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  • 1.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för nationalekonomi.
    A comparison of population versus individual based cardiovascular disease prevention programs in Västerbotten, Sweden2006In: Health Policy, ISSN 0168-8510, E-ISSN 1872-6054, Vol. 78, no 1, p. 70-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to determine if differences in health outcomes of two cardiovascular disease prevention programs can be attributed to the inclusion of population based efforts in one of the programs. Propensity score matching has been used to eliminate possible selection bias. The results indicate that the intervention including population-based measures was not more effective than the intervention directed toward the individual.

  • 2.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för nationalekonomi. The Swedish Retail Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Entry of new pharmacies in the deregulated Norwegian pharmaceuticals market - Consequences for costs and availability2008In: Health Policy, ISSN 0168-8510, E-ISSN 1872-6054, Vol. 87, no 2, p. 258-263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The objective of this study is to analyze the impact of the new regulation concerning entry of pharmacies into the Norwegian pharmaceuticals market in 2001 on cost and availability of pharmaceutical products. Methods: In order to study costs, a translog cost function is estimated using data from the annual reports of a sample of Norwegian pharmacies before and after the deregulation of the market. Linear regression models for the number of pharmacies in each region in Norway are also estimated. Results: The results show that the costs of the individual pharmacies have not decreased as a consequence of the deregulation of the Norwegian pharmaceuticals market. The deregulation of the market did, however, increase the availability to pharmacy services substantially. Conclusions: Increased availability of pharmacy services can be achieved by deregulating pharmaceutical markets as in Norway, but at the expense of increased costs for the pharmacies. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 3. Thanh, Nguyen Xuan
    et al.
    Hang, Hoang Minh
    Chuc, Nguyen Thi Kim
    Rudholm, Niklas
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för nationalekonomi.
    Emmelin, Anders
    Lindholm, Lars
    Does “the Injury Poverty Trap” exist?: a longitudinal study in Bavi, Vietnam2006In: Health Policy, ISSN 0168-8510, E-ISSN 1872-6054, Vol. 78, no 2-3, p. 249-257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we concentrate on injuries and affected households’ capacities to earn incomes. A longitudinal study was performed in Bavi district, Vietnam, with the specific objectives to investigate: (1) the affects of injuries on incomes by comparing income changes in injured and non-injured individuals; (2) the affect of injuries on social mobility by estimating households’ relative risk of dropping into poverty for households with and without injuries and estimating the relative risk of escaping from poverty for households without and with injuries. The propensity score matching method using a logit model was used for data analysis. The results show that on average, the loss per household is estimated at VND 1,084,000 (USD 72) for poor and VND 2,598,000 (USD 173) for non-poor, equivalent to 11 (9) and 15 (13) working months of an average person in the poor and non-poor group, respectively, during 1999 (2001). The relative risk of dropping into poverty for non-poor households with and without injuries equal to 1.21 (p = 0.08) and the relative risk of escaping from poverty between poor households without and with injuries equal to 0.96 (p = 0.39). In conclusion, it has been argued that the introduction of user fees created a poverty trap and thus their removal may be a solution. However, user fees are only a part of the burden on households. Loss of income during the illness period is likely to be a problem of the same magnitude. A successful solution must thus follow two tracks: prepayment of health care and some insurance based compensation of income losses during the illness period. Both reforms, if they are persistent, must be done within the resource limits of the local society. If the risk of catastrophic illness is more evenly spread across the society, it would increase the general welfare even if no more resources are provided.

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