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  • 1.
    Ineland, Lisa
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Division of Psychiatry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Jacobsson, Lars
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Division of Psychiatry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Salander Renberg, Ellinor
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Division of Psychiatry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Sjölander, Per
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Södra Lapplands Forskningsenhet, Vilhelmina, Sweden.
    Attitudes towards mental disorders and psychiatric treatment: changes over time in a Swedish population2008In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 62, no 3, p. 192-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the years a lot of research of attitudes towards mental disorders, towards people with mental illness and towards psychiatric services and treatment have shown a persistent negative attitude. There are, however, few studies on changes over time. The aim of this study was to compare responses to a questionnaire on attitudes towards mental disorders and psychiatric patients and the perception of psychiatric treatment in a community in northern Sweden in 1976 and 2003. In 1976 a random sample of 391 persons 18-70 years of age were asked and in 2003 a new sample of 500 persons from the same community were approached with the same questions. There are considerable changes over time. In 2003, almost 90% agree to the statement that mental illness harms the reputation more than physical illness, compared with 50% in 1976. In 2003, 51% agreed to the statement "Most people with mental disorders commit violent acts more than others" compared with 24% in 1976. There is an apparent ambivalence towards psychiatric treatment. Whilst 88% would advice a person with mental problems to contact a psychiatrist, still 26% would not like themselves to be referred to a psychiatrist. We argue that improving treatment methods is as important as changing attitudes through accurate information.

  • 2. Moen, Cecilia
    et al.
    Öhlund, Lennart S
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Negative memories of childhood and current drug use2003In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 57, no 4, p. 303-308Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data on drug abuse and memories of the childhood were collected through a self-report questionnaire from a group of current drug users and a group of non-using controls. Both samples were unidentified as groups by the society and were identified by the researchers throw snowball sampling. Earlier results of an unstable childhood and a poor social situation from studies that used other sampling methods were replicated. The drug users had an earlier nicotine and alcohol debut, and perceived themselves as unloved, physically abused children that were afraid of their parents during childhood. In addition, depression, suicide attempts and convictions were more common among the drug users.

  • 3.
    Silén, Marit
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Haglund, Kristina
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för neurovetenskap.
    Hansson, Mats G.
    Uppsala universitet, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Ramklint, Mia
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för neurovetenskap.
    Ethics rounds do not improve the handling of ethical issues by psychiatric staff2015In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 69, no 6, p. 1700-1707Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. One way to support healthcare staff in handling ethically difficult situations is through ethics rounds that consist of discussions based on clinical cases and are moderated by an ethicist. Previous research indicates that the handling of ethically difficult situations in the workplace might have changed after ethics rounds. This, in turn, would mean that the “ethical climate”, i.e. perceptions of how ethical issues are handled, would have changed. Aim. To investigate whether ethics rounds could improve the ethical climate perceived by staff working in psychiatry outpatient clinics. Methods. In this quasi-experimental study, six inter-professional ethics rounds led by a philosopher/ethicist were conducted at two psychiatry outpatient clinics. Changes in ethical climate were measured at these clinics as well as at two control clinics at baseline and after the intervention period using the instrument Hospital Ethical Climate Survey. Results. Within-groups comparisons of median sum scores of ethical climate showed that no statistically significant differences were found in the intervention group before or after the intervention period. The median sum scores for ethical climate were significantly higher, both at baseline and after the intervention period (P ≤ 0.001; P = 0.046), in the intervention group. Conclusions. Ethics rounds in psychiatric outpatient clinics did not result in significant changes in ethical climate. Outcomes of ethics rounds might, to a higher degree, be directed towards patient-related outcomes rather than towards the staff's working environment, as the questions brought up for discussion during the ethics rounds concerned patient-related issues.

  • 4.
    Sundbom Thunander, Lena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science.
    Hedborg, Kerstin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science.
    Association between prescribed antidepressants and other prescribed drugs differ by gender: a nationwide register-based study in Sweden2019In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 73, no 1, p. 73-79Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: People with depression are prescribed more drugs than people in general,partly due to comorbidity with other conditions. However, little research has been done on depression-related drug use from a gender perspective.

    Aim: Examine the association between antidepressants, other types of prescribed drugs, and polypharmacy, by gender.

    Methods: Data on drugs dispensed October to December 2016 to all Swedish citizens aged 18-84 years were collected from the Swedish prescribed drug register. Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the associations between antidepressantsand other drugs, by gender.

    Results: For both men and women, associations were found between antidepressants and drugs for alimentary tract problems, respiratory problems, blood, nervous system, analgesics, and polypharmacy. However, for women, but not men, associations were alsofound for drugs for diabetes, musculoskeletal problems, dermatological problems, and systemic hormones. 

    Conclusions: Associations were found between antidepressants and many other types of drugs for both men and women; indicating comorbidity between depression and other conditions.Further, several of the associations between antidepressants and other drugs were found to be specific among women. Whether this indicates that men and women differ in comorbidity between depression and other conditions cannot be concluded based on this cross-sectional study. However, comorbidity impairs the possibility of recovery; in the somatic condition as well as the depression. Thus,physicians need to be aware of that the association between antidepressants and other types of drugs are more common among women than men.

  • 5.
    Tysk, Lennart
    et al.
    Department of Psychiatry, Sandviken Hospital, Sandviken, Sweden .
    Wessén, Bernice
    Senior planning officer at the County council, Landstinget i Gävleborg, Gävle, Sweden .
    Psychiatric inpatient care and the availability of hospital beds: A comparison of three catchment areas1990In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 44, no 6, p. 559-561Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychiatric inpatient care and the availability of hospital beds: A comparison of three catchment areas. The psychiatric care in Gävleborg county was formerly centralized to a mental hospital and a small psychiatric department at a general hospital. It was then decided that the care system should be reorganized. The county was divided into three catchment areas. Each of these will have a comprehensive psychiatric care with both in- and out-patient facilities, but the intramural care will be reduced considerably. During the reorganization phase an almost experimental situation existed, as accessibility and availability of hospital beds differed among the three sectors. The inpatients for each sector were counted, and some patient characteristics were compared. Except for a considerable difference in the use of hospital beds small differences were otherwise noted. The sector with the smallest number of inpatients had relatively more schizophrenic patients. The accessibility and availability of hospital beds seemed to decide the number of inpatients even when deinstitutionalization was an accepted common goal. Local habits and traditions may also be important.

  • 6.
    Wessén, Bernice
    et al.
    Landstinget Gävleborg, Gävle, Sverige.
    Tysk, Lennart
    Avdelningen för psykiatri, Sandvikens sjukhus, Sandviken, Sverige.
    En uppföljning av långtidsvårdade patienter som skrivits ut från sjukhus i samband med psykiatrins omdaning1991In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 45, no 1, p. 41-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The so-called sectorization of the psychiatric care system has been connected with deinstitutionalization and possibly also a forced discharge from hospital for some long-term inpatients. In Gävleborg County 96 patients who had been hospitalized for at least 1 year were discharged in the years 1984-88, when the reduction of hospital beds was at its peak. Their situation was investigated in the autumn of 1989, when members of the psychiatric staff evaluated their living conditions and asked the patients to complete a questionnaire. At that time 19 patients had been readmitted to hospital, 4 had moved to other parts of the country, and 3 were dead. Thus at least 70 were still living outside institutions, but 2 of these could not be reached. The material consists of the other 68 patients. Forty of them were diagnosed as being schizophrenic. Twenty-two patients had spent some time in hospital after the index discharge. Forty-three lived in their own lodgings, 14 in group homes, and 11 in homes for the elderly. Forty-one lived alone, and this was more often the case for male patients. Only one had a job and earned his living, but 41 took part in some organized activity like work therapy or study groups. About 50% of the patients had regular contact (at least once a month) with the local psychiatric department, and the same frequency was noted for regular contact with the district nurses. Only seven patients had no such contacts. According to the staffs judgement, about two of three patients had enough psychosocial support and a satisfactory quality of life. Resources for rehabilitation, activation, and social contacts were reported to be inadequate. The patients had a more positive view and were largely satisfied with their living conditions. Only four wanted to return to the hospital. The schizophrenic patients tended to have a more satisfactory life situation according to the staff, and they were also rehospitalized less frequently than other patient categories. There is a notable group of chronically ill patients with other psychiatric diagnoses, which need as much support as the schizophrenic group. When resources are lacking, the need for cooperation with social authorities, primary care, and clients' organizations is apparent.

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