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  • 1.
    Abou-Soultan, Nariman
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Abujazar, Ahmed
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Hur personer med schizofreni upplever sin livskvalité: En deskriptiv litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Schizophrenia is a form of psychosis, it is rare but a very serious disease and the lifetime risk of becoming sick is 0.8% in Sweden. People with schizophrenia experience altered perception of reality because of symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions. Many relatives of people with schizophrenia argue that there is a lack of knowledge that leads to distorted view of themselves and the environment. The diagnosis of schizophrenia is based on symptoms, which consequently means that nurses have an important role which should include plenty hospitality, communication and understanding of patients' quality of life.

     

    Aim: The aim of this study is to describe how people with schizophrenia experience their quality of life and to describe the method of selection of the articles included.

     

    Method: The present study has a descriptive design and contains a total of 12 articles with qualitative and quantitative effort. The majority of the articles that have been used has the qualitative approach. Data collection has been conducted via PsycINFO.

     

    Main Results: The diagnosis of schizophrenia contributed to confusion and difficulties to accept their disease. Symptoms and side effects of the medicine were the most conspicuous factors that resulted in the loss. Experiences of stigmatization and rejection by the environment were also a contributing factor for a poorer quality of life. The 12 included articles have mainly used the interviews to reach people's subjective experiences of living with schizophrenia.

     

    Conclusion: Schizophrenia affects people's daily lives and relationships with other people negatively which led to the suffering and poorer quality of life. Knowledge of how people with schizophrenia experience their quality of life is important information for nurses that can lead to greater understanding, better reception, care and treatment.

  • 2.
    Ahlin, Catharina
    et al.
    Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology, Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; Red Cross University College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Klang-Söderkvist, Birgitta
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johansson, Erika
    Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology, Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Björkholm, Magnus
    Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology, Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Löfmark, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Department of Health Sciences, Haugesund, Norway.
    Assessing nursing students’ knowledge and skills in performing venepuncture and inserting peripheral venous catheters2017In: Nurse Education in Practice, ISSN 1471-5953, E-ISSN 1873-5223, Vol. 23, p. 8-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Venepuncture and the insertion of peripheral venous catheters are common tasks in health care, and training in these procedures is included in nursing programmes. Evidence of nursing students’ knowledge and skills in these procedures is limited. The main aim of this study was to assess nursing students’ knowledge and skills when performing venepuncture and inserting peripheral venous catheters. Potential associations between level of knowledge and skills, self-training, self-efficacy, and demographic characteristics were also investigated. The assessment was performed by lecturers at a university college in Sweden using the two previously tested instruments "Assess Venepuncture"€ and "Assess Peripheral Venous Catheter Insertion". Between 81% and 100% of steps were carried out correctly by the students. The step with the highest rating was "€œUses gloves", and lowest rating was "€˜Informs the patients about the possibility of obtaining local anaesthesia"€™. Significant correlations between degree of self-training and correct performance were found in the group of students who registered their self-training. No associations between demographic characteristics and correct performances were found. Assessing that students have achieved adequate levels of knowledge and skills in these procedures at different levels of the nursing education is of importance to prevent complications and support patient safety.

  • 3.
    Akander, Sara
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Eriksson, Ellinor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Hur personer som lever med HIV/AIDS upplever bemötandet inom vården: - En litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: HIV is a viral disease that is caused by a retro virus which damage the immune system. AIDS is the final stage of the disease and there are two types of HIV; type 1 and type 2. The carer and the patient are dependent on each other to make the medical care optimal. The meeting is an important part of patients’ experience of medical care, especially for people living with a contagious disease. Earlier research showed that healthcare professionals could have a potentially critical view on people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA). Knowledge about how PLHA experience the meeting when in contact with the healthcare sector today is missing, therefore the authors of this study wanted to examine this topic further. Aim: The aim was to describe how PLHA experience the meeting within the healthcare sector when seeking help because of the disease, and also to describe the sample used in the articles that were used in this study. Method: Descriptive literature review, nine articles both qualitative and quantitative where used. Key findings: : According to PLHA was a positive encounter important to the career-patient-relationship. Trough more information and increased knowledge about the disease in nurses and other healthcare personnel did PLHA describe that the encounter became more positive and the HIV-related stigma could be reduced. An individual education for PLHA were also an important factor to reduce the self-experienced stigma that often were based upon shame. That internal shame and the feeling that needing to hide something could lead to depression and negative feelings. A negative encounter could for example be lack of dedications and an un-welcoming attitude and furthermore reluctance in the healthcare personnel to treat and support PLHA both physically and psychological Conclusions: PLHA doesn't experience as much stigma or discrimination today as before, but there are still a certain degree of preconceptions. Further education of both healthcare personnel that doesn't encounter these kind of patients on a regular basis and information to the society could help reduce the preconceptions and the stigma that still exist around this disease.

  • 4.
    Alvesand, Caroline
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Linder, Charlotte
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Ungdomars upplevelse av att leva med Diabetes Mellitus typ 1.: En deskriptiv litteraturstudie.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 debuts in childhood and adolescence. The treatment is self-care that involves blood glucose control, drug treatment and following recommendations on diet and exercise. Nursing's professional area includes children and adolescents. Deviating from self-care activities and secrecy around the disease affects the quality of care for young people. Purpose: To describe the young people's experience of living with Diabetes Mellitus type 1 as well as describing the study groups of the studies examined. Method: Descriptive literature study with twelve scientific articles with qualitative as well as qualitative and quantitative approach. Consequences and differences in the results of the articles have been categorized and themes and subthemes have been identified. Results: Young people experienced difficulties in accepting their illness and wanted to have control over and take responsibility for their illness and increase independence. Young people experienced the feeling of being different and avoiding self-care in social contexts. Difficulties to follow dietary recommendations varied and blood glucose controls were exerted. Support from friends and peers facilitated the performance of self-care. It was positive that nurses showed interest in the lives of adolescents in addition to their DMT1. Nurses were found to fail to get into the situation of young people and to be an emotional support. Conclusion: There is a need for increased support and understanding from nurses. Through increased understanding, the nurse can help to facilitate the transfer of responsibility. This can lead to increased safety and sense of control among adolescents, which may help them dare to share their illness with the environment.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Lisa
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Hammarqvist, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Sjuksköterskors upplevelser och erfarenheter av att arbeta med psykiatrisk tvångsvård2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Health care in Sweden shall be conducted with the patients’ autonomy in center. However, in some cases in the psychiatric care, patients can be treated against their will. A nurse shall work towards increasing patient autonomy and participation. The use of involuntary treatment can due to this cause ethical dilemmas. To describe how nurses cope with using involuntary treatment is important since it can increase the understanding of a complicated situation, and in the long run increase the quality of the health care services.

    Aim: To describe the experiences of a nurse working with involuntary treatment and to describe how the chosen articles presents their selection groups.

    Method: The study was conducted as a descriptive literature review. Articles was searched in the databases Medline and Cinahl with a ten-year age limit. A total of fourteen articles was selected and processed into four subcategories and a methodological aspect to answer to the study’s aim.

    Results: The results show that nurses experience mostly negative feelings like anxiety, fear and vulnerability while working with involuntary treatment. The use of involuntary treatment was justified by the thought that the practice was a part of the nurses’ job and duty. The use of involuntary treatment was describes as damaging on the nurse-patient relationship and caused ethical conflicts. The result was described in four subcategories Feelings about the use of involuntary treatment, Justifying involuntary treatment, Involuntary treatment and the effects on the nurse-patient relationship and Ethical conflicts due to involuntary treatment. The articles varied in their descriptions of their selection groups. Most described the participants gender, age and work experience. Most of the articles had 11-50 participants.   

    Conclusions: This study has found that nurses experience involuntary treatment as having mostly negative effects. It has been shown that the nurses’ level of education has an effect on both the execution and the handling of involuntary treatment. The writers of this study have come to the conclusion that nurses wish to decrease the use of involuntary treatment, and that research should be focused on finding alternative methods of treatment.    

  • 6.
    Andreassen Devik, S.
    et al.
    Centre of Care Research, Department of Health Sciences, Nord University, Steinkjer, Norway; Department of Health Sciences, Nord University, Namsos, Norway.
    Hellzén, Ove
    Department of Nursing Sciences, Mid-Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Enmarker, Ingela
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Centre of Care Research, Department of Health Sciences, Nord University, Steinkjer, Norway; Department of Nursing Sciences, Mid-Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Bereaved family members' perspectives on suffering among older rural cancer patients in palliative home nursing care: a qualitative study2017In: European Journal of Cancer Care, ISSN 0961-5423, E-ISSN 1365-2354, Vol. 26, no 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Little is known about experiences with receiving home nursing care when old, living in a rural area, and suffering from end-stage cancer. The aim of this study was thus to investigate bereaved family members' perceptions of suffering by their older relatives when receiving palliative home nursing care. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 family members, in Norway during autumn 2015, and directed content analysis guided by Katie Eriksson's theoretical framework on human suffering was performed upon the data. The two main categories identified reflected expressions of both suffering and well-being. Expressions of suffering were related to illness, to care and to life and supported the theory. Expressions of well-being were related to other people (e.g. familiar people and nurses), to home and to activity. The results indicate a need to review and possibly expand the perspective of what should motivate care. Nursing and palliative care that become purely disease and symptom-focused may end up with giving up and divert the attention to social and cultural factors that may contribute to well-being when cure is not the goal.

  • 7.
    Andreassen Devik, Siri
    et al.
    Fakultet for sykepleie og helsevitenskap, Nord universitet, Bodö, Norge.
    Enmarker, Ingela
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Fakultet for sykepleie og helsevitenskap, Nord universitet, Bodö, Norge.
    Quality collaboratives used to improve drug safety for older patients in primary care in Norway2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Arvidsson, Angelica
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Spennare, Malin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Sjuksköterskors erfarenheter att vårda patienter med drogmissbruk i sjukvården: En litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Sjuksköterskor möter många olika individer. 780 000 individer över 18 år i Sverige uppskattades 2009 - 2011 ha ett drogmissbruk eller drogberoende. Alla har rätt till samma vårdkvalité oavsett livssituation och bakgrund. Människor med drogberoende känner sig ofta stigmatiserade av samhället. Vilket område Sjuksköterskan än jobbar inom kommer sjuksköterskan någon gång möta patienter med drogmissbruk.

    Syfte: Syftet med denna litteraturstudie var att beskriva sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av att vårda patienter med drogmissbruk inom sjukvården samt beskriva de inkluderade artiklarnas datainsamlingsmetod.

    Metod: denna studie är en beskrivande litteraturstudie. Två stycken databaser användes under sökningen, 12 vetenskapliga artiklar användes i resultatet. Dessa granskades upprepade gånger och sammanställdes.

    Huvudresultat: Sjuksköterskor beskrev ofta negativa erfarenheter av att vårda patienter med drogmissbruk.  Sjuksköterskor beskrev att de ofta upplevde en rädsla och oro inför våldsamma och hotfulla situationer. Att patienter med drogmissbruk hade eget ansvar över sitt liv och hälsa beskrevs av en del av sjuksköterskorna. En del av sjuksköterskorna beskrev att de tyckte att det var viktigt att vara en förespråkare för patienter med drogmissbruk.

    Slutsats: Alla människor har samma rätt till vård och att uppleva hälsa oavsett livssituation och bakgrund. Att leva med drogmissbruk är inget som ska inverka på omvårdnadskvalitén som ges till patienterna. För att utveckla vården och minska patienternas upplevelse av stigmatisering behövs mer och regelbunden utbildning för sjuksköterskor och andra professioner.

  • 9.
    Arvidsson, Elisabet
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    BVC-sköterskors reflektioner av att arbeta med mammor med förlossningsdepression och deras barn: En intervjustudie2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: About 10–15% of new mothers are affected by Post Partum Depression. A new mother with depression means a higher risk of attachmentsproblem with her newborn child. The child health care nurse has a regular contact with newborns and their mothers. Therefor they can have an important role in the process of attachment. Aim: The aim of the study was to describe reflections of the child health care nurses in their work with mothers with Postpartum Depression and their newborn. Method: The present study had a descriptive design with a qualitative approach. Eight child health care nurses  were interviewed with semi-structured interviews. The material was analyzied using qualitative content analysis. Result: A underlying theme was; ”To have knowledge and to know your limitations, for a trustworthy interaction.” The theme had four descriptive categories; ” Ways to discover the mother with a postpartum depression”, ”The interaction with the mother” ”Strategies at work” and ”Challenges in work”. Conclusion: During the study it has been revealed that if guidelines and routines are to work optimally discovering the mother with Post Partum Depression, it requires a good communication. Already at the first meeting a journey began, that could mean a working interaction or not. It required in addition to formal knowledge of Postpartum depression also an ability to interact with the mother. It was about getting the mother´s confidence.

  • 10.
    Backlund, Kristina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Höök, Jessica
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Erfarenheter av sjuksköterskeledd mottagning hos patienter med reumatoid artrit: En litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Background: Chronic arthritis rheumatism or rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory joint disease and is the most common arthritis disease, in which headache is joint pain. RA is present in all populations, with varying prevalence. In Scandinavia, the prevalence is approximately 0.7%. The ethnology of RA is a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Living with RA affect the patient physically, emotionally, psychologically and socially, meaning that the whole life situation is affected.

    Aim: The purpose of the literature study was to describe the experiences of nurse-led clinics for patients with rheumatoid arthritis and to present the study groups described in the articles included.

    Methods: A descriptive literature study

    Main results: Patients' experiences of nurse-led clinics were encounters in a warm, friendly and familiar atmosphere. The care was described as person-centered and competent provided and based on each individual's special needs. The nursing specialist skills were highly valued and described to create a sense of security for the patient. The nurse-led clinic was reported readily available, flexible and to create stability in the care. The accessibility also meant that the patients were aware of when and how to contact the nurse. The patient's experience was that good communication with the healthcare staff provided a mutual respect and instilled an increased patient confidence.

    Conclusion: The conclusion of this study was that nurse-led clinics could add value for the patient nursing care. This offered care represented familiarity, hope and confidence for the patients. To achieve added value, good communication and relationship are of the utmost importance, which in turn provide security and create a fundamental possibility in health-promoting care.

  • 11.
    Backlund, Niroshani
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Almqvist, Lotta
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Transpersoners upplevelser av bemötande i vården: En litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 12.
    Bergroth, Sofia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Eriksson, Maja
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Påverkan på familjen när ett barn har typ 1 diabetes: En litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that primarily affects children. It is one of Sweden's most commonly occurring diseases. Which means that approximately 700 children between the ages of 0–15 years are affected annually. The cause of type 1 diabetes is still unknown to this date.Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the family's impact of having a child (0–18 years) with type 1 diabetes as well as describing the groups in the articles.Method: A literature study with a descriptive design. The search for articles that were used were conducted in Cinahl where the authors found 11 articles; nine with a qualitative approach and two with a quantitative approach. Both authors reviewed the articles objectively.Main result: The results showed that the parents were adversely affected by the child's disease. The parents had a great concern of the child's misery. It was mainly the mothers who suffered, while the father was not aware at the same level. The mothers suffered from physical, mental, emotional, social and cognitive negative feelings. The siblings of the affected child felt outside and forgotten by the parents.Conclusion: All family members are affected by a family member having diabetes type 1. Both positive and negative feelings can occur within the family. The most common feelings that the parents experienced when the child is given type 1 diabetes is stress and anxiety. While the siblings of the children felt forgotten and lonely.

  • 13.
    Bergström, Charlotta
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Englin, Linda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Föräldrars erfarenheter av stöd från sjukvårdspersonal när deras barn diagnostiserats med Downs syndrom under det första levnadsåret: En litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Down syndrome (DS) is the most common cause of intellectual disability in children. The child has an extra chromosome in the 21st chromosome pair. It is important that the nurse is comfortable within their own field of knowledge in order to give every individual the specific care they need. Becoming a parent is a major event in people's lives and it can be fraught with joy and anxietya bout the future.

    Aim: The aim of this literature review was to describe parents' experiences of support from the health care professionals when the child is born with DS and the experiences of support during the child's first year. The aim was further more to describe the included articles data collections methods.

    Method: A literaturere view with descriptive design. The literature contains ten scientific articles with both qualitative and quantitative approach. The articles were collected through PubMed and Cinahl. The authors reviewed articles and looked for similarities and differences that could form the basis of the result.

    Main result: The literature review shows that parents of children with DS are concerned about the future when support and information from nurses and health care professionals is inadequate. The parents feel unprepared for the parent hood. The results of this review were based on both qualitative and quantitative articles. Interviews, surveys and questionnaires were used as data collection methods in these articles.   

    Conclusion: This literature demonstrates the importance of good communication between parents and health care professionals. The lack of informative and emotional support creating anxiety and fear among parents. Having a child with DS is something that can change the lives of the entire family. The nurse has an important role in providing adequate support to the whole family.

  • 14.
    Bieber, A.
    et al.
    Medical Faculty, Institute for Health and Nursing Science, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale), Germany.
    Stephan, A.
    Medical Faculty, Institute for Health and Nursing Science, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale), Germany.
    Verbeek, H.
    School for Mental Health and Neuroscience, Alzheimer Center Limburg, Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
    Verhey, F.
    School for Mental Health and Neuroscience, Alzheimer Center Limburg, Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
    Kerpershoek, L.
    School for Mental Health and Neuroscience, Alzheimer Center Limburg, Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
    Wolfs, C.
    School for Mental Health and Neuroscience, Alzheimer Center Limburg, Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
    de Vugt, M.
    School for Mental Health and Neuroscience, Alzheimer Center Limburg, Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
    Woods, R. T.
    Dementia Services Development CentreWales, Bangor University, Bangor, UK.
    Røsvik, J.
    Norwegian National Advisory Unit on Ageing and Health, Vestfold Hospital Trust, and Department of GeriatricMedicine, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
    Selbaek, G.
    Norwegian National Advisory Unit on Ageing and Health, Vestfold Hospital Trust, and Department of GeriatricMedicine, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
    Sjölund, Britt-Marie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Neurobiology, Care sciences and Society, Karolinska Institut, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wimo, A.
    Department of Neurobiology, Care sciences and Society, Karolinska Institut, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hopper, L.
    School of Nursing and Human Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland.
    Irving, K.
    School of Nursing and Human Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland.
    Marques, M. J.
    CEDOC, Chronic Diseases Research Centre, Nova Medical School/Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Gonçalves-Pereira, M.
    CEDOC, Chronic Diseases Research Centre, Nova Medical School/Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Portolani, E.
    Alzheimer’s Research Unit-Memory Clinic, Brescia, Italy.
    Zanetti, O.
    Alzheimer’s Research Unit-Memory Clinic, Brescia, Italy.
    Meyer, G.
    Medical Faculty, Institute for Health and Nursing Science, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale), Germany.
    Access to community care for people with dementia and their informal carers: Case vignettes for a European comparison ofstructures and common pathways to formalcare [Zugang zu professioneller Unterstützung für Menschen mit Demenz und ihre Angehörigen: Fallvignetten für den europäischen Vergleich von Strukturen und Zugangswegen zu professioneller Pflege]2017In: Zeitschrift für Gerontologie und Geriatrie (Print), ISSN 0948-6704, E-ISSN 1435-1269Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    People with dementia and their informal carers often do not receive appropriate professional support or it is not received at the right time.

    Objectives

    Description and comparison of common pathways to formal community dementia care in eight European countries as a part of the transnational Actifcare project.

    Materials and methods

    The German team was responsible for creating an individual case scenario as a starting point. The research teams in Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, and the United Kingdom were then asked to describe a common pathway to formal dementia care by writing their own vignette using the provided individual case scenario.

    Results

    A transnational qualitative content analysis was used to identify the following categories as being the most important: involved professionals, dementia-specific and team-based approaches, proactive roles, and financial aspects. General practitioners (GPs) are described as being the most important profession supporting the access to formal care in all the involved countries. In some countries other professionals take over responsibility for the access procedure. Dementia-specific approaches are rarely part of standard care; team-based approaches have differing significances in each of the countries. Informal carers are mainly proactive in seeking formal care. The Nordic countries demonstrate how financial support enhances access to the professional system.

    Conclusion

    Enhanced cooperation between GPs and other professions might optimize access to formal dementia care. Team-based approaches focusing on dementia care should be developed further. Informal carers should be supported and relieved in their role. Financial barriers remain which should be further investigated and reduced.

  • 15.
    Billingsley, Jennifer
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Sjuksköterskors upplevelse av att vårda människor med depression: En beskrivande litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Depression is a mental illness that relapses and is different from person to person in how long it lasts and how serious the depression is considered. For each new relapse a person has the risk of future relapses increased which can become more serious and more difficult to recover from. Considering that depression is a common disorder that is becoming more common, there is no place in health care where a nurse will not meet these people.

     

    Aim: To describe how nurses experience caring for people who have depression. The aim is also to describe the study groups of the selected articles.

     

    Design: A descriptive study of literature.

     

    Findings: Nurses felt confident in recognizing symptoms of depression, but many depressions remained undiagnosed and untreated. Frustration towards the disease and its treatment were experienced since there was no time or the right knowledge to be able to handle depressed patients. The desire to learn more and be empathetic to the needs of patients was present which supported the need for a good relationship between the nurse and the patient. There was a dominance of women in the 10 selected articles. Everything from newly hired nurses to nurses who've worked for several years participated although most of them were middle-aged.

     

    Conclusion: Nurses are experiencing frustration and powerlessness when they care for people with depression, which leads to the feeling of stigmatization and poor relationships between nurse and patient. The desire to become better at recognizing depression and be a support for people with the disease exists, but the lack of time, knowledge and communication makes nurses feel insecure in their role as caregivers.

  • 16.
    Bjuhr, Marie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Westerberg Jacobson, Josefin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Willmer, Mikaela
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Lindberg, Magnus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Women with disturbed eating behavior rate less work engagement2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a lack of research exploring emotional commitment to work in relation to eating attitudes. Since eating disorders are associated with adverse psychological and social consequences, work engagement could be affected. The purpose was to compare work engagement among women with and without disturbed eating (DE).

    A cross-sectional survey using the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale and the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire in a general population cohort of 26-36-year-old women (n=847). Threshold for DE was 1 SD above general population mean. Independent t-test was used to compare work engagement. Ethical approval (reg no:2014/401)

    The level of work engagement was lower (p=0.02) among women with DE (mean 3.69 +-1.43) than women without DE (mean 4.06 +-1.18). The score for dedication was also lower (p=0.02) within the DE group (mean 3.74+-1.57 vs 4.22 +-1.26). However, vigour and absorption were not different.

    The work engagement in the cohort was within the average range although women with DE had significantly lower emotional commitment to work. As work engagement is linked to business success, workplace growth and sustainability it seems important to explore tailored strategies to improve work engagement among women with DE.

  • 17.
    Björklund, Ove
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Åbo Akademi University, Vaasa, Finland.
    Häggström, Elisabeth
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Åbo Akademi University, Vaasa, Finland.
    Nyström, Lisbet
    Åbo Akademi University, Vaasa, Finland.
    Young Finnish Unemployed Men's Experiences of Having Participated in a Specific Active Labor Market Program2017In: American Journal of Men's Health, ISSN 1557-9883, E-ISSN 1557-9891, Vol. 11, no 5, p. 1426-1435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study was to describe young Finnish unemployed men's experiences of having participated in a specific active labor market program, intended to fight unemployment and offered at a resource center. Fifteen young unemployed Finnish men in the age range 18 to 27 years were interviewed face-to-face. Purposive sampling was used to increase the variation among informants. The interview texts were analyzed using both manifest and latent qualitative content analysis. The present results reported that the young men felt that they, thanks to the program at the resource center, had acquired daily routines and could ultimately believe in the future. The young men described how they now had a structure, economic support, and that they could return to their daily life. The informants also described how they could see new possibilities and believe in oneself. There is a lack of empirical studies assessing the possible impact of active labor market programs on the unemployed based on participants' own experiences. Further research is needed to describe and elucidate in more detail the effects of targeted support measures and the needs of unemployed men of different ages and living in different contexts.

  • 18.
    Björklund, Ove
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Åbo Akademi.
    Söderlund, Maud
    Åbo Akademi.
    Nyström, Lisbet
    Åbo Akademi.
    Häggström, Elisabeth
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Åbo Akademi.
    Unemployment and Health: Experiences Narrated by Young Finnish Men2015In: American Journal of Men's Health, ISSN 1557-9883, E-ISSN 1557-9891, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 76-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies have shown that the experiences and consequences of unemployment can affect people differently depending on, for example, age and gender. The purpose of the present study was to describe young Finnish men's experiences of being unemployed as well as how their experiences of health emerged. Fifteen young unemployed Finnish men in the age range 18 to 27 years were interviewed face to face. Purposive sampling was used to increase the variation among informants. The interview texts were analyzed using both manifest and latent qualitative content analysis. The present results showed that the young men were strongly negatively affected by being unemployed. They described how they had slowly lost their foothold. They also described feelings of shame and guilt as well as a flight from reality. The present results show that even young men who have only experienced shorter periods of unemployment, in this study periods between 2 and 6 months, are negatively affected, for example, with regard to their identity and emotional life. Further research is needed to describe and elucidate in more detail the effects of unemployment on men of different ages and living in different contexts.

  • 19.
    Björkman, Annica
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Engström, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Nursing Department, Medicine and Health College, Lishui University, Lishui, China .
    Olsson, Annakarin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Wahlberg, Anna Carin
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Identified obstacles and prerequisites in telenurses’ work environment: a modified Delphi study2017In: BMC Health Services Research, ISSN 1472-6963, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 17, no 1, article id 357Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Telenursing is an expanding part of healthcare, staffed with registered nurses whose work environment is typical of a call centre. Work-related stress has been shown to be a major problem in nurses’ work environments and of importance to the outcome of care, patient safety, nurse job satisfaction and burnout. Today, however, we have a limited understanding of and knowledge about the work environment for telenurses. The aim of the present study is to explore and reach consensus on perceived important obstacles and prerequisites in telenurses’ work environment.

    Methods: A modified Delphi design, using qualitative as well as quantitative data sequentially through three phases, was taken. Data were initially collected via semi-structured interviews (Phase I) and later using a web survey (Phase II-III) between March 2015 and March 2016.

    Results: The findings present a consensus view of telenurses’ experiences of important obstacles and prerequisites in their work environment. Central to the findings are the aspects of telenurses having a demanding work, cognitive fatigue and having no opportunity for recovery during the work shift was ranked as important obstacles. Highly ranked prerequisites for managing were being able to focus on one caller at a time, working in a calm and pleasant environment and having technical support 24/7.

    Conclusions: Managers need to enable telenurses to experience control in their work, provided with possibilities to control their work and to recover during work; shortening work time could improve their work environment. Limited possibilities to perform work might contribute to feelings of stress and inability to perform work. 

  • 20.
    Björkman, Annica
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Olsson, Annakarin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Wahlberg, Anna-Carin
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Engström, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Access to structural empowerment in telephone advice service: an interview study with registered nurses2017Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Björkman, Annica
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    The bidirectional mistrust: callers’ online discussions about their experiences of using the national telephone advice service2017In: Internet Research, ISSN 1066-2243Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Björkman, Annica
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    When all other doors are closed: telenurses’ experiences of encountering care seekers with mental disorders2017In: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 1445-8330, E-ISSN 1447-0349Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Björkman, Annica
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    When all other doors are closed: Telenurses' experiences of encountering care seekers with mental illnesses.2018In: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 1445-8330, E-ISSN 1447-0349Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to describe the telephone nurses' experiences of encountering callers with mental illnesses. Telenursing services are solely staffed with telenurses, who with the support of a decision support system (CDSS) independently triage callers based on the severity of the main symptoms presented by the care seeker. The system focuses on somatic symptoms, while information regarding mental health and mental illnesses is limited. Information about telenurses' experiences of encountering care seekers with mental illnesses is scarce, despite the increase in mental illnesses in the population. The study used a descriptive design with a qualitative approach. Twenty telenurses were interviewed, and the data were then analysed using inductive qualitative content analysis. The results are elaborated in the following three categories: (i) Experiences of encountering care seekers with mental illnesses; (ii) Experiences of facing difficulties and challenges; and (iii) Experiences of facing dissatisfaction and threats. Encountering care seekers with mental illnesses is metaphorically addressed as 'when all other doors are closed'. Encountering care seekers with mental illnesses was perceived as time-consuming and did not adequately correspond to the resources given by the service. Even though telenurses strive to achieve agreement, there is a collision between human needs and organizational structures. The study pinpoints the lack of resources for and education about mental illnesses and the limitations of the decision system, which needs to be updated in order to provide all care seekers care on equal terms.

  • 24.
    Björkman, Josefin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Sandberg, Elin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Föräldrars copingstrategier för att hantera tiden efter att deras barn fått en cancerdiagnos: en litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Almost on a daily basis a child gets affected by cancer in Sweden. Childhood cancer can be a long process involving the whole family. The parents are the child’s safety and are usually involved in the care of the child. The cancer diagnosis causes demanding emotions among the parents, and that is when they can institute different ways to manage and adapt to change of living.

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to describe how parents to children diagnosed with cancer handle the life situation during the period of illness. Also to describe the included articles study sample.

    Method: A descriptive literature study based on twelve scientific articles with a qualitative approach, obtained through searches of the databases Cinahl and Pubmed.

    Main results: Throughout the result, coping strategies were seen to be effective. The result showed coping strategies as (1) support which parents obtain from religion, others in similar situation and people in the surrounding. (2) Experience of control, which parents achieved through information, routine and planning. (3) Changing the emotions and way of thinking, by maintaining hope, positive thinking, being optimistic, having an avoidance behavior and performing distracting activities. A majority of the participants in the included articles were women. Ranged in age from 20 to 60 years. Two of the articles were from Sweden and the remaining from other countries.

    Conclusion: Coping strategies were seen to be effective ways for the parents to cope with the difficult time they appeared in. Three general observed coping strategies were accommodating for the parents; support, changed emotions and way of thinking and experiences of control. By gaining an understanding of the management method of the parents and contribute and strengthen coping strategies, the health professionals can work to promote health and well-being among the parents.

  • 25.
    Björn, Catrine
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Centre for Research & Development, Uppsala University/Region Gävleborg, Gävle, Sweden .
    Lindberg, Magnus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Rissén, Dag
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. Centre for Research & Development, Uppsala University/Region Gävleborg, Gävle, Sweden.
    Significant factors for work attractiveness and how these differ from the current work situation among operating department nurses2016In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 25, no 1-2, p. 109-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim was to examine significant factors for work attractiveness and how these differ from the current work situation among operating department nurses. A second objective was to examine the associations between age, gender, length of employment, work engagement, work ability, self-rated health indicators and attractiveness of the current work situation.

    BACKGROUND: The attractiveness of work is rarely taken into account in research on nurse retention. To expand this knowledge, it is relevant to examine factors that make work attractive and their associations with related concepts.

    DESIGN: Correlational, cross-sectional survey using a convenience sample.

    METHODS: Questionnaires were answered by 147 nurses in four operating departments in Sweden. Correlation and regression analyses were conducted.

    RESULTS: The nurses rated the significance of all factors of work attractiveness higher than they rated those factors in their current work situation; salary, organisation and physical work environment had the largest differences. The most significant attractive factors were relationships, leadership and status. A statistically significant positive correlation between work engagement and attractive work was found. In the multiple regression model, the independent variables work engagement and older age significantly predicted work attractiveness.

    CONCLUSIONS: Several factors should be considered in the effort to increase work attractiveness in operating departments and thereby to encourage nurse retention. Positive aspects of work seem to unite work engagement and attractive work, while work ability and self-rated health indicators are other important dimensions in nurse retention.

    RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: The great discrepancies between the significance of attractive factors and the current work situation in salary, organisation and physical work environment suggest ways in which work attractiveness may be increased. To discover exactly what needs to be improved may require a deeper look into the construct of the examined factors.

  • 26.
    Blanck, Susanne
    et al.
    Baldersnäs Din Hälsocentral, Bollnäs, Sweden.
    Engström, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    District nurses' prescribing practice and its link to structural conditions2015In: Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners, ISSN 2327-6886, E-ISSN 2327-6924, Vol. 27, no 10, p. 568-575Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To describe district nurses' (DNs') prescribing practice and examine associations between DNs' self-reported prescribing frequency, opinions about prescribing, and structural conditions/empowerment.

    Data sources: A cross-sectional and correlational design was employed. Data were collected during 2012 using questionnaires and a prescribing register. A random sample of 150 DNs from 32 primary care centers in Sweden was invited.

    Conclusions: DNs' ability to prescribe is used to a relatively small extent and access to "opportunities" and "informal power" seems to be the most important structural empowerment conditions for increased prescribing frequency and positive opinions about prescribing. The results support Kanter's theory of structural empowerment.

    Implications for practice: This article regarding restricted prescribing shows how important structural conditions/empowerment is to DNs' prescribing and employers have to enhance nurses' access to especially the structures "opportunities" and "informal power" to increase nurse prescribing. More targeted support and training are needed in different prescribing areas to make use of DNs' prescription qualification to a greater extent.

  • 27.
    Blomberg, Maria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Lindberg, Cathrine
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Upplevelser av djurterapi hos patienter med psykisk ohälsa: En deskriptiv litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In today’s caring of human beings we find animals to assist in a lot of different ways. Therapy with animals has been studied in younger persons and people with dementia but in persons with psychiatric disorders few studies have been made.

    Purpose: The aim of this article was to describe experiences of animal assisted therapy (AAT) in patients with psychiatric disorders and survey the methodological aspect investigational groups in the articles.

    Method: Search of articles was made at Högskolan in Gävle during autumn 2016 using database MedLine and WebCrawler PubMed, CINAHL and PsycINFO using MeSH search word “Animal assisted therapy”. Words used in free text search were “Mental disorders”, “Psychiatric disorders” and ”experience”. Manual search was also made according to relevance, aim and question formulation. Selected articles were read individually and together results and tables were then compiled.

    Result: This review includes 11 articles. Predominant results were shown regarding experiences as a source of joy, feeling of belonging and to be needed, quality of life, self-esteem and social interaction and lower anxiety. Both positive and negative results were found when it comes to depression.

    Conclusion: AAT seems to have positive influence in patients with psychiatric disorders regarding better self-esteem, encourage managing daily life and facilitate social interaction. In nursing this knowledge might be a tool to use in clinical care-giving. This could help nurses to support patients to conquer interaction and promote health progress. Howsoever few studies have been made in this topic and better basis of knowledge is desirable to be able to use AAT in nursing based on evidence.

  • 28.
    Broda, Anja
    et al.
    Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Institute of Health and Nursing Sciences, Halle (Saale), Germany.
    Bieber, Anja
    Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Institute of Health and Nursing Sciences, Halle (Saale), Germany.
    Meyer, Gabriele
    Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Institute of Health and Nursing Sciences, Halle (Saale), Germany.
    Hopper, Louise
    Dublin City University, School of Nursing and Human Sciences, Dublin, Ireland.
    Joyce, Rachael
    Dublin City University, School of Nursing and Human Sciences, Dublin, Ireland.
    Irving, Kate
    Dublin City University, School of Nursing and Human Sciences, Dublin, Ireland.
    Zanetti, Orazio
    IRCCS S. Giovanni di Dio "Fatebenefratelli", Brescia, Italy.
    Portolani, Elisa
    IRCCS S. Giovanni di Dio "Fatebenefratelli", Brescia, Italy.
    Kerpershoek, Liselot
    Alzheimer Center Limburg, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
    Verhey, Frans
    Alzheimer Center Limburg, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
    de Vugt, Marjolein
    Alzheimer Center Limburg, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
    Wolfs, Claire
    Alzheimer Center Limburg, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
    Eriksen, Siren
    Norwegian National Advisory Unit on Ageing and Health, Vestfold Hospital Trust, Oslo, Norway.
    Røsvik, Janne
    Norwegian National Advisory Unit on Ageing and Health, Vestfold Hospital Trust, Oslo, Norway; Department of Geriatric Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
    Marques, Maria J.
    CEDOC, Chronic Diseases Research Center, Nova Medical School/Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Gonçalves-Pereira, Manuel
    CEDOC, Chronic Diseases Research Center, Nova Medical School/Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Sjölund, Britt-Marie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Aging Research Center (ARC), Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Woods, Bob
    Bangor University, Dementia Services Development Centre, Bangor, UK.
    Jelley, Hannah
    Bangor University, Dementia Services Development Centre, Bangor, UK.
    Orrell, Martin
    Nottingham University, Institute of Mental Health, Nottingham, UK.
    Stephan, Astrid
    Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Institute of Health and Nursing Sciences, Halle (Saale), Germany.
    Perspectives of policy and political decision makers on access to formal dementia care: expert interviews in eight European countries2017In: BMC Health Services Research, ISSN 1472-6963, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 17, no 1, article id 518Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: As part of the ActifCare (ACcess to Timely Formal Care) project, we conducted expert interviews in eight European countries with policy and political decision makers, or representatives of relevant institutions, to determine their perspectives on access to formal care for people with dementia and their carers.

    METHODS: Each ActifCare country (Germany, Ireland, Italy, The Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, United Kingdom) conducted semi-structured interviews with 4-7 experts (total N = 38). The interview guide addressed the topics "Complexity and Continuity of Care", "Formal Services", and "Public Awareness". Country-specific analysis of interview transcripts used an inductive qualitative content analysis. Cross-national synthesis focused on similarities in themes across the ActifCare countries.

    RESULTS: The analysis revealed ten common themes and two additional sub-themes across countries. Among others, the experts highlighted the need for a coordinating role and the necessity of information to address issues of complexity and continuity of care, demanded person-centred, tailored, and multidisciplinary formal services, and referred to education, mass media and campaigns as means to raise public awareness.

    CONCLUSIONS: Policy and political decision makers appear well acquainted with current discussions among both researchers and practitioners of possible approaches to improve access to dementia care. Experts described pragmatic, realistic strategies to influence dementia care. Suggested innovations concerned how to achieve improved dementia care, rather than transforming the nature of the services provided. Knowledge gained in these expert interviews may be useful to national decision makers when they consider reshaping the organisation of dementia care, and may thus help to develop best-practice strategies and recommendations.

  • 29.
    Brungs, Jenny
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Granevåg, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    BVC-sjuksköterskors reflektioner kring sitt arbete med övervikt och fetma hos barn mellan 2 och 5 år inom primärvården2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Fyrtioen miljoner barn runt om i världen under 5 års ålder lider idag av övervikt eller fetma. Detta ställer högre krav på BVC-sjuksköterskans arbete med prevention av övervikt och fetma.

    Syfte: Syftet med studien var att beskriva BVC-sjuksköterskors reflektioner kring sitt arbete med övervikt och fetma hos barn mellan 2 och 5 år inom primärvården.

    Metod: En kvalitativ ansats med en deskriptiv design har använts i denna studie. Datainsamlingen har skett via semistrukturerade intervjuer med nio kvinnliga BVC-sjuksköterskor som hade erfarenhet av fetma och övervikt hos barn mellan 2 och 5 år. Materialet analyserades med hjälp av manifest och latent innehållsanalys.

    Huvudresultat: I analysprocessen framkom ett tema och fyra kategorier. Temat var Att inte skuldbelägga föräldrarna och skapa förutsättningar för livsstilsförändringar för hela familjen. De fyra kategorierna som framkom var: Förutsättningar i BVC-sjuksköterskans arbete, Ett familjefokuserat arbetssätt, BVC-sjuksköterskans förebyggande arbete samt Hinder och utmaningar i BVC-sjuksköterskans arbete.

    De BVC-sjuksköterskor som deltog beskrev önskan av att inte skuldbelägga föräldrarna och hur de försökte skapa förutsättningar för en livsstilsförändring för att kunna passa hela familjen. Ibland hade dock BVC-sjuksköterskorna svårt att utföra detta arbetet på grund av olika hinder. BVC-sjuksköterskorna upplevde att föräldrarna var det största hindret i arbetet med livsstilsförändringar hos familjen.

    Slutsats: BVC-sjuksköterskor behöver mer tid och kunskap inom området barnfetma, för att lättare kunna hjälpa föräldrarna så att familjen kan uppnå en livsstilsförändring, som i slutändan hjälper barnet att uppnå en hälsosammare kroppsvikt. 

  • 30.
    Bååth, Carina
    et al.
    Faculty of Health, Sciences and Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden; County Council of Värmland, Karlstad, Sweden .
    Engström, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Gunningberg, Lena
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Surgery and Oncology Division, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Muntlin Athlin, Åsa
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden; University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia; .
    Prevention of heel pressure ulcers among older patients - from ambulance care to hospital discharge: a multi-centre randomized controlled trial2016In: Applied Nursing Research, ISSN 0897-1897, E-ISSN 1532-8201, Vol. 30, p. 170-175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to investigate the effect of an early intervention, a heel suspension device boot, on the incidence of heel pressure ulcers among older patients (aged 70 +). Background: Pressure ulcers are a global healthcare issue; furthermore, the heel is an exposed location. Research indicates that preventive nursing interventions starting during the ambulance care and used across the acute care delivery chain are seldom used. Methods: A multi-centre randomized control study design was used. Five ambulance stations, two emergency departments and 16 wards at two Swedish hospitals participated. Altogether, 183 patients were transferred by ambulance to the emergency department and were thereafter admitted to one of the participating wards. Results: Significantly fewer patients in the intervention group (n=15 of 103; 14.6%) than the control group (n=24 of 80; 30%) developed heel pressure ulcers during their hospital stay (p=0.017). Conclusions: Pressure ulcer prevention should start early in the acute care delivery chain to increase patient safety.

  • 31.
    Chienh, Robin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Sjuksköterskans erfarenheter inom nutritionsomvårdnad: En litteraturstudie med deskriptiv design2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Malnutrition is common among elderly people in Sweden. There are clear guidelines on what kind of intervention should be made, yet there are few actions being taken. This shows a sign of inadequate organisation and management, or lack of expertise in staff performing nutrition nursing care.

    Aim

    The aim for this study is to describe nurses’ experience in nutritional nursing care. And describe the article’s data collection method.

    Method

    A descriptive literature study based on 10 scientific articles.

    Result

    Nurses had limited knowledge and skills in nutrition nursing care and therefore could not identify patients who were malnourished. They were also reluctant to use screening instruments because they do not know how to use it. The nurse has a major responsibility to perform nutritional nursing care, which at the same time must prioritize other tasks. The results were divided into three sections, which are listed under the headings: Insufficient Knowledge, Attitude, Responsibility and Priorities

    Conclusion

    Studies show that nurses have insufficient knowledge in nutrition care and use of screening instruments to identify malnourished patients. The Nurse needs more training in nutrition care and how to use screening instruments to better respond and treat malnourished patients.

  • 32.
    Dahlberg, Emma
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Åkerman, Marcus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Homosexuellas upplevelser av bemötande från vårdpersonal: En litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Homosexuality historically had a series of laws that spoke against their human rights. In Sweden, a healthcare law about fair treatment exists, however, not everyone got the same care. A nurse's key area of expertise is the care and understanding of patient treatment.

     

    Aim: The aim of the literature study was to explore homosexual experiences of treatment in the meetings with healthcare professionals and to look at the included articles sample groups.

     

    Method: Literature study with descriptive design based on 12 qualitative scientific articles from the search engine MedLine and manual searches.

     

    Main results: The results showed both negative and positive experiences of meetings with healthcare professionals. The elements that influenced how the meetings were experienced were the professionals' attitudes, knowledge about the subject and usage of heteronormative words. Most of the included articles informed about the participants' ages and inclusion criteria. The largest part of participants were women and nine of twelve articles were made in Europe.

     

    Conclusion: This have shown that the treatments homosexual patients got could have been influenced by the healthcare professionals’ knowledge, attitudes and personal values. The homosexuals described both positive and negative experiences where heterosexual assumption, certain word choices and feelings of doubt have occurred. An increased knowledge and education about questions concerning homosexual’s and their experiences in the meeting with healthcare can help the undergraduate nurses to develop the capability for a more individual and positive encounter for homosexual people.

  • 33.
    Dahlkvist, Eva
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap och medicin.
    The Garden/Patio in Residential Care Facilities for Older People: Characteristics and the Users Perspectives2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Dahlkvist, Eva
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Health and Medicine, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Hartig, Terry
    Department of Psychology, Uppsala university, Uppsala, Sweden; Institute for Housing and Urban Research,Uppsala university, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Annika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Högberg, Hans
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Skovdahl, Kirsti
    Faculty of Health Sciences, Buskerud and Vestfold university, Norway.
    Engström, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Garden greenery and the health of older people in residential care facilities: A multi-level cross-sectional study2016In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 72, no 9, p. 2065-2076Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS:

    To test the relationship between greenery in gardens at residential facilities for older people and the self-perceived health of residents, mediated by experiences of being away and fascination when in the garden and the frequency of visitation there. To examine how these indirect effects vary with the number of physical barriers to visiting the garden.

    BACKGROUND:

    Many older people in residential facilities suffer from complex health problems. Access to a green outdoor environment may enable psychological distance, engage effortless attention, encourage more frequent visitation and promote resident health.

    DESIGN:

    A multi-level, cross-sectional, correlational design.

    METHODS:

    Questionnaires were administered June-August, 2011 to convenience samples of residents at 72 facilities for older people with complex healthcare needs. One to 10 eligible residents were sampled during self-motivated garden visits at each facility (n = 290). They reported on their garden experiences and health. Facility staff reported on objective garden characteristics and barriers to access. A serial mediation model was tested with multiple linear regression analysis.

    RESULTS:

    The total indirect effect of greenery on self-perceived health was positive and significant. Garden greenery appears to affect health by enhancing a sense of being away, affording possibilities to experience the outdoor environment as interesting and encouraging visitation. Among residents in homes with multiple barriers, only fascination mediated the relationship between greenery and self-perceived health.

    CONCLUSION:

    Ample greenery in outdoor space at residential facilities for older people appears to promote experiences of being away and fascination, more frequent visitation and better health.

  • 35.
    Delin, Rebecca
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Hammarlund, Matilda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Riskfaktorer för att utveckla posttraumatiskt stressyndrom hos ungdomar: En deskriptiv litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Posttraumatic stress disorder should be considered as a public health disease where diagnosing and treatment require attention. Adolescents who have survived life-threatening events tend to relive these traumatic events and avoid to deal with the emotions that occur, which can lead to mental disorders.

    Aim

    Identify which risk factors there is to develop posttraumatic stress disorder among adolescents and examine which data collection methods the included articles have chosen.

    Method

    Descriptive design has been used in this literature study including 13 articles collected from the databases PsycInfo and PubMed and has been categorized by similarities and differences. The articles data collection methods has been presented from the methodological aspect.

    Main results

    To be exposed to violence and traumatic events as physical injury or see someone suffer/die, be a girl, older adolescent, exposed to daily stress, broken family and have less social support were some risk factors for developing posttraumatic stress disorder. Ten of thirteen articles had a quantitative approach and used questionnaire to get responses for which risk factors there was. One article had a quantitative approach but did not use a questionnaire and two articles had qualitative approach and used interview as data collection method.

    Conclusion

    In this literature study different risk factors were identified underlying to develop PTSD among adolescents. The most common risk factors in almost all of the studies were to be exposed to violence, experience traumatic events, be a girl, have less social support from family and school, lose a family member and daily stress. As a nurse it is important to keep this in mind so the care for the adolescents are as good as possible and that coping is used in the right way.

  • 36.
    Diraoui, Fatima
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Sääf, Lotten
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Sjuksköterskans erfarenheter av att vårda patienter i livets slutskede: En litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Every year between 90 000 and 100 000 people dies in Sweden, the majority of these were cared in palliative care. The palliative care primarily focus on relief of symptoms and improvement of patient's quality of life.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe nurse’s experiences of caring for patients in the final stages of life and to describe the data collection method that was used in the included articles.

    Method: A descriptive literature study. The study was based on 14 qualitative articles found through searches in the databases PubMed and Cinahl.

    Main Results: Nurses experiences of showing respect for both patients and their relatives contributed to a better relation and trust. Nurses experienced that the palliative caring could be mentally burdened, but through support from colleagues the burden could be reduced. The demands from relatives could create a feeling of stress. Nurses on surgical and oncological ward experienced a lack of knowledge when it came to palliative care and communication. According to the nurses, communication between nurses and doctors didn't work well and were a source of stress. Data collection method in the included articles were interviews and focusgroup interviews.

    Conclusions: Nurses described a lack of knowledge within the palliative care and difficulties communicating with patients and their relatives. Education within palliative care and communication could contribute to nurses feeling more confident and allow them to grow in their role and improve the collaboration with doctors.

  • 37.
    Dolk, Fredrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Jonsson, Lisa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Sjuksköterskors attityd till inducerad abort: En litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In Sweden women has the right to abortion until pregnancy week 18, as long

    as there’s no risk for her life. Abortion after pregnancy week 18 require a permit from The

    National Board of Health and Welfare (Socialstyrelsen). The law regarding abortion varies a

    lot around the world. Approximately 45 million abortions are performed annually around the

    world. It’s estimated that half of them are performed illegally.

    Aim: To describe nurse's attitude towards induced abortion and to describe the survey group

    in the included articles.

    Method: A literature review with a descriptive design. The articles were searched in the

    database PubMed and Cinahl and resulted in 14 articles that was included in the study.

    Main results: It occurred both negative and positive attitude among nurses towards induced

    abortion. Negative attitude were shown through the nurses conception of life, religious belief

    as well as repeated abortions. In some cases this was shown through discrimination of the

    patients. Positive attitude was shown through the nurses conviction of women's right to

    abortion. An equal and non-judgemental care was emphasized. The nurses had different

    methods to cope with the situation and perform an adequate job with regard for the patient's

    best.

    Conclusion: Nurses attitudes may affect women’s experience of health care in a positive or

    negative direction. Knowledge of the occurring attitudes among staff involved in induced

    abortion give nurses an opportunity to reflect on their own attitude.

  • 38.
    Ekholm, Arvid
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Yacob Ghebremicael, Seble
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Patientens erfarenheter av egenvård i samband med hjärtsvikt: En litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Heart failure is a common disease in the Swedish population and also a

    common cause of hospitalization. The self-care is an important part of the treatment.

    Lack of self-care can be a contributing factor to the worsening of heart failure, which

    both can lead to unnecessary suffering for the patient and lead to large costs for health

    care

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to describe patients' experiences of self-care

    associated with heart failure and describe the articles included data collection method.

    Method: Descriptive literature. Eleven scientific articles were included. Articles were

    searched using PubMed. Articles with qualitative and quantitative approach included.

    The results were analyzed by processing the articles two tables and mark with paint and

    compiled

    Result: The results of the study show that patients with heart failure often suffer from

    some form of mental illness. Patients with heart failure often have good knowledge of

    self-care. However participates depression or other forms of mental illness to reduced

    adherence to self-care because of reduced initiative.

    Conclusion: Disease heart failure is multidimensional and affects the psyche negatively

    leading to reduced ability in performing self-care. Family support, patient education and

    quick response from health care have been shown to have positive effects on self-care.

    Also contributing a strong family and good economics to better self-care.

  • 39.
    Eklund, Karolin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Distriktssköterskornas erfarenheter och reflektioner av telefonrådgivning inom primärvården: en intervjustudie2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Communication is an essential tool for nurses, especially when working with the telephone advice nursing (from here on mentioned as telenursing) that has been developed in recent decades. The aim of the present study was to describe the primary healthcare nurse´s experiences and reflections of telenursing in primary healthcare. Method: The present study was of qualitative approach with a descriptive design. Nine primary healthcare nurses was interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. Qualitative content analysis was used as data analysis. Results: Primary healthcare nurses experienced telenursing as challenging because there were many different patients of different ages and with different health needs who contacted the telenursing. The informants described working with telenursing as stimulating because they easily were able to help many patients. Primary healthcare nurses also experienced the work stressful. The most difficult thing with telenursing described the primary healthcare nurses as the lack of visualization when assessing the need of care. Other difficulties the primary healthcare nurses described were difficulties in dealing with dissatisfied patients and to ask the right questions. The informants described they were not only the patient's wishes to meet. The primary healthcare center made demands of the primary healthcare nurses when it was lack of doctors’ appointments and because the nurses distributed the work on the healthcare center by the telenursing. The informants described the telenursing important because that is the only way for the patient to get an appointment at the healthcare center. Conclusion: The primary healthcare nurses described working with telenursing in primary healthcare as challenging and difficult with limited opportunities to ensure everyone is satisfied. The primary healthcare nurses working with telenursing in primary healthcare experienced similar difficulties as nurses at the call-centers did. The most difficult thing the primary healthcare nurses experienced with telenursing was that they did not met the patient physically. Primary healthcare nurses also experienced telenursing as important and stimulating.

  • 40.
    Eklund, Rakel
    et al.
    Department of Health Care Sciences, Ersta Sköndal University College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    An integrative review of the literature on how eating disorders among adolescents affect the family as a system - complex structures and relational processes2016In: Mental Health Review Journal, ISSN 1361-9322, E-ISSN 2042-8758, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 213-230Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The aim of this literature review is to describe how eating disorders among adolescents affect family relationships and the family’s daily living conditions and to describe the family’s experienced need for professional support.

    Design/methodology/approach

    An integrative literature review based on the method of Whittemore and Knafl (2005). 15 articles with both qualitative and quantitative approaches were reviewed.

    Findings

    The results are presented in two main themes: A disharmonic family and The need for input from healthcare professionals. The results are discussed using Callista Roy's adaptation model and the adaptive modes; Group Identity Mode, Role Function and Interdependence.

    Originality/value

    This review article will be of interest to clinical nurses and other professionals who encounter families to clarify how the relationships and roles change within the family. To our knowledge, no integrative review has paid attention to how the relational aspects of the family members, their social roles and role constructions within the family affect daily living.

  • 41.
    Ekman, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Stensson, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Den psykologiska och sociala arbetsmiljön bland distriktssköterskor och sjuksköterskor i primärvård respektive hemsjukvård2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     Background: There is a different in management and organization in primary health care and in municipal home health nursing. This different may effect activities and tasks at work, which in turn can affect the psychological and social work environment of district nurses / nurses. The purpose of this study was to compare any differences in the psychological and social work environment of district nurses/nurses in primary health care and home health nursing. Method: A quantitative, comparative cross-sectional study was conducted and the data was collected with the survey QPSNordic 34+. The survey was administred to 159 participants in primary care and to 148 participants in home health nursing. The survey was answered by (n = 39) district nurses /nurses in primary health care and (n = 39) district nurses/nurses in home health nursing. The result showed significant differences in four out of eleven categories in the psychological and social work environment between the district nurses/nurses in primary care and the district nurses/nurses in home care. Differences were found in "work requirements", "control at work", "work skills" and "stress". In all of these four categories, district nurses/nurses in primary health care estimated their psychological and social work environment lower than the estimation from district nurses/nurses in home health nursing. The conclusion of this study was that district nurses/nurses in primary health care estimate their psychological and social work environment lower in comparison to the district nurses/nurses in home care nursing.

  • 42.
    Elemyr, Linda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Ahlberg, Bertil
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Sjuksköterskans erfarenheter i vården av patienter med suicidalt beteende.2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund

    Suicidalt beteende även kallad suicidalitet är ett stort globalt hälsoproblem.Begreppet innefattar suicidtankar, suicidförsök och suicid. Var 40:e sekundavlider en människa på grund av suicidalitet någonstans på jorden.

    Syfte

    Syftet var att beskriva sjuksköterskans erfarenheter i vården av patienter med suicidalt beteende samt beskriva undersökningsgruppen i de inkluderade artiklarna.

    Metod

    Föreliggande litteraturstudies resultat inkluderar 12 vetenskapliga artiklar, med både kvantitativ och kvalitativ ansats. Studien har en beskrivande design. Databaser som användes var PubMed, CINAHL och PsycINFO.

    Huvudresultat

    Sjuksköterskorna erfar att omvårdnad av patienter med suicidalt beteende är en komplex situation. Erfarenheterna är att suicidalt beteende väcker känslor som chock besvikelse, frustration, skuld och stress hos sjuksköterskorna. Egna värderingar har en dömande inverkan på patienten. En osäkerhet i omvårdnaden av dessa patienter finns. Fysiska behov prioriteras därför före psykiska. Detta kan kopplas till brist på utbildning, stöd och resurser.

    Slutsatser

    Sjuksköterskors erfarenheter är betydelsefulla för att ge den suicidala patienten bästamöjliga omvårdnad. Sjuksköterskor bör ha en icke dömande inställning och ett holistiskt förhållningssätt. Föreliggande studie vill bidra till en samlad bild av sjuksköterskors erfarenheter i omvårdnaden av denna patientgrupp. Detta för att belysa det stöd och utbildning som sjuksköterskan behöver för att möta patienten professionellt. Men även för att belysa vikten av förståelse och betydelsen av rätt omvårdnad.

  • 43.
    Engstrand, Frida
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Nilsson, Linnéa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Nyutexaminerade sjuksköterskors upplevelse av att arbeta som sjuksköterska2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: approximately 5000 nurses are examined each year in Sweden. A nurse has many tasks in addition to the care around the patient. As a person, the nurse should be respectful and show compassion. Experienced nurses felt that newly graduated nurses lacked the knowledge required to independently exercise the profession. The experienced nurses felt responsible for the newly graduated nurses, saying that, among other things, they experienced tiredness and fatigue.Aim: to describe newly graduate nurse´s experience of working as a nurse. Furthermore, the aim of this study was to examine the sampling of the included articles.Methods: a literature study with a descriptive design. The eleven scientific articles included in the study were quantitative, qualitative and mixed approaches. The articles were searched in the PubMed database.Main results: newly graduated nurses felt that good guidance promoted the development of knowledge, but that several factors negatively affected self-confidence in the professional role; including the lack of clinical experience. Experiences of hierarchy and bullying were described as well as the communication leading to experiences of stress. The fact that newly graduated nurses thought to quit their work was due, inter alia, to the fact that they felt incompetent and had difficulty feeling free because they thought about work all the time.Conclusion: newly graduated nurses experienced the first professional years as mentally demanding and exhaustive due to the lack of clinical experience and experiences of bullying. A good supervisor fostered the development of knowledge and contributed to a better experience. Increased understanding of the experience of newly graduated nurses is beneficial for both experienced nurses and for the occupations so that they can improve the working environment of newly graduated nurses.

  • 44.
    Engström, Maria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden; Nursing Department, Medicine and Health College, Lishui University, China .
    Löfmark, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Faculty of Health Education, Stord/Haugesund University College, Norway.
    Ugland Vae, Karen Johanne
    Faculty of Health Education, Stord/Haugesund University College, Norway.
    Mårtensson, Gunilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Nursing students' perceptions of using the Clinical Education Assessment tool AssCE and their overall perceptions of the clinical learning environment: a cross-sectional correlational study2017In: Nurse Education Today, ISSN 0260-6917, E-ISSN 1532-2793, Vol. 51, p. 63-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Clinical education is a vital part of nursing students' learning; the importance of assessment tools and feedback in stimulating student learning has been stressed, but this needs to be studied in more detail.

    Objectives

    To examine relationships between nursing students' perceptions of using an Assessment tool in Clinical Education (AssCE) during their mid-course discussion and final assessment, the content discussed during these meetings between the student, preceptor and nurse teacher and the students' overall perception of the clinical learning environment.

    Design

    A cross-sectional, correlational design was used.

    Setting and Participants

    A convenience sample of 110 nursing students from one Norwegian university college with two campuses.

    Methods

    Data were collected with self-developed questionnaires and analysed using logistic regression with SPSS and the PROCESS macro for mediation analysis.

    Results

    There was a positive relationship between nursing students' perceptions of using the assessment tool AssCE and their overall perception of the clinical learning environment. This relationship was, in turn, mediated by the content discussed during the formative mid-course discussion and summative final assessment.

    Conclusions

    Our conclusion is that the assessment tool AssCE supported students' clinical learning and that this relationship, in turn, was mediated by the degree to which the conversation during the assessment meeting focused on the student's knowledge, skills and professional judgement.

  • 45.
    Engström, Maria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Westerberg Jacobson, Josefin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Mårtensson, Gunilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Uppsala University and University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Staff assessment of structural empowerment and ability to work according to evidence-based practice in mental health care2015In: Journal of Nursing Management, ISSN 0966-0429, E-ISSN 1365-2834, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 765-774Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To study associations between staff members' self-rated structural empowerment in mental health care, organisational type, and the ability and willingness to work according to evidence-based practice.

    Method: Questionnaire data were collected from 253 mental health staff members.

    Result: Multivariate logistic regressions analyses revealed that participants who scored higher on opportunity (OR 2.5) and were employed by the county council (OR 1.9) vs. the municipality were more likely to report high evidence-based practice ability. A generalised estimating equation taking into account unknown correlations within units found opportunity and resources to be significant predictors of evidence-based practice ability. Regarding evidence-based willingness, increased odds were found for higher scores of opportunity (OR 2.2) and being employed by the county council (OR 2.9). The generalised estimating equation also found resources to be a significant predictor of evidence-based willingness. In both organisations, the values for empowerment were moderate.

    Conclusion: Structural conditions such as access to opportunities and resources are important for creating supporting structures for practice to be evidence-based. Implications for nursing management: Our results emphasise the managers' essential role in creating empowering structures, and especially access to opportunities and resources, for their staff to carry out evidence-based practice.

  • 46.
    Erikson, Henrik
    et al.
    Department of Nursing and Care, Swedish Red Cross University College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Future Challenges of Robotics and Artificial Intelligence in Nursing: What Can We Learn from Monsters in Popular Culture?2016In: The Permanente Journal, ISSN 1552-5767, E-ISSN 1552-5775, Vol. 20, no 3, article id 15-243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is highly likely that artificial intelligence (AI) will be implemented in nursing robotics in various forms, both in medical and surgical robotic instruments, but also as different types of droids and humanoids, physical reinforcements, and also animal/pet robots. Exploring and discussing AI and robotics in nursing and health care before these tools become commonplace is of great importance. We propose that monsters in popular culture might be studied with the hope of learning about situations and relationships that generate empathic capacities in their monstrous existences. The aim of the article is to introduce the theoretical framework and assumptions behind this idea. Both robots and monsters are posthuman creations. The knowledge we present here gives ideas about how nursing science can address the postmodern, technologic, and global world to come. Monsters therefore serve as an entrance to explore technologic innovations such as AI. Analyzing when and why monsters step out of character can provide important insights into the conceptualization of caring and nursing as a science, which is important for discussing these empathic protocols, as well as more general insight into human knowledge. The relationship between caring, monsters, robotics, and AI is not as farfetched as it might seem at first glance.

  • 47.
    Eriksson, Annelie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Vestre Viken HF, Baerum, Norway.
    Engström, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Distriktssköterskors beskrivningar av sjukdomsförebyggande arbete i daglig verksamhet och strukturella förutsättningar för detta arbete: [District nurses’ perceptions of their preventive work and structural conditions for this work]2015In: Nordic journal of nursing research, ISSN 2057-1585, E-ISSN 2057-1593, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 77-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background There is much research about district nurses’ preventive work, effects of it and their perceptions of the preventive work. Less is known about how district nurses perceive their preventive work in relation to structural conditions for this work.

    Aim The aim was to describe district nurses’ perceptions of their preventive work in daily practice; and structural conditions for this using Kanter’s theory of structural empowerment.

    Methods Interviews were conducted 2012 with nine Swedish district nurses. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis.

    Findings The analysis resulted in one theme; ‘To experience stimulation versus frustration; a consistency versus a discrepancy between will and structural conditions’. District nurses who worked with specialized tasks felt that they mostly had the structural conditions required to work in a preventive manner and that they could prioritize which unhealthy living habits to discuss with their patients. District nurses without specialized tasks described that their structural conditions for preventive work was limited in the present streamlined organization. This in turn led to a feeling of frustration.

    Conclusion Preventive work is described as stimulating when district nurses have the conditions required, yet the conditions required are sometimes lacking and especially for district nurses without specialized tasks. There is a will to work in a preventive manner but structural conditions need to be improved.

  • 48.
    Eriksson, Elin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Häglund, Magnus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Organisatoriska orsaker till vårdtagares missnöje med vården2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The health care system is an complex structure with many different actors and professions, who are subject to different management and different conditions. Within this organisation, many situations may arise that can cause dissatisfaction among care recipients.

     

    Aim

    To describe organisational factors in healthcare that cause dissatisfaction with carers, as well as to describe the selection processes for the selected articles' sample groups.

     

    Design

    Literature review based on twelve articles, both quantitative and qualitative, from 2007-2017.

     

    Main results

    The main problem area for patients was accessibility. Waiting times of various kinds were common: waiting to get an appointment, long time in the waiting room, waiting for treatment, and more. Specific to primary care were difficulties in getting appointments at all, and perceptions in patients that primary care could not help them with their problems. Dissatisfaction with the physical care environment was mentioned mainly in the form of understaffing and unavailability of hospital beds, but there were also other complaints related to the physical environment. Lack of coordination between different actors cause discontent in some patients, for instance due to poor continuity of care.

     

    Conclusions

    There are a number of reasons for care recipients’ dissatisfaction that have their foundation in the health care organization. Focusing on the patient's emotions, the nurse can help the patient in developing and improving the handling of the problematic situation and the feelings that arise. This is facilitated by the nurse having knowledge of how the organisation is structured, and understanding of its complexity. This knowledge and understanding is also a good prerequisite for organisational improvement.

  • 49.
    Eriksson, Elisabet
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Engström, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Internationally educated nurses’ descriptions of their access to structural empowerment while working in another country’s health care context2018In: Journal of Nursing Management, ISSN 0966-0429, E-ISSN 1365-2834Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM:

    To examine internationally educated nurses' experiences of empowerment structures using Kanter's theory of structural empowerment.

    BACKGROUND:

    There has been an increase in the number of nurses working in other countries worldwide and concerns have been raised regarding their working conditions.

    METHOD:

    Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 11 internationally educated nurses. Directed content analysis was used to analyse the data and Kanter's theory of empowerment was used as a framework.

    RESULTS:

    Access to information was generally good. Access to support for their relationship with their managers varied. Regarding access to resources, nurses unfamiliar with clinical leadership found team leadership challenging. Access to in-house learning opportunities were reported as good. Access to informal power was more common than access to formal power.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    The findings support Kanter's theory and demonstrate that internationally experienced nurses encountered varying degrees of access to empowering structures. Access to information and formal power was more general and related to the unit. Access to resources, support, opportunities and informal power were related to both the unit and the informants' specific situation as IENs.

    IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING MANAGEMENT:

    Managers need to support IENs when having a team leadership role, facilitate encounters between IENs and ordinary staff, and establishing mentorship for IENs.

  • 50.
    Eriksson, Elisabet
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Wejåker, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Danhard, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Nilsson, Annika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Kristofferzon, Marja-Leena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Living with a spouse with chronic illness – the challenge of balancing demands and resources2017In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims and objectives. To describe the partners’ experiences of living with a person with chronic illness and how they manage everyday life.

    Background. The number of partners providing informal care for their chronically ill spouse is rising, and they describe their daily life as demanding.

    Design. A descriptive design with a qualitative approach was used.   

    Methods. A purposive sample of 16 partners with a chronically ill spouse were interviewed. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using qualitative content analysis.

    Results Four main themes were identified: ‘Living with challenges caused by the spouse's disease,’ ‘Seeking support for living with the spouse’s illness,’ ‘Appreciating the good parts of life’ and ‘Adapting to constant changes and an uncertain future.’ The participants rated their health as rather good and had great confidence in their own ability to cope with daily life. Their experiences of support from formal care providers varied; they expressed the need for more assistance from the health care sector.

    Conclusions. The partners experienced many challenges in everyday life when providing informal care for their chronically ill spouse. This affected both their physical and psychological health, as they had limited time for themselves. The partners seemed to receive more support from their informal network than from formal care providers. In handling daily life, the partners balanced demands and resources to identify possibilities to move forward and find meaning in life.

    Relevance to clinical practice. Formal care providers must acknowledge partners' needs, develop evidence-based assessment guidelines, and provide efficient support to partners with a chronically ill spouse. 

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