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  • 1.
    Aasa, Ulrika
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Jensen, B R
    Sandfeld, J
    Lyskov, Eugene
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Richter, Hans O
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Crenshaw, Albert
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    The impact of computer mouse work with different size objects on subjective perception of fatigue and performance2007In: 39th Annual Congress of the Nordic Ergonomics Society, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Aasa, Ulrika
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, University of Umeå, Sweden.
    Jensen, B. R.
    Sandfeld, J.
    Richter, Hans
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Lyskov, Eugene
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Crenshaw, Albert
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    The impact of object size and precision demands on fatigue during computer mouse use2011In: Advances in Physiotherapy, ISSN 1403-8196, E-ISSN 1651-1948, Vol. 13, no 3, 118-127 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prolonged computer use, especially if fatigue ensues, is associated with visual and musculoskeletal symptoms. The aim was to determine the time-course of perceived fatigue in the wrist, forearm, shoulder and eyes during a 60-min mouse task (painting rectangles), and whether object size and/or mouse use demands were of influence. Also, we investigated performance (number of rectangles painted), and whether perceived fatigue was paralleled by local muscle fatigue or tissue oxygenation. Ten women performed the task for three conditions (crossover design). At condition 1, rectangles were 45 × 25 mm, square paint cursor size 1.3 × 1.3 mm, and mousepointer movement ratio 1:26. At condition 2, the same cursor size and mousepointer movement ratio was used, but rectangles were smaller. At condition 3, the smaller rectangles were used, but the cursor size was also smaller and mousepointer movement ratio was 1:8. The results showed increased self-reported fatigue over time, with the observed increase greater for the eyes, but no change in physiological responses. Condition 2 resulted in higher performance and increased eye fatigue. Perceived fatigue in the muscles or physiological responses did not differ between conditions. In conclusion, computer work tasks imposing high visual and motor demands, and with high performance, seemed to have an influence on eye fatigue. 

  • 3.
    Aasa, Ulrika
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Kalezic, Nebojsa
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Lyskov, Eugene
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Ängquist, Karl-Axel
    Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, University of Umeå, Umeå, Sweden.
    Barnekow-Bergkvist, Margareta
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Stress monitoring of ambulance personnel during work and leisure time2006In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 80, no 1, 51-59 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The aim of the present study was to assess physiological and subjective stress markers during a 24-h ambulance work shift and during the next two work-free days, and relate these parameters to self-reported health complaints. Methods: Twenty-six ambulance personnel were followed during a 24-h work shift and during the next two work-free days with electrocardiogram, cortisol assessments and diary notes. The ambulance personnel also performed tests of autonomic reactivity before and at the end of the work shift. The subjects were categorized into two groups according to their number of health complaints. Results: In general, stress markers did not show differences between the work shift and leisure time. However, a modest deviation in heart rate variability pattern and higher morning cortisol values during work in comparison with work-free days were observed in personnel with many health complaints. Conclusions: Subjective and physiological characteristics of ambulance personnel did not indicate distinctive stress during the 24-h work shift. Relationships between frequent health complaints and specific work-related factors require further prospective studies.

  • 4.
    Aasa, Ulrika
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Wiitavaara, Birgitta
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Personalens hälsa och arbetsmiljö2016In: Prehospital akutsjukvård / [ed] Björn-Ove Suserud, Lars Lundberg, Stockholm: Liber, 2016, 2, 72-79 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Aasa, Ulrika
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Wiitavaara, Birgitta
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Personalens hälsa och arbetsmiljö2009In: Prehospital akutsjukvård / [ed] Suserud, Björn-Ove. Svensson, Leif., Stockholm: Liber , 2009, 33-38 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Aasa, Ulrika
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, physiotherapy, University of Umeå, Umeå, Sweden.
    Ängquist, Karl-Axel
    Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, University of Umea ̊ , Sweden.
    Barnekow-Bergkvist, Margareta
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    The effects of a 1-year physical exercise programme on development of fatigue during a simulated ambulance work task2008In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Ergonomics, Vol. 51, no 8, 1179-1194 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of individually prescribed physical exercise programmes on development of fatigue during the carrying of a loaded stretcher up and down the stairs. Nineteen ambulance personnel performed the training for 1 year. Testing occurred before and after 1 year of the training. Both the training group (n = 19) and the control group (n = 15) were assessed for physical capacity and lactate concentration in blood and ratings of perceived exertion during carrying a stretcher on the stairs. When comparisons were made between those who had been training three times/week for 1 year and the control group, lactate concentration was significantly decreased. In conclusion, markers of fatigue during stretcher carrying can be reduced by the use of individually prescribed physical exercise programmes.

  • 7.
    Abbott, Rebecca
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Straker, Leon
    Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Patterning of children's sedentary time at and away from school2013In: Obesity, ISSN 1930-7381, Vol. 21, E131-E133 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective:

    Sedentary behavior in children is positively associated with an increased risk of both obesity and insulin resistance. Children spend a considerable portion of their awake time in sedentary behavior; however, the pattern of accumulation is not known. Thus the objective of this study was to describe the patterning of sedentary behavior of children at and away from school.

    Design and Methods:

    The patterns of sedentary time in a sample of 53 children (28 girls) aged 10-12 years during school-term time were examined. Children wore an accelerometer for 1 week. Total sedentary time, prolonged sequences (bouts) of sedentary time, and frequency of active interruptions to sedentary were examined on school days and weekends and within school time and non-school time on school days.

    Results:

    The data did not support our hypothesis that children accumulated more sedentary time on school days when compared with weekend days (mean [SD]: 64.4% [5.3] vs. 64.9% [9.0], P = 0.686). However, when comparing school time with non-school time on school days, children accumulated more sedentary time at school (66.8% [7.3] vs. 62.4% [5.2], P < 0.001) and spent more time at school in sustained sedentary sequences, that is, uninterrupted sedentary time for 30 min or more (75.6 min [45.8] vs. 45.0 min [26.8], P < 0.002). The children also recorded less breaks per sedentary hour within school time when compared with non-school time (8.9 h−1 vs. 10.2 h−1, P < 0.001).

    Conclusion:

    Reducing total sedentary time spent both in and out of school remains an important challenge. Interrupting sedentary time more often in the “working” (school) day could also reap important musculoskeletal and metabolic health rewards for children.

  • 8.
    Ahmadi, Elena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Vilhelmson, Pär
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Macassa, Gloria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science.
    Larsson, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    FRAMFÖR (Framgångsrika företag i Gästrikland): ett longitudinellt projekt om ledarskap, arbetsmiljö och effektivitet – fördel för både forskning, utbildning och ett hållbart arbetsliv?2016In: Inkluderande och hållbart arbetsliv: Book of abstracts - FALF 2016, Östersund: Mittuniversitetet , 2016, 48-48 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektbeskrivning: FRAMFÖR har under 15 år bedrivits i Gästrikland i samarbete mellan utbildning och forskning vid Högskolan i Gävle, företagsutvecklare vid kommuner, företag och näringslivsorganisationer. Varje år delas utmärkelsen FRAMFÖR ut till 50 företag. Ambitionen är att uppmuntra framgångsrika företagare och visa upp intressanta exempel på hur framgång kan skapas. Processen startar med att 120 företag (>4 anställda) nomineras utifrån finansiella kriterier (ex. omsättningstillväxt, vinstmarginal). Sedan genomför studenter vid Ekonomprogrammet intervjuer med cheferna för dessa företag. Intervjuerna sker utifrån ett standardiserat frågeformulär kring arbetsmiljö, ledarskap, organisering och effektivitet. Avslutningsvis väljer en jury ut de 50 mest framgångsrika företagen utifrån såväl finansiella kriterier som studenternas intervjuresultat. Projektets trippel helixuppbyggnad (Utbildning, Forskning och, Företag) skapar nyttor för olika intressenter.

    Utbildningsnyttor: Studenterna får möjlighet till interaktion med företagare i sin direkta närhet. Aktiviteterna underlättar att uppfylla utbildningsmål där flera mål kan uppfyllas med samma aktiviteter. Förståelse för näringslivets förutsättningar samt kunskaper om ett vetenskapligt angreppssätt ökar.

    Forskningsnyttor: Stärker pågående forskning om hälsofrämjande och effektivt ledarskap inom arbetshälsovetenskap samt företagsutveckling inom företagsekonomi. Det stora urvalet av företag ger en bra bild av företagen i regionen och en möjlighet att följa dem över tid. Ambitionen är att få mer kunskap om hållbara och effektiva företag. Fördjupade studier av utmärkelseföretag möjliggörs och ett doktorandprojekt med inriktning på ledarskapsbeteenden, organisationsfaktorer, tidsanvändning samt chefers/medarbetares arbetsmiljö/hälsa i utmärkelseföretag är uppstartat.

    Företagsnyttor: Företagare får möta studenter och förstå hur de tänker. Ställda frågor, t.ex. rörande arbetsmiljö och ledarskap, kan starta reflektionsprocesser som bidrar till fortsatt utveckling. FRAMFÖR-utmärkelsen delas ut vid en högtidlig tillställning där företagarna kan bygga nätverk. Flera företagare lyfter fram det positiva symbolvärdet av att få utmärkelsen.

    Projektets framtid: Målet är att fortsätta ytterligare 15 år och fortsätta utveckla nyttorna för samtliga intressenter. Ett prioriterat område är återkoppling till företag i någon form samt ökad samverkan mellan studenter och företagare.

  • 9.
    Albert, Frederic
    et al.
    Laboratoire de Neurobiologie Humaine, Université de Provence, Marseille, France.
    Bergenheim, Mikael
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Department of Surgery, Central Hospital Karlstad, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Ribot-Ciscar, Edith
    Laboratoire de Neurobiologie Humaine, Université de Provence, Marseille, France.
    Roll, Jean-Pierre
    Laboratoire de Neurobiologie Humaine, Université de Provence, Marseille, France.
    The Ia afferent feedback of a given movement evokes the illusion of the same movement when returned to the subject via muscle tendon vibration2006In: Experimental Brain Research, ISSN 0014-4819, E-ISSN 1432-1106, Vol. 172, no 2, 163-174 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to further investigate the contribution of primary muscle spindle feedback to proprioception and higher brain functions, such as movement trajectory recognition. For this purpose, complex illusory movements were evoked in subjects by applying patterns of muscle tendon vibration mimicking the natural Ia afferent pattern. Ia afferent messages were previously recorded using microneurographic method from the six main muscle groups acting on the ankle joint during imposed "writing like" movements. The mean Ia afferent pattern was calculated for each muscle group and used as a template to pilot each vibrator. Eleven different vibratory patterns were applied to ten volunteers. Subjects were asked both to copy the perceived illusory movements by hand on a digitizing tablet and to recognize and name the corresponding graphic symbol. The results show that the Ia afferent feedback of a given movement evokes the illusion of the same movement when it is applied to the subject via the appropriate pattern of muscle tendon vibration. The geometry and the kinematic parameters of the imposed and illusory movements are very similar and the so-called "two-thirds power law" is present in the reproduction of the vibration-induced illusory movements. Vibrations within the "natural" frequency range of Ia fibres firing (around 30 Hz) produce clear illusions of movements in all the tested subjects. In addition, increasing the mean frequency of the vibration patterns resulted in a linear increase in the size of the illusory movements. Lastly, the subjects were able to recognize and name the symbols evoked by the vibration-induced primary muscle spindle afferent patterns in 83% of the trials. These findings suggest that the "proprioceptive signature" of a given movement is associated with the corresponding "perceptual signature". The neural mechanisms possibly underlying the sensory to perceptual transformation are discussed in the general framework of "the neuronal population vector model".

  • 10.
    Aleksandrov, A. A.
    et al.
    St Petersburg State University, Russia.
    Deinekina, T. S.
    St Petersburg State University, Russia.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Lyskov, Eugene B.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    ВЛИЯНИЕ НАБЛЮДЕНИЯ ЗА ДВИЖЕНИЕМ НА ВОССТАНОВЛЕНИЕ РАБОТОСПОСОБНОСТИ ПОСЛЕ ФИЗИЧЕСКОГО УТОМЛЕНИЯ [The influence of movement's observation on recuperation after physical fatigue]2014In: Zurnal vyssej nervnoj deâtel'nosti im. I.P. Pavlova, ISSN 0044-4677, Vol. 64, no 5, 481-487 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study aim was to investigate effects of mental activity, accompanied by mu-rhythm depression, on recuperation after physical fatigue. In a study participants performed 11 one minute bouts of static hand grip intermitted by 2 minutes rest pauses. During pauses participants watched video with either dynamic hand grips (biological movements) or deformation of geometric figure (control). Obtained data showed there was a significant depression of mu-rhythm during biological movement's observation. There was significant fatigue of subjects in an exercise with physical activity, but there was no reliable influence of performed mental activity on recovery after fatigue.

  • 11.
    Andersson, Linus
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Dantoft, Thomas Meinertz
    Danish Research Centre for Chemical Sensitivities, Copenhagen University Hospital Gentofte, Gentofte, Denmark; Department of Systems Biology, Center for Biological Sequence Analysis, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Skovbjerg, Sine
    Danish Research Centre for Chemical Sensitivities, Copenhagen University Hospital Gentofte, Gentofte, Denmark.
    Lind, Nina
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Nordin, Steven
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Chemosensory perception, symptoms and autonomic responses during chemical exposure in multiple chemical sensitivity2016In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 89, no 1, 79-88 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a prevalent medically unexplained symptom characterized by symptom reactions to everyday chemical exposure below hygienic thresholds. The aim of this study was to investigate the expressions of hyper-reactivity in MCS during whole-body exposure to low concentrations of the odorant n-butanol.

    METHODS: We exposed 18 participants with MCS and 18 non-ill controls to a low concentration of the odorant n-butanol using an exposure chamber. The first 10 min constituted blank exposure, after which the n-butanol concentration increased and reached a plateau at 11.5 mg/m(3).

    RESULTS: MCS participants, compared with controls, reported greater perceived odor intensities, more unpleasantness to the exposure and increasing symptoms over time. MCS participants also expressed higher pulse rate and lower pulse rate variability than controls did. No group differences were found for breathing rate or tonic electrodermal activity responses.

    CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that MCS sufferers differ from healthy controls in terms of autonomic responses, symptoms and chemosensory perception during chemical exposure.

  • 12.
    Andersson, Linus
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Department of Integrative Medical Biology and Physiology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Radiation Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Nordin, Steven
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Short-term olfactory sensitization involves brain networks relevant for pain, and indicates chemical intolerance2017In: International journal of hygiene and environmental health (Print), ISSN 1438-4639, E-ISSN 1618-131X, Vol. 220, no 2, 503-509 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemical intolerance is a medically unexplained affliction that implies deleterious reactions to non-toxic everyday chemical exposure. Sensitization (i.e. increased reactivity to repeated, invariant stimulation) to odorous stimulation is an important component in theoretical explanations of chemical intolerance, but empirical evidence is scarce. We hypothesized that (1) individuals who sensitize to repeated olfactory stimulation, compared with those who habituate, would express a lower blood oxygenated level dependent (BOLD) response in key inhibitory areas such as the rACC, and higher signal in pain/saliency detection regions, as well as primary and/or secondary olfactory projection areas; and (2) olfactory sensitization, compared with habituation, would be associated with greater self-reported chemical intolerance. Moreover, we assessed whether olfactory sensitization was paralleled by comparable trigeminal processing – in terms of perceptual ratings and BOLD responses. We grouped women from a previous functional magnetic imaging study based on intensity ratings of repeated amyl acetate exposure over time. Fourteen women sensitized to the exposure, 15 habituated, and 20 were considered “intermediate” (i.e. neither sensitizers nor habituaters). Olfactory sensitizers, compared with habituaters, displayed a BOLD-pattern in line with the hypothesis, and reported greater problems with odours in everyday life. They also expressed greater reactions to CO2 in terms of both perceived intensity and BOLD signal. The similarities with pain are discussed.

  • 13.
    Andersson, Linus
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Petra
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Sweden.
    Highlighting the large variation in perceived properties of odors over time2017In: Chemical Senses, ISSN 0379-864X, E-ISSN 1464-3553, Vol. 42, no 2, E26- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Individuals differ considerably when rating the perceived properties of odors, especially over time. A second glance at previously published data-sets from our laboratory revealed that the same invariant exposure often produced both floor and roof effects. An odor that at the end of the exposure ses-sion was regarded as non-existent by one participant, could border the “absoulte maximum” rating category in another. We provide re-analyses from four exposure studies where we illustrate the perceptual variability over time, and outcomes associated with such ratings. We note that high, compared with low ratings of odor intensity over time is associated with ratings of unpleasantness and symptoms, but also with everyday distress, cognitive performance, autonomous nerv-ous system activity and deviating responses in the so-called pain or saliency matrix of the brain. We bring an open ques-tion to ECRO regarding how this considerable variability should be interpreted, and what the consequenced are for research and for setting exposure limits.

  • 14.
    Anderzén, Ingrid
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Strömberg, Annika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science.
    Lindberg, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Predictors of Well-being at work2016In: Scientific Programme: Wellbeing at Work 2016, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of healthy workplace has been defined as an organization that maximizes the integration of worker goals for wellbeing and company objectives for profitability and productivity. Conditions in today’s working life make new approaches necessary in order to limit negative health effects of work and to enhance wellbeing and health at work. About 24 % of the working population in Sweden report to have had work-related disorders during the last twelve months. In order to achieve a sustainable working life it is likely that strategies and actions from different and new angles are needed.ObjectivesThe present study is a part of a larger study (the GodA –study; a Swedish acronym for good work environments and healthy workplaces) and aims to investigate how work environment factors, work ability, work motivation, work and life balance predict well-being at work.

    Methods

    The GodA study is a 2-year follow up study in Sweden with a survey feedback design in three companies with both blue- and white collar workers. One of the companies serves as “intervention-company”, the other two as controls. A baseline questionnaire was sent out 2013 and the results from the survey were reported back to the companies, which have been processing their results. In spring 2015 a follow up survey has been administered. Data have been analysed with univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses.

    Results

    A baseline multivariate linear regression model, which included background factors, perceived psychosocial work climate and work environmental factors (motivation, leadership, employee responsibilities, efficacy, work ability and management committed to employee health) and work life balance, showed that psychosocial work climate (B= .48, 95% CI=.27 – .69) leadership, (B= .27, 95% CI=.05– .49), work ability (B= -.12, 95% CI= .03 – .21), motivation (B= -33, 95% CI= .14 – .51) and work life balance (B= -.34, 95% CI=-.57– -.12), were signifi-cantly associated with well-being at work and explained 40% of the variance (Adjusted R2=.40, p<.001).

    Conclusions

    Results showed that not only work environment factors are important predictors. To maintain a healthy work place a promotion of balance between work and private life is needed.

  • 15.
    Anderzén, Ingrid
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Lindberg, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Strömberg, Annika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Predictors of well-being at work2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The concept of healthy workplace has been defined as an organization that maximizes the integration of worker goals for wellbeing and company objectives for profitability and productivity. Conditions in today’s working life make new approaches necessary in order to limit negative health effects of work and to enhance wellbeing and health at work. About 24 % of the working population in Sweden report to have had work-related disorders during the last twelve months. In order to achieve a sustainable working life it is likely that strategies and actions from different and new angles are needed.

    The present study is a part of a larger study (the GodA –study; a Swedish acronym for good work environments and healthy workplaces) and aims to investigate how work environment factors, work ability, work motivation, work and life balance predict well-being at work.

    Methods

    The GodA study is a 2-year follow up study in Sweden with a survey feedback design in three companies with both blue- and white collar workers. One of the companies serves as “intervention-company”, the other two as controls. A baseline questionnaire was sent out 2013 and the results from the survey were reported back to the companies, which have been processing their results. In spring 2015 a follow up survey has been administered. Data from the baseline measurements have been analysed with univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses.

    Results

    A baseline multivariate linear regression model, which included background factors, perceived psychosocial work climate and work environmental factors (motivation, leadership, employee responsibilities, efficacy, work ability and management committed to employee health) and work life balance, showed that psychosocial work climate (B= .48, 95% CI=.27 – .69) leadership, (B= .27, 95% CI=.05– .49), work ability  (B= -.12, 95% CI= .03 – .21), motivation (B= -33, 95% CI= .14 – .51) and work life balance (B= -.34, 95% CI=-.57– -.12), were significantly associated with well-being at work and explained 40% of the variance  (Adjusted R2=.40, p<.001). Results from the two-year follow up will be presented at the conference.

    Conclusions

    Results showed that not only work environment factors are important predictors. To maintain ahealthy work place apromotion ofbalancebetween workand private life is needed.

  • 16.
    Arvidsson, Inger
    et al.
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Hansson, Gert-Ake
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Skerfving, Staffan
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Neck postures in air traffic controllers with and without neck/shoulder disorders2008In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 39, no 2, 255-260 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prolonged computer work with an extended neck is commonly believed to be associated with an increased risk of neck-shoulder disorders. The aim of this study was to compare neck postures during computer work between female cases with neck-shoulder disorders, and healthy referents. Based on physical examinations, 13 cases and 11 referents were selected among 70 female air traffic controllers with the same computer-based work tasks and identical work stations. Postures and movements were measured by inclinometers, placed on the forehead and upper back (C7/Th1) during authentic air traffic control. A recently developed method was applied to assess flexion/extension in the neck, calculated as the difference between head and upper back flexion/extension. Results: Cases and referents did not differ significantly in neck posture (median neck flexion/extension: -10° vs. -9°; p=0.9). Hence, the belief that neck extension posture is associated with neck-shoulder disorders in computer work is not supported by the present data

  • 17.
    Arvidsson, Inger
    et al.
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Hansson, Gert-Åke
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science.
    Skerfving, Staffan
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Changes in physical workload with implementation of mouse-based information technology in air traffic control2006In: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, ISSN 0169-8141, E-ISSN 1872-8219, Vol. 36, no 7, 613-622 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effects on physical workload were quantified when introducing new information technology in air traffic control. Seven female and seven male air traffic controllers were studied in an old control system, and during simulated - but similar - work in a new, mouse-based system. Postures, movements and muscular load were recorded (inclinometry for head, neck, back and upper arms; goniometry for wrists; electromyography for the trapezius and forearm extensor muscles). The new system was associated with lower movement velocities than the old one (examples; [50th percentiles] head flexion: 2 vs. 5 o/s, P<0.01; right arm elevation: 3 vs. 6 o/s; P<0.01; [90th percentile] wrist flexion: 19 vs. 50 o/s, P<0.01), less varying postures (head: 95th-5th percentile range 17° vs. 34o; P<0.01), and less muscular rest in the right forearm extensors (3.5 vs. 9% of time; P<0.05). The old/new system differences were amplified at high work intensities. The new air traffic control system caused a major change of physical exposures, probably associated with an increased risk of musculoskeletal disorders in arms and hands.

    Relevance to industry

    While this study concerned the specific changes in the introduction of a new air traffic control system, we believe that the findings are applicable to similar technological developments in other settings.

  • 18. Arvidsson, Inger
    et al.
    Hansson, Gert-Åke
    Mathiassen, Svend-Erik
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Skerfving, S
    Physical workload and musculoskeletal disorders in computerized work, among air traffic controllers2007In: Work With Computing Systems - WWCS 2007, Stockholm: abstracts WWCS 2007 : Computing systems for human benefits from the 8th International Conference on Work With Computing Systems : May 21st-24th 2007, Stockholm Sweden, Stockholm: Royal institute of technology , 2007, 42-42 p.Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 19. Arvidsson, Inger
    et al.
    Hansson, Gert-Åke
    Mathiassen, Svend-Erik
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Skerfving, Staffan
    Are neck-shoulder disorders associated with habitual neck extension in computer work?2006In: Meeting diversity in ergonomics: IEA 2006, 16th World Congress on Ergonomics / [ed] Pikaar R N, Koningsveld E A P, Settels P J M, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A common clinical conception is that prolonged neck extension during computer work is associated with an increased risk of neck-shoulder disorders. The aim of this study was to find out whether neck postures in computer work differed between females cases with neck-shoulderdisorders, compared to healthy referents.

    Based on physical examinations, 13 cases and 11 referents were selected among 70 female air traffic controllers with the same computer work and identical work stations. Neck angles were measured by inclinometry, during an ordinary work period of about 1 h. Results: Average neck angles (50thpercentile) in cases and referents was -10° (SP 8) and -9 (SD 10) respectively; p=0.9. Hence, we did not find any association between neck-shoulder disorders and neck extension during computer work.

  • 20.
    Barbieri, Dechristian
    et al.
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos, São Paulo, BRAZIL.
    dos Santos, Wilian
    Department of Mechatronics Engineering, University of São Paulo, BRAZIL.
    Inoue, Roberto Santos
    Department of Electrical Engineering, Federal University of São Carlos, São Paulo, BRAZIL.
    Gonçalves Siqueira, Adriano Almeida
    Department of Mechatronics Engineering, University of São Paulo, BRAZIL.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Oliveira, Ana Beatriz
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos, São Paulo, BRAZIL.
    Adjustable sit-stand tables in office settings: development of a system for controlled posture changes2015In: Proceedings of the 19th Triennial Congress of the International Ergonomics Association, Melbourne 9-14 August 2015, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Barbieri, Dechristian Franca
    et al.
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos, Brazil.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Oliveira, Ana Beatriz
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos, Brazil.
    Comparison of sedentary behaviors in office workers using sit-stand tables with and without semi-automated position changes2017In: Human Factors, ISSN 0018-7208, E-ISSN 1547-8181, Vol. 59, no 5, 782-795 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This study compared usage patterns of two different electronically controlled sit-stand tables during a 2-month intervention period among office workers.

    Background: Office workers spend most of their working time sitting, which is likely detrimental to health. Although the introduction of sit-stand tables has been suggested as an effective intervention to decrease sitting time, limited evidence is available on usage patterns of sit-stand tables, and whether patterns   are influenced by table configuration.

    Methods: Twelve workers were provided with standard sit-stand tables (non-automated table group) and 12 with semi-automated sit-stand tables programmed to change table position according to a pre-set pattern, if the user agreed to the system-generated prompt (semi-automated table group). Table position was monitored continuously for two months after introducing the tables, as a proxy for sit-stand behavior.

    Results: On average, the table was in a “sit” position for 85% of the work-day in both groups; this did not change significantly during the 2-month period. Switches in table position from sit to stand were, however, more frequent in the semi-automated table group than in the non-automated table group (0.65 vs. 0.29 hr-1; p=0.001).

    Conclusion: Introducing a semi-automated sit-stand table appeared to be an attractive alternative to a standard sit-stand table, since it led to more posture variation.

    Application: A semi-automated sit-stand table may effectively contribute to making postures more variable among office workers, and thus aid in alleviating negative health effects of extensive sitting.

  • 22.
    Barbieri, Dechristian
    et al.
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    de Oliveira, Ana Beatriz
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos.
    The effect of non-computer tasks on job exposure variability in computer-intensive office work2013In: Eighth International Conference on Prevention of Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders; Abstracts, 2013, 334- p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Barbieri, Dechristian
    et al.
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos, Brazil.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    dos Santos, Wilian Miranda
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of São Paulo, São Carlos, Brazil.
    Inoue, Roberto Santos
    Department of Electrical Engineering, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos, Brazil.
    Siqueira, Adriano
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of São Paulo, São Carlos, Brazil.
    Nogueira, Helen
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos, Brazil.
    Oliveira, Ana Beatriz
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos, Brazil.
    Sit-stand tables with semi-automated position changes: a new interactive approach for reducing sitting in office work2017In: IISE Transactions on Occupational Ergonomics and Human Factors, ISSN 2472-5838, Vol. 5, no 1, 39-46 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Introduction of sit-stand tables has been proposed as an initiative to decrease sedentary behavior among office workers and thus reduce risks of negative cardiometabolic health effects. However, ensuring proper and sustainable use of such tables has remained a challenge for successful implementation. Objective: We developed a new system to promote and sustain the use of sit-stand tables. Methods: The system was programmed to change the position of the table between “sit” and “stand” positions according to a regular pre-set pattern, if the user agreed to the system-generated prompts prior to each change. The user could respond to the system-generated prompts by agreeing, refusing or delaying the changes by 2 minutes. We obtained user compliance data when this system was programmed to a schedule of 10 minutes of standing after every 50 minutes of sitting. Compliance was investigated in nine office workers who were offered the semi-automated sit-stand table for two months. Results: On average, the system issued 12-14 alerts per day throughout the period. Average acceptance rate ranged from 75.0-82.4%, and refusal rate ranged from 11.8-10.1% between the first and eighth weeks of intervention (difference not statistically significant). During the first week after introduction, the table was in a standing position for 75.2 min on average, increasing slightly to 77.5 min in the eighth week. Conclusion: Since the workers were essentially sitting down before the table was introduced, these results suggest that the system was accepted well, and led to an effective reduction of sitting during working hours. Users also reported that the system contributed positively to their health and wellbeing, without interrupt their regular work, and that they would like to continue using the sit-stand table even beyond the two-month period, as part of their regular work. Compliance beyond two months of use, however, needs to be verified.

  • 24.
    Barbieri, Dechristian
    et al.
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    dos Santos, Willian Miranda
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of São Paulo.
    Oliveira, Ana Beatriz
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos.
    Use of sit-stand stations during the first 2 months after their introduction2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. There is increasing evidence that sedentary behaviour during the workday is associated with negative health effects. In this context, interventions to reduce total sedentary time and breaking up periods of continuous sitting during computerized office work are urgently needed. Several reviews conclude that introducing sit-stand stations may lead to positive effects, but they also state that long-term interventions in real occu-pational settings are still rare. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate usage of sit-stand tables among Brazilian office workers during an intervention lasting two months.

    Methods.Nine office workers (6 females, 3 males; age 42 [SD 12] years) participated. The workers received traditional sit-stand tables and ergonomics information. They then used the workstation for two months. The tables were furnished with a system that recorded and kept track of table use during the intervention period. Table use early and late in the intervention period was compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test for repeated measurements.

    Results. In the beginning of the eight-week intervention period, workers, in median, changed table position 2.4 (1.9 – 4.7) times per day, decreasing to 2.3 (1.0 – 3.3) times at the end (P=0.09). Moreover, we also found a non-significant decrease in total time stand-ing per day, from 88.6 (67.4 – 94.3) minutes to 58.8 (33.1 – 95.7) minutes (P=0.31).

    Discussion. Two months after introducing sit-stand tables, some decrease in usage could be seen, if not statistically significant. Based on this, we emphasize that introduction of sit-stand tables should be accompanied by continued encouragement of the workers, preferably informed by a personalized follow up of actual use.

  • 25.
    Barbieri, Dechristian
    et al.
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, USA.
    Oliveira, Ana Beatriz
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos, São Paulo, Brazil.
    For sit-stand desks, semiautomated prompting may lead the way2017In: Industrial and Systems Engineering at Work, ISSN 2168-9210, Vol. 49, no 5, 51-52 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Barbieri, Dechristian
    et al.
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Oliveira, Ana-Beatriz
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos.
    Reducing and breaking up sitting time during office work2017In: Industrial and Systems Engineering at Work, ISSN 2168-9210, Vol. 49, no 5, 51-52 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Dechristian, Svend Erik, Divya, Ana Beatriz andco-authors introduced a new semi-automated sit-stand table reducing sittingtime during office work and breaking it up into shorter periods. The system waswell accepted by the workers, and sustained use for two months was verified

  • 27.
    Barbieri, Dechristian
    et al.
    Universidade Federal de São Carlos.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Nogueira, Helen
    Universidade Federal de São Carlos.
    Oliveira, Ana Beatriz
    Universidade Federal de São Carlos.
    The ability of non-computer tasks to increase biomechanical exposure variability in computer-intensive office work2015In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 58, no 1, 50-64 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Postures and muscle activity in the upper body were recorded from 50 academics office workers during 2 hours of normal work, categorised by observation into computer work (CW) and three non-computer (NC) tasks (NC seated work, NC standing/walking work and breaks). NC tasks differed significantly in exposures from CW, with standing/walking NC tasks representing the largest contrasts for most of the exposure variables. For the majority of workers, exposure variability was larger in their present job than in CW alone, as measured by the job variability ratio (JVR), i.e. the ratio between min–min variabilities in the job and in CW. Calculations of JVRs for simulated jobs containing different proportions of CW showed that variability could, indeed, be increased by redistributing available tasks, but that substantial increases could only be achieved by introducing more vigorous tasks in the job, in casu illustrated by cleaning.

  • 28.
    Barbieri, Dechristian
    et al.
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Oliveira, Ana Beatriz
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos.
    Head, neck, trunk and upper extremity postures during sit-stand table use in real work settings2017Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study compared postures and posture variation of the head, neck, trunk and arms among 24 office workers after two months of sit-stand table use in real work settings. Postures were recorded for two hours on each of three consecutive days. On basis of observations, work tasks were categorized into computer work while standing (CW-stand), computer work while sitting (CW-sit), non-computer work while standing (NCW-stand) and non-computer work while sitting (NCW-sit). During CW-stand and NCW-stand, the head and neck were more flexed, the trunk less flexed, and both arms less elevated than when these tasks were performed sitting. Posture variation was consistently larger during sitting CW and NCW than during standing. Neutral postures occurred to a larger extent during standing. Shifting between sitting and standing will lead to increased posture variation for the trunk and upper body, which appears an additional benefit of introducing sit-stand tables to office workers.

  • 29.
    Barbieri, Dechristian
    et al.
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos, Brasil.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia, USA.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science.
    Oliveira, Ana Beatriz
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos, Brasil.
    The effect of sit-stand workstations to decrease sedentariness in office work: tests of 2 systems with and without automatic reminders2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sedentary behaviors in office workers has become a major public health concern and several initiatives have been proposed to break up sedentary behavior patterns during the performance of computer-intensive office work. Among such initiatives, the use of sit-stand workstations has been suggested to be one of the most promising by recent reviews. However, there still is only limited scientific evidence showing how effective sit-stand workstations are, in reducing sedentary behaviors and also documentation of their sustainability of use in studies of regular office work (i.e. as the “newness” of the system wears off, with time since introduction). This study aimed to document user behaviors and compare the use of two sit-stand workstation based interventions among two groups of administrative office workers: an “autonomous” group in which these workstations were introduced following some general ergonomic guidelines, and another “feedback-system” group in which the sit-stand tables were furnished with a semi-automatic reminder system, programmed to raise the table to a high (i.e. standing) position for 10 minutes after every accumulated 50 minutes of the table being in a low (i.e. sitting) position, i.e. to result in about 83% sitting per day. In addition, the sustainability of the use of these two kinds of sit-stand workstation interventions over two continuous months since their introduction was also studied. The results averaged over two months of usage of the two interventions showed that the percentage (%) sitting time was 87.4 (84.9-89.2) on average in the autonomous group and 84.0 (83.5-85.4) on average in the feedback-system group (P=0.001), and the frequency of switches between sitting and standing was 0.3 (0.2-0.3) per hour in the autonomous group and 0.7 (0.6-0.7) per hour in the feedback-system group (P=0.001). Thus, the sit-stand table system integrated with the automatic reminder system led to more reduction in sitting time and more switches in posture between sitting and standing as compared to the traditional sit-stand table, and behaviors of both groups were seen to be sustained over the 2-month intervention period (no difference across time for any of the variables tested for any group).

  • 30.
    Barnekow Bergkvist, Margareta
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Kan fysisk träning i anslutning till arbetet förbättra muskuloskeletal hälsa?: en kunskapsöversikt2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This literature review gives support for a positive health effect of regular physical exercise matching the physical demands at work and the anatomical origin of disorder:

    -specific trunk muscle exercises ca 1–2 times/week can have a positive effect on low back disorders among women/men with heavy vigorous or varied job tasks working in different health care or industrial settings

    -specific shoulder-arm and neck exercises ca 1–2 times/week can have a positive effect on neck-shoulder and neck disorders, respectively, among women with light repetitive or monotonous job tasks working in different office settings.

    Overall, associations between physical exercise and improvement in related physical performance and musculoskeletal health – disorders were found in those studies which met the criteria of randomized allocation, specified exercises, frequency and duration of the exercise session and documented effect from exercise on the corresponding physical capacity. Minor or major methodological deficiencies are, however, present in many of the intervention studies that impair the assessment as they can lead to an over- as well as an underestimation of the effect of training. Future studies should therefore focus on high methodological quality especially regarding 1) research design, inclusion criteria, allocation to intervention and control group; 2) exercise program, registration of compliance to training and changes of occupational load; 3) high accuracy of the effect measures

  • 31.
    Barnekow-Bergkvist, Margareta
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hedberg, Gudrun
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Pettersson, Ulf
    Sports Medicine Unit, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, University of Umeå, Umeå, Sweden; Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, University of Umeå, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lorentzon, R.
    Sports Medicine Unit, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, University of Umeå, Umeå, Sweden.
    Relationships between physical activity and physical capacity in adolescent females and bone mass in adulthood2006In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 16, no 6, 447-455 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates whether physical activity and physical performance in adolescence are positively related to adult bone mineral density (BMD). In 1974, physical activity, endurance, and muscular strength were measured in 204 randomly selected female students, age 16.1 +/- 0.3 year (range 15-17 years). Twenty years later, 36 of the women volunteered to undergo a measurement of their BMD. Women who were members in a sports club in adolescence had significantly higher adult BMD (mean differences of 5% to 17% depending on site) compared with subjects who were not engaged in a sports club. Furthermore, women with persistent weight-bearing activity in adulthood had significantly higher BMD compared with women who had stopped being active or had never been active. The differences ranged between 5% and 19% with the highest difference found in trochanter BMD. Stepwise regression analyses showed that membership in a sports club at baseline was a significant independent predictor of BMD in the total body, lumbar spine, legs, trochanter, and femoral neck, explaining 17-26% of the variation in BMD. Change in body weight was a strong independent predictor of BMD of the total body and arms, explaining 8% of the variation in both sites. In addition, running performance at baseline was an independent predictor of total body BMD, whereas the two-hand lift performance significantly predicted BMD of the total body, legs and trochanter. The hanging leg-lift and handgrip were both significant predictors of arm BMD. In conclusion, membership in a sports club and site-specific physical performance in adolescence together with the change in body weight were significantly associated with adult BMD in premenopausal women

  • 32.
    Bergsten, Eva L
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Flygplanslastning –  ett samarbetsprojekt som leder till arbetsmiljöförbättringar2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Bergsten, Eva L
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Akademiska sjukhuset, Uppsala Universitet.
    Working conditions and musculoskeletal disorders in flight baggage handling2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Baggage handling is considered to be a heavy manual handling job including biomechanical exposures suspected of increasing the risk for musculoskeletal disorders. Aims: To document low back pain (LBP), shoulder pain (SP), and physical and psychosocial factors in baggage handlers, and to evaluate the implementation of an ergonomic intervention aiming to increase the use of loading assist devices. Methods: A questionnaire was utilized to characterize pain and psychosocial work conditions in 525 baggage handlers. The postures of 55 baggage handlers during 114 shifts were measured using inclinometry, half shift video-recordings were made for subsequent task analysis, and the number of aircraft handled was registered. Associations for psychosocial and biomechanical exposures with pain were assessed using regression analyses. An ergonomic intervention was implemented and evaluated using questionnaires and repeated interviews. Feasibility, intermediate outcomes, barriers and facilitators were assessed. Results: The prevalence rates of reported LBP and SP were 70% and 60%, respectively. Pain interfering with work (LBP - 30% and SP - 18%) and high pain intensity (LBP - 34% and SP - 28%) were associated with poor psychosocial working conditions. Extreme postures with arms elevated >60° occurred for 6.4% of the total time, and in trunk flexion >60° for 2.1% total time. In contrast, 71% of the total time was spent in a neutral trunk posture. The 90th percentile trunk forward flexion was 34.1°.  Daily shoulder pain increased in approximately one-third of all shifts and was positively associated with extreme work posture and the number of aircraft handled; this association was modified by influence and support. The intervention was delivered as planned, and dose received and satisfaction were rated as high. Motivated trainees facilitated implementation while lack of manager support, opportunities to observe and practice behaviors, follow-up activities, staff reduction, and job insecurity were barriers. Conclusion: The high prevalence rates of LBP and SP in baggage handlers were associated with psychosocial exposures, and daily shoulder pain was associated with higher biomechanical exposure. Barriers to implementation can be minimized by recruiting motivated trainees, securing strong organizational support, and carrying out follow-up activities.

  • 34.
    Bergsten, Eva L.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Kwak, Lydia
    Unit of Intervention and Implementation Research for worker health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Vingård, Eva
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Daily shoulder pain among flight baggage handlers and its association with work tasks and upper arm postures on the same day2017In: Annals of Occupational Hygiene, ISSN 0003-4878, E-ISSN 1475-3162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: This study of flight baggage handlers aimed at examining the extent to which shoulder pain developed during single work shifts, and whether a possible development was associated with biomechanical exposures and psychosocial factors during the same shift.

    Methods: Data were collected during, in total, 82 work shifts in 44 workers. Right and left shoulder pain intensity was rated just before and just after the shift (VAS scale 0-100 mm). Objective data on time in extreme and time in neutral upper arm postures were obtained for the full shift using accelerometers, and the baggage handlers registered the number of aircrafts handled in a diary. During half of the shift, workers were recorded on video for subsequent task analysis of baggage handling. Influence at work and support from colleagues were measured by use of Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ). Associations between exposures and the increase in pain intensity during the shift (daily pain) were analysed for the right and left shoulder separately using Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE).

    Results: Daily pain was observed in approximately one third of all shifts.  It was significantly associated with the number of aircrafts handled for both the right and left shoulder. In multivariate models including both biomechanical exposures and the psychosocial factors influence at work and support from colleagues, aircrafts handled was still significantly associated with daily pain in both shoulders, and so was influence and support, however in opposite directions.

    Conclusions: Daily pain was, in general, associated with biomechanical exposures during the same shift and with general influence and support in the job. In an effort to reduce pain among flight baggage handlers, it may therefore be justified to consider a reduction of biomechanical exposures during handling of aircrafts, combined with due attention to psychosocial factors at work.

  • 35.
    Bergsten, Eva L
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Palm, Peter
    Anundi, Helena
    Rehfisch, Pia
    Vibrationsexponering i saneringsföretag - Var är FHV?2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Bergsten, Eva
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    "Piloten" - Flygplanslastarprojektet2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    SAMMANFATTNING

    Detta pilotprojekt har utförts under våren 2010 på Arlandas terminal 4 av en ergonom (Eva Bergsten) vid Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för Belastningsskadeforskning (CBF), på uppdrag av Transports yrkes- och arbetsmiljönämnd (TYA). Projektet var en förstudie till det större huvudprojektet "Skadefria flygplanslastare" som TYA under våren sökte och sedermera beviljades pengar för att genomföra.

    Huvudprojektets övergripande syfte är att kartlägga och beskriva flygplanslastarnas arbetsförhållanden utifrån ett ergonomiskt helhetsperspektiv med hänsyn tagen till fysiska, psykosociala, tekniska, organisatoriska och kognitiva faktorer vid ramp och sorteringsarbete.

    Syftet med pilotprojektet var att inför huvudprojektet

    • göra en litteratursammanställning på området: vad har man redan beforskat när det gäller flygplanslastning i Sverige och internationellt?
    • ta fram och testa frågeformulär och observationsmetoder för den större datainsamlingen i huvudprojektet
    • ta reda på vilka företagsdata som kan och bör samlas in i huvudprojektet

    En genomgång av publicerade artiklar och så kallad grå litteratur (ej vetskapligt granskade artiklar och rapporter) gjordes för att se vilken kunskap som redan finns på området, och för att identifiera kunskapsluckor inför den skarpa planeringen av huvudprojektet. En styrgrupp, en projektledare och en projektgrupp samt fyra mindre arbetsgrupper var redan tillsatta av TYA och Transportfacken med namngivna personer vilket underlättade uppdraget.

    Utifrån telefonkontakter, möten och intervjuer med nyckelpersoner i handlingbolag, på Transport, AFA, försäkringskassan och arbetsmiljöverket kunde väsentlig information inhämtas som fick ligga till grund för att sammanställa ett frågeformulär angående flygplanslastarnas fysiska och psykosociala arbetsförhållanden, baserat på vetenskapliga grunder. Frågeformuläret testades på ett 20-tal personer, lastare, skyddsombud, huvudskyddsombud och ombudsmän på Transport och reviderades därefter. Mycket och värdefull information om vilka relevanta företagsdata som finns tillgängliga och hos vilken aktör, och vilka som inte kan påräknas i huvudstudien, har också kunnat kartläggas.

    En genomgång av vetenskapliga observationsmetoder gjordes och en valdes ut för att testas vid lastning av en narrow body aircraft som metodmässigt bedömdes vara ett svårt arbetsmoment att observera och studera.

    Pilotprojektet har resulterat i basen till ett frågeformulär som dock fortfarande kan revideras om det vid samtal med de fyra arbetsgrupperna uppkommer relevanta tillägg. Observation av lastning och lossning av narrow body aircraft samt dokumentation med videokamera visade sig vara möjligt, och metoden som testades (REBA) kan användas för att komplettera de i huvudprojektet planerade heldagsmätningarna med teknisk utrustning av arbetsställningar.

    Litteraturgenomgången av 17 artiklar/rapporter som lokaliserats i en omfattande sökning visade att de största belastningsergonomiska riskerna i arbetet verkar uppstå i samband med att lasta och lossa en narrow body aircraft och det på grund av de trånga lastutrymmena som tvingar lastarna till ogynnsamma arbetsställningar. Det finns också några få studier som styrker att vissa hjälpmedel och arbetsmetoder skulle kunna minska antalet dåliga arbetsställningar, muskulär belastning, kompressionskrafter i ryggen och fysiologisk ansträngning, och att bagagets vikt har betydelse för belastningen. Däremot kan man inte i litteraturen finna några studier av hur olika organisatoriska lösningar påverkar lastarnas arbetsställningar och den belastning de i övrigt utsätts för. Enskilda arbetsmoment har studerats men ingen har tittat på hur belastningsmönstret ser ut för lastarna under ett helt arbetsskift.

    Besvärsfrekvensen bland flygplanslastare är, enligt den funna litteraturen hög vad gäller rygg, nacke, axlar och knän. Någon större kartläggning av detta eller hur sjukfrånvaron ser ut har inte gjorts i Sverige. Inte heller har man i Sverige eller något annat land tittat på psykosociala faktorer och dess betydelse för flygplanslastares arbetsförhållanden.

    Resultaten av det här pilotprojektet ligger till grund för de "kunskapsluckor" som vi rekommenderar (i Kapitel 4) att huvudstudien arbetar vidare med, i överensstämmelse med dess övergripande målsättning och den projektplan som tagits fram av projektgruppen.

  • 37.
    Bergsten, Eva
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Alphonse, Erik
    The Vocational Training and Working Environment Council, TYA.
    Pettersson, Reidar
    The Vocational Training and Working Environment Council, TYA.
    Skadefria cargo- och flygplanslastare - slutrapport2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Arbetsmiljöprojektet Skadefria cargo- och flygplanslastare har utförts på uppdrag av Svenska Transportarbetareförbundet och Svenska Flygbranschen med syfte att kartlägga flygplanslastarnas arbetsförhållanden och att komma med förslag på förbättringsåtgärder för att minska belastningsrelaterade skador och sjukdomar i branschen.

    Projektledningsgruppen har bestått av fem personer: Eva Bergsten, ergonom, anställd av projektet; Erik Alphonse, projektledare, TYA; Reidar Pettersson, arbetsmiljökonsult, Arbetsmiljölotsen; Svend Erik Mathiassen, professor, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning vid Högskolan i Gävle; och Dan Holmberg, regionalt skyddsombud, Transportarbetareförbundet.

    Projektet som omfattade 14 bolag (11 handling, 3 cargo) på sex flygplatser (Arlanda, Malmö, Göteborg, Växjö, Skavsta och Arvidsjaur) startades våren 2010 och avslutades våren 2012, efter en inledande pilotstudie våren 2010 som finansierades av TYA. Inom projektet har 1 039 enkäter distribuerats med frågor om psykosociala arbetsförhållanden, upplevd arbetsbelastning, trötthet och besvär. Svarsfrekvensen var 72 procent. Heldagsmätningar av arbetsställningar för rygg och armar har genomförts på 5-6 lastare per flygplats samtidigt som lastarna filmats och fyllt i dagböcker. Fokusgrupper har intervjuats och data om till exempel sjukskrivningar och olyckstillbud har samlats in från företagen.

    Parallellt med den vetenskapliga delen har projektet haft en praktisk del med fyra arbetsgrupper bestående av representanter från både arbetsgivar- och arbetstagarsidan. Grupperna har träffats två gånger per termin och jobbat inom områdena: I) fysisk belastning och arbetsskadestatistik, II) arbetsorganisation, schemaläggning och psykosocial arbetsmiljö, III) hjälpmedel och metoder samt IV) utbildning och utveckling.

    Våra resultat visar att besvärsfrekvenserna i muskler och leder är relativt höga. Det finns arbetsmoment i lastaryrket som är ogynnsamma och som ökar risken för besvär, framför allt i axlar/skuldra, rygg och handleder/händer. De arbetsuppgifter som en lastare har skiljer sig inte så mycket åt mellan de olika flygplatserna, men det finns betydande skillnader i hur ofta och hur länge uppgifterna förekommer. Vid vissa flygplatser är således flyglastararbetet mera varierat än vid andra, vilket förmodligen har en betydelse för risken att utveckla besvär.

    Överlag fanns det hjälpmedel för de mest belastande arbetsmomenten, men också brister i hur dessa används.

    Inom den psykosociala arbetsmiljön visade projektet på ett behov av att förbättra ledarskapet och lastarnas inflytande i planering och genomförande av det egna arbetet. Bättre feedback i form av stöd och uppmuntran från ledare efterfrågades också.

    Arbetsgrupperna, som löpande delgavs resultaten från den vetenskapliga kartläggningen, utvecklade i enlighet med projektets målsättning ett antal åtgärdsförslag, med stöd i kartläggningen. Förslagen, som presenteras i denna rapport, är av generell natur. Flera av förslagen omfattar ett flertal möjliga delåtgärder och initiativ, som naturligtvis måste anpassas för och prioriteras av det enskilda bolaget utifrån dess egna förutsättningar. Mot bakgrund av våra projektresultat vill vi dock generellt rekommendera samtliga bolag att lägga en viss prioritet på de psykosociala arbetsförhållandena i sitt förbättringsarbete. Det fanns även uppenbara möjligheter att förbättra den fysiska belastningsprofilen, särskilt genom att bredda arbetsinnehållet på vissa flygplatser, och genom en mera effektiv användning av tekniska hjälpmedel. Samtidigt är det viktigt att framhålla att lastaryrket även har många goda sidor i form av ett rörligt och spännande arbete med ett bra socialt klimat.

    Vår bedömning är att de förslag till förändringar i arbetsmiljö och arbetsvillkor som föreslås i denna rapport skulle leda till en bättre arbetsmiljö men sannolikt också kunna påverka effektiviteten i arbetet i positiv riktning.

    Projektet Skadefria cargo- och flygplanlastare är föremål för en avhandling vilket betyder att vidare analyser av insamlade data kommer att ske. Resultaten kommer framöver att publiceras i vetenskapliga tidsskrifter.

  • 38.
    Bergsten, Eva
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Larsson, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Kwak, Lydia
    Unit of Intervention and Implementation Research, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Evaluation of an ergonomic intervention in Swedish flight baggage handlers2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Flight baggage handling is a worldwide occupation where baggage and cargo is sorted, loaded and unloaded on and off aircrafts. With the ultimate purpose of reducing and preventing musculoskeletal disorders among flight baggage handlers in Sweden, the Vocational Training and Working Environment Council (TYA) - a council formed by employers and unions in the Swedish transportation sector – initiated and implemented a project (2010-2012). This project revealed that ergonomics equipment was not used adequately, and this was considered a major factor of concern. Therefore, a training program was initiated 2014 in one handling company, aiming to improve ergonomics, behavior and attitudes. We evaluated the implementation process with regard to process items, intermediate outcomes, barriers and facilitators; for the purpose of gaining knowledge that could facilitate successful implementation in other handling companies. Methods: A mixed methods design was applied, based on qualitative and quantitative data. We evaluated six process items, recruitment, context, reach, dose delivered, dose received and satisfaction; intermediate outcomes of the intervention; skills, confidence and behaviour in the workforce; barriers and facilitators for successful implementation. Data was retrieved using company data, course evaluations, web questionnaires, and telephone interviews with company ‘observers’ and key persons. Preliminary results: The implementation process was judged to be feasible with regard to some of the process items. According to the informants, work place behaviour related to use of equipment had, however, not changed after the training period. Reported barriers were, 1) insufficient time and leader support for practicing new procedures during and after the training, 2) simultaneous reorganization of teams and work tasks, 3) lack of follow-up of the training, which would have supported good performance according to the informants. Conclusion: The implementation process was hampered by barriers, some of which could be addressed in future ergonomics training programs in other baggage handling companies.

  • 39.
    Bergsten, Eva
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Larsson, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Kwak, Lydia
    Unit of Intervention and Implementation Research, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet.
    Implementation of an ergonomics intervention in a Swedish flight baggage handling company - a process evaluation2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To conduct a process evaluation of the implementation of an ergonomics training program aimed at increasing the use of loading assist devices in flight baggage handling. Methods: Feasibility(recruitment, reach, context, dose delivered, dose received, satisfaction); intermediate outcomes (skills, confidence and behaviors); and barriers and facilitators of the training intervention were assessed by qualitative and quantitative methods. Results: Implementation proved feasible regarding dose delivered, dose received and satisfaction. Confidence among participants in the training program in using and talking about devices, observed use of devices among colleagues, and internal feedback on work behavior increased significantly (p<0.01). Main facilitators were self-efficacy, motivation, and perceived utility of training among the trainees. Barriers included lack of peer support, opportunities to observe and practice behaviors, and follow-up activities; as well as staff reduction and job insecurity. Conclusions: In identifying important barriers and facilitators for a successful outcome, our study can help supporting the effectiveness of future interventions. Our results show that barriers caused by organizational changes may likely be alleviated by recruiting motivated trainees and securing strong organizational support for the implementation.   

      

  • 40.
    Bergsten, Eva
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Vingård, Eva
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Psychosocial work factors and musculoskeletal pain: a cross-sectional study among Swedish flight baggage handlers2015In: BioMed Research International, ISSN 2314-6133, E-ISSN 2314-6141, Vol. 2015, 798042Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. Flight baggage handlers sort and load luggage to airplanes. This study aimed at investigating associations between psychosocial exposures and low back and shoulder musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among Swedish flight baggage handlers.

    Methods. A questionnaire addressing MSDs (Standardized Nordic Questionnaire) and psychosocial factors (Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire, COPSOQ) was answered by 525 baggage handlers in six Swedish airports.

    Results. Low back (LBP) and shoulder pain (SP) was reported by 70% and 60%, respectively. Pain was reported to interfere with work (PIW) by 30% (low back) and 18% (shoulders), and intense pain (PINT) occurred in 34% and 28% of the population. Quality of leadership was the most dissatisfying psychosocial factor, while the most positive was social community at work. Low ratings in the combined domain Work organization and job content were significantly associated with PIW in both low back and shoulders (Adjusted Hazard Ratios 3.65 (95% CI 1.67-7.99) and 2.68 (1.09-6.61)) while lower ratings in the domain Interpersonal relations and leadership were associated with PIW LBP (HR 2.18 (1.06-4.49)) and PINT LBP and SP (HRs 1.95 (1.05-3.65) and 2.11 (1.08-4.12)).

    Conclusion. Severity of pain among flight baggage handlers was associated with psychosocial factors at work, suggesting that they may be a relevant target for intervention in this occupation.

  • 41.
    Bergsten, Eva
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. b Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science.
    Vingård, Eva
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Psychosocial work factors and musculoskeletal pain among Swedish flight baggage handlers2015In: Proceedings of the 19th Triennial Congress of the International Ergonomics Association, Melbourne, 9-14 August 2015 / [ed] Gitte Lindgaard & Dave Moore, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flight baggage handlers are employed by handling companies engaged in sorting, loading and unloading luggage, cargo and mail, so called ramp service work. After check-in, luggage are transported through a sorting area and further out to the ramp. This transportation involves manual handling by baggage handlers at several stages, using conveyor belts, carts and trucks for transport. In addition to these tasks, baggage handlers are also engaged in communicating with air traffic controllers directing air traffic on the ground, towing aircrafts to gates and serving them with auxiliary power units, brakes and light. Baggage handling services are similar in all larger airports, and so baggage handlers perform similar tasks all over the world. In Sweden the handlers’ union claimed a high prevalence of low back and shoulder pain and a dissatisfying psychosocial work environment, but systematically collected empirical data were not available, and the literature was surprisingly sparse, considering that the occupation is global. Thus, a comprehensive project initiated by the Vocational Training and Working Environment Council, TYA, in Sweden - a council formed by employers’ and employees’ organizations in the transportation sector -was conducted at 14 handling companies in six Swedish airports between 2010 and 2012. The project aimed to document the physical and psychosocial work environment and to contribute to the development of ergonomic interventions within this occupation, which could, eventually, lead to better health among the employees. The present study was part of this project, in aiming at documenting psychosocial exposures and musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in the flight baggage handler population, and at determining possible associations between exposures and disorders.

  • 42.
    Bergsten, Eva
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Vingård, Eva
    Uppsala University, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Alphonse, Erik
    The Vocational Training and Working Environment Council.
    Pettersson, Reidar
    The Vocational Training and Working Environment Council.
    Holmberg, Dan
    The Swedish Transport Workers Union.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Physical and psychosocial work conditions among baggage handlers in six Swedish airports2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Flight baggage handlers are mainly engaged in sorting luggage or cargo, loading and unloading it to and from the airplanes. The Vocational Training and Working Environment Council, TYA - formed by employer’s and employee’s organizations in the transportation sector - initiated a scientific study in 2009 to investigate the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and their suspected determinants in six Swedish airports involving a total of about 1000 handlers in 14 cargo- and handling companies. Encouraged by an initial literature review, the present field study was designed to contain qualitative, questionnaire-based, and observational surveys of working conditions, as well as extensive direct measurements of postures using full-shift inclinometry. This paper reports the design and results of the questionnaire part of the study.

    Method

    All baggage handlers working at least half-time (n=1044) were encouraged to fill in an extensive questionnaire handed out at the workplace by a research team member. In general the researcher collected the questionnaires at the same occasion. The questionnaire addressed general health, work capacity and physical exposures in relevant handling tasks. It also included a modified version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ), the Nordic Council of Minister’s Questionnaire (NMQ) on disorders, and the SOFI-questionnaire measuring perceived fatigue.

    Results

    The response rate was 73%. The prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in the back, shoulders and wrists during the last 12 months was 70%, 60% and 45%. Positive effects of devices used for reducing perceived physical load were confirmed. The handlers expressed a low confidence in the leadership, and insufficient feedback, information and influence at work. Fatigue particularly occurred in the dimensions lack of energy and physical discomfort.

    Discussion

    The observed prevalence of low back pain (70%) is high, and in parity with results among nurses in Sweden (64%; Josephson et al. 1997) and China (56%; Smith et al. 2004). Further examination of questionnaires, interviews and direct posture measurements will identify determinants to consider for intervention to reduce the prevalence of disorders among the baggage handlers.

    Josephson M, et al. Occup Environ Med 1997;54:681-685.

    Smith DR, et al. Occup Med 2004;54:579-582

  • 43.
    Bergsten, Eva
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Wijk, Katarina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Healthy work - healthy business? A survey of work environment improvements and profitability among small and medium enterprises2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to investigate how Swedish small and medium enterprises (SMEs) within the manufacturing industry carry out work environment improvements, and to study if managers consider profitability to be associated with issues in the work environment. Workplace observations and interviews (n=60) with company managers were carried out. Forty-five enterprises were affiliated with an occupational health service, typically in order to get quick access to health care, rather than getting help planning and implementing changes. Fifty-eight managers believed that healthy work environments would have at least some positive effect on company profitability. Incentives for work environment improvements were external, individual and organizational and varied between companies of different sizes. External requirements from The Swedish Work Environment Authority and from established or potential customers were prioritized incentives in SMEs with < 50 employees. Organizational and individual incentives such as incident- and accident reports, productivity, health and sick-leave were prioritized in SMEs with >50 employees. Irrespective of company size, well-being among work-force was consistently mentioned as an important factor for successful business. Small companies urged quick decisions and actions while medium companies had more planned, systematic and organized work environment activities. Deliberate work environment improvements for increased profitability were for instance, changes to eliminate risks, reduce manual work and resolve planning and coordination problems in production that led to stress.

  • 44.
    Bergsten, Eva
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bjärntoft, Sofie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Edvinsson, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Larsson, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Jahncke, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Schemalagt arbete - Hälsofrämjande återhämtningsmönster i schemalagda arbeten: Delområde Färjerederiet2017Report (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Bergsten, Eva
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bjärntoft, Sofie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Edvinsson, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Larsson, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Jahncke, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Schemalagt arbete - Hälsofrämjande återhämtningsmönster i schemalagda arbeten: Delområde Förarprov2017Report (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Bergsten, Eva
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bjärntoft, Sofie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Edvinsson, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Larsson, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Jahncke, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Schemalagt arbete - Hälsofrämjande återhämtningsmönster i schemalagda arbeten: Delområde Trafikledning2017Report (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Bergsten, Eva
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bjärntoft, Sofie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Edvinsson, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Larsson, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Jahncke, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Schemalagt arbete: Hälsofrämjande återhämtningsmönster i schemalagda arbeten: Kartläggning hösten 20162017Report (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Bergström, Sten Sture
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Department of Psychology, Umeå University.
    Gustafsson, Karl-Arne
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Department of Psychology, Umeå University.
    Concave and convex phases in ambiguous figures showing colour shifts: Mach's figure and the AMBEGUJAS phenomenon2011In: Perception, ISSN 0301-0066, E-ISSN 1468-4233, Vol. 40, no 1, 30-38 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two ambiguous figures (Mach's book-figure and the AMBEGUJAS phenomenon) have been studied. They show colour shifts synchronised with the shifts of their alternative phases. The perceived concave phase appeared to have chromatic surface colour, but the perceived convex phase can appear to be in coloured illumination and shadow (film colour). The two perceived reversible shapes of the Mach figure (the book and the tent) and the three perceived alternative shapes of the Mondrians used in the AMBEGUJAS phenomenon (a roof, a ceiling, and a tile) all can appear to have chromatic surface colours in their concave phases but appear to have coloured illumination and shadow in their convex phases

  • 49.
    Björklund, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, fysioterapi, Umeå universitet.
    What works for whom:challenges in personalising physical therapy: Discussion panel2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Björklund, Martin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Djupsjöbacka, Mats
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Crenshaw, Albert G
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Acute muscle stretching and shoulder position sense2006In: Journal of athletic training, ISSN 1062-6050, E-ISSN 1938-162X, Vol. 41, no 3, 270-274 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Stretching is common within sports as a potential maneuver for injury prevention. Stretching induced changes in muscle spindIe properties is a suggested mechanism. This may imply a reduction in proprioception following stretching, however, little is known of this association. Our finding showing no effect of acute stretching on shoulder position sense provides insight into this issue.

    Objectives: To evaluate if acute stretching of the shoulder muscles affects position sense.

    Design: A crossover design with subjects randomized to 3 groups, as regarded by the I sequence of 3 interventions.

    Setting: A university human research laboratory.

    Patients or Other participants: Nine female (age, 21 +2) and 9 male (24 + 3) healthy volunteers.

    lntervention(s): The interventions consisted of stretching of shoulder 1) agonists, 2) antagonists, and 3) non-stretching control.

    Main Outcome Measure(s): Position sense acuity of the right shoulder was determined before and arter the interventions by subjects at tempting to reproduce arm positions of 15° and 30° (shoulder adduction) while starting at 45° to the sagittal plane. The outcome variables were the response variability (variable error, VE) and overall accuracy (absolute error, AE).

    Results: A multivariate repeated measures analysis ofvariance revealed that the relative change in VE (i.e., VE after/VE before) was not significantly different between the interventions (p = 0.38). Similarly no change in AE was found (p = 0.76). Furthermore, there were no differences regarding test sequence or in the interaction 'intervention x sequence' for either VE (p = 0.73 and 0.53, respectively) or for AE (p = 0.71 and 0.67, respectively)

    Conclusions: The present study showed no effect on shoulder position sense after an acute bout of stretching either agonist or antagonist shoulder muscles.

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