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  • 1.
    Gupta, Nidhi
    et al.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Aadahl, Mette
    Research Centre for Prevention and Health, Glostrup Hospital, Denmark; Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Jørgensen, Marie Birk
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Are Temporal Patterns of Sitting Associated with Obesity among Blue-Collar Workers?: A Cross Sectional Study Using Accelerometers2016In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 16, no 1, 148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Little is known about the association of objectively measured temporal patterns of sitting (i.e., how sitting is distributed across time) with obesity indicators. We aimed to investigate the extent to which temporal patterns of sitting (time spent in long, moderate and brief uninterrupted sitting periods) are associated with obesity indicators (body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and fat percentage), independently from moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and total sitting time among blue-collar workers.

    Methods

    Workers (n=205) wore Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometers on the thigh and trunk for 1-4 working days. The time-line of sitting on working days was computed using the validated Acti4 software. Total sitting time and time spent sitting in brief (≤5 mins), moderate (>5 and ≤30 mins), and long (>30mins) periods were determined for the whole day, and for leisure and work separately. Obesity indicators, i.e. BMI (kg/m2), waist circumference (cm) and fat percentage were objectively measured. Associations between duration of sitting periods and each obesity indicator were determined using linear regression analysis adjusted for several potential confounders including objectively measured MVPA and total sitting time.

    Results

    Sitting time in brief periods was negatively associated with obesity indicators for the whole day (BMI, P<0.01; fat percentage, P<0.01; waist circumference, P<0.01) and work (BMI, P<0.01; fat percentage, P<0.01; waist circumference, P<0.01), but not for leisure time. Sitting time in long periods was positively associated with obesity indicators for the whole day (waist circumference, P=0.05) and work (waist circumference, P=0.01; BMI, P=0.04), but not for leisure time. Sitting in moderate periods was not associated with obesity indicators for any domain.

    Conclusion

    Time spent in brief and long periods of sitting during the whole day and at work were inversely associated with obesity indicators when adjusting for MVPA and total sitting time, while sitting during leisure time did not show these associations. Thus, the temporal distribution of sitting seems to influence the relationship between sitting and obesity.

  • 2.
    Hallman, David
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Gupta, Nidhi
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Korshøj, Mette
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Differences between work and leisure in temporal patterns of objectively measured physical activity among blue-collar workers2015In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 15, no 1, 976Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Leisure time physical activity (LTPA) is generally associated with favorable cardiovascular health outcomes, while occupational physical activity (OPA) shows less clear, or even opposite, cardiovascular effects. This apparent paradox is not sufficiently understood, but differences in temporal patterns of OPA and LTPA have been suggested as one explanation. Our aim was to investigate the extent to which work and leisure (non-occupational time) differ in temporal activity patterns among blue-collar workers, and to assess the modification of these patterns by age and gender.

    Methods

    This study was conducted on a cross-sectional sample of male (n = 108) and female (n = 83) blue-collar workers, aged between 21 and 65 years. Physical activity and sedentary behavior were assessed using accelerometers (Actigraph GT3X+) worn on the thigh and trunk for four consecutive days. Temporal patterns of OPA and LTPA were retrieved using Exposure Variation Analysis (EVA), and expressed in terms of percentage of work and leisure time spent in uninterrupted periods of different durations (<1 min, 1–5 min, 5–10 min, 10–30 min, 30–60 min and > 60 min) of sitting, standing, and walking. Repeated measures ANOVA and linear regression analyses were used to test a) possible differences between OPA and LTPA in selected EVA derivatives, and b) the modification of these differences by age and gender.

    Results

    OPA showed a larger percentage time walking in brief (<5 min) periods [mean (SD): 33.4 % (12.2)], and less time in prolonged (>30 min) sitting [7.0 % (9.3)] than LTPA [walking 15.4 % (5.0); sitting 31.9 % (15.3)], even after adjustment for the difference between work and leisure in total time spent in each activity type. These marked differences in the temporal pattern of OPA and LTPA were modified by gender, but not age.

    Conclusion

    We found that the temporal patterns of OPA and LTPA among blue-collar workers were markedly different even after adjustment for total physical activity time, and that this difference was modified by gender. We recommend using EVA derivatives in future studies striving to disentangle the apparent paradoxical cardiovascular effect of physical activity at work and during leisure.

  • 3.
    Johansson, Bo
    et al.
    Uppsala University Hospital, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Helgesson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Lundberg, Ingvar
    Uppsala University, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Nordquist, Tobias
    Uppsala University Hospital, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Leijon, Ola
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Lindberg, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Vingård, Eva
    Uppsala University, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Work and health among native and foreign-born residents in Sweden 1990-2008: a register-based study on hospitalization for common potentially work-related disorders, disability pension and mortality2012In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 12, no 1, 845-854 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There are many immigrants in the Swedish workforce, but knowledge of their general and work-related health is limited. The aim of this register-based study was to explore whether documented migrant residents in Sweden have a different health status regarding receipt of a disability pension, mortality and hospitalization for lung, heart, psychiatric, and musculoskeletal disorders compared with the native population, and if there were variations in relation to sex, geographical origin, position on the labor market, and time since first immigration.

    Methods: This study included migrants to Sweden since 1960 who were 28-47 years old in 1990, and included 243 860 individuals. The comparison group comprised a random sample of 859 653 native Swedes. These cohorts were followed from 1991 to 2008 in national registers. The immigrants were divided into four groups based on geographic origin. Hazard ratios for men and women from different geographic origins and with different employment status were analyzed separately for the six outcomes, with adjustment for age, education level, and income. The influence of length of residence in Sweden was analyzed separately.

    Results: Nordic immigrants had increased risks for all investigated outcomes while most other groups had equal or lower risks for those outcomes than the Swedes. The lowest HRs were found in the EU 15+ group (from western Europe, North America, Australia and New Zealand). All groups, except Nordic immigrants, had lower risk of mortality, but all had higher risk of disability pension receipt compared with native Swedes. Unemployed non-Nordic men displayed equal or lower HRs for most outcomes, except disability pension receipt, compared with unemployed Swedish men. A longer time since first immigration improved the health status of men, while women showed opposite results.

    Conclusions: Employment status and length of residence are important factors for health. The contradictory results of low mortality and high disability pension risks need more attention. There is great potential to increase the knowledge in this field in Sweden, because of the high quality registers.

  • 4.
    Lunde, Lars-Kristian
    et al.
    National Institute of Occupational Health, Oslo.
    Koch, Markus
    National Institute of Occupational Health, Oslo.
    Knardahl, Stein
    National Institute of Occupational Health, Oslo.
    Wærsted, Morten
    National Institute of Occupational Health, Oslo.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen.
    Veiersted, Bo
    National Institute of Occupational Health, Oslo.
    Musculoskeletal health and work ability in physically demanding occupations: study protocol for a prospective field study on construction and health care workers2014In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 14, 1075Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Musculoskeletal disorders have a profound impact on individual health, sickness absence and early retirement, particularly in physically demanding occupations. Demographics are changing in the developed countries, towards increasing proportions of senior workers. These senior workers may have particular difficulties coping with physically demanding occupations while maintaining good health. Previous studies investigating the relationship between physical work demands and musculoskeletal disorders are mainly based on self-reported exposures and lack a prospective design. The aim of this paper is to describe the background and methods and discuss challenges for a field study examining physical demands in construction and health care work and their prospective associations with musculoskeletal disorders, work ability and sickness absence.

    Methods and design: This protocol describes a prospective cohort study on 1200 construction and health care workers. Participants will answer a baseline questionnaire concerning musculoskeletal complaints, general health, psychosocial and organizational factors at work, work demands, work ability and physical activity during leisure. A shorter questionnaire will be answered every 6 months for a total of two years, together with continuous sickness absence monitoring during this period. Analysis will prospectively consider associations between self-reported physical demands and musculoskeletal disorders, work ability and sickness absence. To obtain objective data on physical exposures, technical measurements will be collected from two subgroups of N = 300 (Group A) and N = 160 (Group B) during work and leisure. Both group A and B will be given a physical health examination, be tested for physical capacity and physical activity will be measured for four days. Additionally, muscle activity, ground reaction force, body positions and physical activity will be examined during one workday for Group B. Analysis of associations between objectively measured exposure data and the outcomes described above will be done separately for these subpopulations.

    Discussion: The field study will at baseline produce objectively measured data on physical demands in the construction and health care occupations. In combination with clinical measurements and questionnaire data during follow-up, this will provide a solid foundation to prospectively investigate relationships between physical demands at work and development of musculoskeletal disorders, work ability and sickness absence.

  • 5.
    Priebe, Stefan
    et al.
    Unit for Social and Community Psychiatry, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK .
    Matanov, Alexandra
    Unit for Social and Community Psychiatry, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK .
    Schor, Ruth
    Unit for Social and Community Psychiatry, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK .
    Straßmayr, Christa
    Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Social Psychiatry, Vienna, Austria.
    Barros, Henrique
    Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, University of Porto Medical School, Porto, Portugal.
    Barry, Margareth M
    Health Promotion Research Centre, National University of Ireland Galway, Galway, Ireland .
    Díaz-Olalla, José Manuel
    Madrid Salud, Madrid, Spain .
    Gabor, Edina
    National Institute for Health Development, Budapest, Hungary.
    Greacen, Tim
    Laboratoire de recherche, Etablissement Public de Santé Maison Blanche, Paris, France.
    Holcnerová, Petra
    Department of Psychiatry, 1st Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic .
    Kluge, Ulrike
    Clinic for Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Charité, University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Lorant, Vincent
    Institute of Health and Society (IRSS), Université Catholique de Louvain, Bruxelles, Belgium.
    Moskalewicz, Jasec
    Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Warsaw, Poland.
    Schene, Aart H
    Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Macassa, Gloria
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gaddini, Andrea
    Laziosanità ASP - Public Health Agency, Lazio Region, Rome, Italy.
    Good practice in mental health care for socially marginalised groups in Europe: a qualitative study of expert views in 14 countries2012In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 12, -Article Number: 248 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Socially marginalised groups tend to have higher rates of mental disorders than the general population and can be difficult to engage in health care. Providing mental health care for these groups represents a particular challenge, and evidence on good practice is required. This study explored the experiences and views of experts in 14 European countries regarding mental health care for six socially marginalised groups: long-term unemployed; street sex workers; homeless; refugees/asylum seekers; irregular migrants and members of the travelling communities.      

    Methods: Two highly deprived areas were selected in the capital cities of 14 countries, and experts were interviewed for each of the six marginalised groups. Semi-structured interviews with case vignettes were conducted to explore experiences of good practice and analysed using thematic analysis.      

    Results: In a total of 154 interviews, four components of good practice were identified across all six groups: a) establishing outreach programmes to identify and engage with individuals with mental disorders; b) facilitating access to services that provide different aspects of health care, including mental health care, and thus reducing the need for further referrals; c) strengthening the collaboration and co-ordination between different services; and d) disseminating information on services both to marginalised groups and to practitioners in the area.      

    Conclusions: Experts across Europe hold similar views on what constitutes good practice in mental health care for marginalised groups. Care may be improved through better service organisation, coordination and information.      

      

  • 6.
    Toomingas, Allan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Forsman, Mikael
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Heiden, Marina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Nilsson, Tohr
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå university.
    Variation between seated and standing/walking postures among male and female call centre operators2012In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 12, 154- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to assess variation in gross body posture amongst male and female call centre operators using whole-day registrations of seated and standing/walking periods, analyzed and described by a number of novel variables.

    Methods: Body postures, identified as either seated or standing/walking, were recorded using inclinometers throughout an entire work shift for 43 male and 97 female call centre operators at 16 call centres. Data were analyzed using an extensive set of variables describing occurrence of postures, switches between postures, posture similarities across the day, and compliance with posture recommendations.

    Results: The majority of the operators, both male and female, spent more than 80% of the shift in a seated posture. The average number of switches between seated and standing/walking or vice versa was 10.4 per hour. Female operators spent, on average, 11% of the day in periods of sustained sitting longer than 1 hour; male operators only 4.6% of the day (p=0.013). Only 38% of the operators followed current standard recommendations of having an uninterrupted break from seated work, lasting a minimum of 5minutes within a one hour of work and only 11% of operators had a 10 minute (or longer) uninterrupted break. Substantial variation between operators was observed in many variables. Since work tasks were essentially similar across operators and were expected to be similar across days, this indicates individual differences in working technique.

    Conclusions: The dominance of seated work for extended periods indicates that efforts should be made at call centres to introduce more gross physical variation during the work day. Appropriate and effective initiatives for realizing this intervention need to be identified

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