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  • 1.
    Alasadi, Rasha
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Matsson, Sofie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science.
    Kvartersnära insamling av hushållsavfall: - Ett förslag till bostadsbolaget Ljusdalshem2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Every year household waste is incorrectly sorted, which contributes to a lot of material goes to incineration instead of recycling. By expanding the sorting of household waste, the cycle can be linked, and the material can be used as a new resource. Despite the directive and the existing laws, the amount of waste continues to increase. A new regulation has been prepared to remedy this and will enter into force in 2025, where all residential properties will have neighborhood close sorting. 

    The purpose of the study is to help the housing company Ljusdalshem develop a proposal for neighborhood-wide collection in the area Gärdeåsen, which is located in Ljusdal municipality. The Gärdeåsen area is built under the million programs. The area has only two fractions with the collection of combustible and cardboard. In order to carry out this work, a qualitative method has been used with the help of a literature study and semi-structured interviews. Two previous projects have been studied to include important aspects of the proposal. The projects that have been studied are Nordost and Andersberg, which have implemented neighborhood-wide collection of the housing company Gavlegårdarna in Gävle. The projects differ in design and were therefore of interest to study in order to gather important aspects to consider when forming the proposal for neighborhood-wide collection for the housing company Ljusdalshem.

     

    The result presents a proposal to Ljusdalshem for implementation of neighborhood-wide collection in the Gärdeåsen area. What the authors came up with was to build four new recycling rooms, with collection for newspapers, packaging, waste and food waste. New recycling rooms have been proposed because the existing buildings are worn, and renovation would be extensive. There are important aspects to consider when building neighborhood-wide collection. An important aspect to prevent odors is to remove food and residual waste from the recycling room, therefore the four recycling rooms should be supplemented with underground containers for food and residual waste. In order to obtain an effective result of the sorting of household waste, behavioral changes are of great importance in the proposal, as there is a lack of knowledge in areas with a mixed cultural background. Ljusdalshem should work with informative measures. This means that knowledge is promoted, and the sorting of household waste can increase. The physical design is also important for increasing the sorting. Lighting, large windows and light walls are measures that promote the feeling of security in the recycling room.

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    Kvartersnära
  • 2.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University; North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa.
    Grimm, Nancy B
    Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA.
    Lewis, Joshua A
    Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, USA.
    Redman, Charles L
    Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA.
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science. Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University.
    Colding, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science. The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Urban climate resilience through hybrid infrastructure2022In: Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, ISSN 1877-3435, E-ISSN 1877-3443, Vol. 55, article id 101158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban infrastructure will require transformative changes to adapt to changing disturbance patterns. We ask what new opportunities hybrid infrastructure—built environments coupled with landscape-scale biophysical structures and processes—offer for building different layers of resilience critical for dealing with increased variation in the frequency, magnitude and different phases of climate-related disturbances. With its more diverse components and different internal logics, hybrid infrastructure opens up alternative and additive ways of building resilience for and through critical infrastructure, by providing a wider range of functions and responses. Second, hybrid infrastructure points toward greater opportunities for ongoing (re)design at the landscape level, where structure and function can be constantly renegotiated and recombined.

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  • 3.
    Andersson, Hanna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Decision, Risk and Policy Analysis.
    Ahonen-Jonnarth, Ulla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Decision, Risk and Policy Analysis.
    Holmgren, Mattias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Marsh, John E.
    University of Central Lancashire, UK; Luleå University of Technology.
    Wallhagen, Marita
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Bökman, Fredrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Decision, Risk and Policy Analysis.
    What influences people’s tradeoff decisions between CO2 emissions and travel time? An experiment with anchors and normative messages2021In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 12, article id 702398Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the today’s greatest challenges is to adjust our behavior so that we can avoid a major climate disaster. To do so, we must make sacrifices for the sake of the environment. The study reported here investigates how anchors (extrinsic motivational-free information) and normative messages (extrinsic motivational information) influence people’s tradeoffs between travel time and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in the context of car travel and whether any interactions with environmental concern (an intrinsic motivational factor) can be observed. In this study, people received either a CO2, health or no normative message together with either a high anchor, a low anchor, or no anchor. People that received both a high anchor and a CO2 emission normative message were willing to travel for a longer time than those that only received a high anchor. If a low anchor was presented, no differences in willingness to travel for a longer time were found between the three different conditions of normative message groups, i.e., CO2 normative message, health normative message, or no normative message. People with higher concern for the environment were found to be willing to travel for a longer time than those with lower concern for the environment. Further, this effect was strongest when a high anchor was presented. These results suggest that anchors and normative messages are among the many factors that can influence people’s tradeoffs between CO2 emission and travel time, and that various factors may have to be combined to increase their influence over pro-environmental behavior and decisions.

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  • 4.
    Andersson, Hanna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Decision, Risk and Policy Analysis.
    Bökman, Fredrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Decision, Risk and Policy Analysis.
    Wallhagen, Marita
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Holmgren, Mattias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Ahonen-Jonnarth, Ulla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Decision, Risk and Policy Analysis.
    Anchoring effect in judgments of objective fact and subjective preference2021In: Food Quality and Preference, ISSN 0950-3293, E-ISSN 1873-6343, Vol. 88, article id 104102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The way by which various sources of external information interact in their effects on judgment is rarely investigated. Here, we report two experiments that examine how two sources of external information—an anchor (a reference price) and an eco-label—influence judgments of an objective fact (product price) and a subjective preference (willingness-to-pay for the product). Participants’ price judgments were drawn in the direction of the anchor point, whereas the eco-label resulted in higher judgments of objective fact (Experiment 1) but did not influence subjective preference (Experiment 2). Interestingly, the eco-label seemed to strengthen the effect of the high anchor in judgments of objective fact. Further, participants with higher environmental concern answered a higher price on the subjective preference questions when they received a high anchor, as well as a lower price when they received a low anchor in comparison to the low environmental concern group. This study demonstrates that various external information sources can strengthen each other’s effects on consumer belief about products, while the effects are weaker for consumers’ preferences. The implications of the results for decision making are discussed.

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  • 5.
    Andersson, Hanna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Decision, Risk and Policy Analysis.
    Holmgren, Mattias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Threadgold, Emma
    Beaman, Philip
    Ball, Linden
    Marsh, John E.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    The Negative Footprint Illusion is Exacerbated by the Numerosity of Environment-Friendly Additions: Unveiling the Underpinning Mechanisms2023In: Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, E-ISSN 2044-592XArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Arfan, Muhammad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science. 202100-2890.
    Biogas Value Chain in Gävleborg: Feedstock, Production and Use2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report aims to identify the current status and future opportunities for biogas as an alternative fuel for road transport in the Gävleborg region. The regional actors along the value chain are mapped by their role in feedstock supply, production and use of the biogas. Mapping and analysis of biogas development generally in Sweden and particularly in the Gävleborg region has been conducted primarily through literature, national and regional statistics and through interviews with the regional actors. About 15 companies were reached through emails and phone calls during the interview process.

    In 2017, about 3.5-4.0 million Nm3 of raw biogas (50-65% CH4) was produced in the region of which 3.6 GWh was upgraded. The region has two plants with upgrading facilities, one in Forsbacka, which produces gas mainly from food waste and Duvbacken, the wastewater treatment plant in Gävle. The gas produced at these two big facilities is upgraded and mostly used as transport fuel in the region, and for the industry. Gas produced from other sources is either used for heat and electricity production or flared to avoid methane emissions to the environment. The region has 14 buses and more than 500 other vehicles running on biogas. The gas infrastructure is not well developed in the region except for two filling stations situated in Gävle and Forsbacka. However, some developments on building biogas infrastructure for transport are in process.

    Analysis of interviews with actors and literature studies revealed that the region has much more feedstock for biogas production than used in the currently installed capacity of biogas technologies. Many actors showed great interest in its use as transport fuel but had very serious concerns about its future scope. Lack of supporting infrastructure such as filling stations, very low market demand and regional long-term strategies on biogas as transport fuel are considered barriers in the sector´s further development in the region. The value chain actors need to work more closely to get the most out of this valuable resource. Additionally, future planning on biogas should also consider its other uses such as an energy source for manufacturing industry, shipping and as raw material for chemicals or intermediate products.

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  • 7.
    Arfan, Muhammad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Utilization of local bioresources for transport fuels - System analysis for decision support2023Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents a comprehensive system analysis of the utilization of biowaste and forest industry residues to produce transportation fuels. It explores various aspects such as the constraints to the production system’s value chain development, the utilization of the geographical proximity of biofuel technology innovation system components, environmental impacts, and economic costs. The primary goal is to establish a knowledge base that can aid regional policymakers and decision-makers in formulating informed policies for the efficient management of local bioresources for transport fuel production. By addressing these aspects, the study seeks to contribute to the wider discourse on efficient local bioresource management and transition to a low-carbon economy. The focused bioresources in this thesis are municipal biowaste and forest industry residues (i.e., sawdust, black liquor, crude tall oil, and fiber waste of the pulp and paper industry). The study focuses on three systems: i) biowaste to biogas for transport, ii) biowaste and sawdust to hydrogen, and iii) forest industry residues to liquid biofuels for transport.

    The biofuel policy instruments in Sweden have proven to be effective in introducing alternative transport fuels, particularly in big cities or urban areas. The results of the biowaste to biogas value chain analysis show that development in the Gävleborg region is stagnated throughout the value chain compared to the national average. This stagnation is mainly attributed to local geodemographic factors. The identified obstacles to development include a lack of regional political agreement regarding the use of biogas as a viable transport fuel, insufficient connectivity and communication among the various regional actors and stakeholders, and a limited understanding among stakeholders of the potential and socio-economic impacts of biogas. 

    The environmental and economic assessment of hydrogen production from biowaste and sawdust is performed from a life cycle perspective, using SimaPro LCA software and CML-IA, 2001 impact assessment method. Economic analysis includes capital and operational expenditures and monetization cost of life cycle environmental impacts. The results show that hydrogen production from biowaste has a higher global warming, photochemical oxidant, and freshwater eutrophication potential than sawdust. Biowaste conversion to hydrogen performs far better in ozone depletion, terrestrial ecotoxicity, abiotic depletion-fossil, abiotic depletion, human toxicity, and freshwater ecotoxicity potential. The fossil energy inputs in biogas and pyrolysis oil reforming, emissions from the digestate treatment, storage, and utilization as bio-fertilizer are the main contributing processes to the overall environmental impacts of biowaste and sawdust conversion to hydrogen. 

    The sensitivity analysis of the LCA results indicates that feedstock to biogas/pyrolysis oil yield ratio and the type of energy source for the reforming process can significantly influence the results, particularly climate change, abiotic depletion, and human toxicity. 

    The life cycle cost (LCC) analysis reveals that the production of hydrogen from biowaste exhibits a lower cost compared to sawdust. This significant cost reduction in the biowaste case can be attributed to lower variable operating expenses (OPEX), primarily due to the price of the biowaste itself. Whereas, in the sawdust case, the feedstock contributes the highest percentage (54%) to the system's OPEX, indicating that variable OPEX is highly sensitive to sawdust prices. Additionally, the capital investment required for the biowaste case was 50% lower, which further contributes to the lower overall LCC compared to the sawdust case.

    The results of forest industry residues to liquid biofuel technology development and the utilization of system components in geographical proximity indicate that geographical proximity can significantly influence the system’s structural growth, trajectory, and development pace. An adapted version of the technological innovation system (TIS) framework was operationalized with the lens of geographical proximity utilization of the system components to the technology development and diffusion. The method of data acquisition involved document analysis and interviews with subsystem actors. The study found that the development of the system is hampered by competition between technologies and low utilization of geographical proximity of the system components, which was partly attributed to a lack of network among subsystem actors and with the national TIS structure. 

    Bioresources in Gävleborg are present in substantial amounts, particularly biowaste from agriculture, the food industry, and households, as well as biomass from the forest industry, which have the potential to be utilized for transport fuel production. However, the evolution of their utilization to power transportation in Gävleborg has been delayed in comparison to several other regions in Sweden. In the case of the technology development of forest industry residue-based transport fuels, the utilization of geographical proximity of artefacts and institutions has played a crucial role. Significant strides have been accomplished in diverse technology domains. However, these advancements have faced obstacles, partially due to the rivalry among system actors aiming to secure a competitive edge in acquiring both knowledge and capital resources and the underutilization of the geographical proximity of actors and industry networks. 

    Based on these research findings, recommendations are provided to support policy and strategy aiming to enhance the utilization of local bioresources for transportation fuels sustainably and cost-effectively with increased local benefits. For example, the study recommends addressing the identified local political, communication, and networking issues, along with integrating regional geodemographic conditions into national biofuel policies and measures. By addressing identified challenges, the Gävleborg region can overcome the stagnation in bioresource to transportation fuel technological systems development and leverage its significant potential.

    This thesis adds valuable insights to the sustainability transition literature about the environment, economy, and the geography of innovation processes. The findings highlight the need for policy interventions to foster collaboration, coordination, and knowledge sharing among stakeholders, as well as support for the development and commercialization of emerging technologies, including forest-based transport fuel technologies. The analysis of cost and environmental impacts of bioresource utilization for hydrogen production provides insights into the potential trade-offs and benefits of different feedstocks and impact categories. The study provides important input for policy and strategy development towards a more sustainable and cost-effective use of local bioresources for transport fuel production in Gävleborg. This study can also serve as a valuable reference for researchers, policymakers, and stakeholders interested in the sustainable utilization of renewable resources for biofuel production, contributing to the advancement of knowledge in this critical area.

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  • 8.
    Arfan, Muhammad
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Wang, Zhao
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Soam, Shveta
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Life cycle assessment and life cycle costing of hydrogen production from biowaste and biomass in Sweden2023In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 291, article id 117262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, an environmental and economic assessment of hydrogen production from biowaste and biomass is performed from a life cycle perspective, with a high degree of primary life cycle inventory data on materials, energy, and investment flows. Using SimaPro LCA software and CML-IA, 2001 impact assessment method, ten environmental impact categories are analyzed for environmental analysis. Economic analysis includes capital and operational expenditures and monetization cost of life cycle environmental impacts. The hydrogen production from biowaste has a high climate impact, photochemical oxidant, and freshwater eutrophication than biomass while it performs far better in ozone depletion, terrestrial ecotoxicity, abiotic depletion-fossil, abiotic depletion, human toxicity, and freshwater ecotoxicity. The sensitivity analysis of LCA results indicates that feedstock to biogas/pyrolysis-oil yields ratio and the type of energy source for the reforming process can significantly influence the results, particularly climate change, abiotic depletion, and human toxicity. The life cycle cost (LCC) of 1 kg hydrogen production has been accounted as 0.45–2.76 € with biowaste and 0.54–3.31 € with biomass over the plant's lifetime of 20 years. From the environmental impacts of climate change, photochemical oxidant, and freshwater eutrophication hydrogen production from biomass is a better option than biowaste while from other included impact categories and LCC perspectives it’s biowaste. This research contributes to bioresources to hydrogen literature with some new findings that can be generalized in Europe and even globally as it is in line with and endorse existing theoretical and simulation software-based studies.

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  • 9.
    Arfan, Muhammad
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Hillman, Karl
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    The geography of technological innovation systems - The case of forest-based biofuels in a Swedish region2024In: Innovation and Green Development, E-ISSN 2949-7531, Vol. 3, no 2, article id 100122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Geographical proximity exerts a substantial influence on structural evolution, developmental trajectory, and pace of sociotechnical system growth. This study explores this aspect within the context of the development of forest biomass-based biofuel technology, employing a Technological Innovation System (TIS) framework with the lens of geographical proximity utilization of system components. The research employed a combination of document analysis and interviews with key system stakeholders as data collection methods. The analysis reveals that the close geographical proximity of the system components and technologies, encompassing both technical aspects and sectors, did not result in synergetic effects, in contrast to prior TIS research findings. Rather than fostering collaboration, it has engendered a competitive dynamic, partially driven by actors vying for knowledge leads and funding from both regional and national agencies. Consequently, the potential benefits of geographical proximity of system components remain largely untapped. In light of these results, this study offers practical recommendations for exploiting untapped opportunities, advocating for more strategic use of geographical proximity to foster system technology development and enhance its role in national TIS development. This case study enriches sustainability transition literature by providing valuable insights into the role of geographical proximity in innovation processes.

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  • 10.
    Arfan, Muhammad
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Wang, Zhao
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Soam, Shveta
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Biogas as a transport fuel—a system analysis of value chain development in a Swedish context2021In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, no 8, article id 4560Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biofuels policy instruments are important in the development and diffusion of biogas as a transport fuel in Sweden. Their effectiveness with links to geodemographic conditions has not been analysed systematically in studying biogas development in a less urbanised regions, with high potential and primitive gas infrastructure. One such region identified is Gävleborg in Sweden. By using value chain statistics, interviews with related actors, and studying biofuels policy instruments and implications for biogas development, it is found that the policy measures have not been as effective in the region as in the rest of Sweden due to different geodemographic characteristics of the region, which has resulted in impeded biogas development. In addition to factors found in previous studies, the less-developed biogas value chain in this region can be attributed particularly to undefined rules of the game, which is lack of consensus on trade-off of resources and services, unnecessary competition among several fuel alternatives, as well as the ambiguity of municipalities’ prioritization, and regional cultural differences. To strengthen the regional biogas sector, system actors need a strategy to eliminate blocking effects of identified local factors, and national policy instruments should provide mechanisms to process geographical conditions in regulatory, economic support, and market formation.

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  • 11.
    Arnström, Sebastian
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Of Chaos And Clockworks: A Formal Criticism Of The Modern Sustainability Paradigm2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is a critical review of two central theories in the modern sustainability paradigm – namely… (1) the theory that the Earth’s geosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere and atmosphere form a complex adaptive system – the Earth system, and (2) the theory that all human activities are intrinsically dependent on, and constrained by, non-anthropogenic states and processes in the Earth system. The thesis explains the origins and the logic of these theories, and subjects them to formal, semi-formal and comparative criticism. Ultimately, it refutes both on formal and comparative grounds. Most importantly, it shows that theories 1 and 2 are in conflict with the theory of evolution by natural selection, and with the hypothetico-deductive model of scientific research. It also shows that they are in conflict – both directly and indirectly – with the known laws of physics. While it is true that all human activities rely on biospheric resources today, there are no physical, or natural laws that make it impossible for us to break those dependencies over time. In fact, the thesis shows that it is possible in principle to satisfy any human need by strictly artificial means, and abiotic resources that exist in abundance both inside and outside of the Earth system. An important corollary to this finding is that social and economic progress is not inextricably tied – as the modern sustainability literature suggests – to the exploitation of finite and rapidly diminishing resources here on Earth. Theories 1 and 2 both contribute to this confusion, and hence, to the bleak and irrational Malthusianism that still permeates so much of the sustainability domain. In addition, they appear to blind many researchers to the ecological benefits of technological development. That humanity can break its dependence on the biosphere is a very good thing for its non-human inhabitants. As we become more technologically advanced, we will find it easier and easier to sustain ourselves without destabilizing the world's ecosystems. The Earth’s biosphere is an oasis of beauty, complexity and connection in a Universe that is overwhelmingly empty and boring. As the only animals capable of appreciating this fact, we have a clear moral duty to protect and preserve it. And we can protect and preserve it. If we just let go of the religious ideas that have dominated our field since its inception, we will find that our potential to do good in the world is far greater than we previously imagined.

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  • 12.
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Potentialer inom styrkeområdet Smarta Hållbara Städer och Samhällen2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    EU:s Gröna Giv stödjer en samhällstransformation  till en modern, resurseffektiv och konkurrenskraftig ekonomi där det inte finns några nettoutsläpp av växthusgaser år 2050, där den ekonomiska tillväxten har frikopplats från resursförbrukningen, och där inga människor eller platser lämnas utanför. Region Gävleborg kan verka för dessa tre mål simultant genom att stödja innovationer i mellanrummen ett fossilfritt Gävleborg och smart specialisering om Hållbara och Smarta Städer och Samhällen.

    Sverige kan bli klimatneutralt redan 2045. FAIRTRANS (En Rättvis klimatomställning mot en fossilfritt samhälle) är ett nationellt program som drivs i samarbete mellan Stockholms Universitet och Högskolan i Gävle och samproducerar ny kunskap och policy i denna riktning. Vätgas är en av de lovande teknologierna för transporter och arbetsmaskiner, men den kommer framför allt att få en stor betydelse för omställningen av industrin och energisystemet. Den kan bidra till att öka elproduktionen från förnybara energikällor och förstärka elnätet, och kan samtidigt användas för att fasa ut fossila bränslen i olika industriprocesser. Sedan 2021 är Gävle Kommun med i det nationella programmet VIABLE CITIES om klimatneutrala städer. Namnet på programmet är ”Klimatneutralt Gävle 2030” och målet är att skapa en systemtransformation tillsammans med andra aktörer inom det nationella nätverket VIABLE CITIES. Tre åtgärder kommer att arbetas med som ligger i linje med kommunens klimatfärdplan: kollektivtrafiken, planerings-och byggprocessen, samt att öka handlingskompetens hos medborgare (beteende och konsumtion). FUTURE PROOF CITIES (FPC) har fokus på industridoktorander och har stor potential att långsiktigt öka kapaciteten inom sin respektive organisationer. FPC samproducerar kunskap om social hållbarhet, klimatomställningen, klimat-resiliens, samt samproducerar kunskap kring både digitala och analoga metoder för integrering av kunskapssystem.

    Eu-projektet (H2020) RES4BUILD har det övergripande målet att minska koldioxidutsläppen i energiförbrukningen i byggnader.  Det utvecklar integrerade förnybara energibaserade lösningar som är skräddarsydda efter användarnas och installatörernas behov, samt kostnadskonkurrenskraftiga 2025. ”Resilient Cooling of Buildings” har fokus på övergången till resilienta och koldioxidsnåla kylsystem i byggnader. Detta inkluderar också lösningar för samhällen att klara och förhindra termiska och andra effekter av den globala uppvärmningen.

    Inom en smart och attraktiv stad utgör BIG (Bettering life through Integrative GIS) ett innovativt projekt om metodutveckling för en upplevelsebaserad urban design. BIG är ett samarbetsprojekt mellan Högskolan i Gävle och Future Position X (FPX).

    EU:s andra mål i EU:s Gröna Giv handlar om en BNP tillväxt frikopplad från användningen fossila bränslen, vilket samspelar med målområdet i den regionala utvecklingsstrategin om samhällsnyttig, cirkulär och biobaserad ekonomi.  Innovationsarenor som förenar bio-ekonomi och hållbar stadsutveckling bör utvecklas.”Hållbara värdekedjor genom cirkulära affärsmodeller” har utvecklat mätetal för cirkularitet, en samverkansplattform för industriell och urban symbios har etablerats och därtill har flera företag och olika resursflöden som t.ex. plast och byggavfall undersökts i samarbete med Movexum. I projektet Bioväx studeras hur produktion av biogas och växtnäring kan etableras och byggas ut med Gävle kommun.

    Ett strategiskt arbete i linje med EU:s Gröna Giv målområde 3 bör samproduceras med aktörer inom akademi, civilsamhälle och näringsliv. Det pågår innovationsutveckling om urbana (digitala) gemensamheter för en socialt hållbar utveckling av våra tätorter. Här finns potential för beteendeförändringar kopplat till delningsekonomiska förtjänster samt genom minskning av inrikes transporter och arbetspendling. Arbetet med urbana digitala gemensamheter ligger i linje med ”Klimatneutralt Gävle 2030” som satsar på kompetenshöjning hos invånare. Två viktiga projekt för samverkan pågår mellan HiG och kommuner: Stadsdelslyftet i Gävle och Ökad inkludering i Sandviken. En samverkansgrupp börjar ta form som tentativt kallas ´Samhällsarbete för socialt hållbar stadsutveckling´. Denna samverkansgrupp har representanter för Gavlegårdarna, Sandvikenhus, Socialtjänstens förebyggandeenheter i Gävle och Sandviken. Horisontell innovationsutveckling (HiL) har visat sig kunna överbrygga organisatoriska hinder för transformation. 

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  • 13.
    Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science. Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Berghauser-Pont, Meta
    Chalmers.
    Colding, Johan
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Gren, Åsa
    Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
    Legeby, Ann
    KTH.
    Marcus, Lars
    Chalmers.
    Nytt miljonprogram - unik chans att lösa flera frågor2016In: Dagens Nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, no 25-aprArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Dolt värde av enorma mått. Ett nytt miljonprogram kan förskräcka, men kan vara just vad Sverige behöver. Men vi ska inte upprepa misstagen från förra gången. I stället måste politikerna nu ta fasta på denna unika chans att ta itu med vår tids stora utmaningar som integration, tillväxt och hållbarhet, skriver sex forskare.

  • 14.
    Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Colding, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Hiswåls, Anne-Sofie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Public Health and Sport Science, Public Health Science.
    Thalén, Peder
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Religious studies.
    Turunen, Päivi
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Social Work.
    Urban green commons for socially sustainable cities and communities2022In: Nordic Social Work Research, ISSN 2156-857X, E-ISSN 2156-8588, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 310-322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In these times of global pandemics and climate crisis, social sustainability has become a crucial issue within diverse sectors and disciplines. This article aims to broaden the discussions on social sustainability in general, and in relation to community work within professional social work in particular.

    By means of a cross-disciplinary bricolage approach – with a focus on the commons – we aim to construct a holistic view of urban social sustainability. Beginning with the Anthropocene concept, which recognizes the human impact on the Earth’s natural systems and hence highlights the need to include the natural environment as a determinant of good and fair living conditions for all, we remix arguments and examples relating to social sustainability with environmental and spatial dimensions to develop an urban green commons. Our cross-disciplinary perspective extends beyond contemporary social policy by bringing together natural resource management, public health, and spiritual aspects of the commons. In order to fit the plurality of urban contexts across the planet, further critical deliberations are needed, focusing on social sustainability and collective action for sustainable change in each context. 

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  • 15.
    Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science. Stockholm University.
    Isendahl, Christian
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Vis, Ben
    University of Kent, UK.
    Drescher, Axel
    University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Germany.
    Evans, Dan
    Lancaster University, UK.
    van Timmeren, Arjan
    TU Delft, The Netherlands.
    Global urbanization and food production in direct competition for land: Leverage places to mitigate impacts on SDG2 and on the Earth System2019In: The Anthropocene Review, ISSN 2053-0196, Vol. 6, no 1-2, p. 71-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global urbanization and food production are in direct competition for land. This paper carries outa critical review of how displacing crop production from urban and peri-urban land to other areas– because of issues related to soil quality – will demand a substantially larger proportion of theEarth’s terrestrial land surface than the surface area lost to urban encroachment. Such relationshipsmay trigger further distancing effects and unfair social-ecological teleconnections. It risks also settingin motion amplifying effects within the Earth System. In combination, such multiple stressors set thescene for food riots in cities of the Global South. Our review identifies viable leverage points on whichto act in order to navigate urban expansion away from fertile croplands. We first elaborate on thepolitical complexities in declaring urban and peri-urban lands with fertile soils as one global commons.We find that the combination of an advisory global policy aligned with regional policies enablingrobust common properties rights for bottom-up actors and movements in urban and peri-urbanagriculture (UPA) as multi-level leverage places to intervene. To substantiate the ability of aligningglobal advisory policy with regional planning, we review both past and contemporary examples whereempowering local social-ecological UPA practices and circular economies have had a stimulatingeffect on urban resilience and helped preserve, restore, and maintain urban lands with healthy soils.

  • 16.
    Berghauser Pont, Meta
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science. Stockholm Resilience Centre, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University.
    Colding, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm.
    Gren, Åsa
    Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm.
    Legeby, Ann
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Marcus, Lars
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Editorial: Social-ecological urbanism: Developing discourse, institutions and urban form for the design of resilient social-ecological systems in cities2022In: Frontiers in Built Environment, E-ISSN 2297-3362, Vol. 8, article id 982681Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 17.
    Bergman, Isabelle
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Mendes, Annie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Psykologisk återhämtning i urbana parker: En analys av Boulognerskogen och Valls hage i Gävle kommun2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Urbana parker i städerna beskrivs som värdefull för folkhälsan då grönstruktur bidrar till positiva egenskaper som fysiska och psykiska återhämtning. I parker kan invånarna komma från vardagens stress och krav. Att invånarna i städer har tillgång till parker är en nödvändig resurs för folkhälsan både nu och i framtiden. Syftet med det här examensarbetet är att undersöka i vilken utsträckning stadsparkerna, Boulognerskogen och Valls hage bidrar till psykologisk återhämtning för invånarna i Gävle kommun. För att genomföra den här studien har författarna använt sig att två kvantitativa metoder: enkätundersökning tillsammans med en observationsstudie. Resultat har visat att parkerna inte används i större utsträckning för psykologisk återhämtning utan mer åt fysiska aktiviteter och sociala interaktioner. Majoriteten av respondenterna var eniga att de föredrar skog utanför stadskärnan för att återhämta sig psykologiskt snarare än de två parkerna som undersökts. En anledning till det är att respondenterna söker efter tystnad för att komma bort från buller. Resultatet påvisar att buller är den faktorn i vardagslivet som påverkar invånare negativt i vardagen, och gör att de behöver psykologisk återhämtning, det gäller både för dem som är bosatta i centrum och de som är bosatta utanför. 

    Fler faktorer i parkerna har visat sig i resultatdelen att de har en betydelse för den psykologiska återhämtningen. Vilket är: skog, träd, vatten och blommor. I och med att respondenterna i Gävle föredrar skog för återhämtning behövs tillgänglighet till dessa skogsområdet förbättras. En förbättrad infrastruktur med tillgängliga cykelvägar, elljusspår och kontinuerlig bussförbindelse till skogsområdena ökar möjligheter till återhämtning. Det behövs även genomföras förbättringar i parkerna i form av att skapa mer plats till avskildhet, mer buskar som kan användas för att dämpa buller och skapa tystnad, det i sin tur höjer parkernas attraktivitet för att lockar ditt flera besökaren. Slutsatsen i studien visar att invånarna i Gävle har ett behov av psykologisk återhämtning men att Boulognerskogen och Valls hage inte kan erbjuda detta i en större utsträckning.

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  • 18. Björklund, A
    et al.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Ljunggren Söderman, M
    Stenmarck, Å
    Sundqvist, J-O
    LCA of Policy Instruments for Sustainable Waste Management2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Blay Pomar, Jose Luis
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Assessment of offshore wind transmission technologies for green hydrogen production: Case study in Gävleborg County, Sweden2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The usage of green hydrogen is expected to reduce the annual greenhouse gas emissions by 2% that are currently generated by the consumption of fossil-based hydrogen, while also hard-to-abate industries that are difficult to shift to low-carbon alternatives in the future. Gävleborg county, a crucial part of Sweden's industrial value chain, aims to decrease its carbon footprint in hydrogen-based industries by producing competitive green hydrogen by deploying offshore wind energy along the Gävleborg coast. To enhance the industrial competitiveness of Gävleborg by making the most of the wind resources in the area, it is important to select suitable energy transmission technologies. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the potential of different offshore wind-to-shore technologies and assess the feasibility of hydrogen production for dedicated future offshore wind plants in the region.

    This case study examined the annual average power and energy recovery from wind resources in two different locations along the Gävleborg coast. More than 100 000 wind data values collected over 14 years from the New European Wind Atlas database were analyzed using the continuous Weibull function. Moreover, to evaluate the energy losses in the transmission to shore it was used the π-equivalent schema for either high voltage alternating current (HVAC) or high voltage direct current (HVDC), considering different voltage levels or the usage of reactive compensation. Finally, the power and energy input requirements of the largest operational PEM electrolyzer for hydrogen production were assessed.

    Three different offshore wind farm designs have been proposed for analysis, varying the installed power capacity and distance from the shore in accordance with the current offshore wind farm pro-spects in the region. On the one hand, designs with lower power capacity and closer to the shore are more likely to use HVAC technology with low voltage levels and little significance on reactive compensation. On the other hand, larger offshore wind designs will potentially use either HVAC technology with higher voltage levels and reactive compensation, or HVDC technology. After analysis, it can be concluded that the deployment of any of the suggested offshore wind designs will have a significant impact on the region´s energy mix, covering most of the current Swedish hydrogen demand when considering dedicated offshore wind-to-hydrogen plants. Nevertheless, most of these plans are currently in the initial stages of conception and planning and are awaiting political initia-tives and technological advancements to reach a level of economic competitiveness.

    This study also shows that Gävleborg county has a significant opportunity to become a prominent hydrogen producer in the next few decades; not only reducing the national carbon footprint, but also providing a significant business opportunity for the region. Furthermore, the selection of the best-suited offshore wind-to-shore technology will have a great impact in the investment and efficiency of the project, thus highlighting the most cost-effective and competitive offshore wind farms in the region.

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  • 20.
    Blom, Lisa
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Fridh, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Externa och halvexterna handelsetableringar: En kvalitativ analys av attityder och drivkrafter för planering och utveckling av externhandel i Gävleborgs län2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The current Swedish transportation system is depending on fossil fuels and the demand for transportation is expected to increase in the coming decades. This will lead to increased emissions of greenhouse gases and other airborne pollutants, which have negative impacts both on human health and the environment. In order to achieve the national climate targets, the trend of constantly increasing traffic volumes must be slowed down. In order to create a sustainable transport system, radical changes in both community planning and behavioral changes are going to be necessary. All expansion of the transport infrastructure has long- term consequences, partly because of its extensive impact on the structure of cities and regions, but also because they can cause increased car travel and generate greater climate impacts. External trade agreements and the strive towards economic growth has a strong influence on traffic planning in the Swedish municipalities. When suburban retail districts and shopping centers are established, the total amount car traffic increases, which leads to increased carbon dioxide emissions. In Sweden, there are no political rules or guidelines on how external trade establishments should be planned, nor are the municipalities obliged to establish any such policies.

    Through a series of qualitative interviews with people in position of policy making in Gävleborg County, the present thesis investigated the driving forces and attitudes that exist in the municipalities regarding the development and planning of external establishments. The topic has been analyzed from the perspective of accessibility and sustainable development, supported by the regional sustainability goal of a fossil-free vehicle fleet in 2030, and the Swedish climate law.

    What emerged during the interviews is that there is no direct impetus for the municipalities to establish new external trade areas, but that there is a willingness to continue to develop the already existing ones, as they are deemed important for local growth. In the regional traffic planning, the passenger car is given priority, since it is the most commonly used means of transportation to and from the county’s suburban shopping districts. The municipalities are working to improve accessibility by public transport, bicycle and walking, but there is an awareness of the difficulties in making sustainable forms of travel the dominant transportation to these areas. More powerful methods and measures in community planning and behavior change are necessary to create a sustainable transport system. This can be achieved by combining different instruments and improving collaboration within both the municipalities and the region.

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  • 21. Blom, Lisa
    et al.
    Hillman, Karl
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Zandén Kjellén, Peder
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science. 202100-2890.
    Havsbaserad vindkraft - beskrivning av samhällsnytta: Uppdragsforskningsrapport2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the biggest challenges of our time is the climate crisis. If we humans are unable to cope with the climate crisis, we risk to not fulfilling many of the 17 global sustainability goals. The climate crisis is a consequence of carbon dioxide emissions, which are largely due to the combustion of fossil fuels. Fossil fuels globally account for over 60 % of the fuel supply for electricity. In Sweden, the domestic electricity supply is almost fossil-free, but electricity is both exported and imported that marginally affects the use of fossil fuels. A change of energy supply in the industry and transport sectors points to an increasing need for electricity in the future. In order for Sweden to meet its climate commitments and achieve the goal of having no territorial emissions of carbon dioxide by 2045, more renewable electricity needs to be supplied. Wind power is one of the types of power needed in the transition to a fossil-free society. To build wind power on a large scale, an environ-mental assessment is required according to the Environmental Code. The permit application to the environmental court describes the impact on the local environment through an environmental impact assessment (miljökonsekvensbeskrivning) with associated investigations. However, offshore wind power must also be examined as a water activity, in which case the societal benefits must also be described.The purpose of this report has been to make a general compilation of existing knowledge about offshore wind power with regard to the societal benefits it constitutes or may constitute from a local, regional and national perspective. The report is based on a literature study based on scientific papers as well as reports, statistics and other facts from authorities and industry organisations. The results are reported in five different areas: energy systems; energy and environmental assessment; business; public activities and civil society. Svea Vind Offshore's offshore wind power projects Utposten 1, Utposten 2 and Greta's klackar 2 have been mentioned as examples. They can generate almost 5 TWh of electricity, which corresponds to the target for 2030 in the County Administrative Board's Gävleborg's energy and climate strategy. For comparison, electricity supply in the county was 4,617 GWh and electricity use 5,034 GWh in 2017 according to the same source.The study shows that more electricity supply capacity is needed and electricity supply from offshore wind power largely follows the need for electricity. Offshore wind power can assist in meeting the power demand and can also be part of a hydrogen expansion. The energy payback period for wind power is about 1 year (comparable to solar cells) and has a lower total environmental impact than the alternatives (comparable to hydropower).Green energy and power from offshore wind power can attract business start-ups. Reef effects and a ban on bottom trawling at an offshore wind farm are positive for the fishing environment. Offshore wind power can contribute to a stronger hospitality industry and related business and can provide both direct and indirect increase in jobs. Annual income arises at local, regional and national level during design, construction, operation and maintenance of wind farms. Establishment of wind power contributes to technical learning and often leads to improved infrastructure. Anchoring, dialogue and distribution of income from offshore wind power can lead to a positive development in the ci-rest society.

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  • 22.
    Braat-Eggen, Ella
    et al.
    Avans University of Applied Sciences, Tilburg, the Netherlands; Eindhoven University of Technology, the Netherlands .
    Keus van de Poll, Marijke
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Hornikx, Maarten
    Eindhoven University of Technology, the Netherlands.
    Kohlrausch, Armin
    Eindhoven University of Technology, the Netherlands.
    Auditory distraction in open-plan study environments: Effects of background speech and reverberation time on a collaboration task2019In: Applied Acoustics, ISSN 0003-682X, E-ISSN 1872-910X, Vol. 154, p. 148-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown that semantic-based tasks are negatively influenced by semantic aspects in background speech. Collaboration is an important task in open-plan study environments and is a semantic task which might be disrupted by background speech. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the influence of irrelevant background speech on student-collaboration. Participants worked in pairs to solve spot-the-difference puzzles, by using the 'DiapixUK' collaboration task, while they were exposed to different background sound scenarios. The composed sound scenarios varied in semantic content (mother tongue and foreign language background speech)and reverberation time (short vs long), the latter affecting speech intelligibility. Although a longer reverberation time decreases the intelligibility of background speech and a foreign language decreases meaningfulness of speech, no significant changes in performance were found. On the other hand, the data show an increased perceived disturbance for a longer reverberation time, which we interpret as an increased difficulty of interpersonal communication in the collaboration task due to the increased level of the background speech. The quiet reference condition was the most preferred sound condition which is in line with both the effect of a low background sound level and the absence of semantic interference. 

  • 23.
    Brandt, S. Anders
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Lim, Nancy Joy
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Colding, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Mapping Flood Risk Uncertainty Zones in Support of Urban Resilience Planning2021In: Urban Planning, E-ISSN 2183-7635, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 258-271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    River flooding and urbanization are processes of different character that take place worldwide. As the latter tends to make the consequences of the former worse, together with the uncertainties related to future climate change and flood‐risk modeling, there is a need to both use existing tools and develop new ones that help the management and planning of urban environments. In this article a prototype tool, based on estimated maximum land cover roughness variation, the slope of the ground, and the quality of the used digital elevation models, and that can produce flood ‘uncertainty zones’ of varying width around modeled flood boundaries, is presented. The concept of uncertainty, which urban planners often fail to consider in the spatial planning process, changes from something very difficult into an advantage in this way. Not only may these uncertainties be easier to understand by the urban planners, but the uncertainties may also function as a communication tool between the planners and other stakeholders. Because flood risk is something that urban planners always need to consider, these uncertainty zones can function both as buffer areas against floods, and as blue‐green designs of significant importance for a variety of ecosystem services. As the Earth is warming and the world is urbanizing at rates and scales unprecedented in history, we believe that new tools for urban resilience planning are not only urgently needed, but also will have a positive impact on urban planning.

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  • 24.
    Brodin, Gustav
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Johansson, Klara Mia Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Livscykelanalys av en härvsats2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Lifecycle assessment (LCA) is used to calculate the products potential environmentalimpact and identify hotspots in the life cycle. The result can be used to apply measuresto the product system hotspots for a reduced potential environmental impact.

    SCC AB specializes in the manufacture of coils, which are a sub-component in electricmotors and generators. A coil set consists of winding wire made of copper and insulating material. The purpose of this study is to present qualitative and quantitativedata on the coil set during production by– calculate the potential environmental impact from the selected coil set– identify the greatest potential to make improvements in the life cycle– report improvements to reduce the potential environmental impact in thelife cycle.

    The functional unit (FU) is defined as the manufacture of generator coil set for the renovation of electrical equipment. In comparison with other coil set, it is of medium size and not themost produced coil set on SCC. It has a rated voltage (Un) of 13.8 kV and consists of 100 coilsmade of 1650 kg of copper and 230 kg of insulation material.

    The result is obtained for the environmental impact categories global warming potential (GWP), acidification potential (AP) and abiotic resource depletion potential(ADP). Global warming is mainly due to the copper smelter and the copper mine,which account for 43% and 38%, respectively, of the total contribution of 9106 kgcarbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e). It is mainly the copper smelter that contributesto acidification of 63% of the total contribution of 279 kg sulphur dioxide equivalents(SO2e). Abiotic resource depletion is largely due to the copper mine, which accountsfor 82% of the total contribution of 3330 kg of copper equivalents (CUe).

    The improvement analysis is based on a material flow circularity measure (MEM),which is calculated by comparing the use of primary and secondary copper materialin the production. The analysis shows that there are secondary-produced wires on themarket thar can be used to produce the coil set.

    The conclusion is that secondary produced winding wire can replace primary windingwire at an extra financial cost to apply an open loop between SCC AB and the smelter.It can contribute to a potentially reduced environmental impact and a promoted CE. 

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  • 25.
    Brändström, Johan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    How circular is a value chain? Proposing a Material Efficiency Metric to evaluate business models2022In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 342, article id 130973Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of Circular Economy is a principle aiming to improve sustainable development by reducing resource use and impact on ecological systems. An increasing number of companies are applying this theory on design strategies and business models in order to close, slow and narrow material loops. To highlight the importance, guide practitioners, and evaluate the progress of circular economy, a high number of circularity metrics (C-metrics) have been developed. However, little attention has been given to creating a connection between quantification of circularity and environmental performance. Existing metrics also do not highlight the interplay between micro (product), meso (industrial symbiosis), and macro (regional) level circularity. Moreover, existing metrics do not capture all material loops and do not adopt a value chain perspective on material flows. To improve the connection between C-metrics and environmental performance, a framework connecting circular economy strategies and material flows was developed. Based on this framework, a material flow-based C-metric was designed aimed at converting mechanisms of closing, narrowing and slowing material loops into a single-point value. To evaluate its feasibility, the metric was tested on three circular business models that represent all three mechanisms in a value chain perspective. The results showed that the metric is feasible in more situations than existing metrics and that the circularity value is highly dependent on assumptions. In future studies, the metric should be tested and compared to Life Cycle Assessments on multiple system levels to ensure that it generates valid results. Furthermore, user input assumptions should be standardized to ensure metric reliability.

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  • 26.
    Brändström, Johan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Jazairy, Amer
    Department of Maritime Business Administration Texas A&M University Galveston Texas USA.
    Roos Lindgreen, Erik
    Department of Economics, University of Messina, Messina, Italy.
    Barriers to adopting circular business models: A cross‐sectoral analysis2024In: Business Strategy and the Environment, ISSN 0964-4733, E-ISSN 1099-0836Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Firm-level adoption of circular business models is a crucial part of the transition toward circular economy, but companies that delve into such pursuits often encounter a series of barriers that hamper their success. Although multiple studies on barriers to circular economy have been made, there is a lack of understanding of how barriers are formed under firm-specific characteristics such as sectoral conditions and the type of circular business model adopted. To bridge this gap, we illustrate a barrier framework in a multiple-case study including nine Swedish firms. We derived about 28 barriers within five categories of circularity approaches (design, waste, service, platform, and nature) across three sectors (furniture, electronics, and garment). This research contributes to the circular economy literature by revealing how adhering to certain sectors and circular business approaches significantly changes the way barriers are perceived by firms. The outcomes may support both practitioners and policymakers as they facilitate circular economy transitions.

  • 27.
    Brändström, Johan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Saidani, Michael
    Université Paris-Saclay, France.
    Comparison between circularity metrics and LCA: A case study on circular economy strategies2022In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 371, article id 133537Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of circular economy consists of a wide range of strategies that aim to reduce the environmental impact of production systems and consumption patterns through increased circularity of resources. Circularity is mostly associated with material efficiency strategies that either close, slow or narrow loops, and a multitude of circularity metrics have been developed to evaluate the efficiency of such strategies. Relatively little effort has been made to quantitatively assess the connection between circularity, material efficiency, and environmental sustainability. More knowledge is required about how material-based circularity metrics can be used to guide practitioners of the circular economy towards strategies that foster environmental sustainability. In this study, a novel structured approach is adopted to perform such a comparison by including closing, slowing, and narrowing strategies on a lawn mowing case. Four circularity metrics that can capture material strategies throughout product value chains (Material Efficiency Metric, Material Circularity Indicator, Circularity Potential Indicator and Circular Economy Indicator Prototype) are compared to three complementary midpoint categories using Life Cycle Assessment (Global Warming Potential, Material Resource Scarcity, and Human Non-Carcinogenic Toxicity). The results show that the studied circularity metrics generate accurate results when evaluating Material Resource Scarcity and that they rank the material efficiency strategies equally with all environmental impact categories. The circularity metrics are unable to capture the benefits of reduced energy and the correspondence to all impact categories is lower in scenarios with higher energy use. We conclude that the strength of the studied circularity metrics is twofold: i) promoting solutions that reduce material demand and waste creation and ii) highlighting the advantages of combining complementary circularity strategies. This research shows that the material-based circularity metrics can be valuable guidance tools for practitioners of circular economy, as they do not require methodological expertise and can align the results with Life Cycle Assessments in some specific situations. More comparisons between circularity metric results and Life Cycle Assessments are needed in future research to establish state-of-the-art circularity metrics for specific situations and purposes, including energy-focused circularity metrics.

  • 28.
    Campbell, T. A.
    et al.
    Department of Psychology and Logopedics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Marsh, John E.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science. School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    On corticopetal-corticofugal loops of the new early filter: from cell assemblies to the rostral brainstem2019In: NeuroReport, ISSN 0959-4965, E-ISSN 1473-558X, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 202-206Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Carlos-Pinedo, Sandra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Renewable Energy and Nutrient Valorization from Anaerobic Digestion: Resource-Efficient Solutions2023Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents a comprehensive analysis aimed at understanding process performance, methane yield, and key influencing factors within the context of solid-state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD). SS-AD is used to treat organic material with high solids content, which can be challenging to address by alternative methods. The investigation involves modelling and simulation exploring mass and energy balances and the associated environmental implications. To achieve this, a waste management tool, ORganic WAste REsearch (ORWARE) was adapted and validated to suit the unique parameters of SS-AD operating under a plug-flow reactor configuration, representing a specific case study. The search of an optimal feedstock mix that enhances the digestion process and energy performance is highlighted. Findings suggest that feedstock selection significantly affects methane yield in SS-AD systems, and optimizing substrate mixtures can enhance process efficiency. Key considerations include biodegradability and lignocellulosic content. Operational parameters, such as temperature variations, impact the results from the model, while responsiveness of hydraulic retention time and organic loading rate remains limited. A further comparison between a liquid anaerobic digestion (L-AD) vs SS-AD is made, despite similar methane yields, SS-AD outperforms due to higher energy turnover. Additionally, effective management of digestate nutrients is crucial for its biofertilizer use. Beyond the biogas system, the thesis explores interconnected relationships between SS-AD inputs and outputs and their subsequent use as resources for a hydroponic greenhouse production system. The examination of system interconnections and their broader implications emphasizes the importance of comprehensive assessments when integrating biogas systems beyond their conventional applications.

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  • 30.
    Carlos-Pinedo, Sandra
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Wang, Zhao
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Assessment of a full-scale solid-state anaerobic co-digestion: A multi-component substrate analysis by using ORWARE2022In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 146, p. 36-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Long-term sustainable biogas production requires different raw material alternatives, especially when reducing the most desirable organic substrate, food waste, which has been set as a goal in the 2030 Agenda. In Sweden, horse manure (HM) is generated in large quantities, and due to its physical and chemical characteristics, it has the potential to be used as a raw material to produce biogas through anaerobic digestion (AD). In order to investigate the challenges that HM digestion can impose in terms of methane yield and/or digestate quality, the modified ORganic WAste REsearch (ORWARE) AD model was applied. The aim was to study the effects of different substrates and combinations of these on the AD process during a full-scale solid-state (SS)-AD. In this sense, the model allows for the analysis of the digestion process of multicomponent substrates at the element level. The simulation results suggested that the replacement of green waste (GW) by HM with wood chips as bedding material gave the best improvement in terms of energy turnover; the liquid fraction of the digestate of this mixture of substrates presented the highest concentration in all the nutrients analyzed, specifically in total carbon-biological and phosphorus. The nutrient concentrations in the digestate from the aforementioned scenario are in line with the SPCR120 certification.

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  • 31.
    Carlos-Pinedo, Sandra
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Wang, Zhao
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Methane yield from SS-AD: Experiences to learn by a full spectrum analysis at laboratory-, pilot- and full-scale2019In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 127, article id 105270Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solid-state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD) takes place when solid content of the substrate is higher than 15%. Some advantages of this technology have been recognized as e.g., less required water added to raw feedstock and consequently minimized digester size and cost, higher volumetric organic loading rates (OLR) that may lead to higher efficiency methane yield and better acceptance of a wide range of feedstocks. However, scientific studies of SS-AD at pilot- and full-scale are very few and difficulties have been reported in operating SS-AD, especially when the system undergoes a scale-up, where methane production is the purpose. As a result, this review gives a summary of scientific studies for SS-AD processes at laboratory-, pilot- and full-scale, where a great diversity of substrate composition, reactor design and operational parameters have been categorized, and their performances in terms of methane yield have been analyzed. This, in turn, helps to identify that factors affecting methane yields at different scales arise mainly from operational conditions as well as the characteristic of feedstocks. This review even contributes to suggest several strategies for improvement of methane yield at full-scale.

  • 32.
    Carlos-Pinedo, Sandra
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Wang, Zhao
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Systems analysis of biogas and digestate utilization pathways with carbon capture: A Life Cycle Assessment and a Material and Energy Balance approachManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Carlos-Pinedo, Sandra
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Wang, Zhao
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Soam, Shveta
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Study of the digestion process at a full-scale solid-state biogas plant by using ORWARE: Model modification and implementation2020In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 107, p. 133-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The configuration of the reactor influences the digestion process and thus the product yields; other factors such as the rate of biogas production or biogas loss also affect the process specifically with high solid configuration. With these in mind, the ORganic WAste REsearch (ORWARE) anaerobic digestion sub-model was modified to be able to study solid-state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD) (using plug-flow reactor). The simulation results from the updated model agreed with the operational data with respect to methane yield, digestate yield and energy turnover. The model was found to be sensitive to changes in feedstock composition but to a lesser extent to changes in process temperature and retention time. By applying the model on several cases of liquid anaerobic digestion (L-AD), it was noticed that L-AD at mesophilic condition with 25 retention days seemed to be superior to other cases of L-AD with regard to energy turnover. However, even if similar methane production were observed for L-AD and SS-AD, the model suggested higher energy turnover for the case of SS-AD at thermophilic condition, being 10% more in average in comparison with cases of L-AD.

  • 34.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Lin, Yuanyuan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Sandberg, Mats
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Claesson, Leif
    Wallhagen, Marita
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Towards benchmarking of urban air quality based on homogenous surface emission2023In: Results in Engineering (RINENG), ISSN 2590-1230, Vol. 20, article id 101617Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here, it is presented a possible methodology and experimental model for benchmarking of air quality in cities. The concept behind the methodology is that a city’s inherent structure affects the potential for contaminant removal due to the resistance it poses to inflow. The approach is based on homogenous emission across the street surface network, representing a worst-case situation. Different levels of complexity can be used for benchmarking, making it valuable for evaluating different layouts. Additionally, an urban ventilation index suitable for these kinds of experimental studies has been suggested. 

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  • 35.
    Chen, Karen
    et al.
    Yale Univeristy.
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science. Stockholm University.
    Depression is more common in the suburbs than in city centres2023Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    We wanted to find out which factors in the built environment were the most important for psychological wellbeing so that cities can be designed better to be both sustainable and supportive of mental health.

    A hectare of land can house the same amount of population with dense low-rises or sparse high-rises. High rises can be either in dense bustling business districts or in less dense city areas with fancy apartments facing a large green.

    Suburbs, however, tend to have a medium density of low-rise buildings. Which approach should we take?

  • 36.
    Chen, Tzu-Hsin Karen
    et al.
    School of the Environment, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.;Yale Institute for Biospheric Studies, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.;Department of Urban Design and Planning, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.;Big Data Centre for Environment and Health (BERTHA), Aarhus University, Aarhus V, Denmark.;Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management (IGN), University of Copenhagen, København V, Denmark..
    Horsdal, Henriette Thisted
    Big Data Centre for Environment and Health (BERTHA), Aarhus University, Aarhus V, Denmark.;The National Centre for Register-based Research, Business and Social Sciences, Aarhus University, Aarhus V, Denmark..
    Samuelsson, Karl
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science. ISGlobal, Barcelona, Spain.
    Closter, Ane Marie
    Big Data Centre for Environment and Health (BERTHA), Aarhus University, Aarhus V, Denmark.;The National Centre for Register-based Research, Business and Social Sciences, Aarhus University, Aarhus V, Denmark..
    Davies, Megan
    Big Data Centre for Environment and Health (BERTHA), Aarhus University, Aarhus V, Denmark.;Section of Epidemiology, University of Copenhagen, København K, Denmark..
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science. Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker
    Big Data Centre for Environment and Health (BERTHA), Aarhus University, Aarhus V, Denmark.;The National Centre for Register-based Research, Business and Social Sciences, Aarhus University, Aarhus V, Denmark.;Centre for Integrated Register-based Research (CIRRAU), Aarhus University, Aarhus V, Denmark..
    Prishchepov, Alexander V.
    Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management (IGN), University of Copenhagen, København V, Denmark..
    Sabel, Clive E.
    Big Data Centre for Environment and Health (BERTHA), Aarhus University, Aarhus V, Denmark.;Department of Public Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus V, Denmark..
    Higher depression risks in medium- than in high-density urban form across Denmark2023In: Science Advances, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 9, no 21, article id eadf3760Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban areas are associated with higher depression risks than rural areas. However, less is known about how different types of urban environments relate to depression risk. Here, we use satellite imagery and machine learning to quantify three-dimensional (3D) urban form (i.e., building density and height) over time. Combining satellite-derived urban form data and individual-level residential addresses, health, and socioeconomic registers, we conduct a case-control study (n = 75,650 cases and 756,500 controls) to examine the association between 3D urban form and depression in the Danish population. We find that living in dense inner-city areas did not carry the highest depression risks. Rather, after adjusting for socioeconomic factors, the highest risk was among sprawling suburbs, and the lowest was among multistory buildings with open space in the vicinity. The finding suggests that spatial land-use planning should prioritize securing access to open space in densely built areas to mitigate depression risks.

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  • 37. Chen, Tzu-Hsin Karen
    et al.
    Samuelsson, Karl
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Thisted Horsdal, Henriette
    Davies, Megan
    Closter, Ane Marie
    Barthel, Stephan
    Böcker Pederson, Carsten
    Prishchepov, Alexander V.
    Sabel, Clive E.
    Three-dimensional urban structure and residential mobility correlate with the risk of developing mental disorders: a follow-up studyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 38.
    chrysochoou, christos
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Sustainable Shrimp Production: A Technology Feasibility Analysis through an Operational & Environmental Perspective2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To be able to satisfy current society’s needs without compromising future generations to satisfy their needs, is the key to sustainability. Many old practices and methods have had negative impact on the environment, including food production & cultivation activities with aquaculture being one of them. A growing population and environmental pollution, demand new technologies to be developed, to ensure food supply but also not to harm the environment at the same time. Such technologies have been developed the last decades allowing for indoor farming of aquaculture species including shrimp. Shrimps are popular all over the world and their demand is continuously increasing. This thesis focuses on two different technologies that primarily aim to grow shrimps in the most effective way with reduced demand of natural and chemical resources considering sustainability. One technology is Biofloc, and the other is the Recirculated Aquaculture System (RAS). A multicriteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) will take place in this thesis to compare the two alternative technologies based on a few criteria. The criteria used, derive from two categories, operational and environmental, and this thesis aims to understand the pros and cons of each technology with respect to sustainability.

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  • 39.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science. The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science. Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Exploring the social-ecological systems discourse 20 years later2019In: Ecology & Society, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 423-432, article id 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the 20-year evolution of the social-ecological systems framework (SESs). Although a first definition of SES dates back to 1988, Berkes and Folke more thoroughly used the concept in 1998 to analyze resilience in local resource management systems. Since then studies of interlinked human and natural systems have emerged as a field on its own right, promoting interdisciplinary dialogue and collaboration in a wide set of fields and practices. As the SES concept celebrates its 20-year existence we decided to make an overview of how authors use the concept in relation to research that deals with social and ecological linkages. Hence, we conducted a review of the SES concept using the Scopus database, analyzing a random set of journal articles on social-ecological systems (n = 50) regarding definitions of SES, authors’ main sources of inspiration in using the concept, as well as document type, subject area, and other relevant information. Although there is a steady increase of SES publications, we found that 61% of the papers analyzed did not even provide a definition of the term social-ecological system(s), a shortcoming that makes case comparisons difficult and reduces the usefulness of the concept. We also found three common SES frameworks that authors seem to be most commonly inspired by, referred to here as the original, the robustness, and multitier frameworks, respectively. The first can be characterized as a descriptive framework, the latter two more as diagnostic frameworks, useful for modeling. Although it would be a bit presumptuous of us to come up with a more thorough definition of the SES concept in this paper, we urge SES scholars to be more meticulous in making explicit what they mean by a social-ecological system when conducting SES research. 

  • 40.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science. The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science. Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Ljung, Robert
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science. Swedish Agency for Work Environment Expertise, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Felix
    Sjöberg, Stefan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Social Work.
    Urban commons and collective action to address climate change2022In: Social Inclusion, ISSN 2183-2803, E-ISSN 2183-2803, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 103-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change and the coupled loss of ecosystem services pose major collective action problems in that all individuals would benefit from better cooperation to address these problems but conflicting interests and/or incomplete knowledge discourage joint action. Adopting an inductive and multi‐layered approach, drawing upon the authors’ previous research on urban commons, we here summarize key insights on environmentally oriented urban commons and elaborate on what role they have in instigating climate‐proofing activities in urban areas. We deal with three types of urban commons, i.e., “urban green commons,” “coworking spaces,” and “community climate commons.” We describe how allotment gardens, community gardens, and other types of urban green commons contribute to environmental learning that may boost under‐ standing of environmental issues and which constitute important learning arenas for climate‐change mitigation and adap‐ tation. We also deal with the newly emerging phenomenon of coworking spaces that share many essential institutional attributes of urban commons and which can work for climate‐change mitigation through the benefits provided by a shar‐ ing economy and through reduction of domestic transportation and commuting distance. Community climate commons represent commons where local communities can mobilize together to create shared low‐carbon assets and which hold the potential to empower certain segments and civil society groups so that they can have greater influence and ownership of the transformation of reaching net‐zero carbon goals. We conclude this article by identifying some critical determinants for the up‐scaling of environmentally oriented urban commons.

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  • 41.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science. Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science. Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University.
    Samuelsson, Karl
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Supporting bottom-up human agency for adapting to climate change2020In: One Earth, ISSN 2590-3330, E-ISSN 2590-3322, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 392-395Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The metric focus of sustainability thinking is at risk of downplaying the role of climate-change adaptation as a strategy complementary to climate-change mitigation. The upcoming 26th session of the Conference of the Parties (COP26) needs to explore how adaptation based on human agency could contribute to dealing with climate change.

  • 42.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science. Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholms Universitet; Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science. Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholms Universitet.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Wicked Problems of Smart Cities2019In: Smart Cities, ISSN 2624-6511, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 512-521Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is often uncritically assumed that, when digital technologies are integrated into the operation of city functions, they inevitably contribute to sustainable urban development. Such a notion rests largely on the belief that Information and Communication Technology (ICT) solutions pave the way for more democratic forms of planning, and that ‘smart’ technological devices result in a range of environmental benefits, e.g., energy efficiency and the mitigation of global warming. Drawing on the scientific literature that deals with ‘smart cities’, we here elaborate on how both propositions fail to consider drawbacks that could be characterized as ‘wicked’, i.e., problems that lack simplistic solutions and straightforward planning responses, and which often come about as ‘management surprises’, as a byproduct of achieving sustainability. We here deal with problems related to public choice constraints, ‘non-choice default technologies’ and the costs of automation for human learning and resilience. To avoid undemocratic forms of planning and too strong a dependence on non-choice default technologies, e.g., smart phones, we recommend that planners and policy makers safeguard redundancy in public-choice options by maintaining a wide range of alternative choices, including analog ones. Resilience thinking could help planners deal more effectively with the ‘wickedness’ of an increasingly hyper-connected society.

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  • 43.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science. Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Colding, Magnus
    Colding Digital Teknik AB, Sweden.
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science. Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Applying seven resilience principles on the Vision of the Digital City2020In: Cities, ISSN 0264-2751, E-ISSN 1873-6084, Vol. 103, article id 102761Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science. Beijerinstitutet för Ekologisk Ekonomi, KVA.
    Giusti, Matteo
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Haga, Andreas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Wallhagen, Marita
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science. Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholms universitet.
    Enabling relationships with nature in cities2020In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, article id 4394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Limited exposure to direct nature experiences is a worrying sign of urbanization, particularly for children. Experiencing nature during childhood shapes aspects of a personal relationship with nature, crucial for sustainable decision-making processes in adulthood. Scholars often stress the need to ‘reconnect’ urban dwellers with nature; however, few elaborate on how this can be achieved. Here, we argue that nature reconnection requires urban ecosystems, with a capacity to enable environmental learning in the cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains, i.e., learning that occurs in the head, heart and hands of individuals. Drawing on environmental psychology, urban ecology, institutional analysis and urban planning, we present a theoretical framework for Human–Nature Connection (HNC), discuss the importance of nurturing HNC for children, elaborate on the role of property-rights and the importance of creating collective action arenas in cities for the promotion of urban resilience building. As values and environmental preconceptions underly environmental behavior, there are limits to achieving HNC in cities, as presumptive sentiments toward nature not always are positive. We end by discussing the role of new digital technologies in relation to HNC, and conclude by summarizing the major points brought forward herein, offering policy recommendations for HNC as a resilience strategy that can be adopted in cities throughout the world.

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  • 45.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science. Beijerinstitutet för Ekologisk Ekonomi, KVA.
    Gren, Åsa
    Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science. Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University.
    The Incremental Demise of Urban Green Spaces2020In: Land, E-ISSN 2073-445X, Vol. 9, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    More precise explanations are needed to better understand why public green spaces are diminishing in cities, leading to the loss of ecosystem services that humans receive from natural systems. This paper is devoted to the incremental change of green spaces—a fate that is largely undetectable by urban residents. The paper elucidates a set of drivers resulting in the subtle loss of urban green spaces and elaborates on the consequences of this for resilience planning of ecosystem services. Incremental changes of greenspace trigger baseline shifts, where each generation of humans tends to take the current condition of an ecosystem as the normal state, disregarding its previous states. Even well-intended political land-use decisions, such as current privatization schemes, can cumulatively result in undesirable societal outcomes, leading to a gradual loss of opportunities for nature experience. Alfred E. Kahn referred to such decision making as ‘the tyranny of small decisions.’ This is mirrored in urban planning as problems that are dealt with in an ad hoc manner with no officially formulated vision for long-term spatial planning. Urban common property systems could provide interim solutions for local governments to survive periods of fiscal shortfalls. Transfer of proprietor rights to civil society groups can enhance the resilience of ecosystem services in cities.

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  • 46.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Marcus, Lars
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Promoting Partnership between Urban Design and Urban Ecology through Social-Ecological Resilience Building2021In: Urban Transition - Perspectives on Urban Systems and Environments / [ed] M. Wallhagen and M. Cehlin, InTech, 2021Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science. The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
    Samuelsson, Karl
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Marcus, Lars
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Gren, Åsa
    The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
    Legeby, Ann
    School of Architecture, KTH.
    Berghauser Pont, Meta
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science. Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University.
    Frontiers in Social–Ecological Urbanism2022In: Land, E-ISSN 2073-445X, Vol. 11, no 6, article id 929Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a new approach in urban ecological design, referred to as social- ecological urbanism (SEU). It draws from research in resilience thinking and space syntax in the analysis of relationships between urban processes and urban form at the microlevel of cities, where social and ecological services are directly experienced by urban dwellers. The paper elaborates on three types of media for urban designers to intervene in urban systems, including urban form, institutions, and discourse, that together function as a significant enabler of urban change. The paper ends by presenting four future research frontiers with a potential to advance the field of social-ecological urbanism: (1) urban density and critical biodiversity thresholds, (2) human and non-human movement in urban space, (3) the retrofitting of urban design, and (4) reversing the trend of urban ecological illiteracy through affordance designs that connect people with nature and with each other.

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  • 48.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Sjöberg, Stefan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Social Work.
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Svensson-Wiklander, Maria
    Rex, Anna
    Andersson, Per
    Nordin, Katarina
    Rättviseperspektiv på digitaliseringens roll för omställning mot ett fossilfritt Sverige: Kunskapsunderlag2023Report (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science. Beijerinstitutet för Ekologisk Ekonomi, KVA.
    Wallhagen, Marita
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Marcus, Lars
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Hillman, Karl
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Samuelsson, Karl
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science. Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University.
    Applying a Systems Perspective on the Notion of the Smart City2020In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 3, no 2, article id 22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on the need for a widened definition of the notion of technology within the smart city discourse, with a particular focus on the “built environment”. The first part of the paper describes how current tendencies in urban design and architecture are inclined to prioritize high tech-solutions at the expense of low-tech functionalities and omits that information and communication technology (ICT) contrasts the art of building cities as an adaptable and habitually smart technology in itself. It continues with an elaboration on the need for expanding the limits of system boundaries for a better understanding of the energy and material telecouplings that are linked to ICT solutions and account for some perils inherent in smart technologies, such as rebound effects and the difficulty of measuring the environmental impacts of ICT solutions on a city level. The second part of the paper highlights how low-tech technologies and nature-based solutions can make cities smarter, representing a new technology portfolio in national and international policies for safeguarding biodiversity and the delivery of a range of ecosystem services, promoting the necessary climate-change adaption that cities need to prioritize to confer resilience.

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  • 50.
    Cong, Cong
    et al.
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA; University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL, USA.
    Pan, Haozhi
    Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China.
    Page, Jessica
    Stockholm University.
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science. Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kalantari, Zahra
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Modeling place-based nature-based solutions to promote urban carbon neutrality2023In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 52, p. 1297-1313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nature-based solutions (NbS) are recognized as widely available and cost-effective mechanisms for sequestering carbon and offsetting carbon emissions. Realistic NbS implementations for carbon neutrality need to be effective at the global level and also appropriate for the socio-economic and physical conditions prevailing at the local level. This paper presents a framework that can help stakeholders identify demands, locations, and types of NbS interventions that could maximize NbS benefits at the local scale. Key processes in the framework include (1) interpolating carbon emissions data at larger spatial scales to high-resolution cells, using land use and socio-economic data; (2) assessing NbS effects on carbon reduction and their location-related suitability, through qualitative literature review, and (3) spatially allocating and coupling multiple NbS interventions to land use cells. The system was tested in Stockholm, Sweden. The findings show that the urban center should be allocated with combinations of improving access to green spaces and streetscapes, while the rural and suburban areas should prioritize preserving and utilizing natural areas. Our proposed method framework can help planners better select target locations for intended risk/hazard-mitigating interventions.

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