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  • 1.
    120112 HONG, SISONG
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    LIN, SHUNZHAO
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Service Marketing in a cross-culture environment: a case of Elekta China2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 2.
    Aaltonen, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Law.
    Thegenholm, Nicklas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Law.
    Livförsäkringarnas skatterättsliga förutsägbarhet2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I ett skatterättsligt sammanhang delas livförsäkringar i antingen kapitalförsäkringar eller pensionsförsäkringar. Denna uppsats har syftet att redogöra om det föreligger förutsägbarhet med denna delning, gällande kriterierna i 58 kap. inkomstskattelagen (1999:1229). 

    Till uppsatsen har det bestämts att det rättsliga materialet ska bestå främst av lag, förarbeten och rättspraxis. Analysen görs genom rättsdogmatisk metod där det först undersöks varje kriterium utifrån lag, och därefter hur domstolen har dömt. 

    Uppsatsen resulterar i att det inte föreligger förutsägbarhet gällande gränsen mellan livförsäkring och icke-livförsäkring. Däremot föreligger det förutsägbarhet vid gränsdragningen mellan kapitalförsäkring och pensionsförsäkring. 

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  • 3.
    Aarskog, Florence
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Österberg, Ylva
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Vad skiljer sig i uppfattningen gällande gift promotions mellan män och kvinnor?: - En studie kring likheter och skillnader mellan könen2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Title: What differences are there regarding the perception of gift promotions between men and women? – A study about similarities and differences between the genders

    Level: Student thesis, final assignment for Bachelor Degree in Business Administration

    Author: Florence Aarskog och Ylva Österberg

    Supervisor: Lars-Johan Åge

    Date: 2022-june

    Aim: The purpose of this study is to examine what similarities and differences might exist between men and women regarding their perceptions of gift promotions. The study is expected to give answers to what is laying behind these perceptions and how these can differ. 

    Method: This work is the result of a qualitative study implemented on men and women between the ages of 20-30 years old. The empirical material makes up the base of the work and is collected through semi structured interviews where the respondents have been requested to picture themselves in different scenarios inspired by everyday life. This is with other words also called a vignette experiment. The empirical material has then been processed to identify the similarities and differences of the two genders perceptions of gift promotions.

    Results and conclusions: The results of this study show that women in general have a more positive attitude towards gift promotions compared to men. This can be seen from the fact that it is more important for women to fulfill long term needs which some gifts can enable. It is also shown that men on the other side are more interested in fulfilling their short-term needs. Both genders find it important that the promoted gift must have value for themselves which women find to a greater extent than men. Another finding of this study is the importance of a good fit between gift and product which is something both genders agree on.

    Contribution of the thesis: This work has contributed to the business administration research field by collecting information about how men and women perceive gift promotions. This information can be used by marketers designing their promotion dealsand campaigns.

    Suggestions for future research: The focus of this study has been on the similarities and differences between men and women within the age gap 20-30 years old. For future research there is an interest to discover what other age groups would have to say, what the perceptions of gift promotions would look like when it comes to services instead of products and finally to compare perceptions of gift promotions online to the ones in physical stores.

    Key words: Gift promotions, sales promotions, gift promotion-perception, marketing-gender differences, marketing-perception

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  • 4.
    Aarskog, Fredrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Heco, Benjamin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Existerar en perfekt förhandlingsstrategi?: En jämförande studie av en fastighetsmäklares beteende.2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 5.
    Abbas, Khizer
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Qazafi, Shahzad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Investigating the impact of knowledge management on HRM performance with moderating role of cultural dynamics: A Multi-group analysis of Family firms in Pakistan and Sweden2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Introduction: Knowledge is the most crucial aspect to gain a competitive advantage in today's world. However, to gain H.R., the effective knowledge is the most challenging part of modern society. The creation, management and usage of information is straightforwardly influenced by a few practices and methodologies of Human Resource Management (HRM). Knowledge management and Human resource management, both disciplines, has a great effect on information financial aspects.

    Research Problem and Questions: This study is done with the intention to gauge the impact of Knowledge management practices on H.R. performances and to check that how cultural dynamics affect the performance of the family businesses.

    Theoretic Area of the Study The theoretic area of the study deals with knowledge management and human resource management output/performance along with cultural dynamic moderating impacts.

    Research Methodology: It is a cross-sectional comparative study, and data is collected usingquestionnaires. The cultural dynamics were compared from Sweden and Pakistan. The tool was adapted from already existing studies, and the reliability and validity were checked beforehand.

    Conclusion: From the study, it is seen that Cultural dynamics act as a moderator amongst the HRM performance and Knowledge Management, and there is a strong relationship between knowledge management practices and HRM performance. The results also show that the correlation between K.M. and H.R. performance is relatively stronger in Sweden while it is moderate in Pakistan.

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  • 6.
    Abbas, Wasim
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Chaudhry, Saqib Mehmood
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Analyzing the Disruption Factors of Emerging Markets: A Case Study of Pakistani Telecom IndustryHuawei in Pakistan2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A free and flexible business environment attracts international organisations to those markets that have big growth potential and high profit margins. To penetrate emerging markets is of great interest to any international organisation. The situation gets more intense if it is in the field of telecommunications. Telecommunications (telecoms) and information technology (IT) are generically known as the information and communication technologies (ICT) industries. ICT is one of the fastest growing industries in the world and is also considered among the biggest markets in terms of customer base, growth and profitability. The competition is very high in such markets, so relatively unique, attractive and extraordinary business strategies are usually practiced by these companies. The situation may create an atmosphere of upheavals and uncertainties in such markets. Extraordinary or unethical business policies can not only affect the business of other organisations, but also has some after-effects on societies and the mindset of target nations and market ethics. Organisations are very much engaged with society and work in the social environment, therefore the socio-cultural components is of great importance when designing business strategies. Exploring the facts about emerging markets and by analysing the case of Chinese company Huawei in the Pakistani telecom market, this thesis gives investigates and assess the success factor of this Chinese company. This thesis highlights the upheaval factors of emerging markets, by analysing the role of cultural interests and the mindsets of target nations for organisations planning their strategies

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  • 7.
    Abdelrahman, Ahmed
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    van den Akker, Melanie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    The Impact Of Corporate Governance Characteristics On Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Empirical Evidence From Sweden2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to examine the interactions and impact of six key corporate governance factors on greenhouse gas emissions in Swedish listed firms. Namely, board size, board gender diversity, CEO compensation, blockholder ownership, audit and non-audit fees. The study employs a quantitative research design and uses regression analysis to test the research hypotheses. The data for the study is obtained from a sample of 199 Swedish firms from 2014 to 2021 and data retrieved from the Nordic Compass Database, Swedish House of Finance Research Data Center. The findings reveal significant associations between corporate governance factors after controlling for firm size and industry with carbon emissions disclosure by firms. Concluding, these factors play a crucial role in tackling environmental sustainability performance in corporate practices.

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    The impact of CG on GH, Ahmed Abdelrahman_Melanie van den Akker
  • 8.
    Abduljalil, Zainab
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Obegränsat skattskyldig: En studie om när en person blir obegränsat skattskyldig vid utflyttning från Sverige? Fokus på väsentlig anknytning2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

     Uppsatsen undersöker när en person blir obegränsat skattskyldig trots att hen har flyttat från Sverige. När en person flyttar utomlands kan det finnas skattemässiga konsekvenser att ta hänsyn till. För att en person som flyttat utomlands ska bli obegränsat skattskyldig i Sverige krävs att personen har en väsentlig anknytning till landet. En väsentlig anknytning kan finnas om personen har bott i Sverige tidigare, har en fastighet eller bostad i Sverige, eller har nära familj som bor i Sverige. Det kan också finnas en väsentlig anknytning om personen har arbetat i Sverige under en längre tid, eller har andra ekonomiska eller personliga band till landet. Skatteavtal mellan Sverige och andra länder kan påverka beskattningen. Om en person är bosatt i ett annat land men har inkomster från Sverige, kan skatteavtalet bestämma vilket land som har rätt att beskatta inkomsten. Oavsett vad som gäller enligt skatteavtalet måste personen lämna uppgifter om alla inkomster till Skatteverket i en eventuell deklaration. För att avgöra om en person har väsentlig anknytning till Sverige, sammanvägs ett antal anknytningsfaktorer. Dessa faktorer inkluderar bostad i Sverige, stadigvarande vistelse i Sverige, familjeband i Sverige, arbete i Sverige och ekonomiska band till Sverige. Ju fler anknytningsfaktorer som är uppfyllda, desto större är sannolikheten att personen anses ha väsentlig anknytning till Sverige och därmed blir obegränsat skattskyldig. Det är viktigt att notera att även om en person inte anses ha väsentlig anknytning till Sverige och därmed inte blir obegränsat skattskyldig, kan personen fortfarande vara begränsat skattskyldig i Sverige. Detta innebär att personen endast behöver betala skatt på de inkomster som härstammar från Sverige.

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  • 9.
    Abdulkadir, Muna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Bozhko, Kristina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Driving university towards change and innovation: Impact of national culture and environmental factors2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To investigate the impact of national culture on the process of managing change and innovation in the sector of higher education and identify what kind of environmental factors could produce a moderating effect on the cultural impact.

    Method: Inductive method and qualitative approach were used. With the purpose of collecting qualitative data, 15 in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with employees of Faculty of Education and Business Studies in University of Gävle, Sweden.

    Results & Conclusions: The study suggests that any innovation is a change, while change is always a process and, thus, should be managed as such. Authors draw attention from the process of management of innovation itself towards managing through manipulating by such an influencer as national culture. At the same time authors point out that not everything can be explained on the basis of culture providing a range of potential factors that can strongly moderate the impact of culture.

    Suggestions for future research: Current research is limited by the choice of country, sector of economy, number of studied cases, etc. Investigation of cultural impact on change and innovation management in universities of other countries or the choice of another economic sector would open opportunities for further research.

    Contribution of the thesis: During the study the authors verified a part of the suggested hypotheses demonstrating the strength of the impact that national culture produces on management of change and innovation. Moderating effect of different environmental factors such as employee’s age and position within organizational structure, governmental policies in the sphere of higher education, type of organizational structure and type of leadership, was demonstrated. Authors come up with implications of managing the process of change and innovation through manipulation of cultural impact.

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  • 10.
    Abebaw, Meron Kebede
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Matukuta, Willard Kingstone
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Technology and Customers’ Experiences in Fashion Physical Stores: The Case of Sweden2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Technology and Consumers’ Experiences in Fashion Physical Stores: The Case of Sweden

    Level: Master Thesis in Business Administration

    Author: Meron Kebede Abebaw; Willard Kingstone Matukuta

    Supervisor: Agneta Sundström, PhD

    Examiner: Maria Fregidou-Malama, PhD

    Date: May, 2018 

    Aim: The aim of this study is to analyze whether in-store digital technology in fashion retailers are used to change the customers’ shopping experience and behavior.

    Method: This study chooses qualitative research and used both primary and secondary data collection as method.

    Results and conclusions: This study have reached to conclude that: with the current advances in technology, physical stores can use in-store technology to give customers a new experience; physical stores perceive that using in-store digital technology will change customers shopping experience. Also, marketing mix inputs and technology affect customers’ behavior.

    Suggestions for future research: For future research, how smart fitting rooms may influence the customer experience in the physical store will be important to study. Researchers can also consider understanding customer responses to in-store technology. Finally, a customer’s perspective to both suggestions should improve the knowledge on whether digital solutions are preferred in in-store shopping or not.

    Contributions of the thesis: This thesis contributes to the current state of theories on in-store technology by showing atmosphere has effect on customers’ experiences and behavior in addition to the marketing mix. On the managerial perspective, analyzing the installation of this technology will enable to identify its effect on customers’ experiences and behavior. In addition, on the societal perspective, the behavior of customers will help in motivating younger generation to utilize this in-store technology.

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  • 11.
    Abou Khaled, Omar
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Oleandersson, Viktor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Service Recovery genom hantering av eWOM: En studie om svenska e-handelns modebransch.2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Service Recovery by managing eWOM - A study of the e-commerce fashion industry.

    Level: Final assignment for Bachelor Degrees in Business Administration.

    Authors: Omar Abou Khaled & Viktor Oleandersson.

    Supervisor: Akmal Hyder.

    Date: 2022 June.

    Aim: The purpose of this study is to investigate how e-commerce companies in the fashion industry manage negative eWOM through the use of Service Recovery.

    Method: This study is based on a qualitative method with a hermeneutic approach and an inductive research approach. The empirical data consists of seven semi-structured interviews.

    Conclusion: Digital development has given a lot of room for mistakes, it is also easier for eWOM to spread. The most common reasons for negative eWOM spreading are mainly delivery issues or dissatisfaction with a product. The study also shows that the majority of companies lack strategies and instead rely on the customer service department, which makes it important to have well-trained staff.

    Contribution: The study’s contribution to the theory in marketing is an increased understanding of how Swedish companies in the e-commerce fashion industry manage negative eWOM and the reasons for eWOM’s emergence. The practical contribution is a wisdom for e-commerce companies in the fashion industry to be able to design a Service Recovery strategy and the aspects that can prevent negative eWOM.

    Suggestions for future research: The research can be further deepened by taking the customer perspective into account. It will also be of interest to investigate how companies should deal with digitalisation. Finally, a suggestion is to study this topic in other industries. 

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  • 12.
    Abou Khaled, Walle
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Baban, Dylan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Influencers på Instagram: En jämförande studie om hur olika sorters influencers påverkar konsumenters varumärkesuppfattning2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The purpose of the study is to investigate how consumers’ brand perception is influenced by influencer marketing with regard to influencers' number of followers and topical alignment.

    Method: In this study, a quantitative method has been conducted to aggregate 173 responses in a web-based questionnaire survey. After screening based on our selection, 153 responses were processed in SPSS where descriptive statistics, correlation analysis and cluster analysis were conducted. The result was used to conduct a discussion to draw further conclusions.

    Conclusion: The study shows that both topical influencers and influencers with many followers have a positive impact on consumer brand perception. Influencers with a large number of followers contribute to a more positive impact on consumer brand perception than topical influencers. For maximum results, marketers should use an influencer that has both a large number of followers and focuses on a topic.

    Contribution: The study's contribution to the theory of marketing research area is an increased knowledge of the influence of different types of influencers on consumer brand perception. The study shows that the number of followers weighs heavier than the topic in terms of how positively affected a consumer's perception of the brand is.

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  • 13.
    Abraham Tewoldemedhin, Fithawi
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Medeubayev, Meiras
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Knowledge Hiding in Consulting Industry: the Case of EY in Kazakhstan2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: This study aims to explore the knowledge hiding phenomenon among project teammembers in the consulting industry. This study investigated why, when, how and what type ofknowledge team members hide.Methodology: This research applied a qualitative research with inductive approach. Semistructuredinterviews with eleven participants from EY in Kazakhstan were conducted.Secondary data was obtained from existing scientific articles and books.Findings: Findings of the study provided that (i) variables affecting knowledge hiding atindividual level also influence at team level; (ii) the technological and organizational barriershad a minor influence on knowledge hiding at team level; (ii) tacit/explicit and key/commonknowledge are subject to hiding among team members; (iv) three additional variables arediscovered at team level, i.e. laziness, fear of being seen silly and self-study.

    Theoretical contributions: This study contributes to the counterproductive knowledgebehaviour by exploring patterns of knowledge hiding among team members. Additionalknowledge sharing barriers of why and when team members hide knowledge were found. Teammembers hide knowledge when they feel ownership over knowledge and territoriality servesas a mediating tool. Nevertheless, collective knowledge psychological ownership weakensknowledge hiding, because team’s success is more important than individual’s goals.Managerial implications: Organizations are encouraged to nurture team environment, becauseteam members might feel that they are obliged to share their knowledge. Also, managementshould consider to lower territoriality perspectives (e.g. by team buildings, etc.).

    Limitations and future research: Future research should increase the number of respondentsfrom different companies, industries and geographical areas. To validate the three newly foundknowledge hiding variables at team level, they can be tested at individual level. On top of thatfuture research can focus on the effects of interpersonal injustice on knowledge hiding on eachmember, motivational process on knowledge concealing/sharing and cross-cultural differencesof how knowledge concealing is interpreted can be researched.

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  • 14.
    Abrahamsson, Isak
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Karlsson, Malin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Värdeinvestering – en hållbar strategi för överavkastning?: Ett test av investeringsstrategin F_SCORE på värdeaktier med hög book-to-market kvot2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The main aim is to test if Piotroskis F_SCORE applied on stocks with high book-to- market ratio outperforms the market portfolio and therefore determine the level of market efficiency. The secondary aim is to provide knowledge to business executives about the relevance of a book-to-market policy.

    Method

    This study is a quantitative research which assumes a positivistic research philosophy with a deductive approach. Several regression analyses have been used to confirm the statistical significance of the different estimated parameters. The empirical results give answers to two hypotheses based on the aim of this research. The empirical data have been collected from Thomson Reuter Datastream, compiled in Excel and analyzed with the statistical software Stata.

    Result & Conclusions

    The empirical results of this study show that the value portfolio has a higher return than the market index. The risk-adjusted return for the value portfolio is higher compared to the market portfolio. This indicates that the higher return of the value portfolio is not due to a higher risk. By the results of this study there is not possible to determine whether the market is fully efficient or not. It is only possible to exclude the strong and semi-strong form of market efficiency.

    Suggestions for future research

    For future studies, we suggest further research about the weak form of market efficiency. Using historical data to determine future return, as Contrarian model, is one suggestion to reach further evidence of market (in)efficiency. Since F_SCORE assumes a normal distribution and because of the poor performance of the low F_SCORE firms another suggestion is short-sell these stocks to see if the return ca be increased. This empirical field needs further research about which factors that causes the higher return for these stocks. The small firm effect, liquidity and behavioral finance are just a few anomalies that may have a relationship with excess return.

    Contribution of the thesis

    The investment strategy in this research shows a higher excess return compared to the market index as well as a higher risk-adjusted return over the given period. This is not only a contribution to investors but also in a theoretical field due to the efficient market hypothesis. F_SCORE have a normal distribution curve where the stocks with F_SCORE of 5 or higher generally have a higher mean return. Another contribution is the relevance of book to market ratio as a useful strategy for valuating companies. The practical contribution gives business executives better understanding about the relevance of a book-to-market policy when attracting investors. 

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  • 15.
    Abrahamsson, Pege
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Hedlund, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Valutariskhantering: En omotiverad kostnad eller ettvardagligt behov?2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Vårt syfte med detta arbete är att undersöka hur två stora företag i Gävleborgslän, med betydande del av sin verksamhet på export, hanterar de valutarisker som uppstår. Företagen som vi valt att granska är Sandvik och Korsnäs som båda är tillverkande företag inom industrin.

    Vi kommer sedan att jämföra hur respektive företag har valt att hantera sina risker och belysa de skillnader och likheter som dessa två företag har i sitt arbete med valutarisker. Slutligen ämnar vi jämföra det empiriskt insamlade materialet med den teoretiska referensram som finns inom det valda ämnet.

    Metod: Vi har valt att använda oss av en kvalitativ metod när vi insamlat data. Insamlingen har främst skett via samtalsintervjuer på respektive företags huvudkontor. Kompletterande information har insamlats via mejlkontakt med våra respondenter. De teorier vi har använt behandlar främst valutarisker och metoder för valutarisker.

    Resultat & slutsats: Slutsatsen från vårt arbete visar att de företag vi studerat har insett betydelsen av valutaexponering men bara ett av företagen har valt att aktivt arbeta med riskhanteringen. Vi vill dock poängtera att båda företagen tagit ställning till hur arbetet med risker ska hanteras.

    Förslag till fortsattforskning: I vårt arbete visar vi en bild av hur två företag hanterar sina valutarisker och exponeringar. Det kan vara intressant att undersöka detta ur ett större perspektiv. En djupare studie med fler företag kan göras. I vår studie sker jämförelsen mellan två industriföretag. Att göra jämförelsen med ett företag inom ett annat segment, t ex dagligvaruhandeln eller telekombranschen, finner vi intressant.

    Valutariskhantering: en omotiverad kostnad eller ett vardagligt behov?

    Uppsatsens bidrag: Vårt arbete ger ett bidrag till exporterande företag för att få en uppfattning om olika sätt att hantera sina valutarisker. Uppsatsen kan även användas av Sandvik och Korsnäs för att få reda på hur två studenter anser om deras arbete med valutasäkring.

    Nyckelord: Valutarisk, valutasäkring, valutaexponering, valutahantering, derivatinstrument, terminskontrakt, optioner.

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  • 16.
    Absi, Lina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Leino, Matilda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Innovationsförmågans påverkan på goodwill2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent of goodwill that can be explained by the capacity for innovation in Swedish listed companies.

    Introduction: Goodwill is an intangible asset and occurs in connection with acquisitions. In recent years, the record received a great importance and it gives also an expression of the future economic benefits. Goodwill is difficult to define because the item may contain, for example, customer relationships, trademarks, good reputation, etc. In the current situation, innovation is an important factor for companies and has great significance for economic growth and innovation capacity of firms should have an impact on the goodwill value of the entry.

    Method: A quantitative study has been made in this paper. Through the database Retriever data was collected from the largest listed companies. An elimination was made for those companies that had not provided data that was required for the study. Through the statistical program Minitab was two regression models were conducted and analyzed.

    Conclusion: Our conclusion is that the two dimensions of innovation studied, patents and research and development, Large Cap both have a positive explainationary power on goodwill for Large Cap. For Mid Cap there no significant effect appears. For Small Cap patent has a weak impact on goodwill, while research and development showed no impact.

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    Innovationsförmågans påverkan på goodwill
  • 17.
    Ackerstierna, Eva
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Dagens arbetsmiljö för tjänstemän i norra Virginia, USA: en studie av ett amerikanskt företag.2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Describe a working climate a young professional can expect to face with a company in Northern Virginia, USA. Examine working conditions and the working environment through perspectives such as gender, culture, and leadership.

     

    Method: Qualitative research where one case study has been performed for collecting empirical data. Inductive logic and a constructivist approach have been used as strategy for parsing data.

     

    Result & Conclusions: There is a paradox between working hours and flexibility. Professionals work significantly more hours than stipulated in their job descriptions. The appropriate number of working hours is a gray zone issue and there is unspoken demand to stay and work late, especially at the higher levels within the organization. Finansa appears to be a flexible and understanding employer but only when missed hours are made up and added to with extra hours. The result is a false sense of employment security. There are no written contracts of employment and a manager and/or employer can fire you whenever they want to and without any reason. In addition, employees can leave the company without further notice. Finally, another important dimension to the work environment of the young professional is diversity. This is a demographic reality of professional life in Northern Virginia and it can present a significant challenge. It is extremely important for young professionals to understand that cultural differences influence the work environment; others may not think and act as you do and basic assumptions about conduct may differ greatly across cultures. The key for success in this diverse environment is to understand it exists in the workplace and to take action based on that knowledge. Tolerance of personal differences with co-workers is essential. Understanding how different ethnic groups deal with time, relations and environment could be the decisive key for success in the professional setting.

     

    Suggestions for future research: To perform a deeper study about working hours. To investigate how many hours white-collar workers in the US work outside stipulated working hours and how many hours they spend on volunteer hours. The gray zone of working hours is a large uninvestigated reality.

     

    Contribution of the thesis: Increase the understanding of challenges a young Swedish professional faces when working abroad and in particular with a company in Northern Virginia, USA.

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  • 18.
    Addo, Richard Amankwah
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Mancuso, Giancarlo
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    To the Next Level: Influence of Social Media on Sport Organisations' Brand and Relationship Management during Global Pandemic2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of the study is to investigate the influence of social media in building brand and relationship for sport organisations during a global pandemic.  

    Methodology: The methodology in this study is built on a qualitative method based on a inductive approach. The authors conducted semi-structured interviews when interviewing the sports organisations and fans. Furthermore, a content analysis was employed as it served the aim of the study best.

    Findings & Conclusion: With regards to building the brand through the use of social media, findings showed that transparency, the history of the club and their image play a vital role in building a distinctive brand. With regards to building their relationship through the use of social media, findings showed that although efforts were made by the hockey clubs to interact and engage fans with various strategies, there was a lack of consistency in order to build their relationship with their fans. Thus, the findings of the study revealed that sport organisations have been able to build their brand as well as maintain their relationship with their fans during the global pandemic through the use of social media.

    Contribution of the Study: The study has both theoretical contributions and practical contributions. With regards to the theoretical contribution, the study introduces a framework that focuses on what factors influences the effectiveness of social media (SM) use for sports organizations to build their brand and relationship with their fans. Also, to the practical contribution, consistency in interacting and engaging with customers on SM should be a top priority for sport organisations’ relationship managers to build their relationship with fans on SM.

    Reflections on the Study and Suggestions for Future Research: As the study has been limited to three hockey clubs from Swedish Hockey League, the scope of the study could be broadened in future research. Also, conducting a quantitative method is recommended for future research to determine the link between interaction and engagement.

    Key Words: Relationship Building, Brand Building, Interaction, Engagement, Social Media, Sports Organisations

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  • 19.
    Adebäck, Julia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Eriksson, Ludvig
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Påverkar äktheten i socialt ansvarstagande den finansiella lönsamheten i företag?: En kvantitativ studie av 280 europeiska bolag2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Todays’ companies are facing an increased demand from society that they need to shift their priorities from just making money to being socially responsible. Due to the increased demand, the importance of the concept Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has also increased in the last decades. A popular branch in prior CSR studies has been to investigate if CSR-investments affects the Corporate financial performance (CFP) which has shown conflicting results. However, previous research has identified an authentic gap between what companies are promising and what they implement in reality. Therefore the aim with this study is to investigate how authentic investments in CSR, with regard to how a CSR committee and consistent CSR, influence corporate financial performance (CFP).

    Method: The study is based on the philosophy of positivism with a hypothetical deductive approach. Secondary data has been collected from Thomson Reuters Datastream with a quantitative approach. A longitudinal design has been used where data has been collected over a period of six years and the final sample has been processed and analyzed with regression analysis in IBM SPSS.

    Result & Conclusions: This study shows that companies’ financial performance is higher in the presence of a CSR-committee, which indicates that a company by engaging in authentic CSR-activities gets a higher financial performance. Management preferences to communicate the company's social responsibility results in a better financial performance due to a better relationship with the stakeholders

    Suggestions for future research: Suggestions for future research may investigate how the consistency of companies CSR is influenced by the new legislation over a longer period of time. Since the CSR-committee is influential for the financial performance we would also like to see further studies involving factors that might weaken or strengthen this relationship.

    Contribution of the thesis: From a theoretical perspective this study contributes to the accounting literature by investigating the relationship between financial performance and authentic CSR motives. From a practical perspective this study can be of interest for companies that are planning to implement a CSR-committee since this is an influential factor for the financial performance.

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  • 20.
    Adebäck, Sara
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Norman, Sofia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Innovationsförmågans påverkan på varumärket: En vindlande resa om redovisningens svårighet att informera om det mest väsentliga2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Developing an strong brand is a way for companies to stand out of the crowd, which today is necessary to conquer on the competitive market. The brand value is one of the most important assets in annual reports, but there are difficult to estimate an reliable value. It depends on the fact that the brand value is affected by few different factors, including innovativ-eness. Due to the thesis background the purpose enunciate: The purpose of this thesis is to investigate it there is a correlation between companies brand value and innovation capacity.

    Method: We have done a secondary data analysis, with help from the database Retriever. The combination of faint information and lack of quality in Retrievers capacity it contributed that we had to use semi-structured interviews as an complement to full follow the purpose. The paper per- form at Stockholm Nasdaq OMX and included de 250 largest companies that at least had one registered brand value. Companies with inapplicable data for the purpose of the study was elimi- nated. As a final the data was analysed by dint of linear regression, Pearsons correlation analysis, and interviews thru ”well-grounded theory”.

    Result & Conclusion: The result of the study indicated that there are positive relation between brand value and R&D. The complemented interviews contributed that the authors observed diff- erences between practitioners and researchers on the perception of between essential accounting information and the opportunities to provide principles to circumvent the recommendations. The conclusion of the study is that companies brand value are positively affected by the innovativeness.

    Suggestions for future research: Due to the lack of resources and qualitative database it wasn’t possible to satisfy the purpose of the study. Consequently our suggestion for future research will contain the recommendation to do the study on another stock exchange.

    Contribute of the thesis: Mainly this study contributes to illuminate the fact of accounting information: companies doesn't inform sufficient information to increase knowledge for there own business innovativeness and immaterial assets. Which can be seen as a problem. Second contribute comprises that there is, hence small or implicit, relation between brand value and their companies innovativeness at the researched companies. Consequently the results gets difficult to draw general conclusion from.

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    Innovationsförmågans påverkan på varumärket
  • 21.
    Adeyemi, Bolarinwa Agboola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    The Impact of Demographic Variables and Sustainability Awareness on Purchase Intention on Second-hand Clothing in Nigeria2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT 

    Background: Second-hand clothing has significantly continued to generate interest both in research and in the real world and emphasis ofexisting works revolve around history, motivations for buying and effect on the environment as well as the impact on the countries that these second-hand clothes are imported. Consumers’ demographics is expected to play a role in their intention to purchase certain goods including clothes and findings also revealed that people have begun to incorporate sustainability in their intention to purchase second-hand clothing.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of demographic variables and sustainability awareness on the consumers’ purchase intention on second-hand clothing. In other words, to investigate if statistical relationships exist between gender, age, income, educational level and sustainability awareness on the intention to purchase second-hand clothing.

    Method: This research was conducted through a quantitative method and five hypotheses were formulated based on the theory. An online survey was developed and shared through social media and sample of 111 respondents was generated. These responses were analysed through Excel and SPSS.

    Conclusion: Findings showed that none of the variables influenced consumers’ intention to purchase second-hand clothing.

    Implications: Business men can take advantage of this study to position their businesses using this findings to intensify their strategies since intention to purchase second-hand clothing has no relationship with gender, age, income, educational level and sustainability awareness. It also brought to light the level of sustainability awareness of the people and the need for the government to promote it.

    Originality: This work was the first to examine how demographic variables and sustainability awareness impact purchase intention on second-hand clothing in Nigeria. This contributes to existing second-hand clothing literature which is capable of inspiring comparative study and can also be useful for business decision.

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    Final Masters Thesis
  • 22.
    Afram Chamun, Robbie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Sundholm, Rebecca
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    ESG-betygets samband med värdeskapandet: En studie av börsnoterade företag mellan en svensk och norsk kontext2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: The connection between the ESG rating and value creation – a study of listed companies between a Swedish and Norwegain context.

     

    Level: Student thesis, final assignment for Bachelor Degree in Business Administration.

     

    Author: Robbie Afram Chamun och Rebecca Sundholm.

     

    Supervisor: Jan Svanberg.

     

    Date: 2022 - January.

     

    Aim: The interest in companies´ sustainability work has led to their valuation also being based on this phenomenon. A measure for sustainability as a basis to evaluate the companies´ CSR is the ESG score. By examining the connection between the ESG score and the companies’ value creation, from partly a Swedish context and partly a Norwegian one, studies are intended to show whether the connection exists. Furthermore, the study shows whether this connection differs between two contexts with different degrees of regulation. The purpose of the studies is therefore to investigate the connection between the ESG score and value creation for Swedish and Norwegian listed companies. 

     

    Method: The research is based on a positivist research philosophy with a deductive approach and a quantitative research method. The execution of a longitudinal design meant that the research collected data from 68 companies over a period of 7 years. The data was collected from Refinitiv Eikon and was analyzed through the statistical programme SPSS. 

     

    Result & Conclusion: The results of the study show that no significant connection between the ESG score and the companies' value creation exists. The study confirms that companies from a Swedish context receive higher ESG ratings than companies from a Norwegian one.

     

    Contribution of the thesis: By comparing Swedish and Norwegian public listed companies, the study has helped to fill the gap around the ESG score´s impact on companies´ value creation for these countries. The results of this study could not state that the ESG scores alone significantly affects the companies' value creation. 

     

    Suggestions for future research: Future research should address how value creation is affected in the absence of ESG score.

    Key words: CSR disclosure, Value Creation, ESG, Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR).

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  • 23.
    Agerhill, Madeleine
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Eriksson, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Förvaltningsstrategier -   fyra värdeskapande perspektiv: En analys av fastighetsbolag i Sverige 2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    SAMANFATTNING

    Titel: Förvaltningsstrategier - fyra värdeskapande perspektiv

    Nivå: C-uppsats i ämnet företagsekonomi

    Författare: Madeleine Agerhill & Johan Eriksson

    Handledare: Jens Eklinder Frick

    Datum: 2015 - februari

    Syfte: Syftet med vår studie är att utifrån de fyra indirekt värdeskapande perspektiven; finansiellt, kund, interna process samt innovation- och tillväxt, analysera hur fastighetsbolag utformar sina CREM- relaterade strategier.

    Metod: Uppsatsens primära data har samlats in genom semistrukturerade intervjuer med tio stycken personer från några lokala samt några av Sveriges största fastighetsbolag. Uppsatsen tillämpar sekundärdata i form av vetenskapliga artiklar, böcker och Internetkällor. Vi redovisar vårt inhämtade empiriska underlag och analyserar därefter empirins relevans gentemot den tidigare forskningen. För att uppnå en djupare förståelse för de indirekta värdena fastighetsförvaltning kan skapa bygger vi vår studie på en hermeneutik vetenskapsgrund.

    Resultat & slutsats: Vi presenterar konkreta exempel på hur fastighetsförvaltning kan generera indirekta värden till företags kärnverksamheter. Uppsatsen tydliggör att fastighetsbolagen själva kan dra stor nytta av att generera mervärde till sina kunder. Mervärde skapar nöjdare kunder vilket bidrar till starka och långsiktiga relationer. Långsiktiga kundrelationer skapar ett mer hållbart och starkare fastighetsbolag då de ökar sin konkurrensfördel på en utsatt marknad.

    Förslag till fortsatt forskning: Studien ger anvisningar för framtida forskning med särskilt fokus på Sverige. Framtida forskning skulle kunna analysera vilken påverkan de indirekta värdena har ur företagens synvinkel. Det skulle samtidigt vara intressant att analysera vilka värden som kan uttryckas genom fastigheten. Utstrålar fastigheten den bild som organisationer vill uppnå? Bidrar fastighetens utseende till värde för varumärken? Vilka verktyg finns tillgängliga för att stödja fastighetens varumärkshantering? Lärdomar kan då dras från forskningsområden som arkitektur, marknadsföring och beteendevetenskap.

    Uppsatsens bidrag: Genom att ta del av vår studie ökar läsaren sin förståelse för hur fastighetsförvaltning kan generera indirekta värden till företags kärnverksamheter. Studien påvisar vilka effekter och fördelar som finns med att betrakta de indirekta värdena vid utformning av förvaltningsstrategier.  Fastighetsbolag kan använda vår uppsats som ett konkret underlag för att avgöra vilka indirekta faktorer som påverkar kunders kärnverksamheter. Företag som använder sig av externa fastighetsförvaltare kan med hjälp av vår uppsats öka sin förståelse för de mervärden fastighetsbolag genererar.

    Nyckelord: fastigheter, förvaltning, CREM, indirekta, värde, kund.

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  • 24.
    Aghester, Victor
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Gunnarsson, Alfred
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Användandet av mänskliga modeller i bostadsannonser: En undersökning gällande spekulanters preferenser2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie är att analysera spekulanters preferenser beträffande foton i en annons, för att skapa en förståelse för effekten av att använda sig av mänskliga modeller.   Metod: En experimentell studie med ett deduktivt synsätt där analyser av vetenskapliga artiklar och litteratur har utförts för att ge en god överblick av tidigare forskning. Insamling av empiri har skett genom en experimentell kvantitativ metod och enkätundersökningar. Vi har analyserat vårt resultat i SPSS och framställt deskriptiv statistik, korrelationsanalys, klusteranalys, faktoranalys och T-test.   Slutsats: Vår undersökning leder oss till slutsatsen att bostadsintressenter rent generellt är mer positivt inställda till en bostadsbild där mänskliga modeller exkluderas. Emellertid visar studien att det finns tre variabler vars högsta medelvärde uppmätts i experiment tre, nämligen hemtrevlig, insyn, och utsikt. Således gör vi konklusionen att en konstellation av en manlig och en kvinnlig modell vid marknadsföringen av en bostad, påverkar bostadsintressenters inställning positivt vad gäller dessa tre variabler.  Uppsatsens bidrag: Vårt bidrag till företagsekonomins och marknadsföringens forskningsområde är en ökad förståelse för hur mänskliga modeller inom bostadsannonsering påverkar intressenter på bostadsmarknaden. Vidare bidrar arbetet också genom att innefatta riktlinjer för branschen att rätta sig efter vid användning av modeller i sin marknadsföring av bostäder.

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  • 25.
    Agius, David
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Jansson, Andreas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Relationen mellan ledarskap och organisationskultur i krishantering: En empirisk studie av Crisis Response Leadership Matrix2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Organizations depend on a leader in crisis situations, but how does leadership need to be adapted to the prevailing organizational culture? Previous research has presented a model Crisis Response Leadership Matrix (CRLM) to match the right leader for a given organizational culture. The purpose of this study is to develop the spectrum of the CRLM model through empirical observations. Specific research questions are: (1) Based on Swedish leaders’ experiences of crisis management, how did the leadership adapt to the organizational culture, type of crisis and the phase of the crisis? (2) Based on Swedish leaders' experiences of crisis management, to what extent does CRLM correspond with those experiences? 

    Method: The study has conducted unstructured interviews with seven respondents who have solid experience of crisis management within various organizations. Respondents have rated their organizational culture with (OCAI). Interview data have been presented according to the informants' individual stories with a storytelling method, after which analysis has been done through modeling. 

    Result and Conclusions: The study indicates through the respondents' experiences of crisis management that leadership needs to be adapted through the different phases of the crisis, and to the prevailing organizational culture. The previously presented CRLM was in line with the respondents' experiences. Furthermore, we have been able to identify leadership styles and leadership competencies to develop CRLM in the different phases of the crisis for a given organizational culture. The development was the identified leadership styles empowering and democratic as well as the leadership competencies image and visibility, maintaining an effective organizational culture, creating organizational abilities, and creating trust.

    Contribution of the thesis: The study has developed previous CRLMs with a wider spectrum, which makes it more applicable to organizations.

    Suggestions for future research: CRLM needs to be investigated more empirically and especially for internal crises as well as within market and adhocracy cultures, which was a limitation of this study.

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  • 26.
    Agorelius, Matilda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Najmi, Emmelie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Trivsel och fysisk aktivitet på arbetsplatser: En kvalitativ studie om mäklarverksamheten2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay is to create an increased understanding of well-being in workplaces and how joint physical training can affect the well-being and business operations. A qualitative method with semi-structured interviews is used. The sample is limited to four brokerage offices with a total of ten respondents. According to the respondents, the most important factors for well-being at workplaces are colleagues, followed by management and joint physical activity. Flexible working hours and flexible workplaces are considered the least important for creating well-being. Joint physical training at the workplace contributes to increased productivity. Further research can be done to investigate whether the type of exercise has any effect on well-being. It is also interesting to investigate whether the time of the joint training sessions has an impact on the number of participants and whether the time of the joint training has any impact on productivity. Finally, further research can be done by investigating how joint physical training affects the well-being and operations in other industries.

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  • 27.
    Ahldén, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Domeij, Petter
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Effekterna på företags finansiella rapporter och nyckeltal efter införandet av IFRS 162019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Den nya leasingstandarden IFRS 16 träder i kraft i år, 2019, vilken innebär att företag ska kapitalisera sina operationella leasingavtal. Huvudsyftet med studien är därför att undersöka hur denna kapitalisering påverkar företag med avseende på deras finansiella rapporter och nyckeltal. Studien har även ett delsyfte vilket är att undersöka hur väl kapitaliseringsmodellen har estimerat operationella leasingavtalens påverkan utifrån utvalda nyckeltal hos företag.

    Metod: Studien använder ett kvantitativt tillvägagångssätt med en deduktiv forskningsansats. Empiriska data har samlats in med hjälp av en innehållsanalys där de dokument som granskats är årsredovisningar. Det insamlade materialet har sedan granskats med hjälp av deskriptiv statistik och bivariata analyser. Kapitaliseringsmodellen har också tillämpats för att kunna jämföra modellens estimeringar med verkliga utfallet. Resultaten har sedan diskuterats och lett till studiens slutsatser.

    Resultat & Slutsats: Resultaten av studien visar att tillgångar och skulder ökar för företag efter införandet av IFRS 16. Studien kommer fram till att branscherna hälsovård och detaljhandel kommer påverkas mest, att mindre företag samt mindre finansiellt begränsade företag påverkas mer. Studien finner att kapitaliseringsmodellen i regel har fungerat bra, främst inom branschen fastigheter och för större företag.

    Uppsatsens bidrag: Teoretiskt bidrar studien till avsaknaden av forskning om de faktiska effekterna hos företag på grund av implementeringen av IFRS 16. Den ger också ett svar på hur väl kapitaliseringsmodellen har fungerat, vilket kan vara användbart för såväl analytiker som forskare. Det praktiska bidraget är att studien bidrar till en ökad förståelse kring hur företag och olika branscher påverkas av den nya leasingstandarden.

    Förslag till fortsatt forskning: Ett förslag till vidare forskning är att studera ett större urval för att kunna få ett mer generaliserbart resultat. Ett annat förslag är att göra liknande studier i andra länder, för att se om regelförändringen slår hårdare på andra marknader.

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  • 28.
    Ahlenius, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration. KTH, Fastighetsföretagande och finansiella system.
    The impact of motivation and person-job fit on employee turnover among Swedish real estate brokers: A mixed method approach2022Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Residential real estate is a vital part of the economy, and homes are important for individuals for both financial and emotional reasons. Residential homes change owners for numerous reasons, and there is a need for these transactions to be secure and efficient from both the economic and individual perspective. The general idea of residential real estate brokerage is to facilitate these transactions securely and efficiently. Real estate brokerage has therefore captured both media as well as scholarly interest. Some scholars even argue that brokerage is a relevant research and literature field of its own. Like other occupations within sales, the brokerage industry suffers from problems connected to recruiting and retaining employees, as put forth by several spokespersons within the industry and scholars alike. Prior studies argue that there is a need for further studies that describe the occupational life cycle of brokers and employee turnover antecedents, such as intrinsic motivation. Hence, the overarching purpose of this thesis is to describe and analyze occupational turnover and its antecedents among Swedish real estate brokers. This thesis sprung out of a firsthand occupational experience of Swedish brokerage, curiosity, and an abductive stance toward knowledge creation. It is primarily explorative, and the embedded articles consist of different types of methodologic approaches and therefore also different ways of gathering data such as interviews, surveys, and registered data. All data solely involves Swedish real estate brokers. Results of the four articles show that the occupational life cycle of brokers is significantly longer than expected and that Swedish brokers display high levels of work-related intrinsic motivation, occasionally rooted in affective commitment towards customers and gained trust from sellers. Furthermore, being driven by gained trust and customer relations has a positive effect on person-job fit which in turn reduces turnover intentions. A majority of the results within the four articles are not in line with prior studies, which is interesting and prompts speculation. The service landscape of brokerage, and particularly Swedish brokerage due to the broker’s intermediary role and personal responsibility for the entire transaction, arguably drives intrinsic motivation and reduces turnover. This is enhanced by the high educational threshold for becoming a broker in Sweden. This thesis contributes to the literature field of brokerage by providing insights about what motivates brokers and the theoretical field of person-job fit by suggesting ways of improving the operationalization and the validity of person-job fit.

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  • 29.
    Ahlenius, Martin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Berggren, Björn
    KTH.
    Gerdemark, Tommy
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Kågström, Jonas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Åge, Lars-Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    The occupational life cycle of real estate brokers: a cohort study2022In: Journal of European Real Estate Research, ISSN 1753-9269, E-ISSN 1753-9277, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 351-367Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this article is to describe and analyze the occupational life cycle of Swedish real estate brokers.

    Design/methodology/approachVoluntary turnover among real estate brokers could lead to occupational turnover and/or employee turnover and has been described as problematic by both practitioners and researchers alike. Most previous studies focusing on this issue have explored connections between real estate brokers' personality, economic and market conditions and turnover. Employee turnover involves shifting jobs within the profession (real estate brokerage), whereas occupational turnover concerns movement to a job not related to the real estate brokerage profession. Both perspectives on turnover are however lacking data about the average time spent as a broker. This study fills this gap by exploring real estate brokers' life cycle through data analysis using a cohort study consisting of a sample of 5,304 real estate brokers registered and/or deregistered over a ten-year period from 2010 to 2019.

    Findings

    The analysis show that the decline is almost linear, resulting in 50% of the newly registered real estate brokers remain in the occupation eight years after registration. These findings are not in line with previous assumptions as the real estate brokers' life cycle is substantially longer. The results also reveal that there are differences in life cycles due to gender and year of registration.

    Originality/value

    The analysis of longitudinal, aggregated data on the life cycle of real estate brokers is highly relevant as it serves as a point of reference for future longitudinal studies analyzing the motives for leaving the occupation.

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  • 30.
    Ahlenius, Martin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Berggren, Björn
    KTH.
    Kågström, Jonas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Exploring Motivational Factors Among High Performing Real Estate Brokers: The Swedish Case2021In: Journal of Real Estate Practice and Education, ISSN 1521-4842, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 20-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this exploratory case study is to analyze the role of relational motivation for high-performing real estate brokers in Sweden. The concept of relational motivation, or relatedness, is explored through both affective and calculative commitment. The data in this study come from in-depth interviews with real estate brokers. The results show that the brokers are committed to their clients, in an affective and a calculative way. All of the participants expressed signs of being emotionally involved in their customer relations, often in terms of genuine interest in, and caring for, their clients. The existence of relatedness toward customers in a brokerage context contributes to the discussion on what motivates high-performing real estate brokers. By viewing relatedness as a trigger to engage in more customer relationships, the intrinsic motivation can be seen as a strong antecedent to individual performance.

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  • 31.
    Ahlenius, Martin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE).
    Berggren, Björn
    Åge, Lars-Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    The impact of gained trust on person-job fit and occupational turnover. The case of residential real estate brokersManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores if received trust is intrinsically motivating and if it is associated with subjective person-job fit and occupational turnover intentions in the Swedish brokerage setting. Results from 397 real estate brokers showed that brokers are driven by the gained trust from their sellers and that gained trust is a vital part of person-job fit within brokerage. Furthermore, increased levels of person-job fit strongly reduce occupational turnover intentions within brokerage. This study offers further insights into intrinsic motivation in professional service settings and indicates that certain types of customer interactions help to fulfill the basic psychological needs of competence and relatedness.

  • 32.
    Ahlenius, Martin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE).
    Kågström, Jonas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Do intrinsic rewards matter for Swedish real estate brokers? A quantitative empirical generalizationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - Intrinsic motivation affects job satisfaction and turnover intention. Still, previous motivational studies among real estate brokers (brokers) have primarily focused on extrinsic rewards leaving intrinsic rewards/motivation practically unexplored. The purpose of this study is therefore to evaluate the role of both satisfaction with intrinsic rewards (SIR) and satisfaction with extrinsic rewards (SER) on job satisfaction and turnover intention among Swedish brokers.

    Design/methodology/approach - This article is an empirical generalization and extension of Mosquera et al.’s (2020) article conducted among brokers in Portugal. Using a sample of 910 Swedish brokers, the study analyzes a conceptual framework and tests hypotheses by using partial least squares (PLS).

    Findings - Results indicate that SIR has a very strong impact on job satisfaction, which is not the case in the Portuguese sample. On the other hand, SER does not have an impact on job satisfaction, which is the case in the Portuguese sample. SIR does not have an impact on turnover intention in the Swedish sample, whereas SER does. Job satisfaction has twice the positive impact on turnover intention in the Swedish sample compared to the Portuguese. Furthermore, job satisfaction mediates the relationship between SIR/SER and turnover intention.

    Research limitations/implications - Findings of this study extend the existing literature of satisfaction with extrinsic and in particular intrinsic rewards on job satisfaction and turnover intention in the context of the brokerage industry. The most interesting difference between the samples is that Swedish brokers display much higher levels of satisfaction with intrinsic rewards. On the other hand, Swedish brokers appear to be less driven by extrinsic rewards, which is not in line with prior studies within brokerage.

    Practical implications - Both managers and students planning to become brokers should consider that SIR has a stronger impact on job satisfaction than SER. What are perceived as intrinsic rewards, however, is highly subjective, which is troublesome from a managerial perspective, even more so as SIR is much harder to influence than SER. Given that intrinsic motivation is primarily a consequence of needs fulfillment, screening of applicants for person-job fit ought to increase job satisfaction and reduce turnover given its focus on the congruence between job demands and worker’s needs, respectively what a job provides and the worker’s needs.

    Originality/value - This study contributes to the brokerage research field by indicating that being a broker differs substantially between countries and that intrinsic rewards matter for Swedish brokers.

  • 33.
    Ahlenius, Martin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Kågström, Jonas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Fat cats or sociable wolves? Swedish real estate brokers and intrinsic rewards - A quantitative empirical generalization2023In: Journal of European Real Estate Research, ISSN 1753-9269, E-ISSN 1753-9277, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 92-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Intrinsic motivation affects job satisfaction and turnover intention. Still, previous motivational studies among real estate brokers (brokers) have primarily focused on extrinsic rewards, leaving intrinsic rewards/motivation practically unexplored. The purpose of this study is therefore to evaluate the role of both satisfaction with intrinsic rewards (SIR) and satisfaction with extrinsic rewards (SER) on job satisfaction and turnover intention among Swedish brokers.

    Design/methodology/approach

    This article is a replication, more precisely an empirical generalization and extension, of Mosquera et al .’s (2020) study conducted among brokers in Portugal. Using a sample of 910 Swedish brokers, the study analyzes a conceptual framework and tests hypotheses by using partial least squares (PLS).

    Findings

    Results indicate that SIR has a very strong impact on job satisfaction, which is not the case in the Portuguese sample. On the other hand, SER does not have an impact on job satisfaction, which is the case in the Portuguese sample. SIR does not have an impact on turnover intention in the Swedish sample, whereas SER does. Job satisfaction has twice the positive impact on turnover intention in the Swedish sample compared to the Portuguese. Furthermore, job satisfaction mediates the relationship between SIR/SER and turnover intention.

    Research limitations/implications

    Findings of this study extend the existing literature of satisfaction with extrinsic and in particular intrinsic rewards on job satisfaction and turnover intention in the context of the brokerage industry. The most interesting difference between the samples is that Swedish brokers display much higher levels of satisfaction with intrinsic rewards. On the other hand, Swedish brokers appear to be less driven by extrinsic rewards, which is not in line with prior studies within brokerage.Practical implicationsBoth managers and students planning to become brokers should consider that SIR has a stronger impact on job satisfaction than SER. What are perceived as intrinsic rewards, however, is highly subjective, which is troublesome from a managerial perspective, even more so as SIR is much harder to influence than SER. Given that intrinsic motivation is primarily a consequence of needs fulfillment, screening of applicants for person-job fit ought to increase job satisfaction and reduce turnover given its focus on the congruence between job demands and worker’s needs, respectively, what a job provides and the worker’s needs.

    Originality/value

    This study contributes to the brokerage research field by indicating that being a broker differs substantially between countries and that intrinsic rewards matter for Swedish brokers.

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  • 34.
    Ahlgren, Elin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Ahlstedt, Frida
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Miljömässigt- och socialt ansvarstagande i SME: - En studie om motiv vid implementeringen av CSR2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Environmental and social responsibility in SMEs - A study of underlying motivation when implementing CSR in Swedish SMEs.

     

    Level: Final assignment for Bachelor Degree in Business Administration 

     

    Author: Elin Ahlgren and Frida Ahlstedt

     

    Supervisor: Tomas Källquist and Pär Villhelmson

     

    Date: June - 2018

                        

    Aim: Previous research presents the majority of motives when implementing CSR. Motivations raise awareness of why companies implement CSR. Knowledge about the motivation for implementing CSR in SMEs is inadequate, as previous studies have primarily focused on large companies. The aim of the study is to increase understanding of the motives underlying the implementation of CSR in SMEs, focusing on the value-motive, the economy-motive and the stakeholder-motive.

                        

    Method: The study is based on a hermeneutical and social constructivist perspective with an abductive research effort. The study applies a qualitative survey method in which empirical data collection was conducted using semi-structured interviews. The theoretical frame of reference is based on previous research and the empirical material is grouped according to the themes and categories that arose during the interviews. Based on the abductive research effort, the theoretical reference frame and empirical data have been analyzed in interaction with each other to answer the purpose of the study.

                    

    Conclusions: The study suggests that the value-driven, the performance-drivenand the stakeholder-driven motive form the basis for implementing CSR in SMEs. The study also shows that the value-driven motive is the motive considered to be the most central and significant role in implementing CSR in SMEs.

     

    Suggestions for future research: Further research should focus on the importance of the motives when implementing CSR in specific industries. Also, the stakeholders' perspective on the issue can be studied by looking at whether the motives for implementing CSR are perceived by stakeholders.

     

    Contribution of the thesis: From a theoretical perspective, this study contributes with an understanding that the value-driven, the performance-drivenand the stakeholder-driven motive can be applied in a study on implementation of CSR in SMEs. From a practical perspective, this study contributes with advice about how companies and their leaders can increase knowledge about CSR and apply CSR-activities tailored to the company's conditions.

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  • 35.
    Ahlin, Emmeli
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Skog, Sandra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Corporate Social Responsibility, CSR, som del av företagens varumärke: Påverkar CSR kunderna vid val av butik?2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT

    Title: Corporate Social Responsibility, CSR, as part of the corporate brand – Affects CSR costumers´choice at the store?

    Level: Final assignment for Bachelor Degree in Business Administration

    Author: Emmelie Ahlin & Sandra Skog

    Supervisor: Agneta Sundström

    Date: 2013 – May

    Aim: The aim is to describe and analyze how companies work with CSR as part of the brand and how it affects consumers when choosing store.

    Method: The study applied quantitative methodology and supporting data collection is survey carried out. The data collected is processed and presented in the report by the use of pie charts and bar charts. We have also used qualitative method by carrying out two e-mail interviews with Coop and ICA. Secondary data was collected through the Internet and from corporate websites. To obtain theoretical support, we have used scientific articles and books. The results were analyzed by compiling and encoding the material that we collected. 

    esult & Conclusions: The results show that companies in the study present itself as very responsible on the website. The interviews show that both companies, represented by Coop and ICA, that they put a lot of work in CSR. They work closely with various organizations and the environmental label products as consumers through to purchase can contribute to a better environment and a better society. From analysis shows that firms operating in a similar way when it comes to CSR. The difference is that Coop is working more with communication in relation to customers than what ICA does. With regard to consumers, they believe that Coop is more responsible than ICA. One conclusion is that customers believe that CSR is important but when they get to the actual choices they choose based on other criteria. 

    Suggestions for future research: What we see as interesting to further research is how consumers prioritize and select retailers in other industries. Another proposal is to study how the companies in our study may influence consumers to make more responsible choices.

    Contribution of the thesis: The study grant is that we have been able to show that the majority of consumers believe it is important that the store they shop in taking social and environmental responsibility for the products they sell. We have seen that even though they say that it is essential to social and environmental responsibility, it has low importance when choosing store. Consumers say it's important to social and environmental responsibility, but then when they choose themselves, it's proximity to the most important thing.

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  • 36.
    Ahlin, Hanna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Bäck, Marcus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Uppfattningen av krishanteringen vid en förtroendekris: En fallstudie av fackförbundet Kommunals kriskommunikation2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med studien är att öka förståelsen för hur kriskommunikation vid en förtroendekris används och hur förtroendeingivande kriskommunikationen uppfattas av allmänheten, med utgångspunkt från Image restoration theory.

    Metod: Studiens metoder består av en kombination av en kvalitativ innehållsanalys och en kvantitativ enkätstudie.

    Resultat & Slutsats: Det som kan synas i resultaten av innehållsanalysen är att kriskommunikationen vid en förtroendekris innefattar strategierna “korrigerande åtgärd”, “bakomliggande orsaker”, “goda avsikter”, “erkännande av fel”, “stöttande”, “minimera”, “fördel” och “enkel förnekelse”. De strategier som inte användes vid en förtroendekris var “skylla ifrån sig”, “olycka”, “differentiering”, “attackera den anklagande parten”, “provokation” och “kompensera”. Intressenternas uppfattning beror dels på målgrupp, användning av strategierna och mediernas inverkan. Mest förtroendeingivande ansågs “erkännande av fel”, “korrigerande åtgärd” och “kompensation”. Minst förtroendeingivande ansågs “enkel förnekelse”, “olycka”, “anklaga den attackerande parten” och “skylla ifrån sig”. Förberedande åtgärder har också upptäckts vara väldigt viktigt vid en förtroendekris. 

    Förslag på fortsatt forskning: Komplettera nuvarande studie med kvalitativa intervjuer med intressenter; Utföra ytterligare en fallstudie av Kommunal med fokus på det efterarbete och förberedande åtgärder som tillämpas för att undvika att hamna i samma situation igen; Komplettera nuvarande studie med en ostrukturerad innehållsanalys för att utläsa eventuella uttalanden från Kommunal som inte faller inom ramen för Image restoration theory.

    Uppsatsens bidrag: Studien ger organisationer en bättre helhetsbild av hur de ska kommunicera med allmänheten vid en förtroendekris, på allmänhetens villkor. Studien bidrar till att presentera ett heltäckande verktyg som kan vägleda dem att använda kriskommunikationen på ett sätt som dels minskar hotet mot organisationens rykte och dels bygger förtroendekapital hos intressenterna i ett tidigt skede.

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  • 37.
    Ahlm, Matilda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Eriksson, Sabina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Hur företag redovisar hållbarhetsinformation från sina underleverantörer: En studie på svenska börsnoterade företag2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Questions about environment, human rights, social conditions and anti-corruption are a growing area of discussions in business. Because of this, it is not enough for companies to just think about the consequences of their own actions, or their direct suppliers, companies also have to take all the other companies in their supply chain into consideration. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to describe how companies report sustainable information from their suppliers. Further, the purpose is to examine which factors can explain the amount of information from suppliers and which information the companies choose to report. These factors are line of business, which have not been investigated before, and the previous investigated factor size.

    The paper has a positivistic base and a quantitative method, and a deductive research approach has been applied. The paper’s empirical material are collected by annual reports and presented in charts and tables. The analysis has compared data to theories and previous research. The paper’s results indicate that most companies that include sustainability in their annual report also include their suppliers. There is a wide variation in the use of sustainability indicators for the companies who include their suppliers. Further, the results show that only one of the investigated factors can explain how the companies report sustainability information from their suppliers.

    Suggestions for future research is to investigate why some companies does not report sustainability information regarding their suppliers. Further, it would be interesting to study this in a few years, to see if any practice has been established regarding the companies reporting of sustainability information from the suppliers.

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  • 38.
    Ahlm, Matilda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Eriksson, Sabina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Hur företag redovisar värdeskapande genom The International <IR> Framework2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Society awareness of environmental issues has recently increased, which also led to the increase in demand for sustainability reporting. This has in turn resulted in the number of sustainability report becoming more and more recent. Sustainability reports are therefore usually very long and complex as the stakeholder’s needs are wide and large. Since these reports have not previously been integrated with the financial information of the company, this is something that should be done and therefore results in so-called integrated reporting. IR is a way for companies to report their value creation in the short, medium and long term. The purpose of IR is to expand traditional approaches to managing the various capital and business model that affect value creation. Based on this, the purpose on the study has been developed, which is to analyse how companies report value creation by applying the framework The International <IR> Framework.The study has a positivist point of departure and a major qualitative research strategy but with some quantitative elements in which a deductible research effort has been applied. The empirical material of the study has been collected from integrated reports and presented by diagram. The analysis has been carried out by data against previous research. The study's results show that business models affect the company's presentation of the value creation and that the International <IR> Framework is applied more and more when companies report a lot of capital. This result shows that it is in line with previous research and that the content element business model is a useful tool for reporting value creation. Suggestions for further research is to investigate why many companies do not link their business model with value creation though this study shows that the business model is useful tool for reporting value creation. Further, it would also be interesting to conduct a similar study when The International <IR> Framework has established itself and then study whether there are any significant differences.

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  • 39.
    Ahlqvist, Anders
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Andersson, Simon
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Motivations påverkan på fastighetsmäklares prestation under en nedåtgående marknad2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation influences broker performance during a down market.

    Level: Bachelor's degree thesis in business administration

    Author: Simon Andersson and Anders Ahlqvist

    Supervisor: Lars-Johan Åge

    Date: 2023 June

    Purpose: This study aims to understand which motivational factors most clearly affect real estate agents' motivation and performance when the housing market is down. We apply internal and external motivation according to self-determination theory in the brokerage profession.

    Method: The study was conducted according to a qualitative research strategy. The respondents were selected after purposive sampling and were then interviewed using semi-structured interviews with an inductive research approach. The empirical material was coded using grounded theory, which led us to identify six categories linked to brokers' internal and external motivations. The categories are image, wealth, interest/learning, relationships, fame/recognition and health.

    Results and conclusion: The study indicate that it is essential to have balance in life, private and at work, to be motivated and perform well as a broker in a declining market. However, it is also crucial that the organization understands the individual needs and motivates in an adapted way. In order to be motivated as a broker and get maximum performance, internal and external motivation factors are needed. In a down market, internal factors have a more decisive effect on brokers' motivation and performance at home and work.

    Contribution of the thesis: When companies have a greater understanding of how their employees are motivated and which motivational factors contribute most to better performance, they can implement measures that promote employee motivation to achieve the highest possible performance. Bringing out the maximum capacity of your employees is especially important during down markets to counteract the adverse effects that follow from a down market. Also, having an understanding and being able to identify one's motivational factors and having the insight that it can change during worse markets can contribute to not only motivation that leads to better performance but also having an insight into how you as an individual should work and set up goals to maintain motivation in your profession.

    Suggestions for further research: Our study has investigated the impact of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation on real estate agent's performance in a down market, and where it points to a mix of both motivational factors leading to the best performance, but that extrinsic motivation has a minor impact compared to a better market. It would have been interesting to investigate which external motivational factors reduce the impact on real estate agents as it leads to the industry's ability to streamline how they use extrinsic motivation to improve brokers' performance.

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  • 40.
    Ahlqvist, Malin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Örn, Niklas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    En studie av den positiva marknadsreaktionen vid VD-byten i Norden: Hur reagerar investerare på kön, ålder och rekryteringskrets vid tillkännagivandet av en ny VD?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: A study of the positive market reaction to CEO changes in the Nordic region.

    Level: Student thesis, final assignment for Bachelor Degree in Business Administration 

    Authors: Malin Ahlqvist and Niklas Örn

    Supervisor: Jan Svanberg

    Date: 2019 - June

    Aim: The purpose of this study is to analyze how the Scandinavian market reacts to the announcement of a new CEO and to analyze how the factors gender, age and recruitment method can affect this reaction.

    Method: The study has a positivistic research philosophy with a deductive basis. The study applies an Event study and is thus associated with a quantitative research method.

    Result & Conclusions: The results of the study indicate a positive market reaction in Scandinavia at the announcement of a CEO change. The study also indicates a positive market reaction for both women and men. Furthermore, the study indicate that the market reaction is positive in Sweden and Finland as well as negative in Denmark and Norway. The market reaction for men under median age is positive while the reaction for men over median age is negative, the market reaction for women based on age is opposite to men. The study indicates that there is a positive reaction when the incoming CEO is internally recruited and a negative reaction when the incoming CEO is externally recruited. However, some parts of the results are not significant, therefore it cannot be ruled out that certain parts of the results are random.

    Contribution of the thesis: This thesis contributes to fill the research gap that exists regarding the market reaction to CEO changes related to age, gender, recruitment method and a comparative Scandinavian perspective.

    Suggestions for future research: This study shows on several occasions a significant market reaction the day before the actual announcement date of the CEO change, we believe a study to further study the reason behind this result would be of interest. Two more suggestions for further research are presented in the study.

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  • 41.
    Ahlström, Sofia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Wangsell, Niklas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    The impact of club card on store loyalty: An empirical study of a Swedish grocery retailer2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to investigate whether club card loyalty have an impact on customers store loyalty. A secondary purpose is to distinguish which attributes of a loyalty card that ICA’s customers prefer, with the focus on the variables; direct- versus indirect rewards, monetary- versus nonmonetary rewards, necessary- versus luxury rewards and immediate- versus delayed rewards.

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    Sofia&Niklas
  • 42.
    Ahmad, Naveed
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Guerrero, eduardo
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Influence of Social Media on Brand Awareness: A Study on Small Businesses2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Influence of Social Media on Brand Awareness: A Study on Small Businesses

    Authors: Eduardo Guerrero, Naveed Ahmad

    Supervisor: Maria Fregidou-MalamaExaminer: Daniella Fjellström

    Date: 2020 – January

    Aim: The aim of this research study is to find the influence of social media marketing in smallbusinesses to create or increase brand awareness. Additionally, this study will analyze the rolethat social media platforms have in the relationship between customers and companies after theyare aware of the brand.

    Methodology: A qualitative method is used in this research study based on the hermeneuticresearch tradition, in the form of semi-structured interviews from ten owners from smallbusinesses globally. We use an inductive approach in order to reach its intended goal. A thematicanalysis is included to find important themes within the interviews.

    Result & Conclusions: Through interviews with the owners and partners of small businesses,and going over previously written literature on the matter, the authors of this study have come tothe conclusion that social media marketing highly influences small businesses in a positive wayin creating brand awareness. Additionally, there is a better understanding of how social mediahelps build a strong and good relationship between a business and customers.

    Suggestions for Future Research: There is an interest for further studies by covering more smallbusiness. It will provide a higher contribution to the research if the customers were included inthe interviews or given surveys to complete. More authors should be interested in the continuanceof research for businesses that are small, either product or service organizations, and even therelationship they have not only between B2C but B2B as well, and lastly if a partnership affectsthe decision when it comes to investment for advertisement.

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  • 43.
    Ahmad, Sohail
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Batkhuu, Bolortuya
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Reverse Knowledge Transfer: From Emerging Markets to Developed Markets2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study aims to investigate the process of RKT from EM subsidiaries to DM MNCs along with the factors that influence this process.

    Method: Following qualitative research with inductive approach, the data was collected through semi-structured interviews from 10 senior managers of MNCs in various fields, including Information Technology, Project Management, Engineering, Logistics and Telecommunication. Grounded theory was used to analyze the empirical findings.

    Findings: The results show that EM subsidiaries’ knowledge skills, disseminative capacity, autonomy, and external embeddedness have significant influence on RKT. On the other hand, parent companies, as receiving units, play important role with its absorptive capacity and perception toward the subsidiaries. Moreover, mediating factors such as internal embeddedness, cultural awareness, knowledge relevance and communication context affect the process of RKT between EM subsidiaries and parent companies in developed markets. Finally, RKT from EM subsidiaries can contribute to MNCs innovation, subsidiaries productivity, and can further lead to intra organizational knowledge transfer through internal networks.

    Implications: Theoretically, the research proposes a holistic model of RKT process along with the factors that influence the course of knowledge sharing from EM subsidiaries to DM parent companies. This model offers practical guidelines for international managers both at parent companies and subsidiaries level to promote RKT process to achieve and sustain MNCs’ competitive advantage through innovation.

    Download (pdf)
    Reverse Knowledge Transfer Sohail and Bolor Thesis Final Report
  • 44.
    Ahmadi, Elena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Vilhelmson, Pär
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Macassa, Gloria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science.
    Larsson, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    FRAMFÖR (Framgångsrika företag i Gästrikland): ett longitudinellt projekt om ledarskap, arbetsmiljö och effektivitet – fördel för både forskning, utbildning och ett hållbart arbetsliv?2016In: Inkluderande och hållbart arbetsliv: Book of abstracts - FALF 2016, Östersund: Mittuniversitetet , 2016, p. 48-48Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektbeskrivning: FRAMFÖR har under 15 år bedrivits i Gästrikland i samarbete mellan utbildning och forskning vid Högskolan i Gävle, företagsutvecklare vid kommuner, företag och näringslivsorganisationer. Varje år delas utmärkelsen FRAMFÖR ut till 50 företag. Ambitionen är att uppmuntra framgångsrika företagare och visa upp intressanta exempel på hur framgång kan skapas. Processen startar med att 120 företag (>4 anställda) nomineras utifrån finansiella kriterier (ex. omsättningstillväxt, vinstmarginal). Sedan genomför studenter vid Ekonomprogrammet intervjuer med cheferna för dessa företag. Intervjuerna sker utifrån ett standardiserat frågeformulär kring arbetsmiljö, ledarskap, organisering och effektivitet. Avslutningsvis väljer en jury ut de 50 mest framgångsrika företagen utifrån såväl finansiella kriterier som studenternas intervjuresultat. Projektets trippel helixuppbyggnad (Utbildning, Forskning och, Företag) skapar nyttor för olika intressenter.

    Utbildningsnyttor: Studenterna får möjlighet till interaktion med företagare i sin direkta närhet. Aktiviteterna underlättar att uppfylla utbildningsmål där flera mål kan uppfyllas med samma aktiviteter. Förståelse för näringslivets förutsättningar samt kunskaper om ett vetenskapligt angreppssätt ökar.

    Forskningsnyttor: Stärker pågående forskning om hälsofrämjande och effektivt ledarskap inom arbetshälsovetenskap samt företagsutveckling inom företagsekonomi. Det stora urvalet av företag ger en bra bild av företagen i regionen och en möjlighet att följa dem över tid. Ambitionen är att få mer kunskap om hållbara och effektiva företag. Fördjupade studier av utmärkelseföretag möjliggörs och ett doktorandprojekt med inriktning på ledarskapsbeteenden, organisationsfaktorer, tidsanvändning samt chefers/medarbetares arbetsmiljö/hälsa i utmärkelseföretag är uppstartat.

    Företagsnyttor: Företagare får möta studenter och förstå hur de tänker. Ställda frågor, t.ex. rörande arbetsmiljö och ledarskap, kan starta reflektionsprocesser som bidrar till fortsatt utveckling. FRAMFÖR-utmärkelsen delas ut vid en högtidlig tillställning där företagarna kan bygga nätverk. Flera företagare lyfter fram det positiva symbolvärdet av att få utmärkelsen.

    Projektets framtid: Målet är att fortsätta ytterligare 15 år och fortsätta utveckla nyttorna för samtliga intressenter. Ett prioriterat område är återkoppling till företag i någon form samt ökad samverkan mellan studenter och företagare.

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  • 45.
    Ahmadi, Zahra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration. KTH.
    Market orientation and public housing companies in the Swedish declining market2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The licentiate thesis consists of three papers with the particular topic in public housing. They discuss how the public housing companies manage the transition to higher economic demands meeting increased customer and market requirements. These studies focus specifically on how the public housing company deal with market challenges associated with the decision to demolish, maintain and/or new construction. Market-oriented perspective can be a tool for the public housing companies to achieve better customer value and enhance economic development. Although the market orientation concept has contributed to valuable improvements in research, the thesis assumes that it is necessary to distinguish between that the public housing companies operate market-oriented to meet customer requirements and their focus on innovation. Paper I develops market/innovation types and then investigates how public housing companies adapt to these types. It was found that economic conditions in the municipality have a major impact on the housing companies, causing them to act innovatively and create superior customer value by innovations. The study confirms that the implementation of market and innovation orientation contributes to competitive advantages in growing markets, while weak economic conditions impair implementation in declining markets. Paper II addresses how public housing companies in declining markets act based on the concept of market intelligence. This study suggested and tested whether there is a positive link between collecting customer information, disseminating it in the organization, and responding to customer needs, and whether this link has an impact on strategic performance. The result shows that weak links exist in the process; the efficiency of intelligence distribution in public housing companies is affected mainly by their responsiveness to customer needs. Paper III also addresses the public housing companies’ market strategies in declining markets. This study, based on a market-strategic perspective, compares how public housing companies act in relation to customer wants compared to the private housing market. The result shows that public housing companies are more engaged in carrying out new construction, renovation, and reconstruction, as well as taking more social responsibility compared to the private sector. In particular, their concern for the customers’ social needs is evident.

  • 46.
    Ahmadi, Zahra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Moderating effects on market orientation and strategic performance: A study of public housing companies in Sweden2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Ahmadi, Zahra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Moderating effects on the market orientation and strategic performance relationship in public housing2019In: Baltic Journal of Management, ISSN 1746-5265, E-ISSN 1746-5273, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 559-577Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this study is to examine how external factors moderate public housing companies’ market orientation and strategic performance relationship.

    Design/methodology/approach – The quantitative method was applied to data from a survey sent to 289 public housing companies in Sweden. A hierarchical, multicollinearity diagnostics–moderated regression analysis is used to test the research hypotheses.

    Findings – The results reveal moderating factors. The companies take several initiatives to inform themselves about customers’ needs and distribute the information within the company, but economic conditions, as well as market and technological turbulence in the municipalities, moderate the relationship between market orientation and strategic performance. Economic conditions make it difficult for public housing companies to strategically act based on market needs when making decisions and planning construction strategies (strategic performance).

    Research limitations/implications – This study is limited by focusing on public housing companies, a sector that differs radically from the open market. The study highlights the effects of moderating factors that are important for companies’ strategic performance and long-term construction strategies. From this limited focus, researchers might use the results to compare both similar and different market situations.

    Practical implications – The results of the study are useful for companies facing a similar market situation of external moderating constraints. The result might be used in future research related to the area in focus.

    Originality –This research adds new knowledge to market research by including the impact of economic conditions, which provide insight into how to develop and use market knowledge in real estate and public housing markets.

  • 48.
    Ahmadi, Zahra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    The role of competitive strategy and market orientation: the effect of innovation and sustainability - a study of public housing companies2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Ahmadi, Zahra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration. KTH, Bygg- och fastighetsekonomi.
    The role of market orientation in public housing companies: A study of MO’s effect on construction strategies2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of public housing companies in Sweden is strongly influenced by legal, economic, and demographic changes. The companies long tradition of taking responsibility for customer welfare in living have recently been criticized for excessive dominance over price setting, which is claimed to give them competitive advantages in the housing market. New legislation in 2011 requires financial return on investment, implying increased competition with radical changes for the companies. Because of the law, they find themselves transitioning from the role of being responsible for living conditions in Sweden to having to work in a businesslike manner with increased competition.The purpose of this dissertation is to analyze how the public housing companies’ deal with market orientation constructs and what their impact is on construction strategy choices. Theoretically, the market orientation concept is seen as a tool for companies to create superior value for the customers and influence strategic performance, which is a relationship tested and analyzed in this dissertation.The research was conducted through data collection stages using qualitative and quantitative methods. In the first stage, a qualitative pilot study was conducted with interviews of 15 managers in 11 public housing companies in central Sweden. In the second stage, two quantitative comparative studies of public and private housing companies in declining markets in central Sweden were conducted, collecting data from 23 (22 survey respondents) public and 37 private housing companies (16 respondents). In the third and final stage, two quantitative studies were conducted, collecting data from all 289 public housing companies (165 respondents) in Sweden.Results of the five studies show, firstly, that economic condition in the municipality have a major impact on the housing companies’ construction strategies, causing them to act innovatively in order to create superior customer value. Secondly, market orientation efforts contribute to competitive advantages in growing markets, while weak economic conditions limit the companies’ construction strategy choices in declining markets. After analyzing the link between market orientation constructs and construction strategy in declining markets, results showed that the public housing companies demonstrate higher responsiveness to customer demands compared to the private sector, but these have no effects on construction strategy. Thirdly, the analysis of moderating (external) and mediating (corporate social responsibility) effects on the market orientation and construction strategy relationship confirms that economic conditions in society influence construction strategy planning and decisions. The results of the mediating effects of CSR indicate that environmental and social issues have a positive influence on the market orientation and construction strategy relationship.

  • 50.
    Ahmadi, Zahra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Vi är lika: Kulturella skillnader och professionalism i internationella projekt2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Title: We are equal. A study of cultural differences and professionalism in international projects.

    Level: Thesis for Master Degree in Business Administration.

    Author: Zahra Ahmadi

    Supervisor: Lars Ekstrand

    Date: 2012-05

    The purpose of my study is to analyze and examine it well-educated people can reduce the cultural differences in interaction with other actors around the world. Part of aims study surveys and analyzes to understand how educated people can communicate and facilitate communication in order to achieve the goals and motivation in international collaboration. Problems can arise from cultural differences in connection with that persons face in society and in international collaboration. In this study, I assume theoretical framework that exists in cultural and communication theme and professionalism to find common objectives within educated groups.

    Method: The purpose of this study, I have chosen to use a qualitative approach. I have conducted interviews with people who work internationally within the company Sandvik and with teachers at the University of Gävle who have worked abroad with teaching. In order to depict how well educated people working in international collaborations, I have seen qualitative research method as relevant. When analyzing the material I have been based on the hermeneutic interpretation in order to elucidate and compare respondents' views on professionalization and the importance of understanding and managing cultural differences in an international context.

    Conclusions: The study shows that highly educated people have a major impact on communication with other people. Professionalism in an international collaboration that is characterized by complexity and knowledge, can thus affect both cultural differences andcommunication in itself. Although personal values differ between different national cultures in terms of language and different ways of working individuals try to adapt to each other in international collaboration. In most cases there are cultural differences that contribute to difficulties in co-operation once, but the study shows that highly educated people solve complexity by applying their knowledge of how problems can be handled. This requires that educated people are aware of the culture, way of interpreting meanings in different contexts, have insight on the institutional structures and rules. Professional people can thus both facilitate communication and leadership, which can contribute to a positive attitude to achieve the objectives of collaboration.

    Suggestions for future research: It may be proposed in the future, a comprehensive study of well-trained groups that meet in different countries. Quantitative can be used methods in both the public and private sectors. It is possible to conduct a quantitative study and compare with qualitative studies and draw conclusions.

    Contribution of the thesis: This study helps to get an attractive understanding of how educated people meet in both the public and private sectors in an international project. My theoretical contribution consists of knowledge in two professional international Swedish organizations. I complement and expand knowledge in the fields of culture and professionalism.

    Despite cultural differences, the professionals communicate regardless of the culture and society they come from. The study can be used by different companies to develop and improve the relationship in an international project. In addition, the study shows that educated people encounter respect and have easier communication than non-educated.

    Keywords: Culture, Communication and Professionalism

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    Zahra Ahmadi
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