvist, J-O
    Granath, J
    Baky, A
    Thyselius, L
    Municipal Solid Waste Management from a Systems Perspective2005In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 241-252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different waste treatment options for municipal solid waste have been studied in a systems analysis. Different combinations of incineration, materials recycling of separated plastic and cardboard containers, and biological treatment (anaerobic digestion and composting) of biodegradable waste, were studied and compared to landfilling. The evaluation covered use of energy resources, environmental impact and financial and environmental costs. In the study, a calculation model ( ) based on methodology from life cycle assessment (LCA) was used. Case studies were performed in three Swedish municipalities: Uppsala, Stockholm, and Älvdalen.

    The study shows that reduced landfilling in favour of increased recycling of energy and materials lead to lower environmental impact, lower consumption of energy resources, and lower economic costs. Landfilling of energy-rich waste should be avoided as far as possible, partly because of the negative environmental impacts from landfilling, but mainly because of the low recovery of resources when landfilling.

    Differences between materials recycling, nutrient recycling and incineration are small but in general recycling of plastic is somewhat better than incineration and biological treatment somewhat worse.

    When planning waste management, it is important to know that the choice of waste treatment method affects processes outside the waste management system, such as generation of district heating, electricity, vehicle fuel, plastic, cardboard, and fertiliser.

  • 14.
    Eriksson, Ola
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Jonsson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Hillman, Karl
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Life cycle assessment of Swedish single malt whisky2016In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 112, no 1, p. 229-237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Agricultural production and further processing to food and drink have large impacts on the environment. However, there are still few examples of LCA studies on beverages such as whisky. This paper presents a life cycle assessment of Swedish single malt whisky and different environmental improvements of the production chain are discussed. The functional unit is one bottle (70cl) of whisky and results are obtained for global warming potential (GWP), Acidification Potential (AP), Eutrophication potential (EP) and primary energy (PE). The contribution to GWP is dominated by CO<inf>2</inf> emissions from transport of stillage. When avoided emissions from use of biogas are included, the net result is 2.1tonnes CO<inf>2</inf>-eq. Acidification is mainly due to emissions of SO<inf>2</inf> from bottle production, transport and barley cultivation which ends up to 14.6kgSO<inf>2</inf>-eq. Eutrophication results are totally dominated by barley cultivation, in total 8.6kgPO43-The total use of primary energy is 53.5MJ/FU with a 50/50 distribution in renewable and non-renewable. Non-renewables emanate from fossil fuels used for transports and in glass production, whereas renewables are mostly used for heating in the distillery. Improvement analysis of transports included; (1) decreasing need of transport, (2) change of fuel and (3) change of transport mode. Decreasing transport of stillage is an efficient measure to reduce GWP and use of non-renewable energy. Substituting diesel with biodiesel for all road transports is an even more efficient measure for these categories, but increases other environmental impact. For all impact categories except use of renewable energy a scenario combining all improvements is the most efficient measure to reduce environmental impact. The results can be used by the manufacturer, but an improved and expanded LCA on product level can be used for a more specific eco-labelling of the different whisky editions. 

  • 15.
    Fobbe, Lea
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Management.
    Hilletofth, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Management. Jönköping University.
    The role of stakeholder interaction in sustainable business models. A systematic literature review2021In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 327, article id 129510Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stakeholder interaction is increasingly recognised as an essential component of sustainable business models (SBMs), playing an important role for sustainable value propositions, creation and capture. However, research on the role and potential contribution of stakeholder interaction has been fragmented and not comprehensively examined. In response, a systematic literature review was conducted to provide an understanding on the topic. Forty-seven articles were systematically selected and thematically analysed according to SBM elements. Key findings demonstrate that (i) organisations need to consider five preconditions that can influence the role of stakeholder interaction in SBMs; (ii) stakeholder interaction plays different roles depending on if an organisation develops an SBM or innovates an existing BM towards sustainability; (iii) stakeholder interaction plays a multifaceted and reciprocal role in regard to sustainable value propositions, creation and capture; (iv) while the importance of interacting with a broad range of stakeholders is recognised, it is still often treated as add-on with a focus on customers and suppliers. Research gaps and managerial implications are highlighted that can support both academia and practitioners in updating the current knowledge on the role of stakeholder interaction in SBMs.

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  • 16.
    Guven, Huseyin
    et al.
    Istanbul Technical University, Civil Engineering Faculty, Environmental Engineering Department, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Wang, Zhao
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Evaluation of future food waste management alternatives in Istanbul from the life cycle assessment perspective2019In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 239, article id 117999Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In developing countries like Turkey, food waste has the highest share compared to other municipal solid waste components. A detailed life cycle assessment has been performed to evaluate different food waste management options (i.e., landfilling, anaerobic digestion, thermal treatment, co-treatment with municipal wastewater) for Istanbul which is the largest city of Turkey and Europe. The current waste management has the worst environmental performance compared to proposed waste management scenarios as follows: Anaerobic digestion, thermal treatment and co-treatment with municipal wastewater. The thermal treatment scenario has been found to have the best environmental performance in most of the impact categories including climate change. The anaerobic digestion scenario ranks in the first place only in freshwater eutrophication, which is attributed to avoided fertilizer use in this scenario. A drastic improvement with 866% has been found in this category if the anaerobic digestion scenario was followed. Co-treatment with municipal wastewater refers to use of food waste disposers at households and provides improvements especially in marine eutrophication and ecotoxicity. Lower effluent emissions by means of biological wastewater treatment in the co-treatment scenario compared to other proposed scenarios lead to better performance in these categories. Various sub-scenarios have also been investigated such as using biogas as vehicle fuel, replacing a combined heat and power with a condensing plant and increasing food waste addition to sewer lines. Important improvements are not achievable in the first two sub-scenarios; however, increasing food waste addition to sewer lines reduces various environmental impact categories by −41% and −60%. © 2019 Elsevier Ltd

  • 17.
    Holm, Tove
    et al.
    Sykli Environmental School of Finland, Finland.
    Sammalisto, Kaisu
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Caeiro, Sandra
    Universidade Aberta and CENSE from Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal.
    Rieckmann, Marco
    University of Vechta, Germany.
    Dlouhá, Jana
    Charles University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Wright, Tarah
    Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.
    Ceulemans, Kim
    University of Victoria, Gustavson Business School, Centre for Social and Sustainable Innovation, Victoria, BC, Canada.
    Benayas, Javier
    Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    Lozano, Rodrigo
    ournal of Cleaner Production, The Netherlands; Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
    Developing sustainability into a golden thread throughout all levels of education2016In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 117, p. 1-3Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Holm, Tove
    et al.
    Sykli Environmental School of Finland, Finland; Department of Biology, University of Turku, Finland; Novia University of Applied Sciences, Finland .
    Sammalisto, Kaisu
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Grindsted, Thomas S.
    Department of Environmental, Social and Spatial Change, Roskilde University, Denmark.
    Vuorisalo, Timo
    Department of Biology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Process framework for identifying sustainability aspects in university curricula and integrating education for sustainable development2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 106, p. 164-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability aspects in higher education must be enhanced with more concrete actions. Universities are globally required to have quality assurance to secure and improve teaching and learning, and they use management systems to this aim. Integrating education for sustainable development and management systems are alike in that they are based on continuous improvement and systematic thinking; for both processes all stakeholders need to be involved. Although quality assurance is compulsory for higher education, education for sustainable development has barely been examined or integrated in this context.This article examines how voluntary integration of education for sustainable development into management systems at universities could facilitate a scheme to overcome the challenges to integrating education for sustainable development that were identified in previous research. For this, a process framework for integrating education for sustainable development with management systems was developed in a network of 11 universities in the Nordic countries. The framework included planning, assessment, monitoring, and implementation of education for sustainable development. It was piloted and applied to identify relevant sustainability aspects in different disciplines, examples of which are provided in the article. The framework can be applied to visualize the implementation of education for sustainable development. 

  • 19.
    Holm, Tove
    et al.
    University of Turku, Department of Biology; Novia University of Applied Sciences.
    Sammalisto, Kaisu
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Vuorisalo, Timo
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Education for sustainable development and quality assurance in universities in China and the Nordic countries: a comparative study2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 107, p. 529-537Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The global goal for education for sustainable development (ESD) is to integrate it at all levels of education. For ensuring it the change has to be put in practice, by transforming universities. The Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden) strive to be among the regions that lead the way in enhancing ESD, and want to increase cooperation with China. It is therefore interesting to compare the region with China. We compared ESD and quality assurance between these areas at both policy and implementation levels. The former was based on literature, and the latter was studied with specific surveys in academia in both regions; in two provinces in China and in the Nordic countries. We investigated the possibilities to improve ESD in these regions by benefiting from quality assurance requirements. We found that both regions enhance ESD. The rather similar quality assurance requirements do not include ESD. In China, the respondents viewed quality assurance as sustainable development.

  • 20.
    Holm, Tove
    et al.
    University of Turku, Finland; Novia University of Applied Sciences, Finland.
    Vuorisalo, Timo
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Sammalisto, Kaisu
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Integrated management systems for enhancing education for sustainable development in universities: a memetic approach2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 106, p. 155-163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need for new approaches for enhancing education for sustainable development in universities. Memetics, which is about effective pathways of communication, could be such a new, promising approach. Quality assurance is required in universities to secure and improve education, which could be another approach. The aim of this study is to look into whether and how frameworks for processes and procedures for quality assurance, such as management systems, could be utilized to promote higher education for sustainable development. The study approaches this from both a theoretical and a practical standpoint. An evolutionary perspective was chosen, considering higher education for sustainable development and management systems as memes, or basic units of cultural replication. The practical context was studied by looking into how 11 universities in the Nordic countries have enhanced ESD with management systems. We found that both higher education for sustainable development and management systems could be considered successful memes and that management systems could be applied to enhance higher education for sustainable development.

  • 21.
    Lozano, Francisco J.
    et al.
    Tecnologico de Monterrey, Campus Monterrey, Monterrey, Mexico.
    Lozano, Rodrigo
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Assessing the potential sustainability benefits of agricultural residues: biomass conversion to syngas for energy generation or to chemicals production2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 172, p. 4162-4169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Crop residues represent more than half of the world's agricultural phytomass. Residual biomass, from agriculture or forestry, can be converted into synthesis gas (syngas) to generate energy (electrical or thermal) or chemicals. The paper uses eco-efficiency as a tool to compare these two options. A basis of 1000 kg/hour of residual pecan nut shell residue was considered to estimate the material flow of chemicals that can be produced, as well as the power that can be generated through residual biomass gasification. This study compares two alternate routes: (1) gasification with air, which renders a gas stream with hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane and other hydrocarbons, as well as nitrogen; and (2) gasification with steam, where a residual biomass amount is used as fuel, rendering a gas stream like the first route, but without nitrogen. The eco-efficiency index shows that a decrease of environmental influence leads to a high output material flow for the alternative process with higher economic values, thus a higher proportion of input raw materials can be transformed into chemical products. The paper highlights that eco-efficiency can be used as a decision-making tool to choose between transformation processes by combining scientific and technical issues with economic ones. This can help to move towards a better and more sustainable use of natural resources through the utilisation of residual biomass.

  • 22.
    Lozano, Francisco J.
    et al.
    Escuela de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Tecnologico de Monterrey, Monterrey, Mexico.
    Lozano, Rodrigo
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production. Organisational Sustainability, Cardiff, United Kingdom.
    Freire, Paulo
    LaProma (Laboratório de Produção e Meio Ambiente), São Paulo, Brazil.
    Jiménez-Gonzalez, Concepción
    GlaxoSmithKline; North Carolina State University, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ortiz, María Gabriela
    Escuela de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Tecnologico de Monterrey, Monterrey, Mexico.
    Trianni, Andrea
    Politecnico di Milano, Milan, Italy.
    Carpenter, Angela
    University of Leeds, United Kingdom.
    Viveros, Tomás
    University of Leeds, United Kingdom; Process and Hydraulics Engineering Department, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, Col. Vicentina, México D.F., Mexico.
    New perspectives for green and sustainable chemistry and engineering: approaches from sustainable resource and energy use, management, and transformation2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 172, p. 227-232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The special volume on green and sustainable chemistry and engineering has fourteen papers that were considered relevant to the present day issues and discussion, such as adequate use of raw materials and efficient energy, besides considering renewable sources for materials and energy; and changing economical canons towards circular economy. Businesses, governments and Society are facing a number of challenges to tread the sustainability path and provide wellbeing for future generations. This special volume relevance provides discussions and contributions to foster that desirable future. Chemicals are ubiquitous in everyday activities. Their widespread presence provides benefits to societies’ wellbeing, but can have some deleterious effects. To counteract such effect, green engineering and sustainable assessment in industrial processes have been gathering momentum in the last thirty years. Green chemistry, green engineering, eco-efficiency, and sustainability are becoming a necessity for assessing and managing products and processes in the chemical industry. This special volume presents fourteen articles related to sustainable resource and energy use (five articles), circular economy (one article), cleaner production and sustainable process assessment (five article), and innovation in chemical products (three articles). Green and sustainable chemistry, as well as sustainable chemical engineering and renewable energy sources are required to foster and consolidate a transition towards more sustainable societies. This special volume present current trends in chemistry and chemical engineering, such as sustainable resource and energy use, circular economy, cleaner production and sustainable process assessment, and innovation in chemical products. This special volume provides insights in this direction and complementing other efforts towards such transition.

  • 23.
    Niesten, Eva
    et al.
    Manchester Institute of Innovation Research, Alliance Manchester Business School, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom.
    Jolink, Albert
    Coventry University Business School, Coventry University, Coventry, United Kingdom.
    Lopes de Sousa Jabbour, Ana Beatriz
    Design Manufacture and Engineering Management, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, United Kingdom.
    Chappin, Maryse
    Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Lozano, Rodrigo
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. Organisational Sustainability, Cardiff, United Kingdom.
    Sustainable collaboration: The impact of governance and institutions on sustainable performance2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 155, no 2, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Collaboration between firms is important to stimulate the transition to a more sustainable society. This special volume shows that collaboration is indeed one of the preferred forms of governance to manage relations between firms in a sustainability context. Collaboration enhances sustainable benefits by creating legitimacy of sustainable technologies, reducing waste and improving environmental and social performance of firms. The institutional environment, in particular environmental laws and regulations, has a beneficial impact on collaboration and relationship management in sustainable supply chains. Two studies in this special volume show, however, that stringent environmental regulations may hinder economic performance and result in outsourcing to foreign suppliers with potential detrimental effects for environmental performance. These negative effects can be overcome by firms that invest in sustainable innovation. This special volume also shows that eco-innovation leads to sustainable benefits, such as lower greenhouse gas emissions.

  • 24.
    Rahi, Fazle
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration. Halmstad University.
    Chowdhury, Mohammad Ashraful Ferdous
    King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM), Dhahran, Saudi Arabia.
    Johansson, Jeaneth
    Halmstad University; Luleå University of Technology.
    Blomkvist, Marita
    University of Gothenburg.
    Nexus between institutional quality and corporate sustainable performance: European evidence2023In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 382, article id 135188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By analysing 796 companies' data from 21 European countries, this research uncovered the nexus between institutional quality (IQ) and corporate sustainable performance (CSP). The relationship was theoretically examined with the lens of institutional theory and then empirically tested. The findings show that IQ has a positive and significant impact in safeguarding CSP, and firms’ characteristics play an essential preamble in this regard. We additionally found the heterogeneous impact of IQ on CSP. To come to a conclusion, we have applied random effect, two-step system GMM and quantile regression models. Our findings are consistent and empirically robust; therefore, the study disseminates key messages to policymakers and practitioners about the role of IQ in safeguarding CSP.

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  • 25.
    Sammalisto, Kaisu
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    Brorson, Torbjörn
    International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics, IIIEE, Lund University, Sweden.
    Training and communication in the implementation of environmental management systems (ISO 14001): A case study at the University of Gävle, Sweden.2008In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 299-309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Training and communication are essential elements in the implementation of environmental management systems (EMS). This study is based on two main questions: (i) What methods for training and communication will support the implementation of EMS at a university? and, (ii) How did faculty and staff perceive the training and communication activities? The study includes a literature review, a case study of methods for training and communication, and results of a semi quantitative survey of the perception of training and communication. All activities took place at the University of Gävle (Sweden). The University of Gävle was certified according to ISO 14001 in 2004. Practical experiences from the implementation of EMS in industry were used as reference.

    The literature review indicates that training is a key factor during implementation of EMS, and that training may change attitude and behaviour among managers and employees. Similar conclusions can be drawn from this study. The case study, and practical experiences from industry, indicate that similar methods of EMS training and communication can be shared by industry and universities. However, “academic freedom” and “critical thinking” may result in the need for more interactive training methods at a university than in industry. The results of the survey indicate that the training and communication have increased awareness of environmental issues. A deeper understanding of the personal role in the EMS was also observed. It can be concluded that the EMS training and communication team has a demanding task to introduce the concept of indirect environmental aspects at a university. Lecturers and researchers should be convinced that the greening of a college involves more than, for example, reducing the consumption of paper. The main role of EMS at a university should be to focus on indirect environmental aspects, for example, to introduce environmental and sustainability issues in courses and research.

  • 26.
    Sammalisto, Kaisu
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Sundström, Agneta
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Holm, Tove
    Novia University of Applied Sciences, Vaasa, Finland.
    Implementation of sustainability in universities as perceived by faculty and staff: a model from a Swedish university2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 106, p. 45-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Education for sustainable development creates new challenges for universities where faculty and staff are expected to prepare students to meet complexities in society and take responsibility for sustainability, which scientists are urgently calling for today. Few studies exist on how faculty and staff perceive sustainability in their functions at the university based on long-term sustainability implementation and training within a 14001 certified environmental management system. This university case study with data collected by open-ended survey questions explores how faculty and staff express their role in sustainability work within a Swedish university.The authors developed a model to illustrate development of sustainability competence and its institutionalization. Results show a large variation in perceptions of sustainability from waste separation to a complex understanding and integration of issues into education. Integration of sustainable development as a university core competence is difficult for a whole university to reach. Interpretational flexibility provides opportunities for discussing the sustainability concept in diverse academic traditions in different disciplines. Top management inspiration on different university levels is essential for integration. Continuous training and routines contribute to movement towards institutionalization of sustainability activities and to following up the process in universities.

  • 27.
    Soam, Shveta
    et al.
    DBT- IOC Centre for Advanced Bioenergy Research, Indian Oil Corporation Limited, Research & Development Centre, Faridabad, India.
    Kapoor, Manali
    DBT- IOC Centre for Advanced Bioenergy Research, Indian Oil Corporation Limited, Research & Development Centre, Faridabad, India.
    Kumar, Ravindra
    DBT- IOC Centre for Advanced Bioenergy Research, Indian Oil Corporation Limited, Research & Development Centre, Faridabad, India.
    Gupta, Ravi P.
    DBT- IOC Centre for Advanced Bioenergy Research, Indian Oil Corporation Limited, Research & Development Centre, Faridabad, India.
    Puri, Suresh K.
    DBT- IOC Centre for Advanced Bioenergy Research, Indian Oil Corporation Limited, Research & Development Centre, Faridabad, India.
    Ramakumar, S. S. V.
    Indian Oil Corporation Limited, Research & Development Centre, Faridabad, India.
    Life cycle assessment and life cycle costing of conventional and modified dilute acid pretreatment for fuel ethanol production from rice straw in India2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 197, no 1, p. 732-741Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dilute acid (DA) pretreatment results in the formation of inhibitory compounds and pseudo-lignin along with the burden of unnecessary materials like ash, extractive, lignin or their condensed products that reduces the conversion efficiency of cellulose to monomeric sugar. Indian Oil Corporation Limited (IOCL) has developed a modified pretreatment (MP) in order to reduce the enzyme dosage during ethanol production. This method uses extraction of biomass in water and varying alkali concentration of 0.2, 0.4 and 0.5%, prior to pretreatment as a strategy to reduce the enzyme dosage and improve the ethanol yield. The environmental and economic impact of these MP scenarios in comparison with conventional pretreatment (CP) is studied. The ethanol production increases from 218 to 267 L using MP. The introduction of extraction step prior to DA pretreatment fulfills the objective of reducing enzyme dosage by 23–39%. However, overall life cycle assessment (LCA) results revealed that performance of MP2, MP3 and MP4 is on a negative side in all the environmental impact categories as compared to CP due to the use of alkali, where a huge amount of emissions are released during the production stage. Overall, MP1 using water as a media for extraction is the most environmentally suitable pretreatment process for ethanol production. Life cycle costing (LCC) results showed that cost of 1 L ethanol production could be lowered down from 0.87 to 0.70 United States Dollar (USD) using MP1 scenario. From an environment and economic perspective, it is recommended to use only water as an extraction media for biomass, as this can reduce the enzyme dosage, emissions and cost.

  • 28.
    Svanberg, Jan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration. Mittuniversitetet.
    Ardeshiri, Tohid
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Samsten, Isak
    Stockholms universitet.
    Öhman, Peter
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Rana, Tarek
    The Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, Australia.
    Danielson, Mats
    Stockholms universitet.
    Prediction of environmental controversies and development of a corporate environmental performance rating methodology2022In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 344, article id 130979Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Institutional investors seek to make environmentally sustainable investments using environment, social, governance (ESG) ratings. Current ESG ratings have limited validity because they are based on idiosyncratic scores derived using subjective, discretionary methodologies. We discuss a new direction for developing corporate environmental performance (CEP) ratings and propose a solution to the limited validity problem by anchoring such ratings in environmental controversies. The study uses a novel machine learning approach to make the ratings more comprehensive and transparent, based on a set of algorithmic approaches that handle nonlinearity when aggregating ESG indicators. This approach minimizes the rater subjectivity and preferences inherent in traditional ESG indicators. The findings indicate that controversies as proxies for non-compliance with environmental responsibilities can be predicted well. We conclude that environmental performance ratings developed using our machine learning framework offer predictive validity consistent with institutional investors’ demand for socially responsible investment screening.

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  • 29.
    Swing Gustafsson, Moa
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Framtidens energi; Högskolan Dalarna.
    Myhren, J. A.
    Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalens högskola, Framtidens energi.
    Potential for district heating to lower peak electricity demand in a medium-size municipality in Sweden2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 186, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden faces several challenges with more intermittent power in the energy system. One challenge is to have enough power available in periods with low intermittent production. A solution could be to reduce peak demand and at the same time produce more electricity during these hours. One way of doing this is to convert electricity-based heating in buildings to district heating based on combined heat and power. The study analyzes how much a Swedish municipality can contribute to lowering peak electricity demand. This is done by quantifying the potential to reduce the peak demand for six different scenarios of the future heat demand and heat market shares regarding two different energy carriers: electricity-based heating and district heating. The main finding is that there is a huge potential to decrease peak power demand by the choice of energy carrier for the buildings’ heating system. In order to lower electricity peak demand in the future, the choice of heating system is more important than reducing the heat demand itself. For the scenario with a large share of district heating, it is possible to cover the electricity peak demand in the municipality by using combined heat and power. 

  • 30.
    Tasala Gradin, Katja
    et al.
    KTH, Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.).
    Luttropp, Conrad
    KTH, Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.).
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Investigating improved vehicle dismantling and fragmentation technology2013In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 54, p. 23-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We conduct a screening comparison using life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology to model two end-of-life vehicle (ELV) waste management scenarios. The first is the prevalent scrapping process, which entails shredding. The second is manual disassembly, a hypothetical scenario designed to reach the targets in the EU ELV Directive for 2015. The LCA considers three impact categories; climate change, metal depletion, and cumulative energy demand (CED), and identifies the potential lifecycle environmental and resource impacts of new ELV dismantling and recycling processes. Manual disassembly significantly reduces climate change impact and metal depletion, by recycling more polymers and copper and recovering more energy via incineration. The CED is much lower in the manual than the shredding scenario, mainly due to increased recycling and energy recovery, over half the reduction being attributable to polymer recycling and energy recovery. The manual scenario is significantly better than the shredding scenario in terms of environmental and resource impacts, recovering more copper and recycling more polymers. The current shredding scenario does not fulfil the current or future requirements of the ELV Directive. We identify a need to develop new ELV scrapping methods for better resource management and to investigate the value of "new" materials in ELVs, such as rare earth elements.

  • 31.
    Tasala Gradin, Katja
    et al.
    KTH, Maskinelement.
    Poulikidou, Sofia
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Luttropp, Conrad
    KTH, Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.).
    Scrutinising the electric vehicle material backpack2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 172, p. 1699-1710Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conventionally the use phase of a road vehicle contributes to more than 70% of the total environmental impact in terms of energy use or emissions of greenhouse gases. This figure is no longer valid concerning electric vehicles and a shift to other life cycle stages and impacts is expected and should be re-evaluated. The goal of this study is to assess the environmental performance of two prototype vehicle drivetrains; an internal combustion engine and an electric motor, from a life cycle perspective. The assessment is performed in a qualitative manner using the Environmentally Responsible Product Assessment (ERPA) matrix. The two vehicles in this study have similar car body construction, providing an excellent opportunity to highlight the significance of material differences in their drivetrains. The internal combustion vehicle demonstrated a better environmental performance in three out of five lifecycle stages (pre-manufacture, product manufacture, and disposal). In all of these stages, the impact of the electric vehicle is determined by the burden of the materials needed for this technology such as rare earth elements (REE) and by the lack of recycling possibilities. The study demonstrated a need to close the material cycle when it comes to Critical Raw Materials (CRM) such as REE which can only be achieved when the technology but also the incentives for material recovery are provided, i.e. by promoting the development of cost-efficient recycling technologies. Moreover, the need for relevant metrics and assessment indicators is demonstrated to be able to compare the two technologies fairly.

  • 32.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    An energy efficiency program for Swedish industrial small- and medium-sized enterprises2010In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 18, no 13, p. 1339-1346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial energy programs such as energy audit programs and long-term agreements (LTAs) are one of the most common means of promoting energy efficiency in industry. As a result of the European Energy End-Use Efficiency and Energy Services Directive from 2006, the Swedish Government Bill proposed a national energy program towards industrial small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) using more than 500 MWh energy annually. The aim of this paper is to present the structure and design of the program, adopted in 2010, the logics in brief behind the structure, as well as an ex-ante evaluation of the program's cost-effectiveness. The paper is aimed towards the part of the program involving industry, i.e. not the part involving companies within service and sales etc. The proposed design primarily includes a subsidized energy audit with some minor LTA-elements, such as the need to report results from the energy audit, to present a plan over which measures to conduct, and after three years present which measures that were implemented. The ex-ante evaluation of the program shows a cost-effectiveness of 0.25-0.50 Eurocents/kWh, yielding savings of about 700-1 400 GWh annually.

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