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  • 1.
    Aasa, Ulrika
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Kalezic, Nebojsa
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Lyskov, Eugene
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Ängquist, Karl-Axel
    Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, University of Umeå, Umeå, Sweden.
    Barnekow-Bergkvist, Margareta
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Stress monitoring of ambulance personnel during work and leisure time2006In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 80, no 1, p. 51-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The aim of the present study was to assess physiological and subjective stress markers during a 24-h ambulance work shift and during the next two work-free days, and relate these parameters to self-reported health complaints. Methods: Twenty-six ambulance personnel were followed during a 24-h work shift and during the next two work-free days with electrocardiogram, cortisol assessments and diary notes. The ambulance personnel also performed tests of autonomic reactivity before and at the end of the work shift. The subjects were categorized into two groups according to their number of health complaints. Results: In general, stress markers did not show differences between the work shift and leisure time. However, a modest deviation in heart rate variability pattern and higher morning cortisol values during work in comparison with work-free days were observed in personnel with many health complaints. Conclusions: Subjective and physiological characteristics of ambulance personnel did not indicate distinctive stress during the 24-h work shift. Relationships between frequent health complaints and specific work-related factors require further prospective studies.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Linus
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Dantoft, Thomas Meinertz
    Danish Research Centre for Chemical Sensitivities, Copenhagen University Hospital Gentofte, Gentofte, Denmark; Department of Systems Biology, Center for Biological Sequence Analysis, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Skovbjerg, Sine
    Danish Research Centre for Chemical Sensitivities, Copenhagen University Hospital Gentofte, Gentofte, Denmark.
    Lind, Nina
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Nordin, Steven
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Chemosensory perception, symptoms and autonomic responses during chemical exposure in multiple chemical sensitivity2016In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 89, no 1, p. 79-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a prevalent medically unexplained symptom characterized by symptom reactions to everyday chemical exposure below hygienic thresholds. The aim of this study was to investigate the expressions of hyper-reactivity in MCS during whole-body exposure to low concentrations of the odorant n-butanol.

    METHODS: We exposed 18 participants with MCS and 18 non-ill controls to a low concentration of the odorant n-butanol using an exposure chamber. The first 10 min constituted blank exposure, after which the n-butanol concentration increased and reached a plateau at 11.5 mg/m(3).

    RESULTS: MCS participants, compared with controls, reported greater perceived odor intensities, more unpleasantness to the exposure and increasing symptoms over time. MCS participants also expressed higher pulse rate and lower pulse rate variability than controls did. No group differences were found for breathing rate or tonic electrodermal activity responses.

    CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that MCS sufferers differ from healthy controls in terms of autonomic responses, symptoms and chemosensory perception during chemical exposure.

  • 3.
    Burström, Lage
    et al.
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Work and the Physical Environment, National Institute for Working Life, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lundström, Ronnie
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Biomedical Engineering and Informatics, University Hospital of Northern Sweden, Umeå, Sweden.
    Sjödin, Fredrik
    Department of Work and the Physical Environment, National Institute for Working Life, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lindmark, Asta
    Department of Work and the Physical Environment, National Institute for Working Life, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lindkvist, Markus
    Department of Biomedical Engineering and Informatics, University Hospital of Northern Sweden, Umeå, Sweden.
    Hagberg, Mats
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Thor
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sundsvall Hospital, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Acute effects of vibration on thermal perception thresholds2008In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 81, no 5, p. 603-611Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective This study focuses on the acute effects of vibration and how vibrations influence the measures of the thermal perception thresholds during different vibration magnitudes, frequencies, and durations.

    Methods The fingers of ten healthy subjects, five males and five females, were exposed to vibration under 16 conditions with a combination of different frequency, intensity and exposure time. The vibration frequency was 31.5 and 125 Hz and exposure lasted between 2 and 16 min. The energy-equivalent frequency weighted acceleration, according to ISO 5349-1, for the experimental time of 16 min was 2.5 or 5.0 m/s(2) (r.m.s.), corresponding to a 8-h equivalent acceleration, A(8) of 0.46 and 0.92 m/s(2), respectively. A measure of the thermal perception of cold and warmth was conducted before the different exposures to vibration. Immediately after the vibration exposure the acute effect was measured continuously on the exposed index finger for the first 75 s, followed by 30 s of measures at every minute for a maximum of 10 min. If the subject's thermal thresholds had not recovered, the measures continued for a maximum of 30 min with measurements taken every 5 min.

    Results For all experimental conditions and 30 s after exposure, the mean changes of the thresholds compared with the pre-test were found to be 0.05 and -0.67C for the warmth and cold thresholds, respectively. The effect of the vibration exposure was only significant on the cold threshold and only for the first minute after exposure when the threshold was decreased. The warmth threshold was not significantly affected at all. The frequency and the exposure time of the vibration stimuli had no significant influence on the perception thresholds for the sensation of cold or warmth. Increased equivalent frequency weighted acceleration resulted in a significant decrease of the subjects' cold threshold, not the warmth. The thresholds were unaffected when changes in the vibration magnitude were expressed as the frequency weighted acceleration or the unweighted acceleration.

    Conclusion When testing for the thermotactile thresholds, exposure to vibration on the day of a test might influence the results. Until further knowledge is obtained the previous praxis of 2 h avoidance of vibration exposure before assessment is recommended.

  • 4.
    Hallman, David
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Gupta, Nidhi
    National Research Center for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Center for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Association between objectively measured sitting time and neck-shoulder pain among blue-collar workers2015In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 88, no 8, p. 1031-1042Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives Prolonged sitting has been suggested as a risk factor for neck-shoulder pain (NSP). Using a cross-sectional design, we investigated the extent to which objectively measured time sitting is associated with NSP among blue-collar workers.

    Methods Sitting time was measured during multiple working days on male (n=118) and female (n=84) blue-collar workers (n=202) using tri-axial accelerometers (Actigraph) placed on the thigh and trunk. Workers were categorized into having, on average, a low, moderate, or high sitting time, with mean values (SD between subjects) of 4.9 (1.0), 7.3 (0.5), and 9.6 (1.1) hours in total per day. Workers rated their largest NSP intensity during the previous month on a numerical scale (0-9), and were subsequently dichotomized into a low and high NSP intensity group (ratings 0-4 and >4, respectively). Logistic regression analyses adjusted for several individual and work-related factors were used to investigate the association between average sitting time per day (work, leisure and total) and NSP intensity.   

    Results For total sitting time, workers in the high sitting category were more likely (adjusted OR 2.97, CI 1.25-7.03) to report high NSP intensity than those who sat moderately (reference category). Low sitting during work was associated with a reduced NSP intensity, but only for males (adjusted OR 0.26 CI 0.07-0.96). No significant association was found between sitting during leisure and NSP intensity.

    Conclusion These findings suggest an association between sitting time, in total per day and specifically during work, and NSP intensity among blue-collar workers. We encourage studying the structure and explanation of this association further in prospective studies on larger populations.

  • 5.
    Hallman, David
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hed Ekman, Annika
    Manpower Hälsopartner, Sandviken, Sweden.
    Lyskov, Eugene
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Changes in physical activity and heart rate variability in chronic neck-shoulder pain: monitoring during work and leisure time2014In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 87, no 7, p. 735-744Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Neck-shoulder pain (NSP) is a common work-related musculoskeletal disorder with unclear mechanisms. Changes in physical activity and autonomic nervous system regulation may be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic NSP. The aim of the current study was to investigate autonomic regulation in relation to physical activity and perceived symptoms during work and leisure time among workers with chronic NSP (n = 29) as compared to a healthy control group (CON, n = 27).

    METHODS: Physical activity was objectively monitored for 7 days using accelerometry. Beat-to-beat heart rate was collected continuously for 72 h, with simultaneous momentary ratings of pain, stress, and fatigue. Duration of sitting/lying, standing and walking, number of steps, and energy expenditure were used as measures of physical activity. Heart rate variability (HRV) indices were extracted in time and frequency domains as reflecting autonomic regulation. Data were divided into work hours, leisure time, and sleep.

    RESULTS: The NSP group rated higher levels of stress and fatigue at work and leisure, and reduced sleep quality as compared to CON. Elevated heart rate and reduced HRV were found in NSP compared with CON, especially during sleep. The NSP group demonstrated a different pattern of physical activity than CON, with a lower activity level in leisure time. Higher physical activity was associated with increased HRV in both groups.

    CONCLUSION: Changes in HRV reflected an autonomic imbalance in workers with chronic musculoskeletal pain. This can be explained by reduced physical activity in leisure time. Intervention studies aimed at increasing physical activity may shed further light on the association between autonomic regulation and physical activity in work-related NSP.

  • 6.
    Hallman, David
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Björklund, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Gupta, Nidhi
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Nørregaard Rasmussen, Charlotte D.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Sick leave due to musculoskeletal pain : determinants of distinct trajectories over 1 year2019In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 92, no 8, p. 1099-1108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    This study aimed to identify sub-groups of workers with different trajectories of sick leave due to musculoskeletalpain over 1 year, and to investigate the extent to which the identified trajectories are associated with personal, occupational,lifestyle, and pain-related factors at baseline.

    Methods

    Data on 981 blue- and white-collar workers were analyzed in the DPHACTO cohort (2012–2014). The numberof days on sick leave due to pain was reported using text messages at 4-week intervals across 1 year. Latent class growthanalysis was used to distinguish sub-groups with different trajectories of sick leave. A web-based questionnaire at baselinewas used to assess personal, occupational (physical and psychosocial), lifestyle, and pain-related factors. Multinomial regressionmodels were constructed to determine associations between baseline factors and trajectories of sick leave (referencingno sick leave), with adjustment for potential confounders.

    Results

    Four distinct sub-groups were identified, with trajectories of sick leave due to pain ranging from no sick leave(prevalence 76%; average 0.5 days/year) to some days and increasing sick leave due to pain over 1 year (2%; 89 days/year).The increasing trajectory of sick leave was associated with higher perceived physical exertion, more time in manual work,less social community and influence at work, less leisure-time physical activity, smoking, and more severe symptoms (e.g.,multisite pain, low back pain intensity, and pain interference).

    Conclusions

    We identified four distinct trajectories of sick leave due to musculoskeletal pain. The sub-group with increasingsick leave due to pain was associated with several modifiable physical and psychosocial factors at work and outside work,which may have implications for prevention.

  • 7.
    Hallman, David M.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Heiden, Marina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Gupta, Nidhi
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Birk Jørgensen, Marie
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Temporal patterns of sitting at work are associated with neck-shoulder pain in blue-collar workers: a cross-sectional analysis of accelerometer data in the DPHACTO study2016In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 89, no 5, p. 823-833Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Our aim was to examine the extent to which temporal patterns of sitting during occupational work and during leisure-time, assessed using accelerometry, are associated with intense neck–shoulder pain (NSP) in blue-collar workers.

    Methods

    The population consisted of 659 Danish blue-collar workers. Accelerometers were attached to the thigh, hip, trunk and upper dominant arm to measure sitting time and physical activity across four consecutive days. Temporal sitting patterns were expressed separately for work and leisure by the proportion of total time spent sitting in brief bursts (0–5 min), moderate (>5–20 min) and prolonged (>20 min) periods. The peak NSP intensity during the previous 3 months was assessed using a numerical rating scale (range 0–10) and dichotomized into a lower (≤4) and higher (>4) NSP score. Logistic regression analyses with multiple adjustments for individual and occupational factors were performed to determine the association between brief, moderate and prolonged sitting periods, and NSP intensity.

    Results

    Time in brief bursts of occupational sitting was negatively associated with NSP intensity (adjusted OR 0.68, 95 % CI 0.48–0.98), while time in moderate periods of occupational sitting showed a positive association with NSP (adjusted OR 1.32, 95 % CI 1.04–1.69). Time in prolonged periods of occupational sitting was not associated with NSP (adjusted OR 0.78, 95 % CI 0.78–1.09). We found no significant association between brief, moderate or prolonged sitting periods during leisure, and NSP.

    Conclusion

    Our findings indicate that the association between occupational sitting time and intense NSP among blue-collar workers is sensitive to the temporal pattern of sitting.

  • 8.
    Lindberg, Per
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Section for Personal Injury Prevention, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Josephson, Malin
    Section of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Division of Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Centre of Public Health, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Vingård, Eva
    Section for Personal Injury Prevention, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Section of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Comparisons between five self-administered instruments predicting sick leaves in a 4-year follow-up2009In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 82, no 2, p. 227-234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to explore and compare the ability of five instruments for self-rating to predict future sick leave rates. METHODS: In three Swedish municipalities 2,252 employees completed a baseline questionnaire and were followed up for 4 years. Five health-oriented instruments for self-rating were used as potential predictors of the two outcome measures no sick leave at all, and one or more spells of long-term sick leave >/=28 days. Positive and negative predictive values as well as Cox proportional hazard ratios (denoted as RRs) adjusted for age and work type were calculated. RESULTS: The instruments showed no statistical difference in predicting future sick leave for either of the sexes. For no sick leave RRs ranged between 1.27 and 1.52 (women), 1.35 and 1.61 (men); for long-term sick leave RRs ranged between 1.78 and 2.39 (women), 2.87 and 5.53 (men). However, the best prediction of long-term sick leave for men, RR 5.53, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.37-9.08, was significantly higher than the best prediction for women, RR 2.39, 95% CI 1.97-2.90. CONCLUSION: Prediction of long-term sick leave was better than that of no sick leave, and better among men than among women. There was a tendency for somewhat better prediction of future sick leave by multiple-question instruments, but single-question instruments can very well be used in predicting future sick leaves, and crude analyses stratified by sex can be used for screening purposes.

  • 9.
    Neupane, Subas
    et al.
    Unit of Health Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland.
    Karstad, Kristina
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Rugulies, Reiner
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Objectively measured versus self-reported occupational physical activity and multisite musculoskeletal pain: A prospective follow-up study at 20 nursing homes in Denmark2019In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    To explore the prospective association of objectively measured and self-reported occupational physical activity (OPA) with multisite musculoskeletal pain (MSP) among Danish eldercare workers.

    Methods

    The study population consisted of eldercare workers in 20 Danish nursing homes (N = 553, response rate 59%, 525 female). Baseline data were collected in 2013–2014 and the 1-year follow-up was completed in 2016. At baseline, we measured objective OPA by a thigh-worn ActiGraph GT3X + accelerometer during work and self-reported OPA by a questionnaire survey. Information on musculoskeletal pain during the past four weeks in seven different body sites was reported by a structured questionnaire at baseline (n = 389) and by SMS and telephone interview during follow-up (n = 284). MSP was defined as having pain in two or more body sites. Using log-binomial models we calculated risk ratios (RRs) with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to estimate the association between objectively measured and self-reported OPA and MSP.

    Results

    We found statistically significant positive associations between self-reported OPA (RR for high OPA 1.24, 95% CI 1.05–1.46) and MSP while there was no significant association found between objective OPA and MSP.

    Conclusion

    Our study indicates that self-reported, but not objectively measured OPA is positively associated with MSP. This finding highlights the need for better understanding, use, and interpretation of self-reported and objectively measured OPA in the study of MSP.

  • 10.
    Radovanovic, Sasa
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Day, Scott Jason
    Johansson, Håkan
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    The impact of whole-hand vibration exposure on the sense of angular position about the wrist joint2006In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 79, no 2, p. 153-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this research is to determine the impact of whole-hand vibration on the capacity of subjects to identify previously presented positions of the hand in both wrist flexion and extension. METHODS: In each movement direction, targets of 15 or 30 degrees were presented with an imposed passive movement from the start position. During the second imposed movement, subjects were required to identify when the target position had been reached. For the vibration condition, 15 s of whole-hand vibration exposure was repeated immediately prior to each target position trial. Proprioceptive capacity was assessed by comparing the identified angular position with the reference position-angular distance expressed in terms of absolute error (AE), constant error (CE), and variable error (VE). RESULTS: For three of the four target positions (15 and 30 degrees flexion and 15 degrees extension), the absolute, constant, and VEs of target identification were insensitive to vibration, whereas for the 30 degrees extension target, both the absolute and CE were significantly different before and after the vibration application, showing the subjects overshooting previously presented target position. All three error measures were larger for the long targets than the short targets. CONCLUSIONS: Short-duration exposure to whole-hand vibration is insufficient to compromise post-vibration position sense in the wrist joint, except near the end range of joint movement in wrist extension. Complement contribution of different proprioceptive receptors (muscle, joint, and skin receptors) seems to be crucial for accuracy to reproduce passive movements, since the capacity of any individual class of receptor to deliver information about movement and position of the limbs is limited.

  • 11.
    Sato, Tatiana
    et al.
    Physical Therapy Department, Federal University of São Carlos (UFSCar), Brazil.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Kristiansen, Jesper
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Skotte, Jørgen
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Different autonomic responses to occupational and leisure time physical activities among blue-collar workers2018In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 91, no 3, p. 293-304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE:

    The differential effect of occupational and leisure time physical activity on cardiovascular health is termed the physical activity health paradox. Cardiac autonomic modulation could bring insights about the underlying mechanism behind this differential effect. The aim was to compare heart rate variability (HRV) during different activities (sitting, standing and moving) at work and leisure among blue-collar workers.

    METHODS:

    One hundred thirty-eight workers from the NOMAD cohort were included. Data from physical activity and HRV were obtained for 3-4 days using tri-axial accelerometers (Actigraph GT3X+) and a heart rate monitor (Actiheart). HRV indices were determined during sitting, standing and moving both at work and leisure. Linear mixed-models with two fixed factors (activities and domains) were applied to investigate differences in HRV indices adjusting for individual and occupational factors.

    RESULTS:

    The results showed significant effects of domain (p < 0.01), physical activity type (p < 0.01) and interaction between domain and activity type (p < 0.01) on HRV indices. Mean heart rate (IBI) and parasympathetic measures of HRV (RMSSD and HF) were lower for sitting (p < 0.01) and higher for moving (p < 0.01) during work compared with leisure, while no difference between domains was found for standing (p > 0.05). Sympathovagal balance (LF/HF) was higher during work for sitting and moving (p < 0.01), but showed no difference for standing (p = 0.62).

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Differences in cardiac autonomic modulation between work and leisure were found, indicating sympathetic predominance during work and parasympathetic predominance during leisure for sitting. Autonomic responses can be part of the mechanism that explains the differential effect of occupational and leisure time physical activity on health.

  • 12.
    Sjödin, Fredrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Landström, Ulf
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Lindberg, Lennart
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Measures against preschool noise and its adverse effects on the personnel: an intervention study2014In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 87, no 1, p. 95-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to analyze the exposure effects of different types of noise measures carried out at preschools. The project was carried out as an intervention study. The investigation included 89 employees at 17 preschools in the northern part of Sweden. Individual noise recordings and recordings in dining rooms and play halls were made at two departments in each preschool. The adverse effects on the employees were analyzed with validated questionnaires and saliva cortisol samples. Evaluations were made before and 1 year after the first measurement. Between the two measurements, measures were taken to improve the sound environments at the preschools. The effects of the measures varied a lot, with respect to both the sound environments and health. Regarding acoustical measures, significant changes were seen for some of the variables analyzed. For most of the tested effects, the changes, however, were very small and non-significant. The effects of organizational measures on the objective and subjective noise values were in overall less pronounced. Acoustical measures improved the subjectively rated sound environment more than organizational measures. This may be due to the high work effort needed to implement organizational measures. Even though the sound level was not lower, the personnel experienced improvements of the sound environment.

  • 13.
    Svedberg, Pia
    et al.
    Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mather, Lisa
    Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Division of Intervention and Implementation Research for Worker Health, The Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Blom, Victoria
    Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Time pressure and sleep problems due to thoughts about work as risk factors for future sickness absence2018In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 91, no 8, p. 1051-1059Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: This study investigated whether time pressure or sleep problems due to thoughts about work are associated with future sickness absence (SA) among women and men employed in different sectors, also when adjusting for confounders including familial factors (genetics and shared environment).

    METHODS: The study sample included 16,127 twin individuals (52% women), aged 19-47 years who in 2005 participated in an online survey including questions regarding time pressure, sleep, work and health. Register data on SA (> 14 days) were obtained from the National Social Insurance Agency and individuals were followed from date of survey response until 12/31/2013. Associations between time pressure, sleep problems due to thoughts about work and future SA were investigated using logistic regression analyses to assess odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI).

    RESULTS: In total 5723 (35%) individuals had an incident SA spell during follow-up. Sleep problems due to thoughts about work were associated with SA in the fully adjusted model (OR 1.22, CI 1.10-1.36). Stratified by sector, the highest estimate was found for state employees (OR 1.54, CI 1.11-2.13). Familial factors did not seem to influence the associations. We found no statistically significant associations between time pressure and SA. No sex differences were found.

    CONCLUSIONS: Results indicated that sleep problems due to thoughts about work is a risk factor for future SA. This follows previous research showing that sleep length and sleep disturbances, regardless of reason, are associated with SA. But, experiences of work-related time pressure seem to have no effect on SA.

  • 14.
    Svedmark, Åsa
    et al.
    Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, fysioterapi, Umeå universitet.
    Björklund, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umea University, Umeå Sweden.
    Häger, Charlotte
    Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, fysioterapi. Umeå universitet.
    Sommar, Johan
    Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, yrkes- och miljömedicin. Umeå universitet.
    Wahlström, Jens
    Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, yrkes- och miljömedicin. Umeå universitet.
    Impact of physical and psychosocial workplace exposure and stress on neck pain rehabilitation in women: - a longitudinal study2017In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246Article in journal (Refereed)
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