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  • 1.
    Birgersson, Johanna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Kallin, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Barn med autism i skolans verksamheter: En kvalitativ undersökning om skolpersonalens strategier gällande bemötandet av barn med autism i skolans verksamheter2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I skolans verksamheter finns det idag elever med autism. Skolpersonalens uppgift är att anpassa undervisningen och bemöta elevernas behov efter allas förutsättningar. Syftet med uppsatsen är att undersöka vilka strategier skolpersonal har gällande bemötandet av barn med autism i skolans verksamheter. Studien är kvalitativ och genomfördes genom att intervjua sju personer som arbetar inom grundskolan. Resultatet visar att det finns olika metoder och strategier gällande bemötandet av elever med autism. Det framkom även brister i skolans verksamheter och brist på kunskap och utbildning inom området.

  • 2.
    Björklund, Erika
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Gustavsson, Maria
    Linköpings universitet.
    Review of educational research on ‘health work’ in Swedish Ph.D.-theses during 2005-20142016In: Social Justice, Equality and Solidarity in Education?, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we examine how health work is manifested in Swedish educational PhD-theses. We define ‘health work’ here broadly, encompassing for instance the work of all kinds of health professionals (such as health educators/promoters, public health workers, nurses, chiropractors, personal trainers, etc), health work through health related reporting in various media (e.g. magazines, web-sites, blogs, etc), and also the health work individuals perform on and for themselves (e.g. lifestyle-oriented activities). Intrinsic to these types of health work are both immanent and more direct processes of education, whereby it becomes a field of interest to educational researchers, and education research into this field of health work in turn becomes of use to health workers/practitioners.

    Therefore it is interesting to examine how this field of ‘health work’ is perceived and framed in the perspective of Swedish education research and what questions education research have been asking in this field. The aim of this paper is to explore how health work figures in Swedish education research. What aspects of health work are education researchers in Sweden interested in? What questions are being asked? And hence, how can education research in the field of health work support health workers/practitioners in their work?

    In order to answer these questions, we have looked at all of the Swedish doctoral theses in education published during the years of 2005-2014. During this period, there were 666 theses published, of which 108 were selected in the first selection, and of these, 74 were selected in the third selection. With a broad operationalization of ‘health’ and ‘health work’, the 74 theses were then further analyzed to determine how health figured in the theses and to answer the rest of the research questions. Here, a distinction was made between theses that had an explicit focus on health work in their research questions and those that did not. The analysis further consisted of categorizing the theses depending on how central or marginal issues of health work were in the studies and on whether health work was an implicit or explicit aspect of the study. The analysis was also concerned with finding common themes or issues or arenas etc.

    The preliminary results show that very few theses in education directly relate to health work. The most common areas studied are the school subject of Physical health and education (Idrott och hälsa-ämnet), student health (elevhälsa), health care (hälso- och sjukvård), and sports (idrott). Quite a few studies are concerned with issues of professionalization and many want to understand learning processes related to various illnesses or chronic conditions that people live with, while very few studies have research questions that directly relate to practices of health promotion, i.e. issues of influencing health practices from a salutogenic (“positive health”) perspective.

  • 3.
    Björklund, Erika
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Nordlöf, Hasse
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Djupsjöbacka, Mats
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Discourses about electricians in vocational education2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Students in vocational education to become electricians have an increased risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) once in the workforce compared to most other blue collar professions (Toomingas et al., 2014). This increased risk comes from having to work in awkward body positions, with heavy and sometimes poorly adapted tools and with time constraints. Many end up with chronic disabilities, forcing them to change careers or to go on sickness pension. Besides the significant and damaging consequences for the individual concerned, losing electricians from the workforce is a significant loss for the building industry in which electricians these days are scarce, and for society that not only loses tax-incomes but also possibly need to pay sickness pension for these people during quite a few years. It is therefore important to find ways to prevent MSDs and to promote good ergonomics in the building industry in general and among electricians specifically. Electricians’ knowledge and habits regarding MSDs are first formed and shaped in school, during vocational education to become an electrician. Drawing on the ideas of bio-power and governmentality, as introduced and developed by Foucault (1988, 1990, 2003) and developed by Rose (1999; Rabinow and Rose, 2006), discourses govern how it is possible to think and act. From this standpoint, then, talk and discourses are not perceived as innocent or ‘mere’ talk (Hall, 2001) but as governing the production, regulation and representation of both bodies and subjects through the acquisition of specific dispositions, tastes and abilities (Foucault, 1988; Rose, 1999). Thus, discourses drawn on in school about electricians and the profession govern how it is possible to think and act about oneself and others in relation to both ergonomics and MSD and, by extension, have material effects on electricians’ health. This means that, to foster healthy ergonomics one needs to consider how electricians and the profession are conceived and thought about in school, i.e. how electricians and the profession are discursively conceived. The purpose of this paper is thus to explore discursive constructions of electricians and the profession as these are expressed in discussions about MSDs in the vocational education and school context. Methods used are four focus group interviews: two with students, one with teachers and one with school management at one senior high school program for electricians. In the focus group interviews the participants were asked to discuss ideas about causes and reasons to why electricians develop MSDs, consequences and effects of MSDs and ideas about what could be done to prevent MSDs. The interviews were then transcribed and discursively analyzed with questions in mind about how each group conceived of electricians and the profession.

  • 4.
    Björklund, Erika
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Nordlöf, Hasse
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Djupsjöbacka, Mats
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Discursive constructions of electricians in discussions about musculoskeletal disorders among professionals in the field2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electricians have an increased risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) compared to most other blue collar professions. Many end up with chronic disabilities, forcing them to change careers or to go on sickness pension. Besides negative consequences for the individuals concerned, MSDs also have a detrimental impact on the workforce (reduced number of professionals) and on society (financial costs). It is therefore important to find ways to prevent MSDs and to promote good ergonomic behavior. Electricians’ knowledge and habits regarding MSDs are first formed and shaped in school, during vocational education to become an electrician. In the course of this time the students have periods of internship during which they interact with professionals within the field. Drawing on the ideas of bio-power and governmentality, as introduced and developed by Foucault and developed further by Rose, discourses govern how it is possible to think and act. From this standpoint, then, talk and discourses are not perceived as innocent or ‘mere’ talk but as producing and regulating subjects through their acquisition of specific dispositions, tastes and abilities. Thus, discourses drawn on about electricians and the profession during the students’ internship will govern how it is possible for the students to think and act about themselves and others in relation to both ergonomic behavior and MSDs and, by extension, will have material effects on electricians’ health. This means that, to foster healthy ergonomic behavior one needs to consider how electricians are thought of within the field, i.e. how electricians and the profession are discursively conceived. The purpose of this paper is thus to explore discursive constructions of electricians and the profession as these were expressed in discussions about MSDs among professionals in the field.  Two semi-structured focus group interviews and one individual interview with professionals in the field were conducted. The participants were asked to discuss ideas about i) causes as to why electricians develop MSDs, ii) consequences and effects of MSDs, and iii) ideas about what could be done to prevent MSDs. The interviews were transcribed and the material is currently being discursively analyzed with questions in mind about how the participants conceived of electricians and the profession. Results will be presented at the conference, but preliminary analyses suggests that predominant discourses are concerned with the masculinity of electricians as well as with their time pressured work situation, both contributing to casualness towards ergonomic behavior.

  • 5.
    Borg, Caroline
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Varaktiga effekter av coaching: En intervjustudie om upplevda effekter av coaching2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att söka svar på hur individer upplever varaktiga effekter av coaching samt hur coachingen påverkat deras välbefinnande. De tre respondenterna i studien hade fått en blandning av ledarskapscoaching och livscoaching hos samma coach. En kvalitativ metod med semistrukturerade intervjuer användes för att få en djupgående förståelse för de tidigare klienternas upplevelser av coaching och därefter analyserades datan med hjälp av tematisk analys. Resultatet visade att samtliga upplevt ett ökat och varaktigt välbefinnande. Ytterligare effekter, som hos vissa av deltagarna även var bestående var: en större trygghet i sig själv och/eller i yrkesrollen, ett större mod, självkännedom och förändring genom ökad reflektion, medvetenhet och insikt samt utökade färdigheter/förmågor. Slutsatsen som kan dras av studien är att de effekter som tidigare klienter upplevt av coaching bidragit till personlig utveckling och ett ökat varaktigt välbefinnande.

  • 6.
    Bransell, Karin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Att identifiera och stödja särbegåvade barn i förskolan: En enkätstudie om förskolepedagogers självupplevda kunskaper2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med presenterat examensarbete är att undersöka förskolepedagogers kunskap om särbegåvade barn. Frågeställningen består av två forskningsfrågor; Hur uppfattar förskolepedagoger sin kunskap om särbegåvade barn? Uppvisar förskolepedagoger tecken på kunskap om särbegåvade barn? För att svara på dessa forskningsfrågor har en enkätundersökning genomförts, som riktat sig till yrkesverksamma förskollärare och barnskötare runt om i Sverige. Tecken på kunskap om särbegåvning tolkas i den här studien med hjälp av den forskningsbakgrund som presenteras. De insamlade svaren från enkäten genomgår även en korrelationsanalys för att statistiskt undersöka sambandet mellan den självupplevda kunskapen om särbegåvning och tecken på kunskap om ämnet. Resultatet diskuteras tillsammans med aktuell forskning inom fältet för särbegåvning – särbegåvade barns behov och förutsättningar i förskolan sätts i relation till studiens fynd. Med hjälp av forskningsbakgrunden belyses problematiken i att pedagoger som arbetar med barn dagligen har så lite kunskap om särbegåvade barns natur och deras behov. Konsekvenserna av utanförskap och den socioemotionella beteendeproblematik som ofta hör ihop med särbegåvning diskuteras också. Därtill diskuteras bristen på tillförlitlig identifikationsmetodik. Slutsatser som dragits utifrån studien är att mer forskning behövs inom området för särbegåvning hos små barn samt att lärar- och barnskötarutbildningarna bör inkludera undervisning om särbegåvning hos barn i den ordinarie utbildningsplanen.

  • 7.
    Carlson, Åsa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Comments on Katharine Jenkins, “Ontic injustice”2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Carlson, Åsa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Comments on Katharine Paxman, “Hume and the Evolution of Appetite”2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Carlson, Åsa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Jämställdhet, vad är det?: En analys av begreppet jämställdhet i offentliga dokument om skola, utbildning och arbete2017In: Tidskrift för politisk filosofi, ISSN 1402-2710, Vol. 21, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I styrdokument som rör skola och utbildning likställs jämställdhet med samma möjligheter till utbildning och karriär. Det som hindrar jämställdhet antas vara traditionella könsnormer. Vad betyder ’samma möjligheter’ i denna kontext och vad krävs för att realisera detta? Utbildnings- och karriäralternativ ska avkönas, vilket analyseras som att de dels ha samma betydelser för könen, dels vara lika realiserbara. Detta verkar kräva kvantitativ jämställdhet inom varje alternativ. Vad är det då som hindras av könsnormerna? Enligt dokumenten är det individernas autentiska val. Detta analyseras som förverkligandet av antingen den mänskliga naturen eller det individuella självets autentiska önskningar. Båda dessa vägar visar sig vara återvändsgränder. Slutsatsen blir att kvantitativ jämställdhet är det enda substantiella jämställdhetsbegreppet.

  • 10.
    Carlson, Åsa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Lena Halldenius, Mary Wollstonecraft and Feminist Republicanism: Independence, Rights and the Experience of Unfreedom, London: Pickering & Chatto Ltd 20152016In: Tidskrift för politisk filosofi, ISSN 2002-3383, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 35-42Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Carlson, Åsa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    ”Samma möjligheter” till skola, utbildning och arbete: Är det realistiskt? Är det begripligt?: En begreppslig undersökning av kvalitativ jämställdhet2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Carlson, Åsa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Sex, Biological Functions and Social Norms: A Simple Constructivist Theory of Sex2016In: NORA: Nordic Journal of Feminist and Gender Research, ISSN 0803-8740, E-ISSN 1502-394X, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 18-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Feminist theory needs a constructivist account of biological sex for at least two reasons. The first is that as long as female and male are the only two sexes that are taken for granted, being cisgender, heterosexual, and preferably a parent will be the norm, and being intersexed, transgender, bi- or homosexual, infertile or voluntarily childless will be deemed failure. The second is the fact that, usually, sex and gender come together in the way that is expected, i.e. the fact that most females are women and most males are men needs to be explained. This paper provides a constructivist theory of sex, which is that the sex categories depend on norms of reproduction. I argue that, because the sex categories are defined according to the two functions or causal roles in reproduction, and biological functionis a teleological concept involving purposes, goals, and values, female and male are normative categories. As there are no norms or values in nature, normative categories are social constructions; hence, female and male are not natural but social categories. Once we understand that biological normativity is social, biological norms of heterosexuality, fertility, and so on are no longer incontestable. In addition, as many gender norms also concern reproduction - socially mediated reproduction - this simple theory of sex explains the common confluence of sex and gender.

  • 13.
    Carlson, Åsa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    The Standard Account of Intentional Action Challenged by Emotion2017In: Kunskap Motstånd Möjlighet: Humanistisk forskning i dag / [ed] Ulrika Serrander & Peder Thalén, Halmstad: Molin & Sorgenfrei, 2017, 1, p. 363-382Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Djupsjöbacka, Mats
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Björklund, Erika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Nordlöf, Hasse
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Utveckling av arbetsmiljöutbildning på yrkesgymnasium för förebyggande av belastningsbesvär och främjandet av ett hållbart arbetsliv för installationselektriker: En förberedande fallstudie2018In: FALF KONFERENS 2018. Arbetet - problem eller potential för en hållbar livsmiljö? Gävle 10-12 juni 2018: Program och Abstracts / [ed] Per Lindberg, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2018, p. 92-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund och syfte

    Många yrkesprogram på gymnasiet utbildar för yrken där vi vet att anställda ofta drabbas av belastningsrelaterad ohälsa. Exempelvis visar data från Arbetsmiljöverket att 9–12% av alla installationselektriker och elmontörer rapporterar besvär orsakade av påfrestande arbetsställningar och att de rapporterar en ettårsprevalens på 6–10% för besvär i nacke, axlar, arm och rygg till följd av arbetet som varit så svåra att det påverkat arbetsförmågan. Forskning har även visat att elever på elteknikprogram löper särskilt hög risk att drabbas av arbetsskada relativt andra utbildningar. Redan under utbildningen bör åtgärder sättas in för att minska dessa risker.

    En genomgång av litteraturen visar dock att det finns tydliga brister i hur yrkesprogram förbereder eleverna för ett kommande arbetsliv vad gäller arbetsmiljökunskap och att orsakerna till dessa brister troligen finns inom undervisningens innehåll och utformning, lärares kompetens och samverkan med yrkeslivet under utbildningen. Vidare kan elever-nas attityder till arbetsmiljöundervisning utgöra ett hinder. Sammantaget förefaller hin-dren för en bra arbetsmiljöutbildning på yrkesprogram inom gymnasiet vara komplexa och multifaktoriella.

    Innan åtgärder sätts in för att utveckla undervisningen finns därför stort behov av att kartlägga de komplexa orsakssambanden bakom brister inom utbildningen och utifrån det utforma förbättringsåtgärder.

    I vår studie avser vi att svara på forskningsfrågan: Hur anser olika intressenter att olika faktorer inom såväl utbildningen som framtida yrkeskontext interagerar och bidrar till uppkomsten av belastningsbesvär hos installationselektriker?

    Metod och resultat

    Studien har en fallstudiedesign där fokusgrupper och problemträdsanalys används. Pro-blemträdsanalys är en metod för att kartlägga komplexa orsakssamband och att klargöra grundläggande orsaker. Analysen kan därmed säkra att aktiviteter och insatser inte väljs och påbörjas utan att man först har kartlagt kärnproblemets ofta komplexa orsaker grundligt.

    Som underlag till problemträdsanalysen kommer fokusgruppsintervjuer att genomföras där personer från samma kategori intressenter separat samtalar om kärnproblemet. Vi kommer genomföra intervjuer separat med elever, lärare, skolledning och representanter från arbetslivet. Problemträdsanalysen genomförs sedan vid ett tillfälle där 2–3 personer från varje intressent; elever, lärare, skolledningen, representanter från arbetslivet och forskare från projektgruppen deltar. Inför sessionen kommer vi att delge deltagarna underlag baserat på resultaten från fokusgruppintervjuerna och vår litteratursökning så att de kan ta del avSession D:2Individuella presentationer: Fysiskt arbetsliv93vad andra intressegrupper/källor identifierat som möjliga orsaksfaktorer. Efter framtagande av problemträd kommer tänkbara lösningar att formuleras i samverkan med alla intressenter för att skapa ett lösningsträd, vilket kommer att utgöra grund för kommande utvecklingsarbete inom utbildningen.

    Datainsamling och analyser genomförs under våren 2018 och preliminära resultat kommer att presenteras på konferensen.

  • 15.
    Edling, Silvia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Biffi, Elisabetta
    University of Milano-Bicocca Department of Human Sciences for Education Milano.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Montà, Chiara Carla
    Università degli Studi Milano Bicocca Scienze Umane per la Formazione Riccardo Massa Roasio.
    Children’s right not to be subjected to violence – a comparative discourse analysis of educational policy between Sweden and Italy2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The desire to protect children from violence is clearly formulated in the Children’s Right Convention (CRV). For example, the right of children to be protected from:” /…/all forms of physical or mental violence, injury or abuse, neglect or negligent treatment, maltreatment or exploitation, including sexual abuse, while in the care of parent(s), legal guardian(s) or any other person who has the care of the child is clearly stated in Article 19 of the CRC, which was ratified by Sweden in 1989 (United Nations, 1989). The right of children not to be subjected to various forms of violence is also emphasized in other international treaties signed and/or ratified by the Swedish state (the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the European Convention of Human Rights, the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities 2010, the Treaty of Lisbon). In order to assure this right, the Swedish legal framework (Prop., 2009/10:232) stipulates that the subjection of children to violence should be avoided at all cost. Italy assures the right of a childhood free from violence thanks to its legal framework as well. Italy’s legal framework is made up of the international documents previously cited, the CRC (ratified in 1991 with the LEGGE 27 maggio 1991, n. 176. Italy’s legal framework is also made up of national laws, in particular by the founding one: the Constitution. Art. 3. This article is used as a base for the creation of national policy to prevent the subjection of children to violence.

    In this study, the word violence is used in a broad sense to cover the numerous situations in which people are at risk of being physically and psychologically damaged (Hamby and Grych, 2013), such as in cases of discrimination, bullying, violation, or harassment (cf. Greeff and Grobler, 2008; Parkes, 2007). The ambition to oppose and counteract violence through juridification in schools has increased in Sweden through the introduction of the Discrimination Act (SFS, 2008:567) and the paragraph regarding the treatment of others in the Education Act (SFS, 2010:800, paragraph 6). For what concerns the treatment of others and discrimination, Italy refers to the National Plan for educating to the respect of others (Rispetta le differenze. Piano nazionale per l’educazione al rispetto). This plan aims at promoting the values stated in the 3rd article of the Constitution by educating and training students, teachers and families.

    There are several studies conducted in Italy and Sweden about how this particular right is approached in policy (Francia and Edling, 2016, Edling and Francia, 2017, Biffi, 2017). Although, children’s right not to be subjected to violence is given attention in many countries today it is still a question of negotiation as concerns how these rights are materialized in each country’s educational policy as well as why they are described as important to consider. Whereas Sweden is described as a highly secular (previously protestant) and individualistic country, Italy is pictured as a non-secular, catholic country premiering the collective (see Meyer, 2014; Integrationsverket, 2005).  

    Against this background, it becomes of interest to compare how two different countries like Sweden and Italy approach children’s right not to be subjected to various forms of violence by analysing educational policy that presents motifs and directives for teachers in different stages. In Italy, the plan for the 2016-2019 teacher training in chapter 4.6 (Piano per la formazione dei docenti 2016-2019) declares that teachers have to be trained in order to teach them how to promote respect for others in their classrooms in order to prevent violence.

    Method

    The following questions are asked: 1. How do the different policy documents in Sweden and Italy describe and explain teachers’ responsibilities to oppose violence in school? 2. Are there any similarities and/or differences between the countries as regards the question above? If so what kind of similarities and/or differences? To conduct a comparative study, both linkages and differences need to be taken into account. Linkages are created by posing similar questions to the material analysed and differences imply awareness that all comparisons always contain cultural and contextual differences and contestations that need to be addressed (e.g. No´voa & Yariv-Mashal, 2003). As regards linkages, Kazamias (2001) points to the need to use theoretical concepts as lenses to make more 200 coherent comparisons (p. 446) – in this case theoretical understandings of violence. This paper is based on a critical discourse analysis (CDA) of educational policy highlighting teachers’ responsibilities to promote children’s right not to be subjected to violence. Based on Fairclough (1992, 2000, 2001), we argue that CDA facilitates an understanding of the dialectical relation between discourse and social practice. Following Fairclough (2000), the interpretation of the data encompasses three dimensions: (a) text analysis (description), (b) processing analysis (interpretation), and (c) social analysis (explanation). In our study, these dimensions correspond to our research questions.

    Expected outcomes

    The study aims to distinguish how teachers’ responsibilities to oppose violence towards children is expressed and motivated by the various policy documents. The comparison makes it possible to discuss plausible similarities and differences between the countries as well as discuss cultural and political explanations for the findings that can help combat child violence. 

    References

    Biffi, Elisabetta. (2017). Protecting minors against violence: from strategy to practice. Education Sciences & Society. 1, 47-64. Fairclough, Norman. (1989). Language and power. London: Longman. London: Longman. Fairclough, Norman. (1992). Discourse and Social Change. Cambridge: Polity Press. Francia, Guadalupe, & Edling, Silvia. (2016). Children's rights and violence: A case analysis at a Swedish boarding school. Childhood, in process. Greeff, P., & Grobler, A. (2008). Bullying during the intermediate school phase. Childhood 15(1), 127-144. Hamby, Sherry , & Grych, John (2013). The Web of Violence Exploring Connections Among Different Forms of Interpersonal Violence and Abuse. New York, London: Springer Dordrecht Heidelberg. Kazamias, Andreas M. . (2001). ‘Re-inventing the Historical in Comparative Education: Reflection on a Protean Episteme by a Contemporary Player’. Comparative Education, 37(4), 439-450. LEGGE 27 maggio 1991, n. 176 Ratifica ed esecuzione della convenzione sui diritti del fanciullo, fatta a New York il 20 novembre 1989. (GU n.135 del 11-6-1991 - Suppl. Ordinario n. 35-), The Universal Declaration of Human Rights; The European Convention of Human Rights; The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities 2010, and the Treaty of Lisbon. Linee Guida Nazionali -art. 1 comma 16 L. 107/2015- Educare al rispetto: per la parità tra i sessi, la prevenzione della violenza di genere e di tutte le forme di discriminazione Linee di orientamento per la prevenzione e il contrasto del cyberbullismo nelle scuole -art. 4 L. 71/2017- Meyer, Erin. (2014). The cultrure map. Breaking Through the Invisible Boundaries of Global Business. NY: PublicAffairs US. Nóvoa, Antonio , & Yariv-Mashal, Tali (2003). Comparative Research in Education: A Mode of Governance or a Historical Journey? Comparative Education, 39(4), 423-438. Parkes, Jenny. (2007). The multiple meanings of violence. Children's talk about life in a South African neighbourhood. Childhood 14(4), 401-414. Prop. (2009/10:232). Strategi för att stärka barnets rättigheter i Sverige. Stockholm. SFS. (2008:567). Diskrimineringslag. SFS. (2010:800). Skollag.

  • 16.
    Elde Mølstad, Christina
    et al.
    Inland University, Norway.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Who Governs the Numbers?: The Framing of Educational Knowledge by TIMSS Research2018In: Education by the Numbers and the Making of Society: The Expertise of International Assessments / [ed] Sverker Lindblad, Daniel Pettersson, Thomas S. Popkewitz, New York: Taylor & Francis, 2018, p. 166-184Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In contemporary society, different tests of educational performance have been given importance in educational research, policy initiatives and curriculum change as well as in media. Consequently, performance in schools has been increasingly judged on the basis of effective student learning outcomes. One of the most active agencies in performing international comparative tests is the IEA—International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement. The IEA has a history dating back to the 1950s (for a discussion on the history of the IEA see, e.g., Pettersson, 2014), and since 1995 an international large-scale assessment with the acronym TIMSS repetitively has been launched. TIMSS, together with other tests staged by either the IEA or other international organizations, has gradually transformed into reference points for general economic and social policies (Pettersson, 2014). In this context, the phenomenon of international large-scale assessments (ILSA) are serving a global governance constituted by a specific reasoning (cf. Hacking, 1992) connected to the use of numbers. ILSA research, for example, studies using data or results from TIMSS, is based on numbers constructed for partly governance reasons and is a growing interdisciplinary and increasingly international field of study (Lindblad, Pettersson, & Popkewitz, 2015). Hence, the scientific development of the field is highly relevant to analyze. However, it is surprisingly few educational studies that have made use of the data rapidly accumulating with the development of various databases and software. Given the importance of this numbered educational discourse as a social and scientific practice, we propose that it is crucial to take into account how this discourse is framed through different written formats.

  • 17.
    Elde Mølstad, Christina
    et al.
    Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences (INN University), Norway.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Forsberg, Eva
    Departement of Education, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Scientific Framing of Curriculum Research: Experts or Algorithms?2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mapping research in relation to research interest is a common act of performing a research review. This kind of activity is an important part of being a researcher both to portray the competence of knowing a field and to frame specific research theoretically and analytically. The act of showing belongingness and relationship to different paradigms and thinkers (Kuhn, 1962) or various epistemic cultures (Knorr-Cetina, 1999) has over time been given different forms within the community of research. In relation to the act of framing research by different systematic research strategies we raise questions on: who inhabits and cultivates the field of curriculum research according to different strategies for scientific communication? Our theoretical framework is based on an argument that acknowledge the importance of investigating scientific reasoning (Hacking, 1992) and epistemic cultures (Knorr-Cetina, 1999) for understanding the intellectual organizing of knowledge, and by that exemplify how scientific ‘facts’ and ‘truths’ are constructed and legitimized, which is knowledge perceived as ‘common sense’ (cf. Gramsci 1992) within different scientific fields.

    We investigate four common systematic research strategies for performing research reviews, most used and reproduced within the community of researchers. We have first the handbooks where experts of a specific field are given the legitimacy to portray a specific field of research; second, the systematic search strategies performed with the help of various databases such as e.g. Web of Science, Scopus or ERIC; third, the investigating act of systematically browsing through research journals of special interest within a specific field, and fourth, the systematic research reviews performed by special institutes set up for performing these tasks, such as e.g. Danish Clearinghouse or EPPI centre, which in turn are used as a source by some researchers for illustrating the findings of more restricted and specific research questions.

    Focusing on four different forms of performing systematic research reviews we describe, analyze and compare the various forms with regards to:

    • how knowledge of/in a research field is constructed,
    • what kind of research that is selected and privileged

     In particular, we are interested in the potential movement of research reviews from an act of collective ‘intellectualizing’ among ‘experts’ to an act of ‘technologizing’ dependent on algorithms and terminology embedded in various databases, in which the amount of data is more important in ‘evidence-making’ than the perceived expertise of the source. To put it differently, the databases with their vast aggregation of data, organized by algorithms and terminology, are perceived as the authority and not the authors or the epistemic cultures in which the authors are embedded.

    We use the field of curriculum research to elaborate on the different forms of research reviews and their consequences for knowledge produced. Within the field of curriculum research, handbooks have had a dominant position in describing the field. Also, explicit research reviews within different journals have been important among researchers in the framing of the field of curriculum. However, in the contemporary, bibliometric analyses grounded in database searches and systematic research review performed by special institutes are more and more employed. 

    Method

    Dependent on which strategies used by researchers for framing different research fields we especially hypothesize on the importance of epistemic cultures and how these epistemic cultures historically have transported research, and how this is transformed, or even disappeared, with the entrance of various databases. First, we chose the collaborative act of ‘experts’ producing handbooks as an example of ‘intellectualizing’ dependent on that some researchers are given, or have taken, the role of ‘experts’. Second, we perform bibliometric searches, for reason of illuminating variances, by using Web of Science and Scopus as examples of ‘technologizing’, where databases more than individual researchers or research groups have transformed into the epistemic culture per se. Third, we will systematically browsing through research journals within the curriculum research field using explicit research reviews, within different journals (e.g. Journal of Curriculum Studies, Curriculum Inquiry, Educational Reviewer). This has been an important practice among researchers within the field of curriculum and hence it is important to capture this approach for framing the field. Fourth, we will analyze some systematic research reviews from special institutes (e.g. Danish Clearinghouse or EPPI centre) addressing curriculum research questions This has to a growing extent become a regular way to produce research reviews. Consequently, we are in a position to elaborate on how the field of curriculum research is portrayed by using different strategies for framing a research. This is most important for understanding how the field of curriculum research today is reproduced in various research settings.

    Expected Outcomes

    The preliminary results indicate that for example the use of handbooks portrays the curriculum field by mostly internationally well-recognized curriculum theory researchers, with resembling results for the use of review articles. The use of Web of Science and Scopus to map the curriculum field portrays both a broader and a narrower picture of the field, where more subject specific topics are included while some research is excluded as a consequence of the character of the corpus of journals and data in the databases. This leads to a picture of the curriculum field where actors are publishing on topics and journals more loosely connected to the core for what can be called curriculum research, this since subject specific topics are not in the same way highlighted in the handbooks. The findings of the reviews from the institutes are still to be elaborated. However, the findings so far indicate that there are important differences in the way a field is portrayed depending on which approach is applied. In sum, the results indicate that the approaches we apply shape how a field is portrayed, and by that also how a specific research field can be interpreted and understood. This is important knowledge and should have consequences for example in the way we guide PhD candidates for performing a systematic research review, as well as adding to researchers’ knowledge of the complexity and challenge of the task. It also indicates notions on how a research field is framed in the contemporary, is it made by ‘experts’ of the field or by algorithms and database specific terminology, which is situated outside well-recognized epistemic cultures? What are the consequences of this movement from defining frames of a research field among peers into a technologizing of this act?

    References

    Gramsci, A. (1992) Prison Notebook. G. Lawrence & Wishart: London.

    Hacking, I. (1992). 'Style' of historians and philosophers. Studies in the History and Philosophy of Science, 23(1), 1-20.

    Knorr Cetina, K. (1999) Epistemic Cultures: How the Science Make Knowledge. Harvard University Press.

    Kuhn, T (1962) The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press

  • 18.
    Forsberg, Eva
    et al.
    Department of Education, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nihlfors, Elisabet
    Department of Education, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education. Department of Education, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Skott, Pia
    Department of Education, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Codification of Present Swedish Curriculum Processes: Linking Educational Activities over Time and Space2017In: Bridging Educational Leadership, Curriculum Theory and Didaktik: Non-affirmative Theory of Education / [ed] Uljens, Michael & Ylimaki, Rose M., Cham: Springer, 2017, 1, p. 363-393Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this chapter is to explore the relationship between curriculum and leadership research with examples of three recently completed mixed methods studies of assessment cultures and leadership as interlinked activities of governance and school management. We employ curriculum theoretical concepts like e.g. codes and arenas to illustrate their usefulness as a point of departure to further theorize a changing educational landscape. In our study, we illustrate how curriculum and leadership research are historically linked. We put forward some concepts to address the increased complexity of the governance system, and we stress the need to strengthen how different ways of forming the steering system interplay with key curriculum questions. Leadership researchers have, to a large extent, studied school development on a municipality- and organizational level asking questions on how to manage and guide school development. In contrast, curriculum researchers have studied school development from a reform- and governmental perspective more asking questions on how to steer educational development through law, curricula and evaluation. We suggest that these research traditions ought to be further united in order to develop both traditions in less normative, and more, critical ways, and to answer crucial educational questions in glocal times (Marginson and Rhoades. Conceptualising global relations at the glonacal levels. Paper presented at the annual international forum of the Conference of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, Richmond, VA, November 15–18, 2001). This chapter concludes with an argument for a new comparative curriculum code due to major shifts including curriculum practices, message systems, levels, arenas and number of curriculummakers engaged.

  • 19.
    Forsberg, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Nihlfors, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Skott, Pia
    Stockholm University.
    Commodification of Present Swedish Processes: Linking Educational Experiences Over Time and Space2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives or purpose. In Sweden and other Nordic countries the formation of educational systems has primarily been an issue for the national state in a rather homogenous society. Today, governance of education is embedded in global movements and a multicultural society influencing the role and function of the state. We will use two empirical cases, based in three recently completed research projects, to illuminate how curriculum and leadership research have worked in tandem to explain and develop both policy and practice. The cases focus on the assessment culture of the Swedish schools and implications of changes in governance for local educational leadership.

    Perspectives or theoretical framework. In the Swedish curriculum theory tradition, the curriculum has been analyzed as a pedagogical, a political, a practical and research problem. In order to analyze data and develop curriculum and leadership research the central concept of curriculum code (Lundgren 1977) is further elaborated. We pay attention to different levels, actors and contexts in an era dominated by governance, new public management, accountability and international comparative tests. With mass education from preschool to higher education, marketization and an increasing number of stakeholders the complexity of education governance has also increased and curriculum processes have taken new forms. Lundgren elaborated the concepts of steering group, codes and contexts. Codes relate to the purpose, content and method of a curriculum. He raised questions on how the frames were constituted, and identified historically developed curriculum codes manifested in the selection and organization of school knowledge (e.g. Lundgren, 1977). Shifts in codes were related to changed relations between production and reproduction (Lundgren, 1983); neither the purposes of education nor the subject content were taken for granted.

    Methods. In a recent empirical study, we used questionnaires, interviews and policy texts with analyses grounded in both curriculum theory and leadership research. The empirical base is Sweden from the late 1980s up until today, a highly reform intense period. Findings are presented, focusing especially on governance, leadership and assessment cultures. We include comparative studies and studies covering all 290 Swedish municipalities using both surveys and case studies.

    Results and/or substantiated conclusions. By using empirical findings from projects relating curriculum activities taking place on different levels with a focus on interlinked curriculum processes, we discuss these processes and further develop contemporary curriculum theory.  We address conceptual issues on curriculum making including educational leadership as practice and actors. By linking research on curriculum theory with leadership studies, it is possible to attend to these problems simultaneously.

    Scientific or scholarly significance. In conclusion, this paper is scanning new horizons for how to develop curriculum theory further as a relational practice appearing in various contexts. Specifically, we posit a new code to explain the contemporary situation for curriculum-leadership.

  • 20.
    Foss Lindblad, Rita
    et al.
    Borås University.
    Lindblad, Sverker
    University of Gothenburg.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Wärvik, Gun-Britt
    University of Gothenburg.
    Coproduction of Comparative Education Research and Welfare State Education Policy2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this study is the intimate relations between educational research and its social and political embeddings, seen through the lenses of international large-scale assessments (ILSA) such as the IEA TIMSS- and the OECD PISA-programs. While increasing influence of these assessments on educational policies is widely recognized (e.g. Ozga & Lingard, 2007) and the meta-theoretical rationality on which they are operating (Grek, 2009), the constitutive elements and dynamics involved in producing their success stand out as a more open question (e.g. Wagner, 1987, on national variations).

    Our case is the transition of Swedish Welfare State (SWS) after WW2 and the development of international comparative research in education. With the specific ambition of not letting us fall into the pitfalls of science/politics dichotomies, we are addressing the dynamics of science/society coproduction (Nowotny et al, 2003; Jasanoff et al, 2001). This case is of significant interest: Firstly, the SWS had a recognized centralistic organization with high reliance on science (Fridjonsdottir, 1987). This organization restructured thoroughly in the 1990s with an increasing emphasis of ILSA (Lindblad, Pettersson & Popkewitz, 2015). Secondly, in the emergence of international assessments Swedish researchers played an important role (Husén & Postlethwaite, 1996). The specific time-space reveals uneven patterns in science/society coproduction where IEA is manifesting success as well as a breaking-point in a today highly weakened regime of how the relevance of international comparative education is to be secured, and what this means.

    Our study is based on a combination of policy documents from state commissions and parliamentary bills, research reports and evaluations of ongoing changes in policy and research as. We identified characteristic phases in the welfare state governance from expansion and centralistic governance over deregulation and decentralization and later into the introduction of a voucher system and governing by results. The analyses resulted in three major conclusions:

    − At the start comparative education research was rare and had a humanistic base in comprehending education in other contexts. The emerging ILSA was based in the social sciences where comparisons centered on differences in efficiency over national contexts.

    − During the first decades of ILSA there was little evidence of societal relevance, e.g. in use for policy decisions and reform initiatives. However, the societal relevance increased drastically, given the restructuring of the educational system and the increasing importance given to supranational organizations.

    − ILSA was from the beginning strongly contextualized and dependent on external resources. The making of the IIE opened up new possibilities for ILSA in Academia, but it is the more recent changes in governance and changes in methodology as well as technology that has allowed the success and dominance of ILSA in research and policy discourses.

    Given these conclusions ILSA turned out to be a successful but contested approach to educational research. For the coproduction of science/society the combination of a strong emphasis on ILSA in social and political discourses on education plus the closing down of the International Institute of Education and the transfer of PISA studies to Pearson is congenial to this development.

    References:

    Fridjonsdottir, K. (1987). Social Change, Trade Union Politics, and the Sociology of Work. In The Social Direction of the Public Sciences (pp. 249-276). Springer Netherlands.

    Grek, S. (2009). Governing by numbers: The PISA ‘effect’ in Europe. Journal of education policy, 24(1), 23-37.

    Husén, T., & Postlethwaite, T. N. (1996). A Brief History of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (TEA). Assessment in Education: principles, policy & practice, 3(2), 129-141.

    Jasanoff, S. Markle, G. E., Peterson, J. C., & Pinch, T. (Eds.). (2001). Handbook of science and technology studies. Sage publications.

    Lindblad, S., Pettersson, D., & Popkewitz, T. S. (2015). International comparisons of school results - A systematic review of research on Large Scale Assessment in education. Stockholm, Sweden: Swedish Research Council.

    Nowotny, H., Scott, P., & Gibbons, M. (2003). Introduction: Mode 2'Revisited: The New Production of Knowledge. Minerva, 41(3), 179-194.

    Ozga, J., & Lingard, B. (2007). Globalisation, education policy and politics. The RoutledgeFalmer reader in education policy and politics, 65-82.

    Wagner, P. (1987). Social sciences and political projects: reform coalitions between social scientists and policy-makers in France, Italy, and West Germany. In The Social Direction of the Public Sciences (pp. 277-306). Springer Netherlands.

  • 21.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    L’enseignement en Suède: D’une école pour tous à une école pour chacun2018In: Entre tronc commun et filières, quelle école commune ? Etude comparative. / [ed] Baluteau F., Dupriez V., Verhoeven M. (dir.), Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgique): Thélème (Académia-L'Harmattan), 2018 (à paraître) , 2018Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Edling, Silvia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    When The Convention of The Rights of the Child is Not Enough: Civil Disobedience from a Research Perspective2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The weaker juridical nature of the Convention of the Rights of the Child (CRC) in relation of national laws is often an obstacle when it comes to implement the articles in European national contexts. For instance, Sweden has a national legal structure that gives priority to Swedish acts in favour of international conventions. Only National acts and ordinances as well as certain EU acts are binding sources of law. Therefore, except for certain EU acts, national acts always prevails before international jurisdiction, such as the Convention of the Rights of the Child (Schiratzki 2013).

    In addition, CRC stipulates several rights that are difficult to interpret on a national level (Schiratzki 2013). Several of the CRS rights, such as education, care and health, belong to the so-called second-generation human rights that require active action by the state to ensure their existence in practice.

    Unlike first-generation rights (also called freedoms or civic and political rights) that aimed to protect individuals from state interference, second-generation human rights (social, economic and cultural rights) are heavily dependent on the state's allocation of public resources. Consequently, there are often less strict implantations of second-generation rights in national contexts (Willems & Vernimmen 2017).

    Furthermore, previous research (Ahrnér 2006) shows that the CRC contains formulations that are ambiguous, diffuse and have different meanings in different contexts. Experience from Norway also (Schiratzki 2013) shows that incorporation of the CRC s in a national Act is not enough to defend childrens’ rights at national contexts. What is more, there is no international court that can punish a state that does not respect the convention. The UN Committee on the Rights of the Child (Child Rights Committee), located in Geneva, has the task of overseeing that States members implementation of CRC. However, the only possible sanctions that this UN committee can implement against a state that does not respect CRC are criticisms and pressures.(The Ombudsman for Children in Sweden 2015). 

    The weaker juridical nature of the CRC makes it interesting to investigate the existence of other strategies to guarantee Children’s rights within various national contexts that are not taken into consideration by national Acts. One of this strategy is civil disobedience.

    According to Brownlee (Fall 2017) “… on the most widely accepted account of civil disobedience, famously defended by John Rawls (1971), civil disobedience is a public, non-violent and conscientious breach of law undertaken with the aim of bringing about a change in laws or government policies. On this account, people who engage in civil disobedience are willing to accept the legal consequences of their actions, as this shows their fidelity to the rule of law. Civil disobedience, given its place at the boundary of fidelity to law, is said to fall between legal protest, on the one hand, and conscientious refusal, revolutionary action, militant protest and organised forcible resistance, on the other hand.” (Brownlee, Fall 2017)

    Starting from this most widely accepted account of civil disobedience (see Brownlee, Fall 2017) this contribution aims to introduce and discuss a research review about international research on civil disobedience as strategy to guarantee Childrens’ rights in education in national contexts. 

    Method

    Quantitative and qualitative thematic text analysis of peer review articles published in scientific journals found in ERIC (Education Resources Information Center), Web of Science Core Collection and Scopus, Legal Classic Library, Lexpress databases is used as methodology. The concepts “civil disobedience”, “children’s rights”, “Convention of the Rights of the Child” are used as keywords for the selection of the articles in these databases. Only articles in English, Swedish, Spanish, French and Hungarian published during the period 2010-2017 are selected. Starting from Hanna Arendts (1973, 2006) understanding of individual responsibility as theoretical stating point this research review focuses on the following research questions: • How is civil disobedience conceptualized in the selected articles? • Which theoretical starting points are used to study civil disobedience in relation to children’s rights in education in the selected articles? • In which extension is citizens’ individual responsability discussed in the analysis of civil obedience and children’s rights in education in the selected research articles? • Which research methodological starting points are used to study civil disobedience in relation to children’s rights in education in the selected articles? • Which ethical aspects are necesary to pay attention in the study of civil disobedience as strategy to guarantee childrens’ rights in education according to the selected articles? • What does international resesarch show about the reasons to use civil disobedience as strategy to guarantee children’s rights in education? • What does international research show about the impacts of civil disobendice on the implementation of children’s rights in education at national levels? This contribution will particularly pay attention in analysis of the research strategies used in the selected articles in order to deal with ethical aspects in the study on civil disobedience and children’s rights in education. Hanna Arendt (1973, 2006) understanding of individual responsibility is used as theoretical starting point to understand the reasons and the impacts of civil disobedience as a strategy to guarantee children’s right to education. 

    Expected Outcomes

    Focusing on Hanna Arendt’s (1973, 2006) understanding of individual responsibility, this research review contributes with new insights on the reasons and the impacts of Civil obedience as strategy to guarantee children’s rights in education. It contributes even to develop new knowledge about theoretical, methodological and ethical aspects in the field of children’ rights with focus on civil disobedience as strategy to implement CRC.

    References

    Ahrnér, E. (2006) Barns inflytande i förskolan – Problem eller möjlighet för de vuxna? En studie av ett utvecklingsarbete och dess betydelse för att förändra pedagogers förhållningssätt till barns initiativ. Licentiatavhandlingar vid Pedagogiska institutionen. Örebro universitet 3. Orebro 2006.

    Arendt, H. (1973). The origins of totalitarianism. (New ed. with added prefaces). New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich

    Arendt, H. (2006). Eichmann in Jerusalem: a report on the banality of evil. New York, N.Y.: Penguin Books.

    Brownlee, K. (Fall 2017), "Civil Disobedience", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (, Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = .

    Schiratzki, J. (2013) Välfärdsrätt i Sverige Juridisk Tidskrift, Vol. 2012/13, nr 4, 796-805 s.

    The Ombudsman for Children in Sweden (2015). Barnkonsekvensanalyser - Uppnå kvalitet i beslut som rör barn och unga. Hämtad från https://www.barnombudsmannen.se/barnombudsmannen/publikationer/genomfora-barnkonventionen/barnkonsekvensanalyser-uppna-kvalitet-i-beslut-som-ror-barn-och-unga/ [2017-11-21]

    Willems, K. & Vernimmen, J. (2017 ) The fundamental human rights to education for refugees: some legal remarks. European Educational Research Journal. ISSN 14-74-9041

  • 23.
    Ghannam, Marwan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    IKT I fritidshem: möjligheter och svårigheter: En kvalitativ studie om fritidspedagogers uppfattningar om möjligheter och svårigheter med IKT i fritidshemmet2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I fritidshemmets verksamhet arbetar fritidspedagoger med IKT och digitala verktyg på olika sätt och i olika grad, och har i uppdrag att ge barnen en meningsfull fritid där deras behov och intresse står i centrum. Syftet med denna studie har varit att undersöka hur fritidspedagoger uppfattar olika möjligheter som IKT erbjuder dem i sin undervisning samt vilka svårigheter som de upplever i sitt arbete med IKT i fritidshem. Metoden i denna studie är av kvalitativ ansats, där insamling av data har skett med hjälp av semistrukturerade intervjuer med fem verksamma fritidspedagoger. Studiens resultat visar att IKT och digitala verktyg erbjuder många olika möjligheter för såväl lärarens undervisning som barnens lärande och utveckling. Dock framkommer det att det finns aktuella svårigheter som upplevs av respondenterna, vilket i sin tur begränsar användandet av IKT i fritidshem.

  • 24.
    Goerge, Jean
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Anpassning av undervisningen för elever med funktionsnedsättningar: En kvalitativ studie med fyra lågstadielärare2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    På 1990-talet började man tala om inkludering i skolan, vilket innebär att skolan anpassar undervisningen utifrån elevernas möjligheter och behov. Denna studie handlar om hur lågstadielärare anpassar undervisningen för elever med funktionsnedsättningar. Syftet med studien var att undersöka hur anpassningen av undervisningen ser ut i klassrummet och vilka resultat anpassningen ger.

    Detta är en kvalitativ studie med fenomenologisk ansats. Datainsamlingen skedde genom samtalsintervjuer med fyra lågstadielärare. Resultatet visar att samtliga lärare dagligen arbetar med anpassningen av undervisningen för att alla elever ska kunna nå utbildningsmålen och att de anser att detta arbetssätt är positivt. Dock har lärarna stödfunktioner i form av extra vuxna personer i klassrummet i varierande grad. De flesta av lärarna känner att det inte finns tillräckligt med resurser för att de ska kunna arbeta med inkludering på det sättet som de önskar. Lärarna anpassar undervisningen genom att variera den. Variationerna består av att förklara instruktioner på olika sätt eller att ha lektioner utomhus eller i en annan sal. Lärarna varierar även undervisningen med att sjunga, måla, rita och leka, vilket de tycker ger goda resultat.

  • 25.
    Hallqvist, Susann
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Larsson, Julia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Syften med bild i fritidshem: En kvalitativ intervjustudie med fem lärare i fritidshem2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Forskning visar att bildskapande kan användas på många olika sätt. I fritidshemmet är

    det vanligt att man utgår ifrån läroplanen när man planerar aktiviteter som rör bild.

    Även elevers intressen och behov ligger till grund för hur man arbetar. Utifrån de syften

    pedagoger har med en bildaktivitet formas aktiviteten. Med hjälp av denna studie ville

    vi få en djupare förståelse för varför fritidslärare arbetar med bild. Ämnet har

    undersökts genom intervjuer med fem lärare i fritidshem. Resultatet visar att

    bildaktiviteter i fritidshemmet kan användas för att ge elever utvecklad förståelse för

    människors olika förutsättningar och att elevernas intresse ofta ligger till grund för vilka

    aktiviteter som genomförs. Även pedagogens utbildning i och intresse av bild påverkar

    arbetet.

  • 26.
    Hellfeldt, Karin
    et al.
    School of Law, Psychology and Social Work, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Gill, Peter Edward
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Johansson, Björn
    School of Law, Psychology and Social Work, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Longitudinal Analysis of Links Between Bullying Victimization and Psychosomatic Maladjustment in Swedish Schoolchildren2018In: Journal of School Violence, ISSN 1538-8220, E-ISSN 1538-8239, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 86-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cross-sectional studies of bullying mask variability in categories of and persistence of bullying victimization. Longitudinal, individual-level data offers a greater insight into schoolchildren’s psychosomatic maladjustment as a consequence of bullying. Swedish schoolchildren (n = 3,349), with unique identifiers, in 44 schools (4th–9th grade), answered a questionnaire at baseline and 1-year follow-up. Longitudinal trends for nonvictims (88%), ceased victims (4.7%), new victims (5.7%), and continuing victims (1.6%) revealed that new victims had the largest decrease in well-being; continuing victims had a smaller though not significant decrease; while ceased victims showed a small, (nonsignificant) increase in well-being over the measurement period. It was also discovered that children not bullied at baseline but bullied subsequently, differed, at baseline, from their never-bullied peers through lower levels of overall well-being. It is argued that this finding has implications for prevention strategies.

  • 27.
    Ilstad, Sofie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Genuspedagogiskt förhållningssätt i förskolan: En intervju- och observationsstudie om arbete, bemötande och miljö2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka hur genuspedagogisk verksamhet bedrivits inom förskolan tidigare och om arbetet fortgår samt utvecklas. Studien har sin bakgrund i ett jämställdhetsprojekt inom förskolan och utgår från intervjuer och observationer inom sex förskolor i Mellansverige. Studiens syfte är att undersöka om arbetet med genuspedagogik har fortskridit inom förskolan, hur arbetet ser ut i dag, i vilken utsträckning en arbetar med genuspedagogik samt vilken kunskap som finns inom verksamheten. Det som framträder är att majoriteten av de förskolor som undersöks i studien inte arbetar med genuspedagogisk verksamhet trots att kravet för detta finns i läroplanen för förskolan. Det framgår också att kunskapen om genuspedagogik inte är utbredd hos personalen på de förskolor som undersöks i studien och att det finns få resurser insatta i arbetet om genus. Studien visar också att de som arbetar med genuspedagogiskt arbete utför arbetet ingående och aktivt. Deras arbete utvecklas fortlöpande och tas upp vid planering av verksamheten samt täcker alla områden inom verksamheten med ett genusperspektiv.

  • 28.
    Johansson, Andreas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education. Pedagogik.
    Once upon a threshold: A narrative study of three men in their twenties and their experiences of violating the norms of a heteronormative school environment2016In: NERA 2016 Social Justice, Equality and Solidarity in Education: Book of Abstracts, 2016, p. 98-98Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The school takes part in reproducing societal norms and values, something that is seen as a natural part of its culture-transferring mission. Some of these norms and values ​​can be explained by the queer theoretical concept of heteronormativity, which aims to elucidate the norms and structures that emphasize heterosexuality as normal, making other sexual orientations deviant. Discrimination of non-heterosexual people in school as a place has slowly decreased in recent years (Brottsförebyggande rådet, 2014). However, that does not mean that the discrimination has been reduced in school as an environment, yet instead it has found expression through new ways such as through the Internet and through telephone/texting. This study aims to elucidate the experiences of students who commit norm violations of heteronormativity and thus exposed to the risk of discrimination due to non-heterosexuality, this is to increase the understanding of students’ experiences of a heteronormative school environment.

    The study was conducted through a narrative approach and narratives as method (Johansson, 2006). Three interviews were conducted with males identifying as non-heterosexuals. The theoretical framework that built the analysis consisted of the queer theoretical concept of heteronormativity as part of the environment and as an influencing factor in students ' socialization (Ambjörnsson, 2006). The students’ produces and reproduces norms about gender identity through socialization, making certain kinds of masculinity normal thus leads other masculinities to become deviant. The narratives have also been analyzed through Connell's (2008) concept of hegemonic masculinity, which intends to describe the power structures nature and function within and between different masculinities.

    The result shows that discrimination does not need to depend on actual homosexuality but also even suspected, or materialized, homosexuality. The results also indicates something that I have chosen to call homo-hatred, where hatred is displayed by non- heterosexuals towards others who identify as or are suspected of being non-heterosexual, despite the own sexual orientation.It has been interpreted as them kicking sideways instead of kicking upwards within the power structures of masculinities, which may be a natural reaction for the students ‘survival’. Sports seem to function as a marker of heterosexuality, where the distinctions between masculinities are made visible and the violations of heteronormativity becomes tense. Conclusions drawn from these interpretations were that the consequences or meaning of norm violations may shift over time and doesn’t necessarily need to be negative for the student, even if they were perceived as negative when they occurred.

  • 29.
    Johansson, Andreas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education. Pedagogik .
    The risk of nonperformativity of LGBT-certifications of Swedish schools2016In: NERA 2016 Social Justice, Equality and Solidarity in Education: Book of Abstracts, 2016, p. 99-100Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are several different regulating documents that are supposed to control Swedish schools in an anti-discriminating way, such as the Discrimination Act and policies for Equal Opportunities and Fair treatment, but discrimination of LGBTQ-students is still a part of school environments (Brottsförebyggande rådet, 2015). There has been a lot of research done that has tried to draw upon the daily struggles of these students within school environments in Sweden, my master thesis included (Johansson, 2015). In the middle of November 2015, Sweden obtained its first LGTBQ-certified upper secondary school, a kind of certification that has become more and more popular during the last decade in other types of organizations. It’s a 16 hour education spread throughout 1 year to withhold the certification, where the entire school staff is educated in anti-oppressive methods both through the organization of the school and the interaction with students (RFSL, 2015). Since this certification is a relatively new part of the discourse of anti-discrimination within school, I find it interesting to examine. I ask myself why we need this. Shouldn’t the current regulating documents be enough? Why do the schools feel the need to do it? What may the motif behind the certification be? Why now? The issue has been a school issue for a long time, the certification of other organizations has been done the last decade. The aim of this study is to elucidate and analyze the speech of LBGTQ-certifications of Swedish schools and also investigate its possible consequences. To attempt in straightening my question marks, I want to try to answer another set of questions, namely; i) How is the LGBTQ-certification expressed? ii) What meaning is given these certifications? and iii) What may the consequences be?

    The approach to these questions will be a critical discourse analysis. Critical discourse analysis is an interdisciplinary approach to the study of discourse that views language as a form of social practice. Linguistic practice and social practice constitute one another and focus on investigating how societal power relations are established and reinforced through language use. The study object will be the anti-discriminating discourse with a focus on the speech of the LGBTQ-certifications, both the documents from the certifiers and the speech of the certified schools. Using Faircloughs (1992) model of critical discourse analysis, I want to elucidate and analyze the texts creating the certifications, the anti-discriminating discourse practices used through the certification and also try to problematize and discuss their possible consequences in the social practices within Swedish schools. The analysis will be conducted through concepts of performativity and nonperformativity which is aimed to show how repetition and a practice within discourses do or do not produce what they’re actually speaking of. When speech of for example anti-discrimination circulates within an institution it can create an illusion that the speech follows or is followed by action. Sometimes these speech acts may hide the fact that the speech, in this case “we are LGBT-certified”, doesn’t necessarily result in any action what so ever.

    The discourse of LGBT-certification, as a part of the anti-discriminating discourse, is written and expressed through the framework of social justice and equality and equity for all. To be LGBT-certified is something that schools of Sweden is supposed to be proud over. The institutional speech act of “We’re LGBT-certified” though is something that could be suspected becoming a non-performative, expressed but not followed by action and therefore not handling the issues constituting the very existence of these certifications. However, it is fair to say that the certification will lead to some sort of action, since its’ supposed to give the staff of the school a new approach. If so, the action due to the certification is also interesting to explore. What possible consequences could this new approach lead to?

  • 30.
    Johansson, Andreas
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Mølstad, Christina Elde
    Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences - INN University, Norway.
    School Certification: Marketing Schools by their Appearance2018In: NERA 2018 - 46th Congress : Educational Research: Boundaries, Breaches and Bridges: Abstracts, 2018, p. 110-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the mid-1990’s the Swedish School system, as well as others, has developed a closer connection between education, economy and the market as a consequence of neoliberal reforms (Fernández, 2012; Dahlstedt, 2007). Coming with neoliberal reforms is a movement of decentralisation of school systems making marketing and concurrence a natural part of the educational landscape which can be seen in most OECD countries. However, Sweden as a case makes an especially interesting example because of the intensity of this development. Today in Sweden, this can even be seen in discussing education in terms of a ‘local school market’ (Lundahl, 2002; 2010). In this new educational logic students’ have been given the role of customers enabling them to choose between schools, at the same time forcing schools to compete against each other to attract students’ (Lund, 2006; Norén, 2003). To do so, schools has developed different marketing technologies to illuminate themselves as the best option on the market or to ‘sell themselves by appearance’. These technologies are manifold such as websites, specific bonuses if choosing a school e.g. computers or summer camps, promises of a successful future due to grade rate at the schools, but also a practice of selling the schools by various certifications has appeared. Certifications are constructed in different ways and highlight different aspects with an outspoken purpose of attracting the youths of today. ‘Green certifications’ have been around for a while and the latest observed are certifications saying that the school and all the personnel are certified for knowing e.g. gender- and gay-rights. The purpose of certifications is often marketed as a way for illustrating that the school is modern and keeping up with societal developments. In order to analyse the new technology of certification as part of a new educational logic the paper historicise on institutional speech acts and different ‘styles of reasoning’ (Hacking, 1992) evident in the school contexts of today. Even though the case is Sweden with its specific characteristics, the analysis show that a lot of the trajectories have importance on a global scale. What is especially elaborated on is how appearance as a market logic with its specific technologies is directed towards individuals and as such come to play a part of educational governance. By elaborating on the phenomenon of appearance, in terms of certifications, some changes in the educational landscape can be highlighted, where marketing for individuals is more emphasized than marketing for groups and by that changes traditional historical reasoning on schooling.

  • 31.
    Järdeholm, Johanna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Gavlén, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Planerad fysisk aktivitet i förskolan och förskoleklassen: En komparativ studie mellan förskola och förskoleklass2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Fysisk aktivitet är fundamentalt för barns motoriska utveckling. Enligt WHO har barns fysiska aktivitet minskat. Eftersom barn spenderar stora delar av sin vardag i förskola, förskoleklass och skola spelar tillgängligheten för fysisk aktivitet i respektive institution alltså en stor roll i barns hälsa, både fysiskt, psykiskt och socialt. Syftet med denna studie är att jämföra arbetet med planerad fysisk aktivitet mellan förskola och förskoleklass. Genomförande av studien har gjort via enkäter där legitimerade förskollärare i tio förskolor och tio skolor har deltagit. Resultatet visar att de medverkande förskoleklasserna har mer planerad fysisk aktivitet än de medverkande förskolorna. Det gäller antal gånger i veckan, hur många timmar samt längden på utförda fysiska aktiviteter. De påvisade sambanden i resultatet visar både på signifikanta och ickesignifikanta samband. Då studien omfattat både signifikanta och ickesignifikanta samband kan därför inga generella slutsatser kring vilken institution som utövar mest planerade fysiska aktiviteter analyseras fullt ut. Utifrån resultatet av denna studie framgår det att både förskollärarna i de medverkande förskolorna och förskoleklasserna planerar och utför planerade fysiska aktiviteter varje vecka men att frekvens och aktivitetstyp varierar i de båda institutionerna.

  • 32.
    Kalinnikova, Liya
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    AAC: meeting Event in life span longitude2017In: / [ed] Professor Doru VIad Popovici, PhD, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: Development of AAC theory and practice has contributed to a powerful change of professional consciousness among AAC experts, bringing new requests and requirements to more complex issues among which ethics has been lifted up and mainstreamed. The aim of the present research is to enter the analysis of the core issues of fundamental professional ethical codes in the light of alternative and augmentative communication; to bring contribution into the “normative” integrated interdisciplinary fundamental ethical principles from the perspective of “meeting with unique AAC-user context”. The research methodology is built upon the study of scientific sources, systematized by international electronic data bases and includes an interdisciplinary approach to its collection. Phenomenology and hermeneutics are the basic research methodology to collect and analyze data. A case study of the family context, where deaf parents are upbringing blind child, is taken as a representative part for the discussion. The primary determinant for the intervention strategy was defined as family-centered, based on conceptual principles of Enabling and Empowering Families and Effective help-giving in the early intervention program. Badiou’s theory of ethics and its dimensions of ‘truth’ as a ‘truth’ of the Event were used for the interpretation of ethics of a unique AAC context. The structure of the values forms a meaningful basis for mutual understanding between professionals, family members and professional community in a wider perspective. The success of the AAC implementation as a new discipline is dependent on how all together researchers, professionals and the AAC-users could act ethically developing common understandings, beliefs and values meeting Event in life span longitude.

  • 33.
    Kalinnikova Magnusson, Liya
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Challenges Arising From the "Red" and the "White" Special Education Legacy2017In: 15th Biennial International Association of Special Education (IASE) Conference: Addressing the Exceptional Needs of the Whole Child and Young Adult: Embracing the Future, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Soviet Russia and Apartheid South Africa implemented special education under conditions of strong state control. These regimes left a legacy of challenges to current governments in developing inclusive education. We explore these challenges by studying the "red" and the "white" legacy to better understand contextual influences on special and inclusive education.

  • 34.
    Kalinnikova Magnusson, Liya
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Costs of AAC: methodology of time, space, tools and values2017In: 11th ECER AAC Conference Program / [ed] Professor Doru VIad Popovici, PhD, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite AAC being many-faced/interdisciplinary scientifically and practically with its own about 40 years history, it is dominantly seen through the methodology of communication as a central phenomenon and, specifically, the development/implementation of “communicative instruments” for those who have special communicative needs.

    At the same time methodology of ACC has its cost dimension, which has its fundamental presence in each AAC case in the forms of time, space, individual tools and values. Special needs require support/help and demand for external resources. Environmental response, hopefully provided by a welfare system, becomes a natural and important substitutional societal effort for those with special needs (children and adults). The AAC-effort in its cost dimension has its multilevel structure, where macro-, mezo- and micro- levels are representing specific “life world contexts”, and are often leading families of AAC users to social and economic impoverishment. Such issues of support as service accessibility, quality, regularity, etc. are key aspects of this support and are costly for many societies internationally. AAC, as a communicative tool (low or high technology), comes with a price even though its form might be unclear.     

    All the ECER AAC networking countries have ratified main international documents regarding the rights of children and people with disabilities, professional ethics for establishing national platforms of values toward those who need extra societal resources for human being existence etc, stressing AAC needs. What solutions could be found to diminish the gap between the “declaration” and its “implementation”?   The presentation is aiming to focus on the discussion around this question.

  • 35.
    Kalinnikova Magnusson, Liya
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Differences as a source of development. Some lessons from Vygotsky for culturally diverse learning milieu2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Kalinnikova Magnusson, Liya
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Power influence in disability: gender aspect: Ideas from Sweden as applied on present situation in Russia2017In: : , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Kalinnikova Magnusson, Liya
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education. UCRS, Uppsala University, Uppsala ; Center of Excellence “Choices of Modernisation”, University of Helsinki, Helsinkii, Finland.
    Presentation of the idea to contribute to the project, based on the case of Archangelsk region (Russia)2016In: : , 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Kalinnikova Magnusson, Liya
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Scientific Report   Project title: «Human resources in poverty and disability: family perspective (Moldova and Ukraine)»: Popular description of the project2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The project was investigating how families with impaired children experience their lives in societies with transition economies, meeting conditions of poverty [2012-2014, Moldova, Ukraine].

  • 39.
    Kalinnikova Magnusson, Liya
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Special Education: Traditions and Transitions (experience from neighboring non EU countries)2016In: Engineering, Education and Psychology, Conference Program Guide, Engineering Information Institute, 2016, Vol. -, p. 18-19Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Moldavian and Ukrainian societies are deconstructing traditional (inherited) welfare institutions, being under extremely complicated transformative challenges, struggling with economical burdens, polarization and poverty affection.  Deconstruction of the “old” system of special education towards inclusion is one challenge. A process of constituting “new” systems of education, making attempts to embed special education in mainstream education, is acknowledging deinstitutionalization as an inevitable stage of this process. When poverty affects this process, different types of resistance from families of children with disabilities appear. Historically and ideologically the Soviet system of special education was constructed based upon the earliest social projects where the state took full responsibility for children with special needs, satisfying their basic needs, accommodating them in special institutions. It means that families of children with disabilities were treated by the state as those who need permanent social-economical support. Critically reflecting upon the inherited system of special education it is evident that several generations of children grown out of becoming parents themselves, accepted this system as extra resources. In the current situation of market liberalization and economical polarization, these parents, protecting their children from family economic burdens are turning to the “old” system, resisting against a process of inclusion. They “intentionally put” their children in these special education institutions, because of the importance of the extra resources of special educational institutions for their children. These families are risking of reproducing a family poverty circle. The other negative effect of this process is a rather big number of special needs children who have not reached mainstream inclusive schools because of the lack of family resources (when special institutions get closed). My research is focusing on what ways could be worked out to overcome traditional assistance of special education (closed institutions) for children with special needs as a system which reproduces unfreedoms in poverty and disability.

    What transformative models of special education could be developed out of traditional forms?

    How to transform special education resources in mainstream education, keeping care of those children with special needs, whose families have stable economical burdens?

  • 40.
    Kalinnikova Magnusson, Liya
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Substitution of shortage services: Habilitation resources in low income families with hearing impaired children2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Kalinnikova Magnusson, Liya
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Bodorin, Cornelia
    PSU named after I. Creange (Republic of Moldova).
    Habilitation resources in families with hearing impaired children: substitution and complementation of shortage services (Republic of Moldova)2017In: TILTAI, ISSN 1392-3137, Vol. 77, no 2, p. 11-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Habilitation of children with hearing impairment is becoming an integral part of the education system in Republic of Moldova, which remains one of the poorest countries in Europe. The research data presented in this article show that accessibility to education for children with disabilities is full of contradictions. The research focuses on the ongoing reform of special education and assesses the adaptation of democratic values in education from the perspective of habilitation. The families involved in this research were low income full families who had a school age children with hearing impairment, lived in an urban environment of the big city and experienced shortage of services for their children. The assumption was taken, that in search for solution these families tend to compensate for the lack of services by self-creating the resources of habilitation. Results of the qualitative research highlighted two problems: social and economic. The essence of these problems – management of social stigmatization through realization of habilitation resources as a mean to compensate and replenish the lack of services. Research data also revealed the necessity of further construction and conceptualisation of habilitation resources.

  • 42.
    Kalinnikova Magnusson, Liya
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Walton, Elizabeth
    Wits school of education, Johanneburg University, South Africa.
    Challenges Arising From the Special Education Legacies in South Africa and Soviet Russia2017In: European Journal of Special Needs Education, ISSN 0885-6257, E-ISSN 1469-591XArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Kirsten, Nils
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Department of Education.
    Wermke, Wieland
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education. Uppsala University, Department of Education.
    Governing teachers by professional development: state programmes for continuing professional development in Sweden since 19912017In: Journal of Curriculum Studies, ISSN 0022-0272, E-ISSN 1366-5839, Vol. 49, no 3, p. 391-411Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article was to analyse how teachers's€™ continuing professional development (CPD) contributes to the government of the teaching profession. This is done by examining the CPD initiatives organized by two Swedish national educational agencies since 1991 involving the school subjects of Swedish (standard language education) and mathematics. Four programmes of professional development are identified in the investigated material, each motivated by specific conceptions of teachers and professional development. One important trend is that agency engagement in teachers’ CPD and school development has increased over time and that CPD programmes have become more prescriptive and elaborate in their use of evaluations. While this may result in a more standardized and centrally governed teaching profession, centrally governed initiatives could also provide teachers with professional arenas for developing ideas without being influenced by local school management.

  • 44.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Child- and subject orientation in Swedish preschool teachers’ practical reasoning2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Policy for the Swedish preschool has successively adapted its goals in order to prepare for the school system. Åsén & Roth (2012) finds support for a change in Swedish preschool policy and practice towards the culture of school. Support for this change is also found in studies about Swedish preschool teachers increasingly highlighting learning as a basic activity in their work (e.g. Alatalo et al 2016; Alvestad & Berge 2009; Westman & Bergmark 2013; Löfdahl & Perez 2009). Such transformations of early childhood education is not unique for Sweden; tensions between child centered- and subject focused goals, has for a long time been a characteristic in early childhood curricula in Europe. This contribution intends to shed light on this curricular relationship through scrutinizing the professional talk of preschool teachers.

    Since 2011 “Teaching” has been established as a new mission in the preschool and since 2010 subjects like math, science and Swedish language has been added to the national syllabus. By adding these goals, Swedish preschool now shares some general goals with the preschool class – the latter in which most of six year old children participate – and the comprehensive school. However, the Swedish preschool still has to conduct the tradition of being child- and play centered, according to its national syllabus; thus being kept within boundaries as more or less distinct from the school system. Simultaneously, the current approaching to the school system has become more accentuated ever since the national syllabus was introduced 1998 (Folke Fichtelius 2008). Swedish preschool teachers attempts to include children’s interests while paying attention to the national goals is studied by Thörner (2016) focusing (mainly) on recorded everyday situations. An important issue is how these policy changes are approached by the professionals by highlighting on their professional reasoning, regarding the purpose of the preschool in their everyday work.

    In this paper, professional reasoning is approached from the perspective of teachers as social actors in everyday life, shaped by but also re-shaping, the policy context(s) of the preschool. An important dimension of the curriculum is constituted by teachers as curriculum makers (cf. Cuban 1992), in that every curriculum is dependent on how teachers interpret policy in relation to their everyday work. The purpose of this paper is to investigate preschool teachers’ professional talk focusing on the relationship between child- and subject orientation. Discourse analysis will be used an analytic tool focusing on how everyday discourse people borrows from cultural repertoires stemming from a culture’s common-sense way of talking (Potter & Wetherell 1987). The reasoning of the preschool teachers will further analyzed in relation to the policy context foremost formulated on state- and municipal level during the conversation with the preschool teachers.  

    Method

    In order to address complexities of professional reasoning, qualitative interviews performed in the environment of the preschools was done (Potter & Wetherell 1987). 10 preschool teachers participated addressing their specific socio-geographic environment (approximately 50 minutes each). The volume of this sample has been judged as sufficient for the analytic purpose of discerning patterns of complex dilemmatic reasoning across both within individual interviews, and through comparison (of dilemmatic reasoning) between the teacher interviews.  In order to approach teachers’ everyday reasoning the interviews were designed as semi-structured conversations between the preschool teachers and me as a teacher educator, explicitly asking for access with the professional field. An interview guide was sent beforehand and read by all (except for one) preschool teachers before the interview was performed. The preschool teachers were informed about the project including their rights regarding participation, anonymization and proper storing of the data. Data was collected in a variety of social-cultural environments such as middle class areas with high amount cultural and economic capital (n=4/10); multi-ethnical areas with low(er) amount cultural and economic capital (n=5/10) and one mixed area regarding amount cultural and economic capital (n=1/10). 7 preschools was visited, whereof 3 preschools including 1 teacher responsible for educational development and 1 teacher without such a responsibility. However, no typical features characterized the preschool teachers with responsibility for educational development. The interviews were all transcribed verbatim. The interview guide addressed the preschool as preparing for school vs representing a tradition within its own right; experiences of the children vs focus on subject goals; how the preschool teacher was working with the school-like goals and how goals were documented; the latter addressing teacher everyday work (Sheridan et al 2011).  The interview transcript was read systematically, paying notice to relations regarding child, subject- and teacher orientations, i.e. themes where the teachers were focusing on basic values for preschool education. In the preliminary analysis of each interview, dilemmas on the (i) global level, i.e. through the whole transcript, and on (ii) local level within utterance and/or interaction sequence level, was focused.  In line with Potter & Wetherell (1987), discernment of characteristic linguistic repertoires recognizable from established pedagogical traditions has also been highlighted. Examples of linking the two dimensions were also noted.

    Expected Outcomes

    Regarding the purpose of the preschool, when the “child” and comparisons with school was topicalized, the preschool teacher´s draws on child-centered repertoires. Boundaries of child- respective subject centeredness are manifested when comparing preschool with school.  However, when school-like ”goals” in the syllabus is focused, teacher-centered repertoires were instead prominent, in which boundaries distinguishing preschool from school was dissolved. These opposing themes (cf. Wetherell et al. 2001) are mostly located in different contexts (within the individual interview) appearing as two different and parallel logics, rather than as one coherent logic. Thus, to address relations between preschool and school implied boundary talk, while addressing subject knowledge in the syllabus – sometimes related to future participation in school – did not. Dilemmatic tensions are also manifested locally i.e. within many sequences and utterances. Talk addressing the general purposes of preschool could be interpreted as local answers to top-down state policy due to its proper affirmations of different directives in the policy texts (cf. Biesta et al 2017).  However, connections between children’s experiences and school-like subjects were also formulated in the language of everyday work, such as listening for children’s initiatives and developing themes, more or less corresponding to content knowledge in the syllabus with interests within the group of children. This professional talk is expressed in temporal modes, like “first… and then” and focused on both children and the goals in the syllabus. Thus, the child- and subject foci do not appear only as separated but also as co-present and related to teacher judgement (Author 2014) when everyday professional work is addressed; i.e. themes of content knowledge and being continually sensitive to interests of the children. Such professional reasoning could be interpreted as creative ways of handling tensions implicitly present in the national syllabus, regarding the general purpose(s) of the preschool.

    References

    Alatalo, T, Meier, J & Frank, E (2016) Transition between preschool and preschool class: A question about interweaving care and Knowledge. Early Childhood Educational Journal, 44: 155.

    Alvestad, M & Berge, A (2009) Svenske førskolelærere om læring i planlegging og praksis relatert til den nasjonale læreplanen. [Swedish preschool teachers on planning and praxis in relation to the national syllabus]. Nordisk barnehageforskning [Nordic early childhood education research] (2), 57–68.

    Author (2014) ---------------

    Biesta, G, Priestley, M & Robinson, S (2017) Talking about education: exploring the significance of teacher´s talk for teacher agency. Journal of Curriculum Studies. 49:1, 38-54.

    Cuban, L (1992) Curriculum stability and change. In Jackson, Philip (ed.) Handbook of Research on Curriculum. American Educational Research Association, 216-247.

    Folke-Fichtelius, M (2008). Förskolans formande: statlig reglering 1944-2008. [The shaping of preschool. State regulation 1944-2008] Diss. Uppsala: Uppsala universitet.

    Löfdahl, A & Pérez, H (2009) Between control and resistance: planning and evaluation texts in the Swedish preschool. Journal of Education Policy, 24, 4, 393-408.

    Potter, J & Wetherell, M (1987) Discourse and social psychology: Beyond attitudes and behaviour. London: Sage.

    Sheridan, S, Williams, P Sandberg, A & Vourinen (2011) Preschool teaching in Sweden – a profession in change. Educational Research, 53: 4, 415-437.

    Thörner, A (2016) ”Vi kan inte bara utgå från barnens intresse”. Pedagogers guidning av barns intresse i förhållande till förskolans målstyrning. [”We cannot only base it on the children's interest” - Educators guidance of children's interest in relation to goals and guidelines.] Högskolan i Borås.

    Westman, S & Bergmark, U (2014) A stengthened teaching mission in preschool: teachers´experiences, beliefs and strategies. International journal of early years education. Vol. 22, No. 1, 73-88. 

    Wetherell, M,Taylor, S & Yates,S (2001) Discourse as Data: A Guide for Analysis. London, UK: Sage.

    Åsén, Gunnar & Vallberg Roth, Ann-Christine (2012) Utvärdering i förskolan: en forskningsöversikt. [Evaluation in preschool: reveiw of research ] Stockholm: Vetenskapsrådet.

  • 45.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    How Interreligious Buildings Influence Interreligious Neighbourhood Relations: The Case of the God's House Project in a Stockholm Suburb2018In: Religion and Dialogue in the City: Case Studies on Interreligious Encounter in Urban Community and Education / [ed] J. Ipgrave, T. Knauth, A. Körs, D. Vieregge, M. von der Lippe, Münster/New York: Waxmann Verlag, 2018, p. 159-180Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Religion and Swedishness: Swedish students' attitudes to religion and nationality2018In: Religion and Dialogue in the City: Case Studies on Interreligious Encounter in Urban Community and Education / [ed] J. Ipgrave, T. Knauth, A. Körs, D. Vieregge, M. von der Lippe, Münster/New York: Waxmann Verlag, 2018, p. 263-274Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Social capital and education in interreligious NGO encounters2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Structures of religious thinking – Dialogue project members in Stockholm (Urban strand)2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    The place and conditions for democratic education in interreligious encounters2018In: Religious education, ISSN 0034-4087, E-ISSN 1547-3201, Vol. 113, no 1, p. 38-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the spatial and environmental conditions for democratic education in an interreligious project. The interreligious project provides a case for applying Dewey´s concepts of experience and environment. Four kinds of experiences are presented: invited places - being a guest, common meeting points - shaping an interreligious "we", nomadic places - sharing everyday life and school as a secular public place - acting in public. It is concluded that educational experience is shaped by acting in a variety of environments. However, dimensions of power are also present in the context of civil life and should be taken into consideration.

  • 50.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Edling, Silvia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    The political controversies of teacher education: a Swedish Case2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish teacher education has been subject for public discussion and critique for several years, particularly in national media. Its recurrent occurrence in media discourse should not be seen only as a public phenomenon, separated from everyday thinking. As Fairclough (2000) points out medialization of society is also characterized by the way it colors individuals own meaning making. A general background for the political controversy of teacher education is the historic hallmark of being a young discipline in the academy and its “constrained relationship with the state” (Maguire 2014, p. 782), contributing to political issues of what characterizes a good school and good society. Earlier studies of Swedish prominent media discourse (e.g. Wiklund 2006) regarding school and teacher education reveals a negative and even stereotype image (Edling 2014, 2016) when it comes to deliver successful results on international tests, foremost PISA , indirectly framing teacher education as a means for achieving international economic success on the international market.  

    In this paper, we claim that public discussion of school and of teacher education is necessary. However, we need to discuss the conditions for such a conversation in the public sphere. We will approach this issue by looking deeper into the Swedish debate about teacher education in three prominent national newspapers, focusing on 2016-2017. In this period many issues were highlighted and condensed, such as the (low) academic status of educational research (cf. Condliffe Lagemann 2000), the possibilities for teacher education to equip teachers with skills to improve in the international competition of school knowledge and whether teacher education should be an academic type of education at all (cf. Maguire 2014).

    We will approach our data from one main purpose with three interrelated focus points. The purpose of our paper is to contribute to research about medias’ role when it comes to naming and framing the debate about teacher education in Sweden by analyzing how four major newspapers in-between 2016-2017 define a) challenges/strengths with current TE, b) solutions for change/improvement of current TE, and c) who the actors for promoting this change/improvement might be. The last point highlights the possibilities (and limitations) for dialogue between different actors and groups in society.    

    We have limited our search to the period of November 2016-November 2017 in order to handle a plausible volume of data and from the criteria that many different issues were brought up during this period, compared with other periods. The database Retriver was used for capturing debates in the three most prominent national newspapers (Dagens nyheter, Svenska dagbladet and Expressen). The analysis of media texts is conducted using critical discourse analysis. This involves a careful examination of words and semiotics to study whether and how language patterns occur and to discuss their plausible consequences for social life (van Dijk, 1995). The articles are thematised using an analytic table highlighting the focus points mentioned above. The results from this Swedish case could contribute with insights regarding potentialities for public discussion of a common teacher education in a democratic society.    

     

    References

    Condliffe Lagemann, E (2000) An Elusive Science. The Troubling History of Educational Research. Chicago: Chicago University Press.

    Edling, S (2014) Between curriculum complexity and stereotypes: exploring stereotypes of teachers and education in media as a question of structural violence. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 47: 3, 399-415.  

    Edling, S (2016) “Who” is Teacher Education? Approaching the Negative Stereotypes of Teacher Education. In J.M. Paraskeva & S. Steinberg eds. Curriculum. Decanonizing the Field. NY: Peter Lang

    Fairclough, N (2000) New Labour, new language? London: Routledge.

    Maguire, M (2014) Reforming teacher education in England: ‘an economy of discourses of truth’. Journal of Education Policy, 29:6, 774-784.  

    Van Dijk, T (1995) Aims of Critical Discourse Analysis. Japanese Discourse, Vol. 1, 17-27.

    Wiklund, M (2006) Kunskapens fanbärare. Den gode läraren som diskursiv konstruktion på en mediearena. [The flag-bearer of knowledge. The good teacher as a discoursive construction on the media arena] Örebro, Sweden: Universitetsbiblioteket.

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