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  • 1.
    Ekvall, Tomas
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Assefa, Getachew
    Industrial Ecology, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Björklund, Anna
    Environmental Strategies Research - FMS, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Sweden.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Finnveden, Göran
    Environmental Strategies Research - FMS, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Sweden.
    What life-cycle assessment does and does not do in assessments of waste management2007In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 27, no 8, p. 989-996Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In assessments of the environmental impacts of waste management, life-cycle assessment (LCA) helps expanding the perspective beyond the waste management system. This is important, since the indirect environmental impacts caused by surrounding systems, such as energy and material production, often override the direct impacts of the waste management system itself. However, the applicability of LCA for waste management planning and policy-making is restricted by certain limitations, some of which are characteristics inherent to LCA methodology as such, and some of which are relevant specifically in the context of waste management. Several of them are relevant also for other types of systems analysis. We have identified and discussed such characteristics with regard to how they may restrict the applicability of LCA in the context of waste management. Efforts to improve LCA with regard to these aspects are also described. We also identify what other tools are available for investigating issues that cannot be adequately dealt with by traditional LCA models, and discuss whether LCA methodology should be expanded rather than complemented by other tools to increase its scope and applicability.

  • 2.
    Eriksson, Ola
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. Profu i Göteborg AB, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Bisaillon, Mattias
    Multiple system modelling of waste management2011In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 31, no 12, p. 2620-2630Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to increased environmental awareness, planning and performance of waste management has become more and more complex. Therefore waste management has early been subject to different types of modelling. Another field with long experience of modelling and systems perspective is energy systems. The two modelling traditions have developed side by side, but so far there are very few attempts to combine them. Waste management systems can be linked together with energy systems through incineration plants. The models for waste management can be modelled on a quite detailed level whereas surrounding systems are modelled in a more simplistic way. This is a problem, as previous studies have shown that assumptions on the surrounding system often tend to be important for the conclusions. In this paper it is shown how two models, one for the district heating system (MARTES) and another one for the waste management system (ORWARE), can be linked together. The strengths and weaknesses with model linking are discussed when compared to simplistic assumptions on effects in the energy and waste management systems. It is concluded that the linking of models will provide a more complete, correct and credible picture of the consequences of different simultaneous changes in the systems. The linking procedure is easy to perform and also leads to activation of project partners. However, the simulation procedure is a bit more complicated and calls for the ability to run both models.

  • 3.
    Finnveden, Göran
    et al.
    Division of Environmental Strategies Research - fms, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Björklund, Anna
    Division of Environmental Strategies Research - fms, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Carlsson Reich, Marcus
    Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Sörbom, Adrienne
    Department of Sociology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Flexible and robust strategies for waste management in Sweden2007In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 27, no 8, p. S1-S8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Treatment of solid waste continues to be on the political agenda. Waste disposal issues are often viewed from an environmental perspective, but economic and social aspects also need to be considered when deciding on waste strategies and policy instruments. The aim of this paper is to suggest flexible and robust strategies for waste management in Sweden, and to discuss different policy instruments. Emphasis is on environmental aspects, but social and economic aspects are also considered. The results show that most waste treatment methods have a role to play in a robust and flexible integrated waste management system, and that the waste hierarchy is valid as a rule of thumb from an environmental perspective. A review of social aspects shows that there is a general willingness among people to source separate wastes. A package of policy instruments can include landfill tax, an incineration tax which is differentiated with respect to the content of fossil fuels and a weight based incineration tax, as well as support to the use of biogas and recycled materials.

  • 4.
    Gentil, Emmanuel C.
    et al.
    Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
    Damgaard, Anders
    Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
    Hauschild, Michael
    DTU Management, Innovation and Sustainability Group, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
    Finnveden, Göran
    Environmental Strategies Research - fms, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Thorneloe, Susan
    US EPA, Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, United States.
    Kaplan, Pervin Ozge
    US EPA, Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, United States.
    Barlaz, Morton
    Department of Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering, NC State University, Raleigh, United States.
    Muller, Olivier
    PricewaterhouseCoopers, Neuilly-sur-Seine, France.
    Matsui, Yasuhiro
    Graduate School of Environmental Science, Okayama University, Okayama, Japan.
    Ii, Ryota
    Pacific Consultants Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan.
    Christensen, Thomas H.
    Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
    Models for waste life cycle assessment: Review of technical assumptions2010In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 30, no 12, p. 2636-2648Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A number of waste life cycle assessment (LCA) models have been gradually developed since the early 1990s, in a number of countries, usually independently from each other. Large discrepancies in results have been observed among different waste LCA models, although it has also been shown that results from different LCA studies can be consistent. This paper is an attempt to identify, review and analyse methodologies and technical assumptions used in various parts of selected waste LCA models. Several criteria were identified, which could have significant impacts on the results, such as the functional unit, system boundaries, waste composition and energy modelling. The modelling assumptions of waste management processes, ranging from collection, transportation, intermediate facilities, recycling, thermal treatment, biological treatment, and landfilling, are obviously critical when comparing waste LCA models. This review infers that some of the differences in waste LCA models are inherent to the time they were developed. It is expected that models developed later, benefit from past modelling assumptions and knowledge and issues. Models developed in different countries furthermore rely on geographic specificities that have an impact on the results of waste LCA models. The review concludes that more effort should be employed to harmonise and validate non-geographic assumptions to strengthen waste LCA modelling.

  • 5.
    Hadin, Åsa
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Horse manure as feedstock for anaerobic digestion2016In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 65, p. 506-518Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Horse keeping is of great economic, social and environmental benefit for society, but causes environmental impacts throughout the whole chain from feed production to manure treatment. According to national statistics, the number of horses in Sweden is continually increasing and is currently approximately 360,000. This in turn leads to increasing amounts of horse manure that have to be managed and treated. Current practices could cause local and global environmental impacts due to poor performance or lack of proper management. Horse manure with its content of nutrients and organic material can however contribute to fertilisation of arable land and recovery of renewable energy following anaerobic digestion. At present anaerobic digestion of horse manure is not a common treatment. In this paper the potential for producing biogas and biofertiliser from horse manure is analysed based on a thorough literature review in combination with mathematical modelling and simulations. Anaerobic digestion was chosen as it has a high degree of resource conservation, both in terms of energy (biogas) and nutrients (digestate). Important factors regarding manure characteristics and operating factors in the biogas plant are identified. Two crucial factors are the type and amount of bedding material used, which has strong implications for feedstock characteristics, and the type of digestion method applied (dry or wet process). Straw and waste paper are identified as the best materials in an energy point of view. While the specific methane yield decreases with a high amount of bedding, the bedding material still makes a positive contribution to the energy balance. Thermophilic digestion increases the methane generation rate and yield, compared with mesophilic digestion, but the total effect is negligible.

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