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  • 1.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    et al.
    National Institute of Public Health.
    Andersson, Ingalena
    Obesity Unit and Health Behaviour Research, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Food-based classification of eating episodes (FBCE)1999In: Appetite, ISSN 0195-6663, E-ISSN 1095-8304, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 53-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept for categorization of eating episodes in dietary surveys was originally developed in studies of shift workers to compare 'meal patterns' between night and day work shifts. The concept has been further improved through experience from applications in dietary surveys in other populations. In this paper, results from categorization of eating episodes in shift workers, elderly women and men during life transition periods, elderly female leg ulcer patients and obese men and their lean controls are shown and discussed. The categorization concept is based on seven food categories with food items of similar nutrient characteristics within each category. Each eating event is categorized as any of four types of 'meals' or four types of 'snacks' due to its combination of food categories. Thus, categorization is based on visible properties (food types) but at the same time reflecting invisible properties (nutrients). Criteria is also established to sub-categorize the 'meal' types as being either 'prepared' or 'quick-prepared' from a behavioural perspective. Use of a defined and reliable concept for categorization is necessary to study eating episodes in dietary surveys, their determinants and also consequences on health and performance. Nocturnal eating during the circadian nadir might affect nutritional status. Since increasingly western populations appear to be moving from regular and planned meals to more episodic eating 'around the clock', such analyses are of increasing interest in a bio-social perspective.

  • 2.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    et al.
    Department of Nutrition, University of Uppsala, Karolinska Institute.
    Hambræus, Leif M.
    Department of Biosciences, Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Karolinska Institute, Department of Nutrition, University of Uppsala.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    National Institute for Psychosocial Factors and Health, Karolinska Institutet, Avdelningen för stressforskning, Karolinska institutet, National Institute for Psychosocial Factors and Health, Department of Stress Research, Karolinska Institute.
    Shift related dietary intake in day and shift workers1995In: Appetite, ISSN 0195-6663, E-ISSN 1095-8304, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 253-265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To study the impact of work hours on eating habits the dietary intake of 96 male industrial workers on day work and two- and three-shift work was investigated using repeated 24 h recall. The intake of energy, 14 nutrients, and coffee and tea was computed, using a nutrient data base, for 8 h work and shifts (day, morning, afternoon, night) and for the 24-h periods including these work shifts. No changes in intake of energy, nutrients and coffee/tea were observed between 8 h morning and afternoon shifts, but there was a reduction in intake during 8 h night shifts. Night shift work caused a redistribution of food and coffee intake, but not an overall 24 h reduction. On the whole, the energy-intake and the quality of food intake (percentages of energy from macronutrients and density of micronutrients) were not affected by shift work, although the intake of carbohydrates was lower in day- and three-shift workers during days off. The intake of alcohol was higher during days off in all groups. In summary, two- and three-shift work in this study affected the circadian distribution of food intakes and coffee consumption, but not the overall 24-h consumption.

  • 3.
    Nyberg, Maria
    et al.
    School of Learning and Environment, Department of Human Sciences, Food and Meal Science, Kristianstad University, Kristianstad, Sweden.
    Lennernäs Wiklund, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science.
    Impossible meals?: the food and meal situation of flight attendants in Scandinavia – a qualitative interview study2017In: Appetite, ISSN 0195-6663, E-ISSN 1095-8304, Vol. 113, no 1, p. 162-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The working conditions of flight attendants (FAs) often involve extended and irregular working hours, short rest periods, difficulties in planning for breaks and high demands of service provision. Moreover, work schedules including early check-in, shifts during circadian low and time-zone transitions imply constant exposure to alterations in circadian systems and related health risks. The aim of this explorative study was to investigate how the organisation of work, time and place influence the food and meal situation of FAs when at work, focusing on patterns, form and social context of meals. The research questions posed were how food and meals at work were characterised and perceived among the FAs, and what strategies were adopted to manage the food and meal situation. Qualitative, semi-structured interviews were conducted with fourteen FAs working in Scandinavia. The results indicated that the organisation of work, time and place have a major influence on the meal situation at work, and how food and meals are perceived and managed by FAs. The work was defined as fragmented and inconsistent regarding time and place resulting in scattered meals and a more snack-based form of eating. The meal situation was characterised by irregularity as well as unpredictability. Eating took place when food was available and when there was enough time to eat, rather than being guided by hunger or social context. Various strategies such as eating in prevention, using emergency food, avoiding certain food and drinks or eating little or nothing at all were used to manage the unpredictability of the meal situation as well as the gap between organisational and individual times. The findings demonstrated the individual responsibility to solve the meal at work, e.g. to solve organisational times.

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