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  • 1.
    Enmarker, Ingela
    et al.
    Faculty of Health Sciences, Nord-Trøndelag University College, Namsos, Norway; Center for Care Research, Norway.
    Hellzén, Ove
    Faculty of Health Sciences, Nord-Trøndelag University College, Namsos, Norway; Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Ekker, Knut
    Faculty of Agriculture and Information Technology, Nord-Trøndelag University College, Steinkjer, Norway.
    Berg, Anne Grethe
    Faculty of Health Sciences, Nord-Trøndelag University College, Namsos, Norway; Norwegian Food Safety Authority, Steinkjer, Norway.
    Health in older cat and dog owners: The Nord-Trondelag Health Study (HUNT)-3-study2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 40, no 8, p. 718-724Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The main objective was to compare older male and female cat, dog, and non-owners with regard to demographic and health-related characteristics. Method : Data in the present cross-sectional population study were drawn from HuNT-3 in Norway. A total of 12,297 persons (5631 men; 6666 women) between the ages of 65 and 101 years were included, of whom 2358 were pet owners. Results : The main finding was that owning a dog demonstrated several health-related characteristics to a higher positive degree than both non-pet and cat ownership among the participants. Cat owners showed higher body mass index values and higher systolic blood pressure, and reported worse general health status. They also exercised to a lower degree than the others. Conclusions : As the result implies that older cat owners are negatively outstanding in many aspects of health compared with the dog owners, in the future, more focus must be put on the worse health of those. Further, there were more married male than female cat and dog owners. This probably depends on traditional cultural thinking; the man is the owner of the pet even if the woman lives with and cares about it. It is important to point out that different groups in the population might select different pets. Consequently, the findings showing a correlation between pet ownership and health may be owing to unrelated confounding factors.

  • 2.
    Hallman, David M.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Birk Jørgensen, Marie
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark; University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Objectively measured physical activity and 12-month trajectories of neck-shoulder pain in workers: a prospective study in DPHACTO2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 45, no 3, p. 288-298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: This study aimed to investigate the association between objectively measured physical activity at work and leisure and the intensity (mean level and time course) of neck–shoulder pain (NSP) over 12 months among male and female blue collar workers. Methods: Data were obtained from 625 blue collar workers from the Danish cohort DPHACTO. Physical activity was measured objectively at baseline using accelerometers. The percentage of time spent in physical activity (walking, climbing stairs, running and cycling) was calculated for both work and leisure time. Longitudinal data on the intensity of NSP (numerical rating scale 0–10) were collected using text messages every fourth week over 12 months. Linear mixed models were used to investigate the associations between occupational physical activity (OPA) and leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and the trajectories of the intensity of NSP, adjusted for individual, biomechanical and psychosocial factors, and baseline pain. Results: OPA was not associated with the mean intensity of NSP over 12 months. LTPA was negatively associated with the mean intensity of NSP both among men (B=−0.71, 95% CI −1.31 to −0.11) and women (B=−0.85, 95% CI −1.57 to −0.13). Sex interactions on the 12-month trajectories of NSP showed that higher physical activity was associated with a slower reduction in NSP among men for OPA only (B=0.03, 95% CI 0.01-0.05) and women for LTPA only (B=0.05, 95% CI 0.00-0.09). Conclusions: We found that more time in LTPA was associated with a lower overall intensity of NSP over 12 months among blue collar workers. However, depending on sex and domain, high physical activity had an unfavourable effect on the course of NSP over 12 months.

  • 3.
    Macassa, Gloria
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ponce de Leon, Antonio
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Burström, Bo
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The impact of water supply and sanitation on area differentials in the decline of diarrhoeal disease mortality among infants in Stockholm 1878—19252006In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 34, no 5, p. 526-533Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses the impact of improved water supply and sanitation on the level and rate of decline of child diarrhoea mortality in Stockholm 1878—1925. Previous studies have failed to demonstrate an effect of improved water supply on the risk of diarrhoea mortality at the individual level. Using data on access to water and sanitation from a household survey in 1895 and mortality rates and sociodemographic information from individual data 1878—1925 to analyse area differentials in diarrhoea mortality, it was found that the proportion having their own latrine in the household was associated with lower mortality risk in 1895—1900, while the proportion having water in the household was associated with lower diarrhoea mortality risk during the mortality decline until 1925. Population effects of improved water and sanitation on diarrhoea mortality may be better measured at area level than at individual level.

  • 4.
    Rooth, Hetty
    et al.
    School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Forinder, Ulla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Söderbäck, Maja
    School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Viitasara, Eija
    Department of Health Science, Mid Sweden University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Piuva, Katarina
    Department of Social Work, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Trusted and doubted: Discourses of parenting training in two Swedish official inquiries, 1947 and 2008.2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 46, no 20_Suppl. 1, p. 59-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to analyse discourses of parenting training in official inquires in Sweden that explicitly deal with the bringing up of children and parental education and how the representations of the problems and their solutions affect parental subject positions in the early welfare state and at the onset of the 21st century. Method: We carried out a discourse analysis of two public inquiries of 1947 and 2008, drawing on theories about governmentality and power regimes. Tools from political discourse analysis were used to investigate the objectives of political discourse practices. Results: Both inquiries referred to a context of change and new life demands as a problem. Concerning suggestions for solutions, there were discrepancies in parents’ estimated need of expert knowledge and in descriptions of parental capacity. In a discourse of trust and doubt, the parents in 1947 were positioned as trusted welfare partners and secure raisers of future generations, and in 2008, as doubted adults, feared to be faltering in their child-rearing tasks. Conclusions: The analysis revealed how governmental problem descriptions, reasoning about causes and suggestions of solutions influenced parents’ subject positions in a discourse of trust and doubt, and made way for governmental interventions with universal parenting training in the 21st century.

  • 5.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för nationalekonomi.
    Pharmaceutical Insurance and the Demand for Prescription Pharmaceuticals in Västerbotten, Sweden.2005In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 50-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: The aim of this paper is to analyze the impact of pharmaceutical insurance on the demand for prescription pharmaceuticals in the county of Västerbotten, Sweden. As the patients do not bear the full marginal costs of the pharmaceuticals they consume when pharmaceutical insurance systems are present, this could induce patients to over-consume pharmaceutical treatments.

    METHODS: Data covering all prescription pharmaceuticals sold in the county of Västerbotten, Sweden during the year 2001 have been provided by the local county council. Data include information concerning the gender and age of the patient, the number of defined daily doses, total cost, and the patient's co-payment for the prescription. The hypothesis that patients will consume more (or perhaps more expensive) pharmaceuticals when there is pharmaceutical insurance is tested by means of regression analysis.

    RESULTS: The results show that both the quantities dispensed and the price of the pharmaceuticals consumed increase when the pharmaceutical insurance system pays part of the total cost of the pharmaceuticals consumed.

    CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that introducing a small patient co-payment for all prescriptions should be an effective measure to decrease pharmaceutical consumption.

  • 6.
    Sjölander, Per
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Southern Lapland Research Department, Vilhelmina, Sweden.
    Hassler, Sven
    Southern Lapland Research Department, Vilhelmina, Sweden; Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Janlert, Urban
    epartment of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Stroke and acute myocardial infarction in the Swedish Sami population: incidence and mortality in relation to income and level of education2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 84-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Gender differences in cardiovascular diseases (CVD) among the Sami have been reported previously. The aim of the present study was to investigate the incidence of and mortality from stroke, subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the Swedish Sami population between 1985 and 2002, and to analyse the potential impact of income and level of education on the cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

    Methods: A Sami cohort of 15,914 persons (4,465 reindeer herding and 11,449 non-herding Sami) were followed from 1985 to 2002 with respect to incidence and mortality rates of AMI, stroke and SAH. Incidence and mortality ratios were calculated using a demographically matched non-Sami control population (DMC) as the standard (71,550 persons).

    Results: There was no elevated risk for developing AMI among the Sami compared with the DMC. However, the mortality ratio of AMI was significantly higher for Sami women. Higher incidence rates of stroke and SAH for both Sami men and women was observed, but no differences in mortality rates. Apart from the reindeer herding men who demonstrated lower levels of income and education, the income and education levels among Sami were similar to the DMC.

    Conclusions: High mortality rates from AMI rather than stroke explain the excess mortality for CVD previously shown among Sami women. The results suggest that the differences in incidence of stroke between herding and non-herding Sami men, and between Sami women and non-Sami women, are caused by behavioural and psychosocial risk factors rather than by traditional socioeconomic ones.

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