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  • 1.
    Blomqvist, Sven
    et al.
    Swedish Development Center for Disability Sport, Bollnäs, Sweden.
    Olsson, Josefin
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umea University, Umea, Sweden.
    Wallin, Louise
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umea University, Umea, Sweden.
    Wester, Anita
    Department of Research and Evaluation, Swedish National Agency for Education, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rehn, Börje
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umea University, Umea, Sweden.
    Adolescents with intellectual disability have reduced postural balance and muscle performance in trunk and lower limbs compared to peers without intellectual disability2013In: Research in Developmental Disabilities, ISSN 0891-4222, E-ISSN 1873-3379, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 198-206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For adolescent people with ID, falls are more common compared to peers without ID. However, postural balance among this group is not thoroughly investigated. The aim of this study was to compare balance and muscle performance among adolescents aged between 16 and 20 years with a mild to moderate intellectual disability (ID) to age-matched adolescents without ID. A secondary purpose was to investigate the influence of vision, strength, height and Body Mass Index (BMI) on balance. A group of 100 adolescents with ID and a control group of 155 adolescents without ID were investigated with five balance tests and three strength tests: timed up and go test, one leg stance, dynamic one leg stance, modified functional reach test, force platform test, counter movement jump, sit-ups, and Biering-Sørensen trunk extensor endurance test. The results showed that adolescents with an ID in general had significantly lower scores in the balance and muscle performance tests. The group with ID did not have a more visually dominated postural control compared to the group without ID. Height, BMI or muscle performance had no strong correlations with balance performance. It appears as if measures to improve balance and strength are required already at a young age for people with an ID.

  • 2.
    Eriksson, Mårten
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Westerlund, Monica
    Central Unit for Child Health Care, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Uppsala University, Children's Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Miniscalco, Carmela
    Division of Speech and Language Pathology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Problems and limitations in studies on screening for language delay2010In: Research in Developmental Disabilities, ISSN 0891-4222, E-ISSN 1873-3379, Vol. 31, no 5, p. 943-950Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study discusses six common methodological limitations in screening for language delay (LD) as illustrated in 11 recent studies. The limitations are (1) whether the studies define a target population, (2) whether the recruitment procedure is unbiased, (3) attrition, (4) verification bias, (5) small sample size and (6) inconsistencies in choice of "gold standard". It is suggested that failures to specify a target population, high attrition (both at screening and in succeeding validation), small sample sizes and verification bias in validations are often caused by a misguided focus on screen positives (SPs). Other limitations are results of conflicting methodological goals. We identified three such conflicts. One consists of a dilemma between unbiased recruitment and attrition, another between the comprehensiveness of the applied gold standard and sample size in validation and the third between the specificity of the gold standard and the risk of not identifying co-morbid conditions.

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