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  • 1.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Making GIScience research more open access2011In: International Journal of Geographical Information Science, ISSN 1365-8816, E-ISSN 1365-8824, Vol. 25, no 8, p. 1217-1220Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Ranking spaces for predicting human movement in an urban environment2009In: International Journal of Geographical Information Science, ISSN 1365-8816, E-ISSN 1365-8824, Vol. 23, no 7, p. 823-837Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A city can be topologically represented as a connectivity graph, consisting of nodes representing individual spaces and links if the corresponding spaces are intersected. It turns out in the space syntax literature that some defined topological metrics can capture human movement rates in individual spaces. In other words, the topological metrics are significantly correlated to human movement rates, and individual spaces can be ranked by the metrics for predicting human movement. However, this correlation has never been well justified. In this paper, we study the same issue by applying the weighted PageRank algorithm to the connectivity graph or space-space topology for ranking the individual spaces, and find surprisingly that: (1) the PageRank scores are better correlated to human movement rates than the space syntax metrics, and (2) the underlying space-space topology demonstrates small world and scale free properties. The findings provide a novel justification as to why space syntax, or topological analysis in general, can be used to predict human movement. We further conjecture that this kind of analysis is no more than predicting a drunkard's walking on a small world and scale free network.

  • 3.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Street hierarchies: a minority of streets account for a majority of traffic flow2009In: International Journal of Geographical Information Science, ISSN 1365-8816, E-ISSN 1365-8824, Vol. 23, no 8, p. 1033-1148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban streets are hierarchically organized in the sense that a majority of streets are trivial, while a minority of streets is vital. This hierarchy can be simply, but elegantly, characterized by the 80/20 principle, i.e. 80% of streets are less connected (below the average), while 20% of streets are well connected (above the average); out of the 20%, there is 1% of streets that are extremely well connected. This paper, using a European city as an example, examined, at a much more detailed level, such street hierarchies from the perspective of geometric and topological properties. Based on an empirical study, we further proved a previous conjecture that a minority of streets accounts for a majority of traffic flow; more accurately, the 20% of top streets accommodate 80% of traffic flow (20/80), and the 1% of top streets account for more than 20% of traffic flow (1/20). Our study provides new evidence as to how a city is (self-)organized, contributing to the understanding of cities and their evolution using increasingly available mobility geographic information.

  • 4.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    The fractal nature of maps and mapping2015In: International Journal of Geographical Information Science, ISSN 1365-8816, E-ISSN 1365-8824, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 159-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A fractal can be simply understood as a set or pattern in which there are far more small things than large ones, for example, far more small geographic features than large ones on the earth surface, or far more large-scale maps than small-scale maps for a geographic region. This article attempts to argue and provide evidence for the fractal nature of maps and mapping. It is the underlying fractal structure of geographic features, either natural or man-made, that make reality mappable, large-scale maps generalizable, and cities imageable. The fractal nature is also what underlies the beauty of maps. After introducing some key fractal concepts such as recursion, self-similarity, scaling ratio, and scaling exponent, this article demonstrates that fractal thought is rooted in long-standing map-making practices such as series maps subdivision, visual hierarchy, and Töpfer's radical law. Drawing on previous studies on head/tail breaks, mapping can be considered a head/tail breaks process; that is to divide things around an average, according to their geometric, topological and/or semantic properties, into the head (for those above the average) and the tail (for those below the average), and recursively continue the dividing process for the head for map generalization, statistical mapping, and cognitive mapping. Given the fractal nature of maps and mapping, cartography should be considered a perfect combination of science and art, and scaling must be formulated as a law of cartography or that of geography in general. 

  • 5.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Wholeness as a hierarchical graph to capture the nature of space2015In: International Journal of Geographical Information Science, ISSN 1365-8816, E-ISSN 1365-8824, Vol. 29, no 9, p. 1632-1648Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to Christopher Alexander’s theory of centers, a whole comprises numerous, recursively defined centers for things or spaces surrounding us. Wholeness is a type of global structure or life-giving order emerging from the whole as a field of the centers. The wholeness is an essential part of any complex system and exists, to some degree or other, in spaces. This paper defines wholeness as a hierarchical graph, in which individual centers are represented as the nodes and their relationships as the directed links. The hierarchical graph gets its name from the inherent scaling hierarchy revealed by the head/tail breaks, which is a classification scheme and visualization tool for data with a heavy-tailed distribution. We suggest that (1) the degrees of wholeness for individual centers should be measured by PageRank (PR) scores based on the notion that high-degree-of-life centers are those to which many high-degree-of-life centers point, and (2) that the hierarchical levels, or the ht-index of the PR scores induced by the head/tail breaks, can characterize the degree of wholeness for the whole: the higher the ht-index, the more life or wholeness in the whole. Three case studies applied to the Alhambra building complex and the street networks of Manhattan and Sweden illustrate that the defined wholeness captures fairly well human intuitions on the degree of life for the geographic spaces. We further suggest that the mathematical model of wholeness be an important model of geographic representation, because it is topological oriented, which enables us to see the underlying scaling structure. The model can guide geodesign, which should be considered as the wholeness-extending transformations that are essentially like the unfolding processes of seeds or embryos, for creating built and natural environments of beauty or with a high degree of wholeness.

  • 6.
    Jiang, Bin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Jia, Tao
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Agent-based simulation of human movement shaped by the underlying street structure2011In: International Journal of Geographical Information Science, ISSN 1365-8816, E-ISSN 1365-8824, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 51-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Relying on random and purposive moving agents, we simulated human movement in large street networks. We found that aggregate flow, assigned to individual streets, is mainly shaped by the underlying street structure, and that human moving behavior (either random or purposive) has little effect on the aggregate flow. This finding implies that given a street network, the movement patterns generated by purposive walkers (mostly human beings) and by random walkers are the same. Based on the simulation and correlation analysis, we further found that the closeness centrality is not a good indicator for human movement, in contrast to a long-standing view held by space syntax researchers. Instead we suggest that Google's PageRank and its modified version (weighted PageRank), betweenness and degree centralities are all better indicators for predicting aggregate flow.

  • 7.
    Jiang, Bin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Jia, Tao
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Zipf's law for all the natural cities in the United States: a geospatial perspective2011In: International Journal of Geographical Information Science, ISSN 1365-8816, E-ISSN 1365-8824, Vol. 25, no 8, p. 1269-1281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article provides a new geospatial perspective on whether or not Zipf's law holds for all cities or for the largest cities in the United States using a massive dataset and its computing. A major problem around this issue is how to define cities or city boundaries. Most of the investigations of Zipf's law rely on the demarcations of cities imposed by census data, for example, metropolitan areas and census-designated places. These demarcations or definitions (of cities) are criticized for being subjective or even arbitrary. Alternative solutions to defining cities are suggested, but they still rely on census data for their definitions. In this article we demarcate urban agglomerations by clustering street nodes (including intersections and ends), forming what we call natural cities. Based on the demarcation, we found that Zipf's law holds remarkably well for all the natural cities (over 2–4 million in total) across the United States. There is little sensitivity for the holding with respect to the clustering resolution used for demarcating the natural cities. This is a big contrast to urban areas, as defined in the census data, which do not hold stable for Zipf's law.

  • 8.
    Jiang, Bin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Liu, Chengke
    Ningbo Electric Power Bureau, Zhejiang, China.
    Street-based topological representations and analyses for predicting traffic flow in GIS2009In: International Journal of Geographical Information Science, ISSN 1365-8816, E-ISSN 1365-8824, Vol. 23, no 9, p. 1119-1137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well received in the space syntax community that traffic flow is significantly correlated to a morphological property of streets, which are represented by axial lines, forming a so called axial map. The correlation co-efficient (R 2) approaches 0.8 and even a higher value according to the space syntax literature. In this paper, we study the same issue using the Hong Kong street network and the Hong Kong Annual Average Daily Traffic datasets, and find surprisingly that street-based topological representations (or street-street topologies) tend to be better representations than the axial map. In other words, vehicle flow is correlated to a morphological property of streets better than that of axial lines. Based on the finding, we suggest the street-based topological representations as an alternative GIS representation, and the topological analyses as a new analytical means for geographic knowledge discovery.

  • 9.
    Jiang, Bin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Liu, Xintao
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Automatic generation of the axial lines of urban environments to capture what we perceive2010In: International Journal of Geographical Information Science, ISSN 1365-8816, E-ISSN 1365-8824, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 545-558Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on the concepts of isovists and medial axes, we developed a set of algorithms that can automatically generate axial lines for representing individual linearly stretched parts of open space of an urban environment. Open space is the space between buildings where people can freely move around. The generation of the axial lines has been a key aspect of space syntax research, conventionally relying on hand-drawn axial lines of an urban environment, often called axial map, for urban morphological analysis. Although various attempts have been made towards an automatic solution, few of them can produce the axial map that consists of the least number of longest visibility lines, and none of them really works for different urban environments. Our algorithms provide a better solution than existing ones. Throughout this article, we have also argued and demonstrated that the axial lines constitute a true skeleton, superior to medial axes, in capturing what we perceive about the urban environment.

  • 10.
    Jiang, Bin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Liu, Xintao
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Computing the fewest-turn map directions based on the connectivity of natural roads2011In: International Journal of Geographical Information Science, ISSN 1365-8816, E-ISSN 1365-8824, Vol. 25, no 7, p. 1069-1082Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we introduce a novel approach to computing the fewest-turn map directions or routes based on the concept of natural roads. Natural roads are joined road segments that perceptually constitute good continuity. This approach relies on the connectivity of natural roads rather than that of road segments for computing routes or map directions. Because of this, the derived routes possess the fewest turns. However, what we intend to achieve are the routes that not only possess the fewest turns but are also as short as possible. This kind of map direction is more effective and favored by people because they bear less cognitive burden. Furthermore, the computation of the routes is more efficient because it is based on the graph encoding the connectivity of roads, which is substantially smaller than the graph of road segments. We experimented on eight urban street networks from North America and Europe to illustrate the above-stated advantages. The experimental results indicate that the fewest-turn routes possess fewer turns and shorter distances than the simplest paths and the routes provided by Google Maps. For example, the fewest-turn-and-shortest routes are on average 15% shorter than the routes suggested by Google Maps, whereas the number of turns is just half as much. This approach is a key technology behind FromToMap.org – a web mapping service using openstreetmap data.

  • 11.
    Jiang, Bin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Liu, Xintao
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Scaling of geographic space from the perspective of city and field blocks and using volunteered geographic information2012In: International Journal of Geographical Information Science, ISSN 1365-8816, E-ISSN 1365-8824, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 215-229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scaling of geographic space refers to the fact that for a large geographic area its small constituents or units are much more common than the large ones. This article develops a novel perspective to the scaling of geographic space using large street networks involving both cities and countryside. Given a street network of an entire country, we decompose the street network into individual blocks, each of which forms a minimum ring or cycle such as city blocks and field blocks. The block sizes demonstrate the scaling property, that is, far more small blocks than large ones. Interestingly, we find that the mean of all the block sizes can easily separate between small and large blocks –a high percentage (e.g., 90%) of smaller ones and a low percentage (e.g., 10%) of larger ones. Based on this regularity, termed as the head/tail division rule, we propose an approach to delineating city boundaries by grouping the smaller blocks. The extracted city sizes for the three largest European countries (France, Germany, and United Kingdom) exhibit power law distributions. We further define the concept of border number as a topological distance of a block far from the outmost border to map the center(s) of the country and the city. We draw an analogy between a country (or a city or geographic space in general) and a complex organism like the human body or the human brain to further elaborate on the power of this block perspective in reflecting the structure or patterns of geographic space.

  • 12.
    Jiang, Bin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Ren, Zheng
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Geographic space as a living structure for predicting human activities using big data2019In: International Journal of Geographical Information Science, ISSN 1365-8816, E-ISSN 1365-8824, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 764-779Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inspired by Christopher Alexander's conception of the world - space is not lifeless or neutral, but a living structure involving far more small things than large ones - a topological representation has been previously developed to characterize the living structure or the wholeness of geographic space. This paper further develops the topological representation and living structure for predicting human activities in geographic space. Based on millions of street nodes of the United Kingdom extracted from OpenStreetMap, we established living structures at different levels of scale in a nested manner. We found that tweet locations at different levels of scale, such as country and city, can be well predicted by the underlying living structure. The high predictability demonstrates that the living structure and the topological representation are efficient and effective for better understanding geographic forms. Based on this major finding, we argue that the topological representation is a truly multiscale representation, and point out that existing geographic representations are essentially single scale, so they bear many scale problems such as modifiable areal unit problem, the conundrum of length and the ecological fallacy. We further discuss on why the living structure is an efficient and effective instrument for structuring geospatial big data, and why Alexander's organic worldview constitutes the third view of space.

  • 13.
    Jiang, Bin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Yin, Junjun
    Department of Geography and Geographic Information Science, University of Illinois at Urbana and Champaign, Champaign-Urbana, IL, USA.
    Liu, Qingling
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Zipf’s law for all the natural cities around the world2015In: International Journal of Geographical Information Science, ISSN 1365-8816, E-ISSN 1365-8824, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 498-522Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two fundamental issues surrounding research on Zipf’s law regarding city sizes are whether and why this law holds. This paper does not deal with the latter issue with respect to why, and instead investigates whether Zipf’s law holds in a global setting, thus involving all cities around the world. Unlike previous studies, which have mainly relied on conventional census data such as populations and census-bureau-imposed definitions of cities, we adopt naturally (in terms of data speak for itself) delineated cities, or natural cities, to be more precise, in order to examine Zipf’s law. We find that Zipf’s law holds remarkably well for all natural cities at the global level, and it remains almost valid at the continental level except for Africa at certain time instants. We further examine the law at the country level, and note that Zipf’s law is violated from country to country or from time to time. This violation is mainly due to our limitations; we are limited to individual countries, or to a static view on city-size distributions. The central argument of this paper is that Zipf’s law is universal, and we therefore must use the correct scope in order to observe it. We further find Zipf’s law applied to city numbers; the number of cities in the largest country is twice as many as that in the second largest country, three times as many as that in the third largest country, and so on. These findings have profound implications for big data and the science of cities. 

  • 14.
    Lim, Nancy Joy
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Brandt, S. Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Seipel, Stefan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Computer science. Division of Visual Information and Interaction, Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Visualisation and evaluation of flood uncertainties based on ensemble modelling2016In: International Journal of Geographical Information Science, ISSN 1365-8816, E-ISSN 1365-8824, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 240-262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluates how users incorporate visualisation of flood uncertainty information in decision-making. An experiment was conducted where participants were given the task to decide building locations, taking into account homeowners’ preferences as well as dilemmas imposed by flood risks at the site. Two general types of visualisations for presenting uncertainties from ensemble modelling were evaluated: (1) uncertainty maps, which used aggregated ensemble results; and (2) performance bars showing all individual simulation outputs from the ensemble. Both were supplemented with either two-dimensional (2D) or three-dimensional (3D) contextual information, to give an overview of the area.The results showed that the type of uncertainty visualisation was highly influential on users’ decisions, whereas the representation of the contextual information (2D or 3D) was not. Visualisation with performance bars was more intuitive and effective for the task performed than the uncertainty map. It clearly affected users’ decisions in avoiding certain-to-be-flooded areas. Patterns to which the distances were decided from the homeowners’ preferred positions and the uncertainties were similar, when the 2D and 3D map models were used side by side with the uncertainty map. On the other hand, contextual information affected the time to solve the task. With the 3D map, it took the participants longer time to decide the locations, compared with the other combinations using the 2D model.Designing the visualisation so as to provide more detailed information made respondents avoid dangerous decisions. This has also led to less variation in their overall responses.

  • 15.
    Liu, Xintao
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Defining and generating axial lines from street center lines for better understanding of urban morphologies2012In: International Journal of Geographical Information Science, ISSN 1365-8816, E-ISSN 1365-8824, Vol. 26, no 8, p. 1521-1532Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Axial lines are defined as the longest visibility lines for representing individual linear spaces in urban environments. The least set of axial lines that cover the free space of an urban environment or the space between buildings constitute what is often called an axial map. This is a fundamental tool in space syntax, a theory developed by Bill Hillier and his colleagues for characterizing the underlying urban morphologies. For a long time, generating axial lines with the help of some graphic software has been a tedious manual process that is criticized for being time consuming, subjective, or even arbitrary. In this article, we redefine axial lines as the least set of individual straight line segments mutually intersected along natural streets that are generated from street center lines using the Gestalt principle of good continuity. Based on this new definition, we develop an automatic solution for generating the newly defined axial lines from street center lines. We apply this solution to six typical street networks (three from North America and three from Europe) and generate a new set of axial lines for analyzing the urban morphologies. Through a comparison study between the new axial lines and the conventional or old axial lines and between the new axial lines and natural streets, we demonstrate with empirical evidence that the newly defined axial lines are a better alternative for capturing the underlying urban structure.

  • 16.
    Milutinovic, Goran
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Computer Science.
    Ahonen-Jonnarth, Ulla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Decision, Risk and Policy Analysis.
    Seipel, Stefan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Computer Science. Division of Visual Information and Interaction, Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Brandt, S. Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    The impact of interactive visualization on trade-off-based geospatial decision-making2019In: International Journal of Geographical Information Science, ISSN 1365-8816, E-ISSN 1365-8824, Vol. 33, no 10, p. 2094-2123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a previous work we developed GISwaps, a novel method for geospatial decision-making based on Even Swaps. In this paper, we present the results of an evaluation of a visualization framework integrated with this method, implemented within a decision support system. This evaluation is based on two different studies. In the quantitative study, 15 student participants used GISwaps with no visual features, and 15 participants used GISwaps with the integrated visual framework, as the tool in a solar farm site location case study. The results of the quantitative evaluation show positive impact of the visualization in terms of increased coherency in trade-offs. The results also show a statistically significant difference in average trade-off values between the groups, with users from the non-visual group setting on average 20% higher trade-off values compared with the users in the visual group. In the qualitative study, we had one expert in GIS, two experts in decision-making and two experts in solar energy as a focus user group. Data in this study were obtained by observations and semi-structured interviews with the participants. The impact of the visualization framework was assessed positively by all participants in the expert group. 

  • 17.
    Seipel, Stefan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Computer science.
    Lim, Nancy J.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Color map design for visualization in flood risk assessment2017In: International Journal of Geographical Information Science, ISSN 1365-8816, E-ISSN 1365-8824, Vol. 31, no 11, p. 2286-2309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Visualizations of flood maps from simulation models are widely used for assessing the likelihood of flood hazards in spatial planning. The choice of a suitable type of visualization as well as efficient color maps is critical to avoid errors or bias when interpreting the data. Based on a review of previous flood uncertainty visualization techniques, this paper identifies areas of improvements and suggests criteria for the design of a task-specific color scale in flood map visualization. We contribute a novel color map design for visualizing probabilities and uncertainties from flood simulation ensembles. A user study encompassing 83 participants was carried out to evaluate the effects of this new color map on user’s decisions in a spatial planning task. We found that the type of visualization makes a difference when it comes to identification of non-hazardous sites in the flood risk map and when accepting risks in more uncertain areas. In comparison with two other existing visualization techniques, we observed that the new design was superior both in terms of task compliance and efficiency. In regions with uncertain flood statuses, users were biased toward accepting less risky locations with our new color map design.

  • 18.
    Yao, Xiaobai Angela
    et al.
    Department of Geography, University of Georgia, Athens, USA.
    Huang, Haosheng
    Department of Geography, Universitat Zurich Institut fur Geographie, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Krisp, Jukka M.
    University of Augsburg, Augsburg, Germany.
    Representation and analytical models for location-based big data2019In: International Journal of Geographical Information Science, ISSN 1365-8816, E-ISSN 1365-8824, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 707-713Article in journal (Refereed)
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