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  • 1.
    Aboagye, Emmanuel
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Institute of Environmental Medicine, Unit of Intervention and Implementation Research for Worker Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Björklund, Christina
    Gustafsson, Klas
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Insurance Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. .
    Hagberg, Jan
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University.
    Marklund, Staffan
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Insurance Medicine, Karolinska Institutet.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Institute of Environmental Medicine, Unit of Intervention and Implementation Research for Worker Health, Karolinska Institutet.
    Exhaustion and impaired work performance in the workplace: Associations with presenteeism and absenteeism2019Inngår i: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between presenteeism and absenteeism during the previous year and the current levels of exhaustion and impaired work performance in a Swedish university setting.

    METHODS: In a study of 3525 employees, an ordinal logistic regression and general linear model was used to examine the association between presenteeism and absenteeism during the previous year and the current exhaustion and impaired work performance, respectively.

    RESULTS: Presenteeism, but not absenteeism, during the previous year independently increased the risk of having moderate or severe exhaustion. Presenteeism, absenteeism, and exhaustion remained positively associated with impaired work performance when health status and other confounders had been adjusted for.

    CONCLUSIONS: Presenteeism, but not absenteeism, was associated with exhaustion. Both presenteeism and absenteeism were the salient correlates of impaired work performance.

  • 2.
    Aho, Emmy
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi.
    Johansson, Sofia
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi.
    Personliga assistenters upplevelse av deras psykologiska kontrakt2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The purpose of the study was to examine how personal assistants experience their psychological contract and how the psychological contract was fulfilled against their supervisor or manager.A qualitative method was used and seven interviews were conducted with personal care assistants from various workplaces. The interviews were analysed with thematic analysis and resulted in five main themes. Expectations, personal but not private, what really stands in the contract, how people look at the profession and fulfilment. In conclusion, the main result was that the personal care assistants experienced that the internal psychological contract consisted of the relation to the supervisor or manager and the accessibility to the employer. The personal care assistants felt that the contents of the external psychological contract consisted of the work duties, employment security, working hours and the attractiveness of the profession. The majority of the respondents felt that the internal and external psychological contract was fulfilled. None of the respondents considered that the internal and external psychological contract was not fulfilled at all.  

  • 3. Arnemo, Ulf
    et al.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för logistik och innovativ produktion. Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för industriell ekonomi, industridesign och maskinteknik, Industriell ekonomi.
    Berggren, Christian
    Linköpings universitet.
    Hansson, Stefan
    Holmberg, Gunnar
    Karabag, Solmaz Filiz
    Karlsson, Mats
    Larsson, Bengt
    Rencrantz, Daniel
    Sigfridsson, Erik
    Stefan, Ioana
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för logistik och innovativ produktion.
    Wang, Wiehong
    Rapid innovators in emerging economies: Challenges and opportunities for Swedish firms2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 4.
    Barbieri, Dechristian
    et al.
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of Sao Carlos.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Oliveira, Ana Beatriz
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of Sao Carlos.
    Neck, trunk, and upper arm posture variation during computer work at a sit-stand table in a real work setting2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Computer work is generally associated with constrained postures and sedentary behaviors. Sit-stand tables have been suggested as an effective intervention to promote changes in gross body posture, and thus reduce sitting. However, few studies have addressed to what extent sit-stand table usage affects posture variation in other body regions. The aim of this study was to examine neck, trunk and arm postures among office workers with access to sit-stand tables.

    Methods: Twenty-four office workers (16 females, 8 males; mean age 41 (SD9) years) participated. At entry, workers received sit-stand tables, which were then used for two months. Neck and trunk flexion, and right upper arm elevation (RUA) was recorded on three consecutive days, two hours/day, during the last week of table use. Minute-to-minute variability for the three postures during sitting (CWsit) and standing (CWstand) computer work was obtained for each participant. Job variance ratios (JVR) were calculated for the actual work, and for other combinations of CWsit and CWstand by simulation1.

    Results: CWsit and CWstand were performed for 72% and 28% of the time spent at the computer. Minute-to-minute variability was larger in CWsit than in CWstand for all three postures, and the difference CWsit-CWstand was largest for RUA [median 1.7 (IQR −0.2–1.7)º], followed by trunk [1.6 (0.9–3.0)º] and neck [0.9 (0.0–3.1)º]. During actual work, JVR was between 1 and 3 for most participants. Simulations suggested that maximum variability would occur at a combination of 40–80% CWsit and 20–60% CWstand.

    Conclusion: Neck, trunk and arm posture variation during computer work can be increased by manipulating proportions of time spent sitting and standing at a sit-stand table. The tentative “optimal” proportions reported here could be a benchmark for occupational health professionals.

  • 5.
    Barbieri, Dechristian
    et al.
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Oliveira, Ana Beatriz
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos.
    Variation in upper extremity, neck and trunk postures when performing computer work at a sit-stand station2019Inngår i: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 75, s. 120-128Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to determine the extent of upper arm, neck and trunk posture variation that can be obtained by combining seated and standing computer work, compared to performing only seated computer work. Posture data were recorded for two hours during each of three days of ordinary work from 24 office workers that had been using a sit-stand station for two months. Periods with sitting and standing computer work were identified using on-site observations, and posture means and minute-to-minute variance were determined for both. Expected minute-to-minute posture variability in different temporal combinations of sitting and standing computer work were determined by simulation, and expressed in terms of a Job Variance Ratio, i.e. the relative increase in variability compared to sitting-only work. For all three postures, mean values differed between sitting and standing computer work, and both showed a notable minute-to-minute variability. For most workers, posture variability was larger when combining sitting and standing than when sitting only, and simulations suggested to introduce more standing than what the worker currently practiced. The results indicate that introducing a sit-stand table could, for most office workers, have a positive effect on upper arm, neck and trunk posture variability.

  • 6.
    Barbieri, Dechristian
    et al.
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of Sao Carlos.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Oliveira, Ana Beatriz
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of Sao Carlos.
    Variation in upper trapezius and wrist extensor EMG among office workers during sit-stand table use in a real work setting2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Computer work is generally associated with constrained postures and low muscular demands. Sit-stand tables have been suggested as an effective initiative to change working postures during computer work, but the effect of this intervention on muscle activation has rarely been studied. The aim of this study was to document variation in shoulder-arm muscle activation among office workers using sit-stand tables.

    Methods: Twenty-four office workers (16 females, 8 males; age 41±9 years) participated. At entry, workers received sit-stand tables and ergonomics information, and then used the table for two months. Muscle activity of right and left upper trapezius and wrist extensors (RUT, LUT, RWE and LWE, respectively) was recorded during three consecutive days (two hours each day) in the last week of sit-stand table usage. Periods of computer work in sitting and standing positions (CWsit and CWstand, respectively) were identified by on-site observation, and synchronized with the EMG recordings. Variability (min-min SD across 1-minute bins, %MVE) was calculated for each EMG recording in CWsit and CWstand.

    Results: During the 62 minutes of EMG recorded during computer work, CWsit was performed for 72% and CWstand for 28% of the time. The mean minute-to-minute variability of trapezius EMG was larger (P<0.05) during CWsit (RUT 3.9 (SD between workers 1.6) %MVE; LUT 3.9 (SD 2.3) %MVE) than CWstand (RUT 3.0 (SD 1.5) %MVE; LUT 3.2 (SD 1.9) %MVE). The mean minute-to minute variability in RWE was also larger during CWsit (3.3 (SD 1.4) %MVE) than CWstand (2.9 (SD 1.3) %MVE). For LWE, variability did not differ between CWsit and CWstand.

    Conclusion: Sitting and standing computer work was associated with different extents of variation in shoulder-arm muscle activity. Thus, sit-stand tables may introduce beneficial exposure variation into the work of office employees.

  • 7.
    Beard, Julia
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Psykologi.
    Tedenlind, Caroline
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Psykologi.
    Kompetensbrist och Generation Y’s förväntningar utmanar IT-företag i arbetet med employer branding: Vikten av att bemöta förväntningarna för att attrahera och behålla personal2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att genom kvalitativ metod undersöka hur företag inom IT-branschen arbetar med employer branding för att bemöta Generation Y’s förväntningar. Studien genomfördes med hjälp av åtta stycken semistrukturerade intervjuer med respondenter från fyra olika företag verksamma inom IT-branschen i Mellansverige. Materialet från intervjuerna analyserades med hjälp av induktiv tematisk analys och utifrån detta kunde fyra huvudteman utläsas. Dessa huvudteman var; En ny generation med nya förväntningar på arbetsplatsen, Betydelsen av en stark företagskultur, Speciellt för IT-branschen samt Kontinuerligt arbete med employer branding. Resultatet visade att företagen är medvetna om skillnader som finns mellan olika generationers förväntningar och arbetar aktivt med employer branding för att kunna uppfylla medarbetarnas psykologiska kontrakt. Vidare visade resultatet att företagen ställs inför många utmaningar i och med den dynamiska IT- branschen och det faktum att en medarbetares psykologiska kontrakt och förväntningar förändras över tid.

  • 8.
    Bengtsson, Hanna
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi.
    Norstedt, Caroline
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi.
    Arbetsgivarvarumärket inom en kommun: Vad är en attraktiv arbetsgivare?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte var att i samarbete med en kommun i Mellansverige genomföra en studie om kommunens arbete vad gällde deras arbetsgivarvarumärke samt upplevelsen av en attraktiv arbetsgivare. Detta har undersökts ur arbetsgivarens respektive medarbetarnas perspektiv. Studien genomfördes med kvalitativ metod och byggde på semistrukturerade intervjuer. Data analyserades med hjälp av en induktiv tematisk analys. I resultatet framkom olika teman till respektive frågeställning. De teman som framkom angående hur kommunen arbetar med sitt arbetsgivarvarumärke var Kommunens varumärke och Värdegrundsarbetet. De teman som framkom kring frågeställningen om vad som kännetecknar en attraktiv arbetsgivare enligt medarbetarna var Kollegor och stöttande chefer, Arbetsmiljö och trygghet, Personlig utveckling, Möjlighet till att påverka, förändra och bidra, Personalvård, Kommunikation och struktur samt Introduktion. De teman som framkom enligt kommunens representanter var Stöttande chefer och kommunikation, Personlig utveckling och möjlighet att påverka samt Arbetets innehåll. Arbetsgivarens och medarbetarnas uppfattning av en attraktiv arbetsgivare visade sig ha många gemensamma nämnare, däremot lyfte medarbetarna ytterligare teman. De teman som utkristalliserades som faktorer för att vara en attraktiv arbetsgivare stämde väl överens med synen på ett starkt arbetsgivarvarumärke, något som stärkte syftet med studien.

  • 9.
    Bergsten, Eva L.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Haapakangas, Annu
    Faculty of Health and Well-being, Turku University of Applied Sciences, Turku, Finland.
    Larsson, Johan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Jahncke, Helena
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Hallman, David
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Effects of relocation to activity-based workplaces on perceived productivity: importance of change-oriented leadership2019Inngår i: Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 10.
    Bergsten, Eva L.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Wijk, Katarina
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Hallman, David
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Implementing Activity-based Workplaces (ABW) and the importance of participating in process activities2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 11.
    Bjärntoft, Sofie
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Hallman, David
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Larsson, Johan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Jahncke, Helena
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Occupational and individual determinants of work-life balance among office workers with flexible work arrangements2019Inngår i: Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 12.
    Björklund, Filip
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi.
    Wikström, Daniel
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi.
    Attityder gentemot mångfald: En jämförelse mellan en kvinnodominerad och en mansdominerad organisation2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka och jämföra en kvinnodominerad och en mansdominerad organisations explicita attityder gentemot mångfald på arbetsplatsen. Till studien användes Workplace Diversity Survey för att mäta enskilda personers attityder, deras resultat sammanställdes till ett gemensamt medelvärde och utgjorde organisationens attityd gentemot mångfald. Datan samlades in genom att skicka ut enkäten via e-mail och ge ut den i samband med en workshop. Resultatet analyserades i SPSS med ett Mann Whitney U test för att se om det fanns en signifikant skillnad. Resultatet visade inte på någon signifikant skillnad mellan organisationerna. Diskussionen fokuserade på faktorer som kan ha inverkat på resultatet samt potentiella problem med mätverktyget och studien.

  • 13.
    Bohman, Tony
    et al.
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bottai, Matteo
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Björklund, Martin
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Predictive models for short-term and long-term improvement in women under physiotherapy for chronic disabling neck pain: a longitudinal cohort study2019Inngår i: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 9, nr 4, artikkel-id e024557Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives To develop predictive models for short-term and long-term clinically important improvement in women with non-specific chronic disabling neck pain during the clinical course of physiotherapy. Design Longitudinal cohort study based on data from a randomised controlled trial evaluating short-term and long-term effects on sensorimotor function over 11 weeks of physiotherapy. Participants and settings Eighty-nine women aged 31-65 years with non-specific chronic disabling neck pain from Gavle, Sweden. Measures The outcome, clinically important improvement, was measured with the Patient Global Impression of Change Scale (PGICS) and the Neck Disability Index (NDI), assessed by self-administered questionnaires at 3, 9 and 15 months from the start of the interventions (baseline). Twelve baseline prognostic factors were considered in the analyses. The predictive models were built using random-effects logistic regression. The predictive ability of the models was measured by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Internal validity was assessed with cross-validation using the bootstrap resampling technique. Results Factors included in the final PGICS model were neck disability and age, and in the NDI model, neck disability, depression and catastrophising. In both models, the odds for short-term and long-term improvement increased with higher baseline neck disability, while the odds decreased with increasing age (PGICS model), and with increasing level of depression (NDI model). In the NDI model, higher baseline levels of catastrophising indicated increased odds for short-term improvement and decreased odds for long-term improvement. Both models showed acceptable predictive validity with an AUC of 0.64 (95% CI 0.55 to 0.73) and 0.67 (95% CI 0.59 to 0.75), respectively. Conclusion Age, neck disability and psychological factors seem to be important predictors of improvement, and may inform clinical decisions about physiotherapy in women with chronic neck pain. Before using the developed predictive models in clinical practice, however, they should be validated in other populations and tested in clinical settings.

  • 14.
    Branteström, Victoria
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi.
    Alm, Therése
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi.
    Ombudsmäns upplevelser av work-life balance: En kvalitativ studie om upplevelsen av work-life balance bland ombudsmän vid ett fackförbund beläget i Mellansverige2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka upplevelsen av work-life balance bland ombudsmän vid ett fackförbund beläget i Mellansverige. Studien utgick från en kvalitativ metod genom semistrukturerade intervjuer med 10 respondenter. Resultatet analyserades genom en induktiv tematisk analys som genererade tre huvudteman; Personliga förutsättningarFlexibla arbetsarrangemang och arbetsbelastning samt Rollen som ombudsman. Resultatet påvisade att majoriteten av respondenterna upplevde att de hade en god work-life balance. De menade att arbetslivet och privatlivet inte påverkar varandra i stor utsträckning, men uppgav att de vid ett antal tillfällen framförallt tvingats prioritera åtaganden i arbetslivet. Samtliga respondenter påtalade att deras upplevelse av balans periodvis kan förändras beroende på arbetsbelastning och personliga förutsättningar som familjesituation och erfarenhet av yrket. De menade även att de flexibla arbetsarrangemang och den kultur som präglar ombudsmannarollen har en inverkan på deras upplevelse av balans.

  • 15.
    Butler, Andrew
    et al.
    Faculty of Landscape and Society, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway.
    Knez, Igor
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Psykologi.
    Åkerskog, Ann
    Field Forest Research Institute, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sarlöv Herlin, Ingrid
    Institutionen för landskapsarkitektur, planering och förvaltning, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Ode Sang, Åsa
    Institutionen för landskapsarkitektur, planering och förvaltning, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Ångman, Elin
    Institutionen för Stad och Land, Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Foraging for identity: the relationships between landscape activities and landscape identity after catastrophic landscape change2019Inngår i: Landscape research, ISSN 0142-6397, E-ISSN 1469-9710, Vol. 44, nr 3, s. 303-319Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we deal with landscape activities in relation to changing landscape identity after a major wildfire in Sweden in 2014. The aim was to investigate the relationships between 22 landscape activities (before the fire) and 2 components (emotion and cognition) of landscape identity (before and after the fire). A total of 656 respondents living nearby the fire area participated in this study. Before the fire, a positive association was found between the activities of enjoying nature and foraging, and both components of landscape identity. This suggests that the more participants enjoyed nature and picked berries and mushrooms, the stronger their attachment to the landscape (emotion), and the more they remembered and reasoned about the landscape (cognition). Post fire, these relationships were found only between the two components of landscape identity and foraging. This implies a significant role of this type of activity for keeping alive' landscape identity.

  • 16.
    Bäckman, Pär
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi.
    Samba, Emelie
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi.
    Hot och våld inom akutsjukvård: Sjuksköterskors upplevelser av hot och våld inom akutsjukvård2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate the experience with threats and violence towards nurses working in an emergency department, the respondents coping strategies and if the potential vulnerability to threat and violence, changed the behavior of the nurses. The study was conducted at an emergency department in a hospital in the middle of Sweden. By a strategic selection, 8 nurses, was picked out for the study between the ages of 25–55 years and with the experience of working in an emergency department at least for one year. The study was conducted with semi structured interviews, with audio recording that was transcribed verbatim and was analyzed with an inductive thematic analysis. From the analysis, a different set of themes was identified: “Vulnerability”, “Coping strategies” and “Changed behavior”. To the different themes there was subthemes. The result showed that the respondents experienced threats and violence on a daily basis. Clear routines and education about threats and violence were experienced as an important foundation in terms of preventing threats and violence. The social support from colleagues were significant in terms of coping after an incident.KEYWORDS: Threats,

  • 17.
    Clays, Els
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Ghent University, Belgium.
    Hallman, David
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Oakman, Jodi
    Department of Public Health, Centre for Ergonomics and Human Factors, La Trobe University, Australia.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Objectively measured occupational physical activity in blue-collar workers: What is the role of job type, gender and psychosocial resources?2019Inngår i: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 82, artikkel-id 102948Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to describe occupational physical activity (OPA) and examine the role of psychosocial job resources among blue-collar workers. In a sample of 198 workers (57% male; mean age 44.9 (SD 9.9) year) from 7 companies in Denmark, two accelerometers (Actigraph) were placed on the thigh and trunk during 1-5 consecutive days, to determine working time spent standing, walking, on feet and in activity of moderate to vigorous intensity level (MVPA). The level of influence and social support at work were assessed by questionnaire. The exposure to OPA significantly varied by particular job type, especially in male predominant occupations. Overall, psychosocial job resources did not affect the exposure to OPA. These findings suggest that workplace interventions aiming to prevent adverse outcomes of OPA among blue-collars workers ought to focus on task redesign and target work organizational factors related to specific job type.

  • 18.
    Coenen, Pieter
    et al.
    Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    van der Beek, Allard
    Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Hallman, David
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Correction of bias in self-reported sitting time among office workers – a study based on compositional data analysis2019Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990XArtikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Emerging evidence suggests that excessive sitting has negative health effects. However, this evidence largely relies on research using self-reported sitting time, which is known to be biased. To correct this bias, we aimed at developing a calibration model estimating "true" sitting from self-reported sitting.

    Methods: Occupational sitting time was estimated by self-reports (the International Physical Activity Questionnaire) and objective measurements (thigh-worn accelerometer) among 99 Swedish office workers at a governmental agency, at baseline and 3 and 12 months afterwards. Following compositional data analysis procedures, both sitting estimates were transformed into isometric log-ratios (ILR). This effectively addresses that times spent in various activities are inherently dependent and can be presented as values of only 0−100%. Linear regression was used to develop a simple calibration model estimating objectively measured "true" sitting ILR (dependent variable) from self-reported sitting ILR (independent variable). Additional self-reported variables were then added to construct a full calibration model. Performance of the models was assessed by root-mean-square (RMS) differences between estimated and objectively measured values. Models developed on baseline data were validated using the follow-up datasets.

    Results: Uncalibrated self-reported sitting ILR showed an RMS error of 0.767. Simple and full calibration models (incorporating body mass index, office type, and gender) reduced this error to 0.422 (55%) and 0.398 (52%), respectively. In the validations, model performance decreased to 57%/62% (simple models) and 57%/62% (full models) for the two follow-up data sets, respectively.

    Conclusions: Calibration adjusting for errors in self-reported sitting led to substantially more correct estimates of "true" sitting than uncalibrated self-reports. Validation indicated that model performance would change somewhat in new datasets and that full models perform no better than simple models, but calibration remained effective.

  • 19.
    Coenen, Pieter
    et al.
    Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Department of Public and Occupational Health, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    van der Beek, Allard J.
    Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Department of Public and Occupational Health, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Jackson, Jennie
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Calibration of self-reported physical behaviours among office workers: A compositional data analysis2019Inngår i: ICAMPAM 2019: Oral Abstracts, Maastricht: ICAMPAM , 2019, artikkel-id O.11.2Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate calibration models to predict objectively measured time spent sitting, standing and walking during office work from self-reported time-use compositions using a compositional data analysis (CoDA) approach. Ninety-nine office workers (49 women) at the Swedish Transport Administration participated in an intervention study on relocation to activity-based offices. At baseline and at a 3-months follow-up, physical behaviours (sitting, standing and walking) at work were assessed for five days using a thigh-mounted accelerometer (Actigraph) and by self-report (IPAQ). The time-use composition of the three behaviours was expressed in terms of isometric log-ratios (ILR). Calibration models predicting accelerometry-based time-use from self-reported compositions were constructed using linear regression on baseline data, and then validated using follow-up data. The accelerometer data showed that, on average, workers spent 69.9% of their day sitting, 23.7% standing, and 6.4% walking. The corresponding percentages for self-reports were 71.7%, 21.6%, and 7.4%, respectively. Non-calibrated self-reports were biased: the RMS errors obtained from the ILRs expressing sitting, standing and walking were 0.73, 1.09 and 1.05, respectively. Calibration models reduced these errors by 45% (sitting), 56% (standing), and 76% (walking). Validation of the calibration models using follow-up data from the same workers showed calibration remained equally effective; RMS errors were reduced by 55% (sitting), 58% (standing), and 75% (walking). In conclusion, calibration models for compositional time-use data were effective in reducing bias in self-reported physical behaviours at work, and the models remained effective when used on new data from the same workers. Calibrated self-reports may represent a cost-effective method for obtaining physical behaviour data with a satisfying accuracy in large-scale cohort and intervention studies.

  • 20.
    Degerstedt, Frida
    et al.
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Umeå Center for Gender Studies, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Enberg, Birgit
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Keisu, Britt-Inger
    Umeå Center for Gender Studies, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Björklund, Martin
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Inequity in physiotherapeutic interventions for children with Cerebral Palsy in Sweden - a national registry study.2019Inngår i: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of physiotherapeutic interventions for children with Cerebral Palsy in Sweden from an equity perspective, considering sex, country of birth and geographical region.

    METHOD: This national cross-sectional registry study includes children with Cerebral Palsy aged 0-18 years who participated in 2015 in the Swedish national quality registry, the Cerebral Palsy follow-up program, CPUP. Comparisons and associations between physiotherapeutic interventions and sex, country of birth and geographical regions were conducted using Chi2 and logistic regression analysis, controlling for cognitive level, level of motor function, age group and dominating symptom.

    RESULTS: Of the 2855 participants, 2201 (79%) had received physiotherapy. Children born in Sweden had 1.60 times higher odds (95% CI 1.10-2.33) of receiving physiotherapy compared with children born in foreign countries. Distribution of physiotherapeutic interventions differed significantly between geographical regions. No associations between sex and physiotherapeutic interventions were observed.

    CONCLUSION: The results of this study indicate inequity in care in Sweden towards children with Cerebral Palsy born in other counties. Further, physiotherapeutic interventions were not equally distributed in different.

  • 21.
    Domkin, Dmitry
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Richter, Hans O.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Effect of ciliary-muscle contraction force on trapezius muscle activity during computer mouse work2019Inngår i: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 119, nr 2, s. 389-397Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study aimed to identify whether or not an increase in ciliary-muscle contraction force, when the eye-lens is adjusted for viewing at a near distance, result in an increase in trapezius muscle activity, while performing a natural work task. Twelve participants, ranging in age from 21 to 32 years, performed a computer-mouse work task during free gaze conditions. A moving visual target was tracked with a computer mouse on a screen placed at two different distances from the eyes, 25 cm and 50 cm. Tracking performance, eye accommodation, and bilateral trapezius muscle activity were measured continuously. Ciliary-muscle contraction force was computed according to a formula which takes into account the age-dependent, non-linear relationship between contraction force of the ciliary muscle and the produced level of eye accommodation. Generalized Estimating Equations analyses were performed. On the dominant hand side and for the nearest screen distance, there was a significant effect of ciliary-muscle contraction force on the trapezius muscle activity (p<0.001). No other effects were significant (p>0.05). The results support the hypothesis that high visual demands, during computer mouse work, increase ciliary muscle contraction force and contribute to a raise of the sustained level of trapezius muscle activity. The current study specifically clarifies the validity of the relationship between ciliary-muscle contraction force and trapezius muscle activity and demonstrates that this relationship is not due to a general personal trait. We conclude that a high level of ciliary muscle contraction force can contribute to a development of musculoskeletal complaints in the neck-shoulder area.

  • 22.
    Eisfeldt, Rebecca
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi.
    Sandersen, Louise
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi.
    Upplevelsen av den psykosociala arbetsmiljön som man och minoritet inom förskole- och fritidsverksamheten.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka mäns subjektiva upplevelse av sin psykosociala arbetsmiljö inom förskole- och fritidsverksamheten, detta utifrån positionen som minoritet och könstillhörighet som man, i ett yrke som till antalet domineras av kvinnor. En kvalitativ studie genomfördes med åtta semistrukturerade intervjuer där intervjupersonernas upplevelser av sin psykosociala arbetsmiljö var i fokus. Det insamlade materialet analyserades slutligen med hjälp av en induktiv tematisk analys. Huvudresultatet påvisade att männen utifrån sitt kön och minoritetsposition både upplevde för- och nackdelar i sin yrkesroll. Flertalet av männen vittnade om kränkande särbehandling på arbetsplatserna, men många upplevde också stora fördelar gällande positiv särbehandling och utökade rekryteringsmöjligheter samt karriärmöjligheter. Vidare visade resultatet på betydelsen av det sociala stödet från ledning och kollegor.

  • 23.
    Ek, Malin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi.
    Renheim, Madeleine
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi.
    Kan arbetsmotivation påverka arbetstagares lojalitet gentemot arbetsgivare?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to analyze which kind of work motivation was the strongest predictor to index for work loyalty. The sample was employees that worked at least part time (50%) and had been employed by the same employer for at least one year. The participants were women and men in the ages between 21 to 66 years. The survey was based on The Multidimensional Work Motivation Scale (MWMS) and five additional items about work loyalty from Tseng and Wu’s (2017) survey. The survey generated 95 survey responses of which 80 were complete. The analyses were carried out in IBM SPSS Statistics 24 and the results showed that the dimensionintrinsic motivationwas the strongest predictor to work loyalty. Further analyses showed that the factor identified regulationwas the strongest predictor to work loyalty of the dimension intrinsic motivationassociated factors. A negative significant correlation was demonstrated between the dimension amotivationand work loyalty. Since employees are one of the most important assets to an organization, it is essential that HR work together with managers to promote employees’ intrinsic motivation to create loyal employees.

  • 24.
    Eliasson, Ingegärd
    et al.
    aDepartment of Conservation, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Knez, Igor
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Psykologi.
    Fredholm, Susanne
    aDepartment of Conservation, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Heritage Planning in Practice and the Role of Cultural Ecosystem Services2018Inngår i: Heritage & Society, ISSN 2159-032X, E-ISSN 2159-0338, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 44-69Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the role of cultural ecosystem services in heritage planning by examining daily working processes at the municipal and county planning levels. The focus was on the cultural ecosystem service dimensions of cultural heritage, place identity, and aesthetic and existential values. Cultural ecosystem service dimensions are currently inadequately represented in research and application of the ecosystem service concept. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with public officials with formal assignments directly related to heritage planning. The results show that cultural ecosystem services are indeed considered in the planning processes, even though the respondents did not actually use the ecosystem service approach. Despite institutional and methodological constraints, respondents were found to aim for a broad planning approach involving dimensions of the landscape such as historic time depth, human use of the landscape, place identity, landscape views, and a strong integration between culture and nature. Thus, the results indicate a potential for integration of cultural ecosystem service dimensions into the ecosystem service approach by utilizing existing knowledge and practices within heritage planning at the local and regional levels. © 2019, © 2019 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

  • 25.
    Eriksson, Alexandra
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi.
    Roslund, Linnea
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi.
    Svenska linjechefers upplevelse av sitt chefskap efter en centralisering av HR2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med föreliggande studie var att undersöka linjechefers upplevelse av sitt chefskap efter centraliseringen av HR-avdelningen, och decentraliseringen av de arbetsuppgifter som rör HR-arbetet. Genom en kvalitativ studie genomfördes åtta intervjuer med linjechefer inom en energikoncern i Mellansverige. Fokus låg på linjechefernas erfarenheter, berättelser och upplevelser av sitt chefskap, efter den organisationsförändring som genomförts. Data analyserades med hjälp av induktiv tematisk analys, där fyra huvudteman framkom ur det transkriberade materialet. Resultatet visade att linjecheferna upplevde att faktorer som samarbete, tydliga förväntningar, ett större eget ansvar samt avskiljandet av chefskap och ledarskap bidrog till att de förändringar som centraliseringen medförde upplevdes som positiva. Betydelsen av dessa faktorer i och med decentraliseringen av de arbetsuppgifter som rör HR-arbetet har således bidragit till att linjecheferna känner att de klarar av att hantera de ökade krav som ställs på dem som chefer, och att de trivs med sitt chefskap.

  • 26.
    Fager, Frida
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Psykologi.
    Lyng, Adrian
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Psykologi.
    Mirror, mirror on the wall, tell us if the structure is likable?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine, through the areas decisions making, accountability, variation in the work tasks, the organizations routines and job descriptions, the employee’s assessment of their current organizational structure. Furthermore, the study examined if the employee’s wanted bigger opportunities for decision making and accountability, more variation in the work tasks and clearer routines and job descriptions compared to their current organizational structure. A digital questionnaire was distributed to 110 employees. 73 of the employees chose to participate. A quantitative study was used, and the descriptive data was examined. Four separate paired sample t-tests were performed for the purpose of the two problem statements. The result was non-significant within all four tests. Individual items indicated that the employees assessed the organizational structure as both flat and hierarchic. 

  • 27.
    Gilson, Nicholas
    et al.
    University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.
    Hall, Caitlin
    University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    van der Beek, Allard
    Department of Public and Occupational Health, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Huysmans, Maaike
    Department of Public and Occupational Health, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Straker, Leon
    School of Physiotherapy and Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Sedentary and physical activity behaviour in ‘blue-collar’ workers: A systematic review of accelerometer studies2019Inngår i: Journal of Physical Activity and Health, ISSN 1543-3080, E-ISSN 1543-5474, Vol. 16, nr 11, s. 1060-1069Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: This systematic review assessed evidence on the accelerometer-measured sedentary and physical activity (PA) behavior of nonoffice workers in “blue-collar” industries.

    Methods: The databases CINAHL, Embase, MEDLINE, PubMed, and Scopus were searched up to April 6, 2018. Eligibility criteria were accelerometer-measured sedentary, sitting, and/or PA behaviors in “blue-collar” workers (≥10 participants; agricultural, construction, cleaning, manufacturing, mining, postal, or transport industries). Data on participants’ characteristics, study protocols, and measured behaviors during work and/or nonwork time were extracted. Methodologic quality was assessed using a 12-item checklist.

    Results: Twenty studies (representing 11 data sets), all from developed world economies, met inclusion criteria. The mean quality score for selected studies was 9.5 (SD 0.8) out of a maximum of 12. Data were analyzed using a range of analytical techniques (eg, accelerometer counts or pattern recognition algorithms). “Blue-collar” workers were more sedentary and less active during nonwork compared with work time (eg, sitting 5.7 vs 3.2 h/d; moderate to vigorous PA 0.5 vs 0.7 h/d). Drivers were the most sedentary (work time 5.1 h/d; nonwork time 8.2 h/d).

    Conclusions: High levels of sedentary time and insufficient PA to offset risk are health issues for “blue-collar” workers. To better inform interventions, research groups need to adopt common measurement and reporting methodologies.

  • 28.
    Gilson, Nicholas
    et al.
    The University of Queensland, Australia.
    Hall, Caitlin
    The University of Queensland, Australia.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    van der Beek, Allard
    VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Huysmans, Maaike
    VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Straker, Leon
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Sedentary behaviour and physical activity in blue collar workers: a systematic review of accelerometer studies2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 29.
    Gupta, Nidhi
    et al.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Hallman, David
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Dumuid, Dorothea
    Alliance for Research in Exercise, Nutrition and Activity (ARENA), School of Health Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia.
    Vij, Akshay
    Institute for Choice, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia.
    Lund Rasmussen, Charlotte
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark; Section of Social Medicine, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Birk Jørgensen, Marie
    Department of Forensic Science, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark; Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Movement behavior profiles and obesity: a latent profile analysis of 24-h time-use composition among Danish workers2019Inngår i: International Journal of Obesity, ISSN 0307-0565, E-ISSN 1476-5497Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background/objectives

    An element of obesity prevention is increasing total physical activity energy expenditure. However, this approach does not incorporate the balance of various movement behaviors—physical activity, sedentary behaviors and sleep - across domains of the day. We aimed to identify time-use profiles over work and leisure, termed ‘movement behavior profiles’ and to investigate their association with obesity.

    Subjects/methods

    Eight-hundred-and-seven workers completed (a) thigh accelerometry and diaries to determine their 24-h composition of behaviors (sedentary and standing, light physical activity and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity at work and leisure, and time in bed) and (b) obesity measurements. Movement behavior profiles were determined using latent profile analyses of isometric log-ratios of the 24-h composition, and labeled according to animal movement behavior traits. Linear models were applied to determine the association between profiles and obesity.

    Results

    Four profiles were identified, labeled as “Chimpanzees” (n = 226), “Lions” (n = 179), “Ants” (n = 244), and “Koalas” (n = 158). “Chimpanzees” work time was evenly distributed between behaviors while their leisure time was predominantly active. Compared to Chimpanzees, “Lions” were more active at work and sedentary during leisure and spent more time in bed; “Ants” were more active at work and during leisure; “Koalas” were more sedentary at work and leisure and spent similar time in bed. With “Chimpanzees” as reference, “Lions” had least favorable obesity indicators: +2.0 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.6, 3.4) %body fat, +4.3 cm (1.4, 7.3) waist circumference and +1.0 (2.0, 0.0) Body Mass Index (BMI), followed by “Koalas” +2.0 (0.4, 3.7) %body fat, +3.1 cm (0.1, 6.0) waist circumference, and +0.8 (−0.30, 1.94) BMI. No significant differences were found between “Chimpanzees” and “Ants”.

    Conclusions

    Movement behavior profiles across work and leisure time-use compositions are associated with obesity. Achieving adequate balance between work and leisure movement behaviors should be further investigated as a potential obesity prevention strategy.

  • 30.
    Gupta, Nidhi
    et al.
    The National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Denmark.
    Hallman, David
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Dumuid, Dorothea
    Alliance for Research in Exercise, Nutrition and Activity (ARENA), School of Health Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.
    Vij, Akshay
    Institute for Choice, University of South Australia, North Sydney, Australia.
    Lund Rasmussen, Charlotte
    The National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Denmark.
    Birk Jørgensen, Marie
    The National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Denmark.
    Korshøj, Mette
    The National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Denmark.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    The National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Denmark.
    Physical-behavior profiles and aerobic capacity: A latent profile analysis of 24-hour time-use composition among Danish workers2019Inngår i: ICAMPAM 2019: Oral Abstracts, Maastricht: ICAMPAM , 2019, artikkel-id O.11.4Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Obtaining a balance between exercise and recovery is an established approach in Exercise Science to improve aerobic capacity. However, it is unknown how different 24-h time-use profiles depicting a balance between physical behaviors (i.e. physical activities, sedentary behavior and sleep) across main domains of the day are associated with aerobic capacity. We aimed to identify such 'physical-behavior (PB) profiles' and to investigate their association with aerobic capacity. Methods Workers (n=807) participated in thigh-accelerometry to determine 24-h time-use composition of physical activity, sedentary and standing during work and leisure, as well as time in bed. Åstrand submaximal cycle ergometer test was used to estimate aerobic capacity. The PB profiles were determined using latent profile analysis of isometric log-ratios representing the 24-hour composition. Linear models were applied to determine the cross-sectional association between physical-behavior profiles and aerobic capacity. Results Four PB profiles were identified that were labeled based on animal traits; Chimpanzees (n=226), Lions (n=179), Ants (n=244), and Koalas (n=158). Compared to Chimpanzees (at work, in mins; sedentary=197, standing=145, physical activity=117; and at leisure in mins; physical activity=114, standing=121, time in bed= 440); Lions were more active at work, sedentary at leisure and spent more time in bed; Ants had more physical activity at work and similar physical activity and time in bed at leisure; Koalas were more sedentary at work and leisure and spent more time in bed. Compared to Chimpanzees, Koalas had lower aerobic capacity (mlO2/kg/min): -3.7 (95%CI -6.0,-1.5), followed by Lions -3.6 (-5.5,-1.7) and Ants -1.8 (-3.7,- 0.1). Conclusions Physical-behavior profiles based on 24-h time-use composition are associated with aerobic capacity. Obtaining a balance between physical behaviors at work and leisure may be a promising approach for improving aerobic capacity.

  • 31.
    Gustafsson, Klas
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Insurance Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Institute of Environmental Medicine, Unit of Intervention and Implementation Research for Worker Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Marklund, Staffan
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Insurance Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Aboagye, Emmanuel
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Institute of Environmental Medicine, Unit of Intervention and Implementation Research for Worker Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Presenteeism as a predictor of disability pension: A prospective study among nursing professionals and care assistants in Sweden2019Inngår i: Journal of Occupational Health, ISSN 1341-9145, E-ISSN 1348-9585, Vol. 61, nr 6, s. 453-463Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to examine how presenteeism affects the risk of future disability pension among nursing professionals and care assistants (assistant nurses, hospital ward assistants, home-based personal care workers, and child care assistants). A specific objective was to compare health and social care employees with all other occupations.

    METHODS: The study was based on a representative sample of working women and men (n = 43 682) aged 16-64 years, who had been interviewed between 2001 and 2013 for the Swedish Work Environment Survey conducted every second year since 1989. Information on disability pension was obtained from the Social Insurance Agency's database (2002-2014). The studied predictors were related to disability pension using Cox's proportional hazard regression with hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) and selected confounders were controlled for. The follow-up period was 6.7 years (SD 4.2).

    RESULTS: Health and social care employees with frequent presenteeism showed a particularly elevated risk of future disability pension after adjusting for sex, sociodemographic variables, physical and psychosocial working conditions, and self-rated health symptoms. In the amalgamated occupational group of nursing professionals and care assistants, the impact on disability pension of having engaged in presenteeism four times or more during the prior year remained significant (HR = 3.72, 95% CI = 2.43-5.68).

    CONCLUSIONS: The study suggests that frequent presenteeism contributes to an increased risk of disability pension among nursing professionals and care assistants as well as among all other occupations.

  • 32.
    Haapakangas, Annu
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Hallman, David
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Jahncke, Helena
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    The effects of moving into an activity-based office on communication, social relations and work demands – A controlled intervention with repeated follow-up2019Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Psychology, ISSN 0272-4944, E-ISSN 1522-9610, Vol. 66, artikkel-id 101341Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    When organizations adopt activity-based workplaces (ABWs), improved interaction is a common goal. Yet, few controlled longitudinal studies have been conducted on the effects of ABWs on interaction, social relations and work demands. The aim of this natural intervention study was to investigate the effects of moving into an ABW on satisfaction with communication, on social relations (i.e., social support and social community) and on work demands (i.e., quantitative demands, emotional demands and work pace) 3 months and 12 months after the relocation. The study included four offices which relocated into an ABW and one control office that did not. Questionnaire data from 408 respondents were analyzed with linear mixed models. Satisfaction with communication and the sense of belonging to a community had decreased 3 and 12 months after the relocation. Work pace was not affected while small, mostly short-term, negative effects on social support, quantitative demands and emotional demands were only observed among employees who had moved to ABWs from private offices. Differences between office sites were also observed. The results suggest that, to avoid negative outcomes, organizations moving to ABWs should focus on solving difficulties in locating colleagues at the office and on supporting particularly workers from private offices in adopting activity-based working.

  • 33.
    Halling, Bengt
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för industriell ekonomi, industridesign och maskinteknik, Industriell ekonomi. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för logistik och innovativ produktion. Division of Ergonomics, Royal Institute of Technology, KTH.
    Lyckström, Martin
    Scania CV AB, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Wijk, Katarina
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Centre for Research and Development, Region Gävleborg, Gävle, Sweden; Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Application of a sense of coherence-based leadership for productivity and health at Scania2019Inngår i: International Journal of Human Factors and Ergonomics, ISSN 2045-7804, E-ISSN 2045-7812, Vol. 6, nr 2, s. 179-194Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose was to explore if sense of coherence (SOC) theory can be used in human factors ergonomics (HFE) practice as a leadership approach to decrease the rate of sick leave and rehabilitation cases and increase work attendance among assembly personnel without impeding productivity. Via three studies carried out at the Swedish truck manufacturer Scania, we investigated the company's key performance indicators and documented meetings with managers during the intervention. The results show that SOC can be used in HFE practice and that productivity, quality and attendance at work increased, while rehabilitation cases decreased. Our conclusion is that a health promotion approach among managers is essential in a lean organisation that aims to reduce waste in the company and optimise human capability and thereby productivity. SOC theory can support the creation of workplaces that are high performing and healthy, starting with concerns for the people creating the output.

  • 34.
    Hallman, David
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Björklund, Martin
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Gupta, Nidhi
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Nørregaard Rasmussen, Charlotte D.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Sick leave due to musculoskeletal pain : determinants of distinct trajectories over 1 year2019Inngår i: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 92, nr 8, s. 1099-1108Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    This study aimed to identify sub-groups of workers with different trajectories of sick leave due to musculoskeletalpain over 1 year, and to investigate the extent to which the identified trajectories are associated with personal, occupational,lifestyle, and pain-related factors at baseline.

    Methods

    Data on 981 blue- and white-collar workers were analyzed in the DPHACTO cohort (2012–2014). The numberof days on sick leave due to pain was reported using text messages at 4-week intervals across 1 year. Latent class growthanalysis was used to distinguish sub-groups with different trajectories of sick leave. A web-based questionnaire at baselinewas used to assess personal, occupational (physical and psychosocial), lifestyle, and pain-related factors. Multinomial regressionmodels were constructed to determine associations between baseline factors and trajectories of sick leave (referencingno sick leave), with adjustment for potential confounders.

    Results

    Four distinct sub-groups were identified, with trajectories of sick leave due to pain ranging from no sick leave(prevalence 76%; average 0.5 days/year) to some days and increasing sick leave due to pain over 1 year (2%; 89 days/year).The increasing trajectory of sick leave was associated with higher perceived physical exertion, more time in manual work,less social community and influence at work, less leisure-time physical activity, smoking, and more severe symptoms (e.g.,multisite pain, low back pain intensity, and pain interference).

    Conclusions

    We identified four distinct trajectories of sick leave due to musculoskeletal pain. The sub-group with increasingsick leave due to pain was associated with several modifiable physical and psychosocial factors at work and outside work,which may have implications for prevention.

  • 35.
    Hallman, David
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Dencker-Larsen, Sofie
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Birk Jorgensen, Marie
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Nørregaard Rasmussen, Charlotte
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Are trajectories of neck-shoulder pain associated with sick leave and work ability in workers? A 1-year prospective study2019Inngår i: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 9, nr e022006Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    ObjectivesThe study aimed to determine the extent to which latent trajectories of neck–shoulder pain (NSP) are associated with self-reported sick leave and work ability based on frequent repeated measures over 1 year in an occupational population.

    MethodsThis longitudinal study included 748 Danish workers (blue-collar, n=620; white collar, n=128). A questionnaire was administered to collect data on personal and occupational factors at baseline. Text messages were used for repeated measurements of NSP intensity (scale 0–10) over 1 year (14 waves in total). Simultaneously, selfreported sick leave (days/month) due to pain was assessed at 4-week intervals, while work ability (scale 0–10) was assessed using a single item (work ability index) at 12-week intervals over the year. Trajectories of NSP, distinguished by latent class growth analysis, were usedas predictors of sick leave and work ability in generalised estimation equations with multiple adjustments.

    ResultsSick leave increased and work ability decreased across all NSP trajectory classes (low, moderate, strong fluctuating and severe persistent pain intensity). In the adjusted model, the estimated number of days on sickleave was 1.5 days/month for severe persistent NSP compared with 0.1 days/month for low NSP (relativ risk=13.8, 95% CI 6.7 to 28.5). Similarly, work ability decreased markedly for severe persistent NSP (OR=12.9,95% CI 8.5 to 19.7; median 7.1) compared with low NSP (median 9.5).

    ConclusionSevere persistent NSP was associatedwith sick leave and poor work ability over 1 year amongworkers. Preventive strategies aiming at reducing severepersistent NSP among working populations are needed.

  • 36.
    Hallman, David
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    van der Beek, Allard
    Department of Public and Occupational Health, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
    Jackson, Jennie
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Coenen, Pieter
    Department of Public and Occupational Health, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
    Calibration of self-reported time spent sitting, standing and walking among office workers: a compositional data analysis2019Inngår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, nr 17, artikkel-id 3111Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We developed and evaluated calibration models predicting objectively measured sitting, standing and walking time from self-reported data using a compositional data analysis (CoDA) approach. A total of 98 office workers (48 women) at the Swedish Transport Administration participated. At baseline and three-months follow-up, time spent sitting, standing and walking at work was assessed for five working days using a thigh-worn accelerometer (Actigraph), as well as by self-report (IPAQ). Individual compositions of time spent in the three behaviors were expressed by isometric log-ratios (ILR). Calibration models predicting objectively measured ILRs from self-reported ILRs were constructed using baseline data, and then validated using follow-up data. Un-calibrated self-reports were inaccurate; root-mean-square (RMS) errors of ILRs for sitting, standing and walking were 1.21, 1.24 and 1.03, respectively. Calibration reduced these errors to 36% (sitting), 40% (standing), and 24% (walking) of those prior to calibration. Calibration models remained effective for follow-up data, reducing RMS errors to 33% (sitting), 51% (standing), and 31% (walking). Thus, compositional calibration models were effective in reducing errors in self-reported physical behaviors during office work. Calibration of self-reports may present a cost-e_ective method for obtaining physical behavior data with satisfying accuracy in large-scale cohort and intervention studies.

  • 37.
    Hallman, David
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Niklas, Krause
    Departments of Epidemiology and Environmental Health Sciences, Fielding School of Public Health, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA.
    Jensen, Magnus Thorsten
    Department of Cardiology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Gentofte, Denmark.
    Gupta, Nidhi
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Birk Jørgensen, Marie
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Objectively measured sitting and standing in workers: Cross-sectional relationship with autonomic cardiac modulation2019Inngår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, nr 4, artikkel-id 650Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Excessive sitting and standing are proposed risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), possibly due to autonomic imbalance. This study examines the association of objectively measured sitting and standing with nocturnal autonomic cardiac modulation. The cross-sectional study examined 490 blue-collar workers in three Danish occupational sectors. Sitting and standing during work and leisure were assessed during 1–5 days using accelerometers. Heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) were obtained during nocturnal sleep as markers of resting autonomic modulation. The associations of sitting and standing still (h/day) with HR and HRV were assessed with linear regression models, adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, smoking, and physical activity. More sitting time during leisure was associated with elevated HR (p = 0.02), and showed a trend towards reduced HRV. More standing time at work was associated with lower HR (p = 0.02), and with increased parasympathetic indices of HRV (root mean squared successive differences of R-R intervals p = 0.05; high-frequency power p = 0.07). These findings, while cross-sectional and restricted to blue-collar workers, suggest that sitting at leisure is detrimental to autonomic cardiac modulation, but standing at work is beneficial. However, the small effect size is likely insufficient to mitigate the previously shown detrimental effects of prolonged standing on CVD.

  • 38.
    Hallman, David
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Nørregaard Rasmussen, Charlotte
    National research centre for the working environment, Denmark.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National research centre for the working environment, Denmark.
    Time-use composition of physical behaviors at work and sick-leave trajectories due to musculoskeletal pain2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    There is limited knowledge on the influence of physical behaviors at work such as sitting, standing, low- (LIPA) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) on sick leave due to pain. Studies addressing this relationship using valid objective measures of physical behaviors are scarce. The aim was to determine the prospective association between time-use compositions of physical behavior at work with sick leave trajectories due to musculoskeletal pain.

    Methods

    Data on 981 workers were analyzed in the DPHACTO cohort (2012-2014). Physical behaviors at work were assessed objectively at baseline using accelerometers, and the resulting time-line of exposure at work was classified as sitting, standing, low- (LIPA) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The number of days on sick leave due to musculoskeletal pain was reported using text messages at 4-week intervals across 1 year (14 waves in total). Latent class growth analysis was used to distinguish sub-groups with different trajectories of sick leave. Associations between time-use in physical behaviors and sick leave trajectories were determined using multinomial regression analysis with adjustment for age and gender. Compositional data analysis was used to account for the co-dependency of different behaviors.

    Results

    We identified four distinct trajectories of sick leave due to pain over one year as follows: no days (prevalence 76%), few days-increasing (19%), some days-decreasing (3%), and some days-increasing (2%). Spending more time in sitting relative to the other behaviors was associated with a reduced likelihood of few days-increasing sick leave (class 2 p<0.001), while time in LIPA was associated with an increased likelihood of some days-increasing sick leave (class 4 p=0.001).

    Conclusion

    We found that the time-use composition of physical behaviors at work was associated with sick leave trajectories due to pain over 1 year. Reducing time in occupational physical activities in favor of sitting may be useful for preventing sick leave due to musculoskeletal pain.

  • 39.
    Hammarström, Angelica
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Psykologi.
    Sunnerhage, Victoria
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Psykologi.
    Varför statligt anställda tjänstemän väljer att stanna i organisationen2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att utifrån teorin job embeddedness undersöka vilka anledningar anställda inom den offentliga sektorn med tjänstemannabefattning anser viktiga för att stanna kvar på sin arbetsplats. Studien genomfördes kvalitativt genom semistrukturerade intervjuer med nio stycken tjänstemän från tre olika myndigheter i Sverige. Materialet analyserades genom en teoristyd tematisk analys med tre förutbestämda huvudteman baserade på de tre dimensionerna i teorin job embeddedness. Det första temat benämndes som passform vilket representerar hur väl arbetstagaren passar in i organisationen. Det andra temat var relationer vilket beskriver de mänskliga relationerna på arbetsplatsen. Tredje temat benämns som uppoffringar vilket beskriver de risker arbetstagare skulle behöva stå inför om de bytte arbetsplats. Studien visade att valet att stanna kvar på en myndighet var en blandning av flera influenser såsom utvecklingsmöjligheter, interpersonella relationer och ett arbete som fungerar med privatlivet.

  • 40.
    Hassel, Lotta
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi.
    Ståhl, Helén
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi.
    Varför arbetar högskolestudenter under studietiden: Hur påverkas den psykosociala situationen?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate why some college students choose to only study during their education time and others to work in parallel with their studies. The aim was also to find out whether there was any difference between the two groups regarding health, tiredness, stress and economic. The participants consisted of students at universities in Sweden (n = 3437), of which 57,9 % were women and 42,1 % were men. The study's measuring instrument was a questionnaire that consisted questions about if and why the student worked or not during their education time. Self-assessment answers for health, tiredness, sleep, stress and economy. The results were analyzed and showed that it was economic reasons for why student worked in parallel with the studies. There was a significant difference between the groups how they experienced their financial situation, where working-class students stated their finances as inferior. However, there was no significant difference between the groups in the perception of health, sleep and stress. A significant gender difference in the results showed that women experienced more stress, bad sleep and ill health. Finally, the results of the study and suggestion for further research were discussed.

  • 41.
    Hedblom, M.
    et al.
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hedenås, H.
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Blicharska, M.
    Natural Resources and Sustainable Development, Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Swedish Biodiversity Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Adler, S.
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden; Asian School of the Environment, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang, Singapore .
    Knez, Igor
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Psykologi.
    Mikusiński, G.
    Grimsö Wildlife Research Station, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Riddarhyttan, Sweden; School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skinnskatteberg, Sweden .
    Svensson, J.
    Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Sandström, S.
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Sandström, P.
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Wardle, D. A.
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden; Asian School of the Environment, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang, Singapore.
    Landscape perception: linking physical monitoring data to perceived landscape properties2019Inngår i: Landscape research, ISSN 0142-6397, E-ISSN 1469-9710Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in the landscape affect not only people’s well-being but also how people perceive and use the landscape. An increasing number of policies have highlighted the importance of conserving a landscape’s recreational and aesthetical values. This study develops and evaluates a model that links people’s perceptions of a mountain landscape to physical monitoring data. Using a questionnaire, we revealed how respondents working with the Swedish mountains characterise the Magnificent Mountain landscape (as defined by Swedish policy objectives) and translated these characteristics into data from the National Inventory of Landscapes in Sweden (NILS). We found 14 potential indicators that could be derived from the existing NILS physical monitoring data and which could be used to monitor changes in the landscape values as perceived by people. Based on the results, we suggest how to simultaneously utilise field sampling of physical data and field photos to provide temporal information about landscape perception.

  • 42.
    Hedblom, Marcus
    et al.
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Gunnarsson, Bengt
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Schaefer, Martin
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Knez, Igor
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Psykologi.
    Thorsson, Pontus
    Division of Applied Acoustics, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lundström, Johan N.
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Monell Chemical Senses Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA; Department of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA; Stockholm University Brain Imaging Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sounds of Nature in the City: No Evidence of Bird Song Improving Stress Recovery2019Inngår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, nr 8, artikkel-id 1390Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Noise from city traffic is one of the most significant environmental stressors. Natural soundscapes, such as bird songs, have been suggested to potentially mitigate or mask noise. All previous studies on masking noise use self-evaluation data rather than physiological data. In this study, while respondents (n = 117) watched a 360 degrees virtual reality (VR) photograph of a park, they were exposed to different soundscapes and mild electrical shocks. The soundscapesbird song, bird song and traffic noise, and traffic noisewere played during a 10 min recovery period while their skin conductance levels were assessed as a measure of arousal/stress. No significant difference in stress recovery was found between the soundscapes although a tendency for less stress in bird song and more stress in traffic noise was noted. All three soundscapes, however, significantly reduced stress. This result could be attributed to the stress-reducing effect of the visual VR environment, to the noise levels being higher than 47 dBA (a level known to make masking ineffective), or to the respondents finding bird songs stressful. Reduction of stress in cities using masking with natural sounds requires further studies with not only larger samples but also sufficient methods to detect potential sex differences.

  • 43.
    Heiden, Marina
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Lindberg, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Nylén, Per
    Swedish Work Environment Authority, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hemphälä, Hillevi
    Division of Ergonomics and Aerosoltechnology, Design Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Validity of a computer-based risk assessment method for visual ergonomics2019Inngår i: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, ISSN 0169-8141, E-ISSN 1872-8219, Vol. 72, s. 180-187Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    To describe the development of a computer-based risk assessment method for visual ergonomics, and assess its face validity, content validity, and internal consistency.

    Methods

    The risk assessment method contained a questionnaire for the worker, an evaluation form for the evaluator, a section of follow-up questions based on the worker's responses, and a section for recommended changes, including an overall risk assessment with respect to daylight, lighting, illuminance, glare, flicker, work space, work object and work postures, respectively. Forty-eight trained evaluators used the method to perform 224 workplace evaluations. Content validity of the method was assessed by the completeness and distribution of responses, and internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach's alpha, Spearman's rank correlation between items and indices, and exploratory factor analysis.

    Results

    The proportion of missing values in items was generally low (questionnaire: 0–2.3%; evaluation form: 1.4–4.1%). In the questionnaire, items about double vision, migraine and corrective lenses had limited information content. Cronbach's alpha and item-index correlations for the indices frequency of eyestrain, intensity of eyestrain, visual symptoms, lighting conditions, frequency of musculoskeletal discomfort and intensity of musculoskeletal discomfort were satisfactory. Based on the factor analysis, suggestions for improving some of the indices were made.

    Conclusion

    Our findings suggest that this computer-based method is a valid instrument for assessing risks in the visual work environment. By incorporating subjective ratings by the worker as well as objective measurements of the work environment, it provides a good basis for recommendations with respect to daylight, lighting, work surfaces/material, and work object.

    Relevance to industry

    Visual environment factors, such as glare, can cause eyestrain, headache and musculoskeletal discomfort. This method satisfies the need of a valid tool for determining risks associated with the visual work environment. It contains both worker's ratings and objective measurements, and is designed to be used in different types of work.

  • 44.
    Heiden, Marina
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Trunk and upper arm postures in paper mill work2019Inngår i: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 70, s. 90-96Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to assess postures andmovements of the trunk and upper arm during paper mill work, and to determinethe extent to which they differ depending on method of assessment. For each oftwenty-eight paper mill workers, postures and movements were assessed duringthree full shifts using inclinometer registration and observation from video. Summary metrics for each shift, e.g.,10th, 50th, and 90th posture percentile, were averagedacross shifts and across workers. In addition, the standard deviation between workers,and the standard deviation between shifts within worker were computed. The resultsshowed that trunk and arm postures during paper mill work were similar to otheroccupations involving manual materials handling, but the velocity of armmovements were lower. While postures determined by inclinometry and observationwere similar on a group level, substantial differences were found betweenresults obtained by the two methods for individual workers, particularly for extremepostures. Thus, measurements by either method on individuals or small groupsshould be interpreted with caution.

  • 45.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    et al.
    Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Svedberg, Pia
    Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mather, Lisa
    Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Unit of Intervention and Implementation Research for Worker Health, The Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Blom, Victoria
    Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The association between part-time and temporary employment and sickness absence: a prospective Swedish twin study2019Inngår i: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 29, nr 1, s. 147-153Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Sickness absence (SA) is becoming a major economic problem in many countries. Our aim was to investigate whether type of employment, including temporary employment or part-time employment, is associated with SA while controlling for familial factors (genetic and shared environment). Differences between men and women and across employment sectors were explored.

    Methods: This is a prospective twin study based on 21 105 twins born in Sweden 1959-85. The participants completed a survey in 2005 with follow-up of SA (≥15 days), using register data, until end of 2013. The data were analyzed with logistic regression, with results presented as odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI).

    Results: Temporary employment involved higher odds of SA (OR=1.21 95% CI=1.04-1.40) compared to full-time employment. Both part-time workers (OR=0.84 95% CI=0.74-0.95) and the self-employed (OR=0.77 95%CI=0.62-0.94) had lower odds of SA. Stratifying by sex showed lower odds for part-timers (OR=0.82 95% CI=0.73-0.94) and self-employed women (OR=0.65 95% CI=0.47-0.90), but higher odds for men in temporary employment (OR=1.33 95% CI=1.03-1.72). Temporary employees in county councils (OR=1.73 95% CI=1.01-2.99) and municipalities (OR=1.41 95% CI=1.02-1.96) had higher odds while part-timers employed in the private sector had lower odds (OR=0.77 95% CI=0.64-0.93). Familial factors did not confound the association between employment type and SA.

    Conclusions: Employment type is associated with SA, with temporary employment involving a higher risk compared to permanent full-time employment while both part-time employment and self-employment involved a lower risk. The associations vary between women and men and across sectors.

  • 46.
    Hellström, Madeleine
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Psykologi.
    Wallberg, Louise
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Psykologi.
    Upplevelsen av arbetsmotivation bland unga vuxna 20-25 år.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to examine the experience of work motivation among young adults between the ages of 20-25 years old. Eight qualitative interviews were held with a semi-structured method. The guide for the interviews conducted work motivation as a theme with underlying questions based on themes, previously research and theoretical starting points, the aim of the study and issue. The guide for the interview contained eight main issues with general follow up questions. A thematic analysis were used to bring out four different themes which were the importance of having good colleagues, to develop, to get feedback and salary. The result of the study showed that young adults are motivated by both intern and extern motivational factors according to Herzberg’s motivation theory. This is something that previous studies did not show according to Inceoglu, Segers and Bartram (2012) who claims in their study that young adults are more motivated by intern motivational factors than extern motivational factors. This study therefore highlights the impact of age among individuals and that the age can have influence when it comes to the experienced work motivation.

  • 47.
    Hilläng Lindqvist, Julia
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Psykologi.
    Snetselaar, Alexandra
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Psykologi.
    Ledarskapsstil och personalomsättning inom en offentlig verksamhet2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte var att undersöka om det gick att predicera personalomsättningen utifrån typen av ledarskap. Ledarskapsstilarna som undersöktes var transaktionellt och transformativt. En enkät med 27 ledarskapsfrågor och skickades ut till medarbetare med en chefsposition på en offentlig organisation. Enkäten behandlade påståenden rörande olika dimensioner av transaktionellt ledarskap, transformativt ledarskap samt laissez- faire ledarskap. Endast en dimension av transaktionellt ledarskap användes vilket var contingent reward. De två dimensionerna av transaktionellt ledarskap som inte användes i analysen var active management by exception samt passive management by exception. De två prediktorerna contingent reward och transformativt ledarskap korrelerade och därmed genomfördes en enkel regression med transformativt ledarskap som prediktor och personalomsättning som utfallsvariabel. Studiens resultat visade ett signifikant samband mellan högre transformativt ledarskap och lägre personalomsättning. Studiens slutsats var att transformativt ledarskap kan predicera personalomsättningen.

  • 48.
    Holmgren, Mattias
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap.
    Kabanshi, Alan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Langeborg, Linda
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Psykologi.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap.
    Colding, Johan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap. Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Ola
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap.
    Deceptive sustainability: Cognitive bias in people's judgment of the benefits of CO2 emission cuts2019Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Psychology, ISSN 0272-4944, E-ISSN 1522-9610, Vol. 64, s. 48-55Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    People's beliefs in the actions necessary to reduce anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are important to public policy acceptability. The current paper addressed beliefs concerning how periods of small emission cuts contribute to the total CO2 concentration in the atmosphere, by asking participants to rate the atmospheric CO2 concentration for various time periods and emission rates. The participants thought that a time period with higher emission rates combined with a period of lower emission rates generates less atmospheric CO2 in total, compared to the period with high emission rates alone – demonstrating a negative footprint illusion (Study 1). The participants appeared to base their CO2 estimates on the average, rather than on the accumulated sum, of the two periods' emissions – i.e. an averaging bias (Study 2). Moreover, the effect was robust to the wordings of the problem presented to the participants (Study 3). Together, these studies suggest that the averaging bias makes people exaggerate the benefits of small emission cuts. The averaging bias could make people willing to accept policies that reduce emission rates although insufficiently to alleviate global warming.

  • 49.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    et al.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Straker, Leon
    School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Promoting health and physical capacity during productive work: the Goldilocks Principle2019Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 45, nr 1, s. 90-97Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    In spite of preventive efforts, organizations and employees face several challenges related to working life and occupational health, such as a substantial prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders, social inequality in health and physical capacity, multi-morbidity, an obesity epidemic and an aging workforce. We argue that a new approach for occupational ergonomics and health is required, going beyond prevention of harm caused by work. We propose the ´Goldilocks Principle´ as a new approach of how productive work can be designed to literally promote health and physical capacity.

    Methods                 

    Physical (in)activity profoundly influences health and physical capacity, with effects depending on the extent and temporal structure of the (in)activity. Like the porridge, chair and bed that needed to be ‘just right’ for Goldilocks in the fairy-tale of ´The Three Bears´, physical activity during productive work needs to be ‘just right’ for promoting rather than deteriorating health and capacity. In many jobs, physical activity is, however, either ’too much/high/frequent’ or ’too little/low/infrequent’ to give positive biomechanical and cardiometabolic stimuli.

    Results

    The paper presents the rationale, concept, development, application and prospects of the Goldilocks Principle for how productive work can be designed to promote health and physical capacity.

    Conclusions

    We envision a great potential to promote health and physical capacity by designing productive work according to the Goldilocks Principle, thus leading to benefits with respect to the current challenges related to working life and occupational health for society, organizations and employees.

  • 50.
    Huysmans, Maaike A.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Department of Public and Occupational Health, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam; Research Center for Insurance Medicine, AMC-UMCG-UWV-VUmc, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, USA.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Consistency of sedentary behavior patterns among office workers with long-term access to sit-stand workstations2019Inngår i: Annals of Work Exposures and Health, ISSN 2398-7308, Vol. 63, nr 5, s. 583-591Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Sit-stand workstations are a popular intervention to reduce sedentary behavior (SB) in office settings. However, the extent and distribution of SB in office workers long-term accustomed to using sit-stand workstations as a natural part of their work environment are largely unknown. In the present study, we aimed to describe patterns of SB in office workers with long-term access to sit-stand workstations and to determine the extent to which these patterns vary between days and workers. METHODS: SB was objectively monitored using thigh-worn accelerometers for a full week in 24 office workers who had been equipped with a sit-stand workstation for at least 10 months. A comprehensive set of variables describing SB was calculated for each workday and worker, and distributions of these variables between days and workers were examined. RESULTS: On average, workers spent 68% work time sitting [standard deviation (SD) between workers and between days (within worker): 10.4 and 18.2%]; workers changed from sitting to standing/walking 3.2 times per hour (SDs 0.6 and 1.2 h-1); with bouts of sitting being 14.9 min long (SDs 4.2 and 8.5 min). About one-third of the workers spent >75% of their workday sitting. Between-workers variability was significantly different from zero only for percent work time sitting, while between-days (within-worker) variability was substantial for all SB variables. CONCLUSIONS: Office workers accustomed to using sit-stand workstations showed homogeneous patterns of SB when averaged across several days, except for percent work time seated. However, SB differed substantially between days for any individual worker. The finding that many workers were extensively sedentary suggests that just access to sit-stand workstations may not be a sufficient remedy against SB; additional personalized interventions reinforcing use may be needed. To this end, differences in SB between days should be acknowledged as a potentially valuable source of variation.

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