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  • 1.
    Aarskog, Fredrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Heco, Benjamin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Existerar en perfekt förhandlingsstrategi?: En jämförande studie av en fastighetsmäklares beteende.2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 2.
    Abdelrahman, Ahmed
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    van den Akker, Melanie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    The Impact Of Corporate Governance Characteristics On Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Empirical Evidence From Sweden2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to examine the interactions and impact of six key corporate governance factors on greenhouse gas emissions in Swedish listed firms. Namely, board size, board gender diversity, CEO compensation, blockholder ownership, audit and non-audit fees. The study employs a quantitative research design and uses regression analysis to test the research hypotheses. The data for the study is obtained from a sample of 199 Swedish firms from 2014 to 2021 and data retrieved from the Nordic Compass Database, Swedish House of Finance Research Data Center. The findings reveal significant associations between corporate governance factors after controlling for firm size and industry with carbon emissions disclosure by firms. Concluding, these factors play a crucial role in tackling environmental sustainability performance in corporate practices.

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    The impact of CG on GH, Ahmed Abdelrahman_Melanie van den Akker
  • 3.
    Abebaw, Meron Kebede
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Matukuta, Willard Kingstone
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Technology and Customers’ Experiences in Fashion Physical Stores: The Case of Sweden2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Technology and Consumers’ Experiences in Fashion Physical Stores: The Case of Sweden

    Level: Master Thesis in Business Administration

    Author: Meron Kebede Abebaw; Willard Kingstone Matukuta

    Supervisor: Agneta Sundström, PhD

    Examiner: Maria Fregidou-Malama, PhD

    Date: May, 2018 

    Aim: The aim of this study is to analyze whether in-store digital technology in fashion retailers are used to change the customers’ shopping experience and behavior.

    Method: This study chooses qualitative research and used both primary and secondary data collection as method.

    Results and conclusions: This study have reached to conclude that: with the current advances in technology, physical stores can use in-store technology to give customers a new experience; physical stores perceive that using in-store digital technology will change customers shopping experience. Also, marketing mix inputs and technology affect customers’ behavior.

    Suggestions for future research: For future research, how smart fitting rooms may influence the customer experience in the physical store will be important to study. Researchers can also consider understanding customer responses to in-store technology. Finally, a customer’s perspective to both suggestions should improve the knowledge on whether digital solutions are preferred in in-store shopping or not.

    Contributions of the thesis: This thesis contributes to the current state of theories on in-store technology by showing atmosphere has effect on customers’ experiences and behavior in addition to the marketing mix. On the managerial perspective, analyzing the installation of this technology will enable to identify its effect on customers’ experiences and behavior. In addition, on the societal perspective, the behavior of customers will help in motivating younger generation to utilize this in-store technology.

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  • 4.
    Abou Khaled, Omar
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Oleandersson, Viktor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Service Recovery genom hantering av eWOM: En studie om svenska e-handelns modebransch.2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Service Recovery by managing eWOM - A study of the e-commerce fashion industry.

    Level: Final assignment for Bachelor Degrees in Business Administration.

    Authors: Omar Abou Khaled & Viktor Oleandersson.

    Supervisor: Akmal Hyder.

    Date: 2022 June.

    Aim: The purpose of this study is to investigate how e-commerce companies in the fashion industry manage negative eWOM through the use of Service Recovery.

    Method: This study is based on a qualitative method with a hermeneutic approach and an inductive research approach. The empirical data consists of seven semi-structured interviews.

    Conclusion: Digital development has given a lot of room for mistakes, it is also easier for eWOM to spread. The most common reasons for negative eWOM spreading are mainly delivery issues or dissatisfaction with a product. The study also shows that the majority of companies lack strategies and instead rely on the customer service department, which makes it important to have well-trained staff.

    Contribution: The study’s contribution to the theory in marketing is an increased understanding of how Swedish companies in the e-commerce fashion industry manage negative eWOM and the reasons for eWOM’s emergence. The practical contribution is a wisdom for e-commerce companies in the fashion industry to be able to design a Service Recovery strategy and the aspects that can prevent negative eWOM.

    Suggestions for future research: The research can be further deepened by taking the customer perspective into account. It will also be of interest to investigate how companies should deal with digitalisation. Finally, a suggestion is to study this topic in other industries. 

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  • 5.
    Abrahamsson, Isak
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Karlsson, Malin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Värdeinvestering – en hållbar strategi för överavkastning?: Ett test av investeringsstrategin F_SCORE på värdeaktier med hög book-to-market kvot2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The main aim is to test if Piotroskis F_SCORE applied on stocks with high book-to- market ratio outperforms the market portfolio and therefore determine the level of market efficiency. The secondary aim is to provide knowledge to business executives about the relevance of a book-to-market policy.

    Method

    This study is a quantitative research which assumes a positivistic research philosophy with a deductive approach. Several regression analyses have been used to confirm the statistical significance of the different estimated parameters. The empirical results give answers to two hypotheses based on the aim of this research. The empirical data have been collected from Thomson Reuter Datastream, compiled in Excel and analyzed with the statistical software Stata.

    Result & Conclusions

    The empirical results of this study show that the value portfolio has a higher return than the market index. The risk-adjusted return for the value portfolio is higher compared to the market portfolio. This indicates that the higher return of the value portfolio is not due to a higher risk. By the results of this study there is not possible to determine whether the market is fully efficient or not. It is only possible to exclude the strong and semi-strong form of market efficiency.

    Suggestions for future research

    For future studies, we suggest further research about the weak form of market efficiency. Using historical data to determine future return, as Contrarian model, is one suggestion to reach further evidence of market (in)efficiency. Since F_SCORE assumes a normal distribution and because of the poor performance of the low F_SCORE firms another suggestion is short-sell these stocks to see if the return ca be increased. This empirical field needs further research about which factors that causes the higher return for these stocks. The small firm effect, liquidity and behavioral finance are just a few anomalies that may have a relationship with excess return.

    Contribution of the thesis

    The investment strategy in this research shows a higher excess return compared to the market index as well as a higher risk-adjusted return over the given period. This is not only a contribution to investors but also in a theoretical field due to the efficient market hypothesis. F_SCORE have a normal distribution curve where the stocks with F_SCORE of 5 or higher generally have a higher mean return. Another contribution is the relevance of book to market ratio as a useful strategy for valuating companies. The practical contribution gives business executives better understanding about the relevance of a book-to-market policy when attracting investors. 

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  • 6.
    Addo, Richard Amankwah
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Mancuso, Giancarlo
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    To the Next Level: Influence of Social Media on Sport Organisations' Brand and Relationship Management during Global Pandemic2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of the study is to investigate the influence of social media in building brand and relationship for sport organisations during a global pandemic.  

    Methodology: The methodology in this study is built on a qualitative method based on a inductive approach. The authors conducted semi-structured interviews when interviewing the sports organisations and fans. Furthermore, a content analysis was employed as it served the aim of the study best.

    Findings & Conclusion: With regards to building the brand through the use of social media, findings showed that transparency, the history of the club and their image play a vital role in building a distinctive brand. With regards to building their relationship through the use of social media, findings showed that although efforts were made by the hockey clubs to interact and engage fans with various strategies, there was a lack of consistency in order to build their relationship with their fans. Thus, the findings of the study revealed that sport organisations have been able to build their brand as well as maintain their relationship with their fans during the global pandemic through the use of social media.

    Contribution of the Study: The study has both theoretical contributions and practical contributions. With regards to the theoretical contribution, the study introduces a framework that focuses on what factors influences the effectiveness of social media (SM) use for sports organizations to build their brand and relationship with their fans. Also, to the practical contribution, consistency in interacting and engaging with customers on SM should be a top priority for sport organisations’ relationship managers to build their relationship with fans on SM.

    Reflections on the Study and Suggestions for Future Research: As the study has been limited to three hockey clubs from Swedish Hockey League, the scope of the study could be broadened in future research. Also, conducting a quantitative method is recommended for future research to determine the link between interaction and engagement.

    Key Words: Relationship Building, Brand Building, Interaction, Engagement, Social Media, Sports Organisations

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  • 7.
    Afram Chamun, Robbie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Sundholm, Rebecca
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    ESG-betygets samband med värdeskapandet: En studie av börsnoterade företag mellan en svensk och norsk kontext2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: The connection between the ESG rating and value creation – a study of listed companies between a Swedish and Norwegain context.

     

    Level: Student thesis, final assignment for Bachelor Degree in Business Administration.

     

    Author: Robbie Afram Chamun och Rebecca Sundholm.

     

    Supervisor: Jan Svanberg.

     

    Date: 2022 - January.

     

    Aim: The interest in companies´ sustainability work has led to their valuation also being based on this phenomenon. A measure for sustainability as a basis to evaluate the companies´ CSR is the ESG score. By examining the connection between the ESG score and the companies’ value creation, from partly a Swedish context and partly a Norwegian one, studies are intended to show whether the connection exists. Furthermore, the study shows whether this connection differs between two contexts with different degrees of regulation. The purpose of the studies is therefore to investigate the connection between the ESG score and value creation for Swedish and Norwegian listed companies. 

     

    Method: The research is based on a positivist research philosophy with a deductive approach and a quantitative research method. The execution of a longitudinal design meant that the research collected data from 68 companies over a period of 7 years. The data was collected from Refinitiv Eikon and was analyzed through the statistical programme SPSS. 

     

    Result & Conclusion: The results of the study show that no significant connection between the ESG score and the companies' value creation exists. The study confirms that companies from a Swedish context receive higher ESG ratings than companies from a Norwegian one.

     

    Contribution of the thesis: By comparing Swedish and Norwegian public listed companies, the study has helped to fill the gap around the ESG score´s impact on companies´ value creation for these countries. The results of this study could not state that the ESG scores alone significantly affects the companies' value creation. 

     

    Suggestions for future research: Future research should address how value creation is affected in the absence of ESG score.

    Key words: CSR disclosure, Value Creation, ESG, Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR).

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  • 8.
    Agius, David
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Jansson, Andreas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Relationen mellan ledarskap och organisationskultur i krishantering: En empirisk studie av Crisis Response Leadership Matrix2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Organizations depend on a leader in crisis situations, but how does leadership need to be adapted to the prevailing organizational culture? Previous research has presented a model Crisis Response Leadership Matrix (CRLM) to match the right leader for a given organizational culture. The purpose of this study is to develop the spectrum of the CRLM model through empirical observations. Specific research questions are: (1) Based on Swedish leaders’ experiences of crisis management, how did the leadership adapt to the organizational culture, type of crisis and the phase of the crisis? (2) Based on Swedish leaders' experiences of crisis management, to what extent does CRLM correspond with those experiences? 

    Method: The study has conducted unstructured interviews with seven respondents who have solid experience of crisis management within various organizations. Respondents have rated their organizational culture with (OCAI). Interview data have been presented according to the informants' individual stories with a storytelling method, after which analysis has been done through modeling. 

    Result and Conclusions: The study indicates through the respondents' experiences of crisis management that leadership needs to be adapted through the different phases of the crisis, and to the prevailing organizational culture. The previously presented CRLM was in line with the respondents' experiences. Furthermore, we have been able to identify leadership styles and leadership competencies to develop CRLM in the different phases of the crisis for a given organizational culture. The development was the identified leadership styles empowering and democratic as well as the leadership competencies image and visibility, maintaining an effective organizational culture, creating organizational abilities, and creating trust.

    Contribution of the thesis: The study has developed previous CRLMs with a wider spectrum, which makes it more applicable to organizations.

    Suggestions for future research: CRLM needs to be investigated more empirically and especially for internal crises as well as within market and adhocracy cultures, which was a limitation of this study.

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  • 9.
    Agorelius, Matilda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Najmi, Emmelie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Trivsel och fysisk aktivitet på arbetsplatser: En kvalitativ studie om mäklarverksamheten2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay is to create an increased understanding of well-being in workplaces and how joint physical training can affect the well-being and business operations. A qualitative method with semi-structured interviews is used. The sample is limited to four brokerage offices with a total of ten respondents. According to the respondents, the most important factors for well-being at workplaces are colleagues, followed by management and joint physical activity. Flexible working hours and flexible workplaces are considered the least important for creating well-being. Joint physical training at the workplace contributes to increased productivity. Further research can be done to investigate whether the type of exercise has any effect on well-being. It is also interesting to investigate whether the time of the joint training sessions has an impact on the number of participants and whether the time of the joint training has any impact on productivity. Finally, further research can be done by investigating how joint physical training affects the well-being and operations in other industries.

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  • 10.
    Ahldén, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Domeij, Petter
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Effekterna på företags finansiella rapporter och nyckeltal efter införandet av IFRS 162019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Den nya leasingstandarden IFRS 16 träder i kraft i år, 2019, vilken innebär att företag ska kapitalisera sina operationella leasingavtal. Huvudsyftet med studien är därför att undersöka hur denna kapitalisering påverkar företag med avseende på deras finansiella rapporter och nyckeltal. Studien har även ett delsyfte vilket är att undersöka hur väl kapitaliseringsmodellen har estimerat operationella leasingavtalens påverkan utifrån utvalda nyckeltal hos företag.

    Metod: Studien använder ett kvantitativt tillvägagångssätt med en deduktiv forskningsansats. Empiriska data har samlats in med hjälp av en innehållsanalys där de dokument som granskats är årsredovisningar. Det insamlade materialet har sedan granskats med hjälp av deskriptiv statistik och bivariata analyser. Kapitaliseringsmodellen har också tillämpats för att kunna jämföra modellens estimeringar med verkliga utfallet. Resultaten har sedan diskuterats och lett till studiens slutsatser.

    Resultat & Slutsats: Resultaten av studien visar att tillgångar och skulder ökar för företag efter införandet av IFRS 16. Studien kommer fram till att branscherna hälsovård och detaljhandel kommer påverkas mest, att mindre företag samt mindre finansiellt begränsade företag påverkas mer. Studien finner att kapitaliseringsmodellen i regel har fungerat bra, främst inom branschen fastigheter och för större företag.

    Uppsatsens bidrag: Teoretiskt bidrar studien till avsaknaden av forskning om de faktiska effekterna hos företag på grund av implementeringen av IFRS 16. Den ger också ett svar på hur väl kapitaliseringsmodellen har fungerat, vilket kan vara användbart för såväl analytiker som forskare. Det praktiska bidraget är att studien bidrar till en ökad förståelse kring hur företag och olika branscher påverkas av den nya leasingstandarden.

    Förslag till fortsatt forskning: Ett förslag till vidare forskning är att studera ett större urval för att kunna få ett mer generaliserbart resultat. Ett annat förslag är att göra liknande studier i andra länder, för att se om regelförändringen slår hårdare på andra marknader.

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  • 11.
    Ahlenius, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration. KTH, Fastighetsföretagande och finansiella system.
    The impact of motivation and person-job fit on employee turnover among Swedish real estate brokers: A mixed method approach2022Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Residential real estate is a vital part of the economy, and homes are important for individuals for both financial and emotional reasons. Residential homes change owners for numerous reasons, and there is a need for these transactions to be secure and efficient from both the economic and individual perspective. The general idea of residential real estate brokerage is to facilitate these transactions securely and efficiently. Real estate brokerage has therefore captured both media as well as scholarly interest. Some scholars even argue that brokerage is a relevant research and literature field of its own. Like other occupations within sales, the brokerage industry suffers from problems connected to recruiting and retaining employees, as put forth by several spokespersons within the industry and scholars alike. Prior studies argue that there is a need for further studies that describe the occupational life cycle of brokers and employee turnover antecedents, such as intrinsic motivation. Hence, the overarching purpose of this thesis is to describe and analyze occupational turnover and its antecedents among Swedish real estate brokers. This thesis sprung out of a firsthand occupational experience of Swedish brokerage, curiosity, and an abductive stance toward knowledge creation. It is primarily explorative, and the embedded articles consist of different types of methodologic approaches and therefore also different ways of gathering data such as interviews, surveys, and registered data. All data solely involves Swedish real estate brokers. Results of the four articles show that the occupational life cycle of brokers is significantly longer than expected and that Swedish brokers display high levels of work-related intrinsic motivation, occasionally rooted in affective commitment towards customers and gained trust from sellers. Furthermore, being driven by gained trust and customer relations has a positive effect on person-job fit which in turn reduces turnover intentions. A majority of the results within the four articles are not in line with prior studies, which is interesting and prompts speculation. The service landscape of brokerage, and particularly Swedish brokerage due to the broker’s intermediary role and personal responsibility for the entire transaction, arguably drives intrinsic motivation and reduces turnover. This is enhanced by the high educational threshold for becoming a broker in Sweden. This thesis contributes to the literature field of brokerage by providing insights about what motivates brokers and the theoretical field of person-job fit by suggesting ways of improving the operationalization and the validity of person-job fit.

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  • 12.
    Ahlenius, Martin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Berggren, Björn
    KTH.
    Gerdemark, Tommy
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Kågström, Jonas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Åge, Lars-Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    The occupational life cycle of real estate brokers: a cohort study2022In: Journal of European Real Estate Research, ISSN 1753-9269, E-ISSN 1753-9277, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 351-367Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this article is to describe and analyze the occupational life cycle of Swedish real estate brokers.

    Design/methodology/approachVoluntary turnover among real estate brokers could lead to occupational turnover and/or employee turnover and has been described as problematic by both practitioners and researchers alike. Most previous studies focusing on this issue have explored connections between real estate brokers' personality, economic and market conditions and turnover. Employee turnover involves shifting jobs within the profession (real estate brokerage), whereas occupational turnover concerns movement to a job not related to the real estate brokerage profession. Both perspectives on turnover are however lacking data about the average time spent as a broker. This study fills this gap by exploring real estate brokers' life cycle through data analysis using a cohort study consisting of a sample of 5,304 real estate brokers registered and/or deregistered over a ten-year period from 2010 to 2019.

    Findings

    The analysis show that the decline is almost linear, resulting in 50% of the newly registered real estate brokers remain in the occupation eight years after registration. These findings are not in line with previous assumptions as the real estate brokers' life cycle is substantially longer. The results also reveal that there are differences in life cycles due to gender and year of registration.

    Originality/value

    The analysis of longitudinal, aggregated data on the life cycle of real estate brokers is highly relevant as it serves as a point of reference for future longitudinal studies analyzing the motives for leaving the occupation.

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  • 13.
    Ahlenius, Martin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Berggren, Björn
    KTH.
    Kågström, Jonas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Exploring Motivational Factors Among High Performing Real Estate Brokers: The Swedish Case2021In: Journal of Real Estate Practice and Education, ISSN 1521-4842, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 20-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this exploratory case study is to analyze the role of relational motivation for high-performing real estate brokers in Sweden. The concept of relational motivation, or relatedness, is explored through both affective and calculative commitment. The data in this study come from in-depth interviews with real estate brokers. The results show that the brokers are committed to their clients, in an affective and a calculative way. All of the participants expressed signs of being emotionally involved in their customer relations, often in terms of genuine interest in, and caring for, their clients. The existence of relatedness toward customers in a brokerage context contributes to the discussion on what motivates high-performing real estate brokers. By viewing relatedness as a trigger to engage in more customer relationships, the intrinsic motivation can be seen as a strong antecedent to individual performance.

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  • 14.
    Ahlenius, Martin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE).
    Berggren, Björn
    Åge, Lars-Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    The impact of gained trust on person-job fit and occupational turnover. The case of residential real estate brokersManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores if received trust is intrinsically motivating and if it is associated with subjective person-job fit and occupational turnover intentions in the Swedish brokerage setting. Results from 397 real estate brokers showed that brokers are driven by the gained trust from their sellers and that gained trust is a vital part of person-job fit within brokerage. Furthermore, increased levels of person-job fit strongly reduce occupational turnover intentions within brokerage. This study offers further insights into intrinsic motivation in professional service settings and indicates that certain types of customer interactions help to fulfill the basic psychological needs of competence and relatedness.

  • 15.
    Ahlenius, Martin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE).
    Kågström, Jonas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Do intrinsic rewards matter for Swedish real estate brokers? A quantitative empirical generalizationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - Intrinsic motivation affects job satisfaction and turnover intention. Still, previous motivational studies among real estate brokers (brokers) have primarily focused on extrinsic rewards leaving intrinsic rewards/motivation practically unexplored. The purpose of this study is therefore to evaluate the role of both satisfaction with intrinsic rewards (SIR) and satisfaction with extrinsic rewards (SER) on job satisfaction and turnover intention among Swedish brokers.

    Design/methodology/approach - This article is an empirical generalization and extension of Mosquera et al.’s (2020) article conducted among brokers in Portugal. Using a sample of 910 Swedish brokers, the study analyzes a conceptual framework and tests hypotheses by using partial least squares (PLS).

    Findings - Results indicate that SIR has a very strong impact on job satisfaction, which is not the case in the Portuguese sample. On the other hand, SER does not have an impact on job satisfaction, which is the case in the Portuguese sample. SIR does not have an impact on turnover intention in the Swedish sample, whereas SER does. Job satisfaction has twice the positive impact on turnover intention in the Swedish sample compared to the Portuguese. Furthermore, job satisfaction mediates the relationship between SIR/SER and turnover intention.

    Research limitations/implications - Findings of this study extend the existing literature of satisfaction with extrinsic and in particular intrinsic rewards on job satisfaction and turnover intention in the context of the brokerage industry. The most interesting difference between the samples is that Swedish brokers display much higher levels of satisfaction with intrinsic rewards. On the other hand, Swedish brokers appear to be less driven by extrinsic rewards, which is not in line with prior studies within brokerage.

    Practical implications - Both managers and students planning to become brokers should consider that SIR has a stronger impact on job satisfaction than SER. What are perceived as intrinsic rewards, however, is highly subjective, which is troublesome from a managerial perspective, even more so as SIR is much harder to influence than SER. Given that intrinsic motivation is primarily a consequence of needs fulfillment, screening of applicants for person-job fit ought to increase job satisfaction and reduce turnover given its focus on the congruence between job demands and worker’s needs, respectively what a job provides and the worker’s needs.

    Originality/value - This study contributes to the brokerage research field by indicating that being a broker differs substantially between countries and that intrinsic rewards matter for Swedish brokers.

  • 16.
    Ahlenius, Martin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Kågström, Jonas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Fat cats or sociable wolves? Swedish real estate brokers and intrinsic rewards - A quantitative empirical generalization2023In: Journal of European Real Estate Research, ISSN 1753-9269, E-ISSN 1753-9277, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 92-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Intrinsic motivation affects job satisfaction and turnover intention. Still, previous motivational studies among real estate brokers (brokers) have primarily focused on extrinsic rewards, leaving intrinsic rewards/motivation practically unexplored. The purpose of this study is therefore to evaluate the role of both satisfaction with intrinsic rewards (SIR) and satisfaction with extrinsic rewards (SER) on job satisfaction and turnover intention among Swedish brokers.

    Design/methodology/approach

    This article is a replication, more precisely an empirical generalization and extension, of Mosquera et al .’s (2020) study conducted among brokers in Portugal. Using a sample of 910 Swedish brokers, the study analyzes a conceptual framework and tests hypotheses by using partial least squares (PLS).

    Findings

    Results indicate that SIR has a very strong impact on job satisfaction, which is not the case in the Portuguese sample. On the other hand, SER does not have an impact on job satisfaction, which is the case in the Portuguese sample. SIR does not have an impact on turnover intention in the Swedish sample, whereas SER does. Job satisfaction has twice the positive impact on turnover intention in the Swedish sample compared to the Portuguese. Furthermore, job satisfaction mediates the relationship between SIR/SER and turnover intention.

    Research limitations/implications

    Findings of this study extend the existing literature of satisfaction with extrinsic and in particular intrinsic rewards on job satisfaction and turnover intention in the context of the brokerage industry. The most interesting difference between the samples is that Swedish brokers display much higher levels of satisfaction with intrinsic rewards. On the other hand, Swedish brokers appear to be less driven by extrinsic rewards, which is not in line with prior studies within brokerage.Practical implicationsBoth managers and students planning to become brokers should consider that SIR has a stronger impact on job satisfaction than SER. What are perceived as intrinsic rewards, however, is highly subjective, which is troublesome from a managerial perspective, even more so as SIR is much harder to influence than SER. Given that intrinsic motivation is primarily a consequence of needs fulfillment, screening of applicants for person-job fit ought to increase job satisfaction and reduce turnover given its focus on the congruence between job demands and worker’s needs, respectively, what a job provides and the worker’s needs.

    Originality/value

    This study contributes to the brokerage research field by indicating that being a broker differs substantially between countries and that intrinsic rewards matter for Swedish brokers.

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  • 17.
    Ahlm, Matilda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Eriksson, Sabina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Hur företag redovisar värdeskapande genom The International <IR> Framework2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Society awareness of environmental issues has recently increased, which also led to the increase in demand for sustainability reporting. This has in turn resulted in the number of sustainability report becoming more and more recent. Sustainability reports are therefore usually very long and complex as the stakeholder’s needs are wide and large. Since these reports have not previously been integrated with the financial information of the company, this is something that should be done and therefore results in so-called integrated reporting. IR is a way for companies to report their value creation in the short, medium and long term. The purpose of IR is to expand traditional approaches to managing the various capital and business model that affect value creation. Based on this, the purpose on the study has been developed, which is to analyse how companies report value creation by applying the framework The International <IR> Framework.The study has a positivist point of departure and a major qualitative research strategy but with some quantitative elements in which a deductible research effort has been applied. The empirical material of the study has been collected from integrated reports and presented by diagram. The analysis has been carried out by data against previous research. The study's results show that business models affect the company's presentation of the value creation and that the International <IR> Framework is applied more and more when companies report a lot of capital. This result shows that it is in line with previous research and that the content element business model is a useful tool for reporting value creation. Suggestions for further research is to investigate why many companies do not link their business model with value creation though this study shows that the business model is useful tool for reporting value creation. Further, it would also be interesting to conduct a similar study when The International <IR> Framework has established itself and then study whether there are any significant differences.

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  • 18.
    Ahlqvist, Malin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Örn, Niklas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    En studie av den positiva marknadsreaktionen vid VD-byten i Norden: Hur reagerar investerare på kön, ålder och rekryteringskrets vid tillkännagivandet av en ny VD?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: A study of the positive market reaction to CEO changes in the Nordic region.

    Level: Student thesis, final assignment for Bachelor Degree in Business Administration 

    Authors: Malin Ahlqvist and Niklas Örn

    Supervisor: Jan Svanberg

    Date: 2019 - June

    Aim: The purpose of this study is to analyze how the Scandinavian market reacts to the announcement of a new CEO and to analyze how the factors gender, age and recruitment method can affect this reaction.

    Method: The study has a positivistic research philosophy with a deductive basis. The study applies an Event study and is thus associated with a quantitative research method.

    Result & Conclusions: The results of the study indicate a positive market reaction in Scandinavia at the announcement of a CEO change. The study also indicates a positive market reaction for both women and men. Furthermore, the study indicate that the market reaction is positive in Sweden and Finland as well as negative in Denmark and Norway. The market reaction for men under median age is positive while the reaction for men over median age is negative, the market reaction for women based on age is opposite to men. The study indicates that there is a positive reaction when the incoming CEO is internally recruited and a negative reaction when the incoming CEO is externally recruited. However, some parts of the results are not significant, therefore it cannot be ruled out that certain parts of the results are random.

    Contribution of the thesis: This thesis contributes to fill the research gap that exists regarding the market reaction to CEO changes related to age, gender, recruitment method and a comparative Scandinavian perspective.

    Suggestions for future research: This study shows on several occasions a significant market reaction the day before the actual announcement date of the CEO change, we believe a study to further study the reason behind this result would be of interest. Two more suggestions for further research are presented in the study.

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  • 19.
    Ahmadi, Elena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Vilhelmson, Pär
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Macassa, Gloria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science.
    Larsson, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    FRAMFÖR (Framgångsrika företag i Gästrikland): ett longitudinellt projekt om ledarskap, arbetsmiljö och effektivitet – fördel för både forskning, utbildning och ett hållbart arbetsliv?2016In: Inkluderande och hållbart arbetsliv: Book of abstracts - FALF 2016, Östersund: Mittuniversitetet , 2016, p. 48-48Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektbeskrivning: FRAMFÖR har under 15 år bedrivits i Gästrikland i samarbete mellan utbildning och forskning vid Högskolan i Gävle, företagsutvecklare vid kommuner, företag och näringslivsorganisationer. Varje år delas utmärkelsen FRAMFÖR ut till 50 företag. Ambitionen är att uppmuntra framgångsrika företagare och visa upp intressanta exempel på hur framgång kan skapas. Processen startar med att 120 företag (>4 anställda) nomineras utifrån finansiella kriterier (ex. omsättningstillväxt, vinstmarginal). Sedan genomför studenter vid Ekonomprogrammet intervjuer med cheferna för dessa företag. Intervjuerna sker utifrån ett standardiserat frågeformulär kring arbetsmiljö, ledarskap, organisering och effektivitet. Avslutningsvis väljer en jury ut de 50 mest framgångsrika företagen utifrån såväl finansiella kriterier som studenternas intervjuresultat. Projektets trippel helixuppbyggnad (Utbildning, Forskning och, Företag) skapar nyttor för olika intressenter.

    Utbildningsnyttor: Studenterna får möjlighet till interaktion med företagare i sin direkta närhet. Aktiviteterna underlättar att uppfylla utbildningsmål där flera mål kan uppfyllas med samma aktiviteter. Förståelse för näringslivets förutsättningar samt kunskaper om ett vetenskapligt angreppssätt ökar.

    Forskningsnyttor: Stärker pågående forskning om hälsofrämjande och effektivt ledarskap inom arbetshälsovetenskap samt företagsutveckling inom företagsekonomi. Det stora urvalet av företag ger en bra bild av företagen i regionen och en möjlighet att följa dem över tid. Ambitionen är att få mer kunskap om hållbara och effektiva företag. Fördjupade studier av utmärkelseföretag möjliggörs och ett doktorandprojekt med inriktning på ledarskapsbeteenden, organisationsfaktorer, tidsanvändning samt chefers/medarbetares arbetsmiljö/hälsa i utmärkelseföretag är uppstartat.

    Företagsnyttor: Företagare får möta studenter och förstå hur de tänker. Ställda frågor, t.ex. rörande arbetsmiljö och ledarskap, kan starta reflektionsprocesser som bidrar till fortsatt utveckling. FRAMFÖR-utmärkelsen delas ut vid en högtidlig tillställning där företagarna kan bygga nätverk. Flera företagare lyfter fram det positiva symbolvärdet av att få utmärkelsen.

    Projektets framtid: Målet är att fortsätta ytterligare 15 år och fortsätta utveckla nyttorna för samtliga intressenter. Ett prioriterat område är återkoppling till företag i någon form samt ökad samverkan mellan studenter och företagare.

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  • 20.
    Ahmadi, Zahra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration. KTH.
    Market orientation and public housing companies in the Swedish declining market2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The licentiate thesis consists of three papers with the particular topic in public housing. They discuss how the public housing companies manage the transition to higher economic demands meeting increased customer and market requirements. These studies focus specifically on how the public housing company deal with market challenges associated with the decision to demolish, maintain and/or new construction. Market-oriented perspective can be a tool for the public housing companies to achieve better customer value and enhance economic development. Although the market orientation concept has contributed to valuable improvements in research, the thesis assumes that it is necessary to distinguish between that the public housing companies operate market-oriented to meet customer requirements and their focus on innovation. Paper I develops market/innovation types and then investigates how public housing companies adapt to these types. It was found that economic conditions in the municipality have a major impact on the housing companies, causing them to act innovatively and create superior customer value by innovations. The study confirms that the implementation of market and innovation orientation contributes to competitive advantages in growing markets, while weak economic conditions impair implementation in declining markets. Paper II addresses how public housing companies in declining markets act based on the concept of market intelligence. This study suggested and tested whether there is a positive link between collecting customer information, disseminating it in the organization, and responding to customer needs, and whether this link has an impact on strategic performance. The result shows that weak links exist in the process; the efficiency of intelligence distribution in public housing companies is affected mainly by their responsiveness to customer needs. Paper III also addresses the public housing companies’ market strategies in declining markets. This study, based on a market-strategic perspective, compares how public housing companies act in relation to customer wants compared to the private housing market. The result shows that public housing companies are more engaged in carrying out new construction, renovation, and reconstruction, as well as taking more social responsibility compared to the private sector. In particular, their concern for the customers’ social needs is evident.

  • 21.
    Ahmadi, Zahra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Moderating effects on market orientation and strategic performance: A study of public housing companies in Sweden2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Ahmadi, Zahra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Moderating effects on the market orientation and strategic performance relationship in public housing2019In: Baltic Journal of Management, ISSN 1746-5265, E-ISSN 1746-5273, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 559-577Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this study is to examine how external factors moderate public housing companies’ market orientation and strategic performance relationship.

    Design/methodology/approach – The quantitative method was applied to data from a survey sent to 289 public housing companies in Sweden. A hierarchical, multicollinearity diagnostics–moderated regression analysis is used to test the research hypotheses.

    Findings – The results reveal moderating factors. The companies take several initiatives to inform themselves about customers’ needs and distribute the information within the company, but economic conditions, as well as market and technological turbulence in the municipalities, moderate the relationship between market orientation and strategic performance. Economic conditions make it difficult for public housing companies to strategically act based on market needs when making decisions and planning construction strategies (strategic performance).

    Research limitations/implications – This study is limited by focusing on public housing companies, a sector that differs radically from the open market. The study highlights the effects of moderating factors that are important for companies’ strategic performance and long-term construction strategies. From this limited focus, researchers might use the results to compare both similar and different market situations.

    Practical implications – The results of the study are useful for companies facing a similar market situation of external moderating constraints. The result might be used in future research related to the area in focus.

    Originality –This research adds new knowledge to market research by including the impact of economic conditions, which provide insight into how to develop and use market knowledge in real estate and public housing markets.

  • 23.
    Ahmadi, Zahra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    The role of competitive strategy and market orientation: the effect of innovation and sustainability - a study of public housing companies2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Ahmadi, Zahra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration. KTH, Bygg- och fastighetsekonomi.
    The role of market orientation in public housing companies: A study of MO’s effect on construction strategies2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of public housing companies in Sweden is strongly influenced by legal, economic, and demographic changes. The companies long tradition of taking responsibility for customer welfare in living have recently been criticized for excessive dominance over price setting, which is claimed to give them competitive advantages in the housing market. New legislation in 2011 requires financial return on investment, implying increased competition with radical changes for the companies. Because of the law, they find themselves transitioning from the role of being responsible for living conditions in Sweden to having to work in a businesslike manner with increased competition.The purpose of this dissertation is to analyze how the public housing companies’ deal with market orientation constructs and what their impact is on construction strategy choices. Theoretically, the market orientation concept is seen as a tool for companies to create superior value for the customers and influence strategic performance, which is a relationship tested and analyzed in this dissertation.The research was conducted through data collection stages using qualitative and quantitative methods. In the first stage, a qualitative pilot study was conducted with interviews of 15 managers in 11 public housing companies in central Sweden. In the second stage, two quantitative comparative studies of public and private housing companies in declining markets in central Sweden were conducted, collecting data from 23 (22 survey respondents) public and 37 private housing companies (16 respondents). In the third and final stage, two quantitative studies were conducted, collecting data from all 289 public housing companies (165 respondents) in Sweden.Results of the five studies show, firstly, that economic condition in the municipality have a major impact on the housing companies’ construction strategies, causing them to act innovatively in order to create superior customer value. Secondly, market orientation efforts contribute to competitive advantages in growing markets, while weak economic conditions limit the companies’ construction strategy choices in declining markets. After analyzing the link between market orientation constructs and construction strategy in declining markets, results showed that the public housing companies demonstrate higher responsiveness to customer demands compared to the private sector, but these have no effects on construction strategy. Thirdly, the analysis of moderating (external) and mediating (corporate social responsibility) effects on the market orientation and construction strategy relationship confirms that economic conditions in society influence construction strategy planning and decisions. The results of the mediating effects of CSR indicate that environmental and social issues have a positive influence on the market orientation and construction strategy relationship.

  • 25.
    Ahmadi, Zahra
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Berggren, Björn
    KTH.
    Public housing companies in transition: from governmental tools to profit-making organizations2020Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Ahmadi, Zahra
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Strategies in declining housing markets: a comparison of public and private housing companies2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Ahmadi, Zahra
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Lind, Hans
    School of Architecture and the Built Environment, KTH, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sustainable strategies in a declining housing market: a comparative study2018In: International Journal of Management Practice, ISSN 1477-9064, E-ISSN 1741-8143, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 400-421Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is first to examine and comparesustainable strategies within public and private housing companies in decliningmarkets in central Sweden. Then, the study evaluates the impact of newlegislation that requires public housing companies to act in a ‘businesslike’way, in the same way as a long-term private company. A quantitative studywas conducted based on a survey sent to 72 housing companies. The resultsshow that public housing companies are more strategy oriented than privatehousing companies. The results can be viewed as an on-going interactionprocess, where a company’s strategies affect its profit. The study aims toincrease the understanding of activities within housing companies in adeclining market that engage the companies in sustainable strategies toimprove their market knowledge and profit.

  • 28.
    Ahmadi, Zahra
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Sundström, Agneta
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    The market intelligence impact on strategic performance in declining markets2017In: International Journal of Applied Business and Economic Research, ISSN 0972-7302, Vol. 15, no 15, p. 457-473Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how companies in declining markets operate in the context of market intelligence, responding to customer needs and applying them tostrategic performance. A quantitative survey was sent to 214 public housing companies. The results indicate that market intelligence creates commitment and is significant. A positive relationship was found between data gathering, dissemination, and responsiveness, which indicates that the companies comprehend market needs but companies have difficult to manage construction strategies that improve strategic performance. There was a low value of strategic performance; a link between market intelligence and the chosen strategy was not confirmed. Companies know what the market wants but base their decision on previous strategic performanceon economic conditions in the municipality instead.

  • 29.
    Ahmadi, Zahra
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Sundström, Agneta
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    The role of market intelligence in declining markets: public housing companies in Sweden2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Ahmady, Adris
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Mohammed, Maryam
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Marknadsföringsstrategier Inom Dagligvaruhandel Under Hög Inflation: En Kvalitativ Studie2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Marketing strategies in grocery stores during high inflation

    Level: Student thesis, Bachelor Degree in Business Administration

    Authors: Adris Ahmady och Maryam Mohammed

    Supervisor: Peter Ek

    Date: 2023-june

    Aim: The purpose of this study is to investigate marketing strategies for companies in the grocery trade during a high rate of inflation. In order to contribute to an increased understanding of how companies' marketing is affected, a comparison is made between marketing strategies that companies apply under normal economic circumstances and how these have changed or have been affected during an economic crisis, in this case rising inflation.

    Method: A qualitative research method has been applied in this study, with the implementation of four semi-structured interviews with company managers within ICA and Coop. All the respondents are store managers, who are also locally responsible for the respective store's marketing.

    Results and conclusion: The results of the study have shown that companies in the grocery trade have been affected by the prices and a change in customer behaviour has been observed, which has contributed to the fact that the companies have had to take measures not to lose their customers. During normal circumstances, Coop has placed great emphasis on positioning through assortments that are exclusive, and ICA has similarly made great use of ICA's own brand to stand out from the crowd. During rising inflation, the main focus for these companies has been on offering competitive prices, as well as adapting the stores' supply to customer demand. For ICA, online shopping has been a great opportunity to keep their customers, even if not many changes have taken place in online shopping. Offers and campaigns as well as large price reductions have been current for various goods, depending on customer segments and demand. Social media has also been an important communication strategy for all companies that were interviewed. The respondents have mainly represented smaller local companies, which means that the results of this study cannot be generalized for all markets in the retail trade, or for all companies in the grocery trade.

    Contribution of the thesis: The study has contributed to an increased understanding of the impact of economic crises on companies in the grocery trade, but also provided a little insight into how consumer behavior changes during economically tough times, although the latter has not been part of the purpose of the study.

    Future research: Proposals for further research are an examination of marketing strategies at larger companies in the grocery trade, as well as at wholesalers and suppliers.

    Keywords: Marketing Strategy, inflation, grocery stores, marketing mix

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  • 31.
    Ahmed, Aram
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    ElHaj, Mohamad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration. None.
    Factors Impacting Female Career Success in Leadership ´´ Insights from female leaders on their journey of professional growth and leadership ``2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    AbstractThe underrepresentation of women in leadership roles has become a global issue. There aremany factors, numerous barriers, and obstacles that prevent women to attain leadership positions and career advancements such as unconscious bias, lack of access to networks and mentors, and a lack of work-life balance support, etc.

    The thesis aims to investigate the leadership style and communication that contribute to thecareer success of women in leadership positions, identify the reasons for the low representation of women in leadership roles, and explore ways to promote female leadership.

    The theoretical framework and literature review focus on the various leadership styles, including transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire, effective communication styles whichcan significantly impact one's ability to lead. In addition, the importance of diverse leadershipin the workplace, gender differences in communication approaches, and strategies to empowerwomen to overcome communication barriers.We will provide a comprehensive understanding of the leadership and communication stylesthat influence women's career success in leadership positions and offer recommendations toorganizations on how to foster gender diversity in leadership roles based on real-life experiences from several interviews with women leaders.

    We will provide in-depth interviews withfemale managers showing their sides of the work life and their experiences and issues leadingto leadership and their struggles to gain a higher position at their organizations. With a mixture of different organizations provided and different countries' points of view. We will provide and show the different leadership styles and communications and how this shows different aspects of female managers’ behaviors and communication. We will show how based onthe information we gather how communication and leadership styles play a massive role inthe workplace environment.

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  • 32.
    Ahmed, Javed
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Khan, Abdullah Al Mamun
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Influence of National culture on internal communication process. A study on universities in Bangladesh & Sweden.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate how national culture influence internal communication of university.

     

    Methodology: A qualitative approach was chosen to conduct this research. Semi structured interview were taken. Interviews were taken by face to face, skype and phone call. Ethical approach was considered while interpreting the data.

     

    Findings:

    Our study showed that high power distance has negative impact on internal communication. We found that high power distance creates block between supervisors and subordinates to share information. Thus it creates barriers for effective communication flow and hinders organizations development. Our study also found that power distance is available in both countries but the degree of power distance is varied from one to another. In our study we also found that Individualism and collectivism has effect on internal communication. Our study showed that Individualistic or collectivistic decision making process of university effect internal communication of university in both countries. Previous study suggests that high power distance country tends to be a collectivistic country. Though the result is not always true. However, we found that true in our study.

     

    Contribution: The study adopts employee centric approach to explore the effects of culture on internal communication. This is an important contribution to previous researches that focused on internal communication from different perspectives, inclusion of cultural differences on internal communication has added value to the research field. Moreover, this paper contributes insights in cultural differences as well as employee perspective and by doing so it suggests theorist and practitioners that how internal communication can relate to employee’s engagement in different cultural perspectives.

     

    Limitations: The major limitation of this study was that this study only focused on Hofstede’s power distance and individualism as cultural dimensions. Other dimensions were not focused. Another limitation of this study was the sample size. The sample size is too small to represent the whole population in regards to university perspective.

     

    Suggestions for further research: Additional qualitative or quantitative methods can be required to explore the findings in different aspects. The study focuses on the educational institute. The findings may vary in accordance with the different industry and sectors. The study provides the guidelines regarding the impact of cultural differences on internal communication. Future research could consider other important factors that may have profound impact on internal communication in different settings.

     

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  • 33.
    Ahmed, Sharif
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Islam, Md.Tawhidul
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Factors for Reshoring Decision: A Supply Chain Perspective2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The study aims to explore the supply chain factors that impacts reshoring decisions.Methods: The study followed a qualitative research method based on exploratory research. In order to attain the context of situation-based interpretation, semi-structured interviews were conducted based on two Swedish firms engaged in reshoring initiatives. The collected data were individually analysed followed by a cross-case analyses.Findings: The research findings identified several experiences within the supply chain factors that have an influence over the reshoring decision. Firstly, firms are required to secure the replacement of offshored suppliers in their home country and ensure the access to the abundance of raw materials while reshoring. Secondly, realignments are needed for components to suit with organizational values, integrate to obtain independence from external entities and utilize pre-existing assets to mitigate challenges. Thirdly, increase in customer participation for firm’s product decision and locally produced goods can further enhance brand perception. Lastly, proximity allowed firms to streamline logistical communication, deter investment cost and promote R&D capabilities.Contribution: The study contributes in the knowledge of reshoring through the lens of supply chain management and also provides managerial context for reshoring decisions. The sole focus on supply chain factors enhances the theoretical expansion of reshoring and allowing further study materials into the emerging research field of reshoring. In addition, the research findings from four different supply chain factors allows a multifaceted contribution for organizational managers. Managers can individually or conjointly utilize the ideas on resource, reconfiguration, customer and proximity for reshoring decisions.Conclusions: The results from the study and the fulfilment of the aim shows that reshoring is a case of strategic decision making by firms who aim to secure a better competitive standpoint by repatriating production back to the home country.

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  • 34.
    Aitattaleb, Latifa
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Östling, Karin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Relationen mellan ledarskap och hållbarhet i svenska kommuner2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

     

    Title: The relationship between leadership and sustainability in Swedish municipalities.

    Level: Bachelor's degree in the subject Business Administration

    Authors: Latifa Aitattaleb & Karin Östling

    Supervisor: Daniella Fjellström

    Date: 2022 - June

     

    Aim: The purpose of the survey is to create an understanding of how Sweden's municipal organizations work with sustainability and the relevance of CSR, and to contribute to increased knowledge in the public sector about sustainability and Agenda 2030. This purpose is answered with the help of the following research questions; How does leadership affect the sustainability work in Swedish municipalities? In what way is CSR relevant in municipal activities? and How do Swedish municipalities work with Agenda 2030 in their sustainability work?

     

    Method: The research consists of a qualitative study with semi-structured interviews conducted on nine respondents from eight different municipalities with positions that have leadership roles in different areas. The semi-structured interviews included questions related to leadership, sustainability and Agenda 2030 through various governing documents and strategies as well as participation in Glokala Sverige.

     

    Result and conclusions: The result of this study shows that leaders in public organizations have an influence in commitment and awareness in sustainability issues through their leadership, which can be strengthened by an ethical leadership style. The term CSR does not occur in the public sector because its core business already aims to increase the benefit to society locally. The results also showed that municipalities are actively working to integrate Agenda 2030 through various governing documents and strategies as well as participation in Glokala Sverige.

     

    Contribution of the thesis: This study has contributed to in-depth knowledge of how the country's municipalities work with sustainability in general and Agenda 2030 in particular. It strengthens previous studies and helps to provide a broader, relevant insight into how active work with sustainability through leadership is practiced in the public sector.

     

    Suggestions for future research: In order to get further perspectives, we propose that group interviews would be conducted under the same theme in the public sector, where a group represents management and a group represents the bord, in order to result in even more understanding and knowledge in the subject. 

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  • 35.
    Akter, Ruzlin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Rathnayaka, Shashiprabha
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    The Impact of Organizational Culture and Leadership on Organizational Innovation2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Title: The Impact of Organizational Culture and Leadership on Organizational Innovation

    Level: Final assignment for Master Degree in Business Administration

    Authors: Ruzlin Akter and Shashiprabha Rathnayaka

    Supervisor: Zahra Ahmadi, PhD

    Examiner: Maria Fregidou-Malama, PhD

    Date: 2019 – January

    Aim: The aim of the study is to explore the impact of organizational culture and leadership in the development of organizational innovation.

    Method: The study is based on twelve qualitative interviews from six different organizations. The organizations have been selected randomly but with consideration of innovativeness. Two of the organizations have been selected from Sri Lanka and four organizations from Sweden. This study has been conducted by following an inductive qualitative research method using structured and semi-structured interview. Inductive approach has been followed to analyze the data.

    Result & Conclusion: Organization culture and leadership together have an influence for developing innovation. The findings of the study suggest that process and job oriented culture, and transactional leadership has both positive and negative impact in developing innovation. Our findings suggest that result oriented culture, employee oriented culture, pragmatic culture, open system and transformational leadership are more effective than process oriented, job oriented, normative culture and transactional leadership for developing innovation.

    Suggestion for Future Research: Though this study has used six organizations, the numbers of participants is low for each organization. This study has not focused on any specific industry and national culture. Therefore the suggestion for further study is to use more participants and to be industry specific. Researcher can also go in depth to identify which factors are particularly the reasons for the failure and success of innovativeness to this particular industry through comparing the national culture.

    Contribution: This study has made a theoretical contribution by connecting organizational culture and leadership with innovation and provides a new reflection regarding the impact of ii process oriented culture and job oriented culture. This study contributes to the implication to managers where managers can serve best for the culture while knowing about the influential result of the culture and leadership on innovation. With the help of this study, organizations will be able to identify the factors that may help them to be innovative and competitive in market. Ultimately the organization will be able contribute to the national economy of its country.

    Key words: Organizational Innovation, Leadership, Organizational Culture.

  • 36. Akter, Ruzlin
    et al.
    Rathnayaka, Shashiprabha
    Ahmadi, Zahra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    The effect of leadership and organisational culture on organisational innovation2023In: International Journal of Services Technology and Management, ISSN 1460-6720, E-ISSN 1741-525X, Vol. 28, no 5/6, p. 360-388Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of the study is to explore the impact of company leadership and organizational culture in the development of organizational innovation.

    Design/methodology/approach

    The qualitative approach is applied via 12 interviews from six different organizations, encompassing both service providers and product manufacturers, in the countries of Sweden and Sri Lanka.

    Findings

    Leadership and organizational culture together influence the development of innovation. The findings suggest that process- and job-oriented culture, as well as transactional leadership, have both positive and negative impacts in developing innovation. Result-oriented, employee-oriented, pragmatic culture and an open system, together with transformational leadership, are found to be more effective.

    Research limitations/implications

    This study was limited to six organizations, specific industries and national cultures. Researchers could explore in depth to identify which factors particularly lead to the failure or success of innovativeness in a particular industry, through comparing national cultures.

    Practical implications

    This study helps managers decide how to serve best within the organizational and national culture, while learning about the influential result of the culture and leadership on innovation. With the aid of this study, organizations will be able to identify factors that may help them to be innovative and competitive in the market.

    Originality

    This study highlights the importance of leadership and organizational cultures effect on an organization's innovation, as well as showing how it improves the companies ability to both meet consumer expectations and contribute to their national economy. 

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  • 37.
    Akther, Yasmin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Rahman, Samsur
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Entrepreneurship in micro-business: Small food shops present business condition considering pandemic in Stockholm2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

     

    Topic: Entrepreneurship in micro-business: Small food shops present business condition considering the pandemic in Stockholm.

    Aim/Purpose of the study: Our research aim/purpose is to analyze the entrepreneurship micro-business food shops present business conditions considering the pandemic situations in the Stockholm area. 

    Methodology: We have conducted qualitative research on the micro-business operations focusing on small food shops located in the Stockholm area. Primary data collected from different small food shops by conducting short personal interviews; and collected some secondary data from various relevant sources to understand the micro-business performance. Data collected from Korv & Ice-cream shops, Thai Wok shops, Sushi shops, Kebab shops, Indian food shops located in Stockholm area; and our research sample size was 25 shops in total.   

    Findings & Analysis: We get many useful opinion and insight from the owner/management of the food shops regarding there micro-business entrepreneurship considering the on-going COVID-19. We have analysed our findings with the relevant entrepreneur theories and literature to find the resemblance of the micro-business entrepreneurship in their operations.  

    Research limitations: Our research scope was limited on few types of micro-business food shops at Stockholm area due to our limited time and resources. Also for the present pandemic situation, it was difficult for us to expand our study further.

     

    Research implications: Our research explains the present effect of the pandemic situations on micro-business entrepreneurship of small food industries. It also posits the future projections of this business sector. This research has contributed on the entrepreneurial theories reflections in the food micro-businesses. It also provides a present social impact of the pandemic in this business sector.

     

    Future research: Our study focused on few types of entrepreneurship food micro-business and covered only a small parts of Stockholm area. So, it leaves to conduct future research on other types of entrepreneurship food micro-business along with other different areas. Future research could be executed at other areas of developed countries to show comparison; or conducted in developing countries and at the emerging market economy.

     

    Keywords: Micro-business, Entrepreneur, pandemic situation, Entrepreneurship, Food shops.

     

    Paper type: Research paper      

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    Entrepreneurship
  • 38.
    Al Darwish, Nahla
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Shafqat, Hira
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    The Influence of Motivation Factors on Employee’s Performance: A Quantitative Study using SDT & Motivation-Hygiene Theory2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract:In the dynamic landscape of contemporary organizations, the complex interplay between motivation and employee performance creates a complex tapestry that shapes the path of success. Scholars recognize the important role of motivation in driving and promoting employee performance, yet a comprehensive understanding of the complex ways in which these values are embedded within the organization is lacking. There has been some research on the relationship between employee performance and motivation. The definition of motivation and two well-known theories of motivation are covered in this essay. A comprehensive examination of the literature is done to investigate the connection between motivation factors and employee performance. It has been discovered that employees' dedication to their work is influenced by both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation factors. The study explores the impact of motivation factors in organizational performance. A quantitative study based on Sweden Stockholm. Our findings show that motivation factors contribute significantly to employee performance and effectiveness. The quantitative method includes administering a wide range survey with employees working in Stockholm, Sweden to collect data on their motivation level and its impact on overall employee performance.

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    The Influence of Motivation Factors on Employee’s Performance
  • 39.
    AL Hareere, Rafeh Ibraheem Taleb
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Bekic, Kenan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    The relationship between leadership and organizational culture: Handelsbanken in Sweden2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Title: The Relationship between Leadership and Organizational Culture

    Level: Master Degree in Business Administration 

    Authors: Al Hareere, Rafeh and Bekic, Kenan

    Supervisor: Maria Fregidou- Malama 

    Examiner: Ehsanul Huda Chowdhury

    Date: 2018-10-10

    Aim: The aim of the study is to explore the relationship between leadership and organizational culture in a financial organization. The study has been conducted in Handelsbanken, Sweden.

    Method: The study is based on ten qualitative interviews with managers and employees in Handelsbanken, Mid-Sweden offices. We used inductive approach by comparing findings with existing theory.

    Result & Conclusions: Leadership depends mostly on corporate values and individuals´ personalities within SHB.  We noticed predominantly notion of transformational leadership, consisting of democratic, empowering and participative leadership. SHB´s corporate culture is strong and cohesive, resembling mostly guided missile type of culture. We argue that leadership and corporate culture affect each other, in case of Swedish Handelsbanken through employee motivation and empowerment and internal recruitment and development of future managers.

    Suggestions for future research: We suggest a study where the possible existence of transactional and laissez faire leadership could be proven within a financial organization as well as studies on other types of corporate culture and conducting similar studies within financial organizations to make comparisons between the organizations.

    Contribution of the thesis: This study contributes to theoretical knowledge development about leadership and corporate culture and the interconnection between them within a financial organization, as presented in case of Handelsbanken, Mid-Sweden offices.

    Key words: Leadership, corporate culture, transformational leadership; democratic, empowering, participative leadership; guided missile corporate culture, financial organization

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  • 40.
    Ali, Lawnd
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Nee, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Interaktion och kommunikation på sociala medier i Sverige, en del av modebranschens marknadsföringsstrategi: En kvalitativ studie om kundernas tankar gällande företagens sociala medier2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    SAMMANFATTNING

    Titel: Interaktion och kommunikation på sociala medier i Sverige,  en del av modebranschens marknadsföringsstrategi - En kvalitativ studie om kundernas tankar gällande företagens sociala medier

    Nivå: Examensarbete på Grundnivå (kandidatexamen) i ämnet företagsekonomi

    Författare: Lawnd Ali och Camilla Nee

    Handledare: Peter Ek

    Datum: 2022 - Januari

    Syfte: Syftet med detta arbete är att undersöka kundernas perspektiv på den roll som interaktionen och kommunikationen spelar när det kommer till modeföretagens marknadsföring inom sociala medier i Sverige. Studiens forskningsfråga innefattas av; Vad anser användare av sociala medier om modeföretagen inom Sveriges användning av sina sociala medier som marknadsföring när det kommer till kommunikation, interaktion och kundengagemang?

    Metod: Uppsatsen innefattas av en kvalitativ metod med deduktiv ansats, där det empiriska materialet samlats in genom semistrukturerade intervjuer genomförda via zoom och över telefon. Därefter transkriberades de inspelade intervjuerna för att tillämpas en tematisk analys.

    Resultat och slutsats: Modeföretagens interaktion och kommunikation spelar en stor roll för deras kunder, vilket även påverkar engagemanget. Vill företaget behålla sina nuvarande och potentiella kunder, innebär det att de bör lägga ner resurserna som krävs för att nå upp till kundernas förväntningar - eftersom de annars kan förlora dem till sina konkurrenter.

    Examensarbetets bidrag: Studien ger värdefulla insikter om kundernas åsikter när det kommer till hur stor roll en god kommunikation och interaktion från modeföretagens håll på sociala medier faktiskt spelar.

    Förslag till vidare forskning: Kvalitativ forskning med semistrukturerade intervjuer, där fokus ligger på modebranschens synvinkel för att kunna jämföra huruvida kundernas och företagens tankar liknar varandra eller skiljer sig åt. Även kvantitativ forskning med kunder för ett större urval och ökad generaliserbarhet såväl som statistiskt resultat.

    Nyckelord:  Sociala Medier, Kundengagemang, Sociala media Marknadsföringsaktiviteter, Interaktion & Kommunikation.

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  • 41.
    Al-Iedani, Rasha
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Moa, Eriksson
    Vilken betydelse har lönen förarbetsmotivation och personalomsättning?-En kvalitativ studie om lönens betydelse hosarbetsterapeuter2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 42.
    Alkhalaf, Bayan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Åberg, Katja
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Leder kompensation för servicefel till olika grad av kundnöjdhet beroende på hur kompensationen uttrycks? En enhetseffekt i dagligvaruhandeln2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Title: Does compensation after service failure lead to different levels of customersatisfaction depending on how the compensation is expressed? A unit effect in the grocery store context.

    Aim: In case of service failure, companies must recover the service to regain customer satisfaction. How compensation is expressed, e.g. in SEK can lead to the customer being more satisfied than if the expression is semantic (double the money back). The purpose of the study was to examine within the grocery trade how different ways of describing compensation affect the customers who receive the service recovery.

    Method: 204 respondents had to answer a questionnaire study based on a fictitious scenario of a service failure in the grocery store. The design is a factorial experiment with three independent variables and two dependent variables. The conditions of the experiment were: 200 SEK, 400 SEK, the money back and double the money back, to see how the different conditions affected the requested compensation and customer satisfaction.

    Results and conclusions: The results showed that there was a marginal, but statistically significant, difference in customer satisfaction when the participants received the compensation in SEK compared to double up or the money back, which thus means that they were more satisfied when the compensation was expressed monetarily. The results showed that the average compensation to reach the service recovery paradox was 305 SEK.

    Contribution of the thesis: The grocery store can make use of the study's data, as compensation that was expressed monetarily showed higher customer satisfaction compared to the money back or double the money back. This study shows that the compensation may have a lower threshold compared to grocery stores' commonly used compensation levels of double the money back. Furthermore, stores should be aware that younger customers are more discerning in terms of compensation level and should thusbe adapted to the store's given customer segment.

    Suggestions for future research: To compare monetary compensation amounts with percentages. Possibly the differences would be greater, as interpretation of percentages could be perceived as more difficult to calculate. In addition, it would be interesting to examine customer satisfaction in the grocery trade in other countries (which have different cultural values) compared to Sweden.

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    En enhetseffekt i dagligvaruhandeln
  • 43.
    Almqvist, Sanna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Wiberg, Pernilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Prestationsmätningar och medarbetarengagemang: En fallstudie om kopplingen mellan medarbetares inställning till prestationsmätningar gällande kundnöjdhet och långsiktiga mål samt strategier2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Performance measures and employee engagement: A case study about the connection between employees attitude toward customer satisfaction measures and long-term goals and strategies.

     

    Level: Final assignment for Bachelor Degree in Business Administration

     

    Author: Sanna Almqvist and Pernilla Wiberg

     

    Supervisor: Tomas Källquist

     

    Date: 2018 – january

     

    Aim: The background to this study is based on previous research highlighting different aspects of the benefit of performance measurement from a leader or company perspective. But they request more research on how employees attitude to performance measurements leads to engagement. Our aim is thus to increase understanding of how employees' attitude towards performance measurements within customer satisfaction engages them in their daily work to strive towards long-term goals and strategies.

     

    Method: This study is influenced by a hermeneutic and social constructionist perspective. The empirical data has been collected through qualitative semistructured interviews. The interviews were covered by topics that were found in theoretical framework based on previous research on the subject. Through an abductive research method, empirical data and the theoretical frame of reference have been analyzed in interaction and influenced each other in order to answer the aim of the study.

                                              

    Conclusions: The conclusion of the study is that a positive attitude toward measurements within customer satisfaction, engage employees in everyday work. The study also points to that different involvement of employees leads to the pursuit of different kinds of goals.

     

    Contribution of the thesis: This study, from a theoretical point of view, contributes to illustrating employees' attitude to customer satisfaction measurements, as well as their perspective on linking performance measurement with long-term goals and strategies. Furthermore, previous research in employee engagement is also confirmed.

     

    Suggestions for future research: The study reveals that it would be interesting for further research to illustrate similarities and differences within the two different traces of customer satisfaction measurements found in this study, indirect and direct measurements of customer satisfaction.

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  • 44.
    Almén, Frida
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Shahyadi, Jacklin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Har direktiv 2014/95/EU gett positiva effekter på kvalitén i svenska hållbarhetsrapporter?: En kvalitativ studie av direktiv 2014/95/EU:s effekt på kvalitetsdimensionerna väsentlighet, relevans, tillförlitlighet och jämförbarhet.2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Studiens syfte är att öka förståelsen för hur direktiv 2014/95/EU påverkat kvalitétsdimensionerna väsentlighet, relevans, tillförlitlighet och jämförbarhet i svenska hållbarhetsrapporter.

    Metod: Studien har utförts med hjälp av kvalitativ metod baserad på en hermeneutisk tradition med en deduktiv forskningsansats. Empirin har samlats in med hjälp av innehållsanalys där CONI-modellen samt fyra bedömningsscheman använts. Studien har redovisats med hjälp av tabeller och diagram för att kunna se tydliga jämförelser mellan kvalitetsdimension, år, företag samt indikatorer inom varje kvalitetsdimension. Tio företags hållbarhetsrapporter har studerats under treårsperioden 2016-2018, vilket avser året innan direktiv 2014/95/EU trädde ikraft i Sverige samt första och andra året när det blev ett krav att hållbarhetsrapportera för större bolag i Sverige.

    Resultat och slutsats: Studien finner att direktiv 2014/95/EU lett till en generell ökning av kvalitén i hållbarhetsrapporter, både i sin helhet och varje kvalitetsdimension för sig. Vidare har studien synliggjort att kvalitetshöjningen är en process ur ett längre tidsperspektiv, vilket indikerar på att kvalitén en period framöver kommer öka till följd av direktiv 2014/95/EU.

    Examensarbetets bidrag: Studiens huvudsakliga teoretiska bidrag är ett ytterligare empiriskt bevis på att det går att se kvalitetshöjning i hållbarhetsrapporter till följd av ett lagkrav. Studiens praktiska bidrag kan ses som en utvärdering om lagen, inom studiens ramar, uppnått det direktiv 2014/95/EU eftersträvar genom att öka kvalitén och jämförbarheten inom hållbarhetsrapporteringen. Vidare finner studien är indikatorer på att ett standardiserat ramverk ytterligare höjer jämförbarheten. Denna indikation kan även bidra som ett råd till företag att implementera ramverk som t.ex. GRI för att efterleva lagkravet proaktivt.

    Förslag till fortsatt forskning: Ett förslag är att göra en liknande studie om ett par år, när företag sannolikt kommit över den tid det tar för att anpassa sig till lagkravet, och där hållbarhetsrapporter kan studeras inom en längre tidsperiod än vad denna studie kunnat göra. Nyckelord: Direktiv 2014/95/EU, hållbarhetsrapport, väsentlighet, relevans, tillförlitlighet, jämförbarhet

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  • 45.
    Alonge, Funmi
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Fredrick, Kingsley
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    The Influence of Gender on Business Development: A study of Micro and Small Enterprises in the UK2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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    Download full text (pdf)
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  • 46. Alrutz, Marie
    et al.
    Berg, Henrik
    Berndtson, Rolf
    Curman, Barbro
    Ekstrand, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Eliasson, Maria
    Frenkel, Lillemor
    Frölander, Carin
    Gustavsson, Tomas
    Helgeson, Tore
    Henning Planck, Ebba
    Holgersson, Charlotte
    Iveroth, Einar
    Jansson, Tomas
    Jerbrant, Anna
    Kamél, Elisabeth
    Kihlström, Eva
    Kåresjö, Bo
    Lindgren, Monica
    Ludvig, Lindlöf
    Molinder, Olof
    Oscarson, Kjerstin
    Packendorff, Johann
    Rapp Ricciardi, Max
    Runsten, Philip
    Sjöholm, Håkan
    Sundin, Ola
    Säfström, Carita
    Trossing, Malin
    Wallmon, Monika
    Villför Larsson, Pia
    Wenell, Torbjörn
    Andreas, Werr
    Wikforss, Örjan
    Projektledning2013Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektledning är ett yrke med egen certifiering. Det pågår en spännande utveckling inom området och det blir allt viktigare att hålla sig ajour med utvecklingen.

    Det övergripande målet med den här handboken är att vara en ständigt aktuell heltäckande bok om projektar­bete. Innehållsmässigt täcker den både frågor som har med struktur och styrning att göra och frågor om ledning av människor och mänskliga processer i grupp. Kompetens inom projekt byggs av både kunskap och erfarenhet. Vi följer kontinuerligt aktuell forskning inom dessa områden och bjuder in intressanta forskare att medverka som författare. Vi skildrar verkliga projekt och låter erfarenheterna få plats, både de bästa erfarenheterna och de utmaningar som man tagit sig igenom.

    Handboken är levande och det innebär att artiklar tas bort för att ge plats för nya, i takt med att den uppdateras fortlöpande.

  • 47.
    Al-Sabti, Amin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Johansson, Alexander
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Lobbying på IFRS 7: En kvantitativ studie på 89 intressenter med avseende på argumentation2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Lobbying on IFRS 7: A quantitative study of 89 stakeholders in terms of argumentation.

    Level: Degree project at the undergraduate level (Bachelor's degree) in the subject Business Administration. 

    Authors: Alexander Johansson och Amin Al-Sabti.

    Supervisor: Jan Svanberg.

    Examiner: Mats Landström.

    Date: 2022-05-25.

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to investigate whether there is a connection between companies and the number of arguments and the companies' use of consumption arguments in the comment letters. This is in comparison with non-companies and with delimitation to the implementation of IFRS 7.

    Method:The study is based on a deductive approach with an application of a content analysis. The study has a quantitative strategy where 89 senders of comment letters form the basis for the study's analyzed secondary data. The secondary data has been processed and analyzed in the statistical program SPSS.

    Results and conclusion: The results of the study show that there is no connection between companies and the number of arguments in the comment letters, which is in line with previous research. We also find that there is no significant connection between companies and the use of consumption arguments. In addition, descriptive data are presented to the extent that the comment letters have been analyzed and coded.

    Contribution of the study: The study contributes to business economics research via the subject area lobbying as the study shows that there is no significant relationship between companies and number of arguments as well as companies and consumption arguments in comparison with non-companies in the context IFRS 7. The study also contributes in combination with previous research to increased knowledge regarding the argumentation of companies and non-companies.

    Suggestions for further research: A proposal for further research may be to carry out a similar study regarding the current methodology but to analyze other aspects in the comment letters and possibly analyze other standard setting processes. 

    Keywords: Lobbying, IFRS 7, IFRS, IASB, argumentation, accounting standards.

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  • 48.
    Alsaid, Loai Ali
    et al.
    Faculty of Commerce, Beni-Suef University, Egypt; School of Economics, Finance and Accounting, Coventry University, the UK.
    Mutiganda, Jean Claude
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration. Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland.
    Accounting and Smart Cities: New Evidence for Governmentality and Politics2020In: Corporate Ownership & Control, ISSN 1727-9232, E-ISSN 1810-3057, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 158-170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of a smart city has attracted the attention of many scholars and policymakers in many countries worldwide. The role of accounting as a tool of governance in smart city politics, however, has so far been largely overlooked, especially in less developed countries (LDCs). This paper sets off to fill this research gap and hitherto unexplored linkages between accounting and smart cities. Drawing on the concept of governmentality, the authors conducted a case study based on document analysis, meetings observation, and 42 semi-structured interviews at a branch of a hybrid electricity company owned by New Cairo City in Egypt, during 2018. Findings show that the case company has implemented smart distribution networks of electricity in which new management accounting technology (enterprise resource planning (ERP) system) is used to trace costs, revenues, client complaints and feedback in a timely manner. The new network (of infrastructure and technologies) has represented timely accounting information as a major political power to influence accurate governance decision-making, such as smart electricity pricing and control, and to challenge governance decisions that are not sound. This paper is one of the first studies to explore the socio-political dynamics of accounting in smart city governance in the context of LDCs.

  • 49. Alsaid, Loai Ali
    et al.
    Mutiganda, Jean Claude
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Political and business leaderships in managing public service organisation2018In: Corporate Ownership & Control, ISSN 1727-9232, E-ISSN 1810-3057, Vol. 15, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses the relationship between the state’s political ideologies and the implementation of cost management strategies during the re-privatisation of a public sector organisation. Drawing on the Dillard et al.’s (2004) conceptual framework, we conducted a case study in a public sector organisation operating in the electricity market of Egypt. Data was gathered through document analysis, interviews, meetings observations and continuous interactions with key informants from 2013 to 2014. The findings show that the implementation of cost management strategies had a political basis, grounded in the state’s reformative ideologies concerning re-privatisation of the public sector organisation. The re-privatisation failed because the state failed to convince a potential international investor. A theoretical contribution is to show the relevance of cost management strategies when used as a political tool to achieve a business goal, such as improving a public sector organisation’s performance management in a developing country. This is the first empirical case study to analyse management accounting change based on the state’s political ideologies in the Maghreb region of Africa. The key difference between this global trend elsewhere and in the Egyptian State, as in some other Islamic countries, is that Egypt was both nationalistic and militarised.

  • 50.
    Alsaid, Loai Ali Zeenalabden Ali
    et al.
    School of Economics, Finance and Accounting, Faculty of Business and Law, Coventry University, Coventry CV1 5FB, UK;Accounting Department, Faculty of Commerce, Beni-Suef University, Egypt.
    Mutiganda, Jean Claude
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration. School of Business and Economics, Åbo Akademi University, FI-20500 Turku, Finland.
    ABC as a Multi-Lens Sustainability Reporting System in Smart Cities2023In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 15, no 12, article id 9357Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a very short list of theoretical and empirical studies on the role of management accounting tools in the sustainability of smart cities. While the majority of these studies have addressed this role from the perspective of openness, participation, and hybridisation, others have addressed it in terms of economic, social, and environmental sustainability. Despite their early efforts often focusing on institutionalisation and governmentality processes, their analyses did not address how management accounting tools can be used to achieve sustainable goals, particularly in developing countries with a political and cultural character. This study aims to explore how an activity-based costing/ABC system is configured within urban development organisations to internalise cultural and political sustainability values at the smart city level. It applies a politico-cultural model and uses a case study approach from an Egyptian state-owned smart city enterprise. The findings reveal smart city culture and political/government compliance in the implementation of the ABC system, enabled by enterprise resource planning/ERP technology, within state-owned enterprises/SOEs. This system, seen as an emerging field, was created as a multi-lens reporting system on their political and cultural sustainability in smart cities. While political sustainability refers to SOEs' compliance with the ABC system, cultural sustainability refers to the embodiment of national smart city values in their system implementation. This sustainability costing system of a political and cultural nature has also created recursive dynamics, exemplified by the powerful role of ERP-ABC reports in making participatory sustainability decisions at various organisational and governmental levels for smart cities.

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