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  • 1.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Cetrez, Önver
    Faculty of Theology, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Erbil, Pelin
    Humanite Psychiatry, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Ortak, Asil
    American Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    A survey study among cancer patients in Turkey: meaning-making coping2017In: Illness, crisis and loss, ISSN 1054-1373, E-ISSN 1552-6968Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To understand the role of culture on the use of the meaning-making coping among people who have been struck by cancer, qualitative and quantitative studies have been conducted in several countries like Sweden, China, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, and Turkey. This article reports on a quantitative study carried out in Turkey. The aim of the study has been to answer the following question: “Which meaning-making coping method (even nonreligious or spiritual coping methods) is used by informants?” The sample consists of 95 persons, 18+ who had been struck by cancer. The questionnaire was distributed to former/current cancer patients via a web address as an electronic survey through the media page of Cancer Survivors Association. The results of the study show that the most important coping methods used by cancer patients in Turkey are the religious coping (RCOPE) methods, particularly spiritual connection, active religious surrender, passive religious deferral, and pleading for direct intercession. Several RCOPE methods such as spiritual discontent, seeking support from clergy or members, punishing God reappraisal, and demonic reappraisal or self-directing religious coping are not used by the Turkish informants. Nor are non-RCOPE methods highly prevalent among informants.

  • 2.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Matos, Paula M.
    Faculty of Psychology and Education Sciences, Centre for Psychology at University of Porto, University of Porto, Portugal.
    Tavare, Rita
    Faculty of Psychology and Education Sciences, Centre for Psychology at University of Porto, University of Porto, Portugal.
    Tomas, Carla
    Department of Psychology, Instituto Superior Manuel Teixeira Gomes, Portimao, Portugal.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    Swedish Agency for Work Environment Knowledge, Gävle, Sweden.
    Religious/Spiritual Coping Methods among Cancer Patients in Portugal2018In: Illness, crisis and loss, ISSN 1054-1373, E-ISSN 1552-6968Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present article is part of an international study on meaning-making coping aimed at understanding the role of culture in coping in different cultural settings. The international study was conducted among cancer patients in ten countries. This article contains the results obtained in the study in Portugal. The main aim is to investigate the impact of culture on the meaning-making coping methods used by cancer patients. In the present article, only religious/spiritual coping methods are in focus.

    Thirty-one participants with various kinds of cancer (e.g., breast, testicular, lymphoma) were interviewed. Nine different kinds of coping methods related to religion and spirituality emerged from analysis of the interviews. These methods, which are categorized on the basis of RCOPE’s five basic religious functions (Pargament, 1997), are: Seeking Spiritual Support, Spiritual Connection, Spiritual Discontent, Benevolent Religious Reappraisal, Punishing God Reappraisal, God’s Trust in Personal Strength, Support from Clergy or Members, Self-Directing Religious Coping and Active Religious Surrender. The study confirms the notion that the strategies people employ when they are stricken by disease, accidents, misfortune, etc., are cultural and temporal constructions. As such, they are valid in concrete contexts and time periods. It is, thus, important that cultural context be taken into consideration when exploring the use of meaning-making coping strategies in different countries.

  • 3.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Social Work.
    Tavares, Rita
    Center for Psychology at the University of Porto, Portugal; Faculty of Psychology and Education Sciences, University of Porto, Portugal.
    Matos, Paula M.
    Center for Psychology at the University of Porto, Portugal; Faculty of Psychology and Education Sciences, University of Porto, Portugal.
    Tomás, Carla
    Department of Psychology, Instituto Superior Manuel Teixeira Gomes, Algarve, Portugal.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    Swedish Agency for Work Environment Knowledge, Gävle, Sweden.
    Secular Existential Meaning-Making Coping Among Cancer Patients in Portugal: A Qualitative Study2019In: Illness, crisis and loss, ISSN 1054-1373, E-ISSN 1552-6968Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For understanding the role of culture in coping in different cultural settings, we have conducted studies among cancer patients in 10 countries, within the framework of an international study on meaning-making coping. This article reports on part of the results we obtained from a study in Portugal; specifically, the reported findings are restricted to nonreligious/spiritual coping methods, methods we call secular existential meaning-making coping. The main aim is to identify the diversity of coping methods using a cultural lens. Thirty-one participants with various kinds of cancer were interviewed. Six different kinds of coping methods related to secular existential coping emerged from thematic analyses of the interviews: discourse of the self, positive solitude, nature, positive transformational orientation, body–mind relationship, and working. Findings revealed that these six methods facilitated patients’ psychological adaptation to the oncological disease. The findings suggest the importance of considering cultural and social context when exploring coping strategies among cancer patients. 

  • 4.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    The Use of Religious Coping Methods in a Secular Society: A Survey Study Among Cancer Patients in Sweden2017In: Illness, crisis and loss, ISSN 1054-1373, E-ISSN 1552-6968, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 171-199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present article, based on results from a survey study in Sweden among 2,355 cancer patients, the role of religion in coping is discussed. The survey study, in turn, was based on earlier findings from a qualitative study of cancer patients in Sweden. The purpose of the present survey study was to determine to what extent results obtained in the qualitative study can be applied to a wider population of cancer patients in Sweden. The present study shows that use of religious coping methods is infrequent among cancer patients in Sweden. Besides the two methods that are ranked in 12th and 13th place, that is, in the middle (Listening to religious music and Praying to God to make things better), the other religious coping methods receive the lowest rankings, showing how nonsignificant such methods are in coping with cancer in Sweden. However, the question of who turns to God and who is self-reliant in a critical situation is too complicated to be resolved solely in terms of the strength of individuals’ religious commitments. In addition to background and situational factors, the culture in which the individual was socialized is an important factor. Regarding the influence of background variables, the present results show that gender, age, and area of upbringing played an important role in almost all of the religious coping methods our respondents used. In general, people in the oldest age-group, women, and people raised in places with 20,000 or fewer residents had a higher average use of religious coping methods than did younger people, men, and those raised in larger towns.

  • 5.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Social Work.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Social Work.
    Erbil, Pelin
    Oncology Clinique, Humanite Psychiatry, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Cetrez, Önver A.
    Department of Theology, Uppsala University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Religious meaning-making coping in Turkey: a study among cancer patients2019In: Illness, crisis and loss, ISSN 1054-1373, E-ISSN 1552-6968, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 190-208Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present project has been to carry out international studies on meaning-making coping among people who have been affected by cancer in a number of societies and, thereby, to try to understand the influence of culture on use of these coping methods. Five countries—Sweden, South Korea, China, Japan, and Turkey—are included in the project. Qualitative semistructured interviews have been conducted with persons with a cancer diagnosis. The research group in each country has used, as a foundation, the interview questions developed for the Swedish study. These questions were, however, modified to better suite the sociocultural context of each participating country. The results presented here concern only Turkey and are restricted to religious coping methods. The study consists of 25 cancer patients (18 females and 7 males) between 20 and 71 years of age. The results of the study in Turkey indicated that the RCOPE (Religious Coping) methods are highly relevant for the interviewees. A sociological analysis of the study made from a cultural perspective showed clearly the importance of the idea of being tolerant (Sabr) for patients when coping with the psychological problems brought about by cancer. The study made it clear that culture plays an essential role in the choice of coping methods.

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