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  • 1.
    Arfan, Muhammad
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap. 202100-2890.
    Biogas Value Chain in Gävleborg: Feedstock, Production and Use2019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This report aims to identify the current status and future opportunities for biogas as an alternative fuel for road transport in the Gävleborg region. The regional actors along the value chain are mapped by their role in feedstock supply, production and use of the biogas. Mapping and analysis of biogas development generally in Sweden and particularly in the Gävleborg region has been conducted primarily through literature, national and regional statistics and through interviews with the regional actors. About 15 companies were reached through emails and phone calls during the interview process.

    In 2017, about 3.5-4.0 million Nm3 of raw biogas (50-65% CH4) was produced in the region of which 3.6 GWh was upgraded. The region has two plants with upgrading facilities, one in Forsbacka, which produces gas mainly from food waste and Duvbacken, the wastewater treatment plant in Gävle. The gas produced at these two big facilities is upgraded and mostly used as transport fuel in the region, and for the industry. Gas produced from other sources is either used for heat and electricity production or flared to avoid methane emissions to the environment. The region has 14 buses and more than 500 other vehicles running on biogas. The gas infrastructure is not well developed in the region except for two filling stations situated in Gävle and Forsbacka. However, some developments on building biogas infrastructure for transport are in process.

    Analysis of interviews with actors and literature studies revealed that the region has much more feedstock for biogas production than used in the currently installed capacity of biogas technologies. Many actors showed great interest in its use as transport fuel but had very serious concerns about its future scope. Lack of supporting infrastructure such as filling stations, very low market demand and regional long-term strategies on biogas as transport fuel are considered barriers in the sector´s further development in the region. The value chain actors need to work more closely to get the most out of this valuable resource. Additionally, future planning on biogas should also consider its other uses such as an energy source for manufacturing industry, shipping and as raw material for chemicals or intermediate products.

  • 2.
    Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap. Stockholm University.
    Isendahl, Christian
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Vis, Ben
    University of Kent, UK.
    Drescher, Axel
    University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Germany.
    Evans, Dan
    Lancaster University, UK.
    van Timmeren, Arjan
    TU Delft, The Netherlands.
    Global urbanization and food production in direct competition for land: Leverage places to mitigate impacts on SDG2 and on the Earth System2019Inngår i: The Anthropocene Review, ISSN 2053-0196, Vol. 6, nr 1-2, s. 71-97Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Global urbanization and food production are in direct competition for land. This paper carries outa critical review of how displacing crop production from urban and peri-urban land to other areas– because of issues related to soil quality – will demand a substantially larger proportion of theEarth’s terrestrial land surface than the surface area lost to urban encroachment. Such relationshipsmay trigger further distancing effects and unfair social-ecological teleconnections. It risks also settingin motion amplifying effects within the Earth System. In combination, such multiple stressors set thescene for food riots in cities of the Global South. Our review identifies viable leverage points on whichto act in order to navigate urban expansion away from fertile croplands. We first elaborate on thepolitical complexities in declaring urban and peri-urban lands with fertile soils as one global commons.We find that the combination of an advisory global policy aligned with regional policies enablingrobust common properties rights for bottom-up actors and movements in urban and peri-urbanagriculture (UPA) as multi-level leverage places to intervene. To substantiate the ability of aligningglobal advisory policy with regional planning, we review both past and contemporary examples whereempowering local social-ecological UPA practices and circular economies have had a stimulatingeffect on urban resilience and helped preserve, restore, and maintain urban lands with healthy soils.

  • 3.
    Braat-Eggen, Ella
    et al.
    Avans University of Applied Sciences, Tilburg, the Netherlands; Eindhoven University of Technology, the Netherlands .
    Keus van de Poll, Marijke
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap.
    Hornikx, Maarten
    Eindhoven University of Technology, the Netherlands.
    Kohlrausch, Armin
    Eindhoven University of Technology, the Netherlands.
    Auditory distraction in open-plan study environments: Effects of background speech and reverberation time on a collaboration task2019Inngår i: Applied Acoustics, ISSN 0003-682X, E-ISSN 1872-910X, Vol. 154, s. 148-160Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown that semantic-based tasks are negatively influenced by semantic aspects in background speech. Collaboration is an important task in open-plan study environments and is a semantic task which might be disrupted by background speech. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the influence of irrelevant background speech on student-collaboration. Participants worked in pairs to solve spot-the-difference puzzles, by using the 'DiapixUK' collaboration task, while they were exposed to different background sound scenarios. The composed sound scenarios varied in semantic content (mother tongue and foreign language background speech)and reverberation time (short vs long), the latter affecting speech intelligibility. Although a longer reverberation time decreases the intelligibility of background speech and a foreign language decreases meaningfulness of speech, no significant changes in performance were found. On the other hand, the data show an increased perceived disturbance for a longer reverberation time, which we interpret as an increased difficulty of interpersonal communication in the collaboration task due to the increased level of the background speech. The quiet reference condition was the most preferred sound condition which is in line with both the effect of a low background sound level and the absence of semantic interference. 

  • 4.
    Carlos-Pinedo, Sandra
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap.
    Wang, Zhao
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap.
    Eriksson, Ola
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap.
    Methane yield from SS-AD: Experiences to learn by a full spectrum analysis at laboratory-, pilot- and full-scale2019Inngår i: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 127, artikkel-id 105270Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Solid-state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD) takes place when solid content of the substrate is higher than 15%. Some advantages of this technology have been recognized as e.g., less required water added to raw feedstock and consequently minimized digester size and cost, higher volumetric organic loading rates (OLR) that may lead to higher efficiency methane yield and better acceptance of a wide range of feedstocks. However, scientific studies of SS-AD at pilot- and full-scale are very few and difficulties have been reported in operating SS-AD, especially when the system undergoes a scale-up, where methane production is the purpose. As a result, this review gives a summary of scientific studies for SS-AD processes at laboratory-, pilot- and full-scale, where a great diversity of substrate composition, reactor design and operational parameters have been categorized, and their performances in terms of methane yield have been analyzed. This, in turn, helps to identify that factors affecting methane yields at different scales arise mainly from operational conditions as well as the characteristic of feedstocks. This review even contributes to suggest several strategies for improvement of methane yield at full-scale.

  • 5.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap. The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap. Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Exploring the social-ecological systems discourse 20 years later2019Inngår i: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 24, nr 1, s. 423-432, artikkel-id 2Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the 20-year evolution of the social-ecological systems framework (SESs). Although a first definition of SES dates back to 1988, Berkes and Folke more thoroughly used the concept in 1998 to analyze resilience in local resource management systems. Since then studies of interlinked human and natural systems have emerged as a field on its own right, promoting interdisciplinary dialogue and collaboration in a wide set of fields and practices. As the SES concept celebrates its 20-year existence we decided to make an overview of how authors use the concept in relation to research that deals with social and ecological linkages. Hence, we conducted a review of the SES concept using the Scopus database, analyzing a random set of journal articles on social-ecological systems (n = 50) regarding definitions of SES, authors’ main sources of inspiration in using the concept, as well as document type, subject area, and other relevant information. Although there is a steady increase of SES publications, we found that 61% of the papers analyzed did not even provide a definition of the term social-ecological system(s), a shortcoming that makes case comparisons difficult and reduces the usefulness of the concept. We also found three common SES frameworks that authors seem to be most commonly inspired by, referred to here as the original, the robustness, and multitier frameworks, respectively. The first can be characterized as a descriptive framework, the latter two more as diagnostic frameworks, useful for modeling. Although it would be a bit presumptuous of us to come up with a more thorough definition of the SES concept in this paper, we urge SES scholars to be more meticulous in making explicit what they mean by a social-ecological system when conducting SES research. 

  • 6.
    Elliott, Emily M.
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA.
    Marsh, John E.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap. University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Zeringue, Jenna
    Department of Psychology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA.
    McGill, Corey I.
    Department of Psychology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA.
    Are individual differences in auditory processing related to auditory distraction by irrelevant sound?: A replication study2019Inngår i: Memory & Cognition, ISSN 0090-502X, E-ISSN 1532-5946Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Irrelevant sounds can be very distracting, especially when trying to recall information according to its serial order. The irrelevant sound effect (ISE) has been studied in the literature for more than 40 years, yet many questions remain. One goal that has received little attention involves the discernment of a predictive factor, or individual difference characteristic, that would help to determine the size of the ISE. The current experiments were designed to replicate and extend prior work by Macken, Phelps, and Jones (Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 16, 139-144, 2009), who demonstrated a significant predictive relationship between the size of the ISE and a type of auditory processing called global pattern matching. The authors also found a relationship between auditory processing involving deliberate recoding of sounds and serial order recall performance in silence. Across two experiments, this dissociation was not replicated. Additionally, the two types of auditory processing were not significantly correlated with each other. The lack of a clear pattern of findings replicating the Macken et al. (Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 16, 139-144, 2009) study raises several questions regarding the need for future research on the characteristics of these auditory processing tasks, and the stability of the measurement of the ISE itself.

  • 7.
    Eriksson, Christoffer
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap.
    Khorshed, Dorothy
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap.
    Fallstudie om hur Gävle kommun kan minska sitt dricksvattensvinn2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    To ensure sustainable development UN approved 17 sustainable development goals in the year of 2015, in which goal six specifies to ensure water and sanitation for all, and specified in goal six target indicator four, in a more effective way. To have an average of 24% in losses of the total amount of produced drinking water in Sweden is not effective, and Gävle municipality isn´t any better with their recorded drinking water wastage between 28-40% the last years. A big part of the losses of drinking water are assumed to be water that the municipality uses within their daily work such as rinsing of the drinking water network and inadequate measurements of the used drinking water. The aim of this study is to create groundwork for an action plan for how Gästrike Vatten can work to minimize their drinking water losses in Gävle municipality.To identify what the organization considers to be most important is a good first step in creating an action plan, to then select key elements to which goals can be phrased to ese future comparisons with similar organizations. Through internet research, surveys, interviews, computer analysis, in addition literature searches Gävle munici-palities condition of soil, dimensions- and materials of the drinking water network have been established.Gävle Vatten works actively to reduce their commercial drinking water losses by sealing water hydrants and installing water kiosks all around the municipality. The first step to localize leaks in the network is by district division which seven out of the eight respondents use. Acoustic leak detection is the most common secondary step to localize leaks more accurately that Gävle municipality uses, however certain difficulties can emerge. Most of the new drinking water pipelines are made from plastic, which has a lower sound conductivity then pipelines made from metal.It is a continual process to reduce ones drinking water losses to an acceptable level, one which Gävle municipality has already started. To potentiate the effect of their work an action plan is recommended within the organization to identify goals and ways to achieve them so that the company’s resources can be distributed accord-ingly. Their next step can be to work with active leak detection, more specifically with gas injection that works well on metal as well as plastic pipelines. To acquire more accurate measurements of the consumed drinking water, digital water meters are recommended at the consumers.The authors believe that Gävle municipality has good conditions to continue devel-oping their work to minimize their drinking water losses.

  • 8.
    Falk Dikici, Selina
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap.
    Visualisering och kvantifiering av klorparaffiner: En studie av flödet av klorparaffiner på Rörverk 98, Sandvik AB2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Sandvik AB är en industrikoncern med verksamheter i hela världen. Ett av företagets tre affärsområden, Sandvik Materials Technology, utvecklar och tillverkar produkter av rostfritt stål. Inom produktionen strävar de efter att byta ut farliga material/sub-stanser mot mindre farliga alternativ eller minimera användningen av farliga ämnen. Ett misstänkt miljöfarligt ämne som används inom industrin är klorparaffiner. Sand-vik AB tillverkar sömlösa rostfria rör med stegvalsning, där används klorparaffiner (klorolja) som smörj-, och kylmedel och dessa har en viktig roll för produktionen och för produktiviteten. Sandvik AB använder sig av klorolja innehållande lång-kedjiga klorparaffiner. Vid stegvalsning adderas smörjmedlet i samband med de akti-viteter som gör att stålrören kommer i kontakt med stålverktygen. Syftet med stu-dien var att utföra en kartläggning över flödet av klorparaffiner på ett av Sandviks rörverk, Rörverk 98. Detta har utförts genom att applicera metoden substansflö-desanalys (SFA), som är ett verktyg som används för analysera en enskild substans i ett givet system. I denna studie tillämpandes SFA genom sex steg. I steg 1 och 2 de-finierades studiemål samt system. Målet var att förmedla nya dimensioner av in-formation till företaget samt att tillvägagångssättet skulle redovisas tydligt och utför-ligt. Systemdefinitionen var att undersöka klorparaffinflödet, på Rörverk 98, under 28 månader. I steg 3 och 4 genomfördes en inventering och design av flödesschema. Inventeringen har utförts genom en litteraturöversikt av Sandvik ABs rapportering samt studiebesök med intervjuer på rörverket. Med uppgifter från inventeringen skapades ett flödesschema och flöden kvantifierades. I steg 5 beräknades massbalan-sen mellan inkommande flöden och utgående flöden med la-ger, detta är det pri-mära flödet. I sista steget, steg 6, tolkades resultatet genom att applicera HS-metoden som används för att beräkna resultatens osäkerhetsintervall. Osäkerhetsin-vervallen används för att beräkna ett minsta möjligt flöde samt ett största möjligt flöde. Resultatet av kartläggningen har visualiserats genom att skapa en överskådlig bild över systemet och klorparaffinflödet samt risk för spill på/från rörverket. Inom studiens systemgräns identifieras det att det finns risk för spridning via emissioner till luft samt vid dropp från kranar utanför anläggningen. Massbalansen resulterade i ett primärt flöde med differens på 2,2 % kg Cl mellan inkommande flöde och utgå-ende flöde med lager. Differensen kan bero på inkorrektheter i inventerad data eller kunskapsluckor såsom okända utsläpp av substansen. Förbättringsförslag har lagts fram för att tillit till resultatet ska bli större i framtiden. Förbättringsåtgärderna in-nebär att Sandvik AB ska genomföra regelbunden dokumenterad inventering av flö-den och lager, och därigenom få en större insikt i klorparaffinflödet. Bristande till-gång till information om substansen gjorde det svårt att avgöra hur substansen kan reagera vid olika förhållanden i rörverkets produktion. Det krävs framtida studier som fastställer långkedjiga klorparaffiners egenskaper och miljöpåverkan.

  • 9.
    Gren, Åsa
    et al.
    The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Colding, Johan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap. The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; The Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Berghauser-Pont, Meta
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Marcus, Lars
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    How smart is smart growth?: Examining the environmental validation behind city compaction2019Inngår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 48, nr 6, s. 580-589Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart growth (SG) is widely adopted by planners and policy makers as an environmentally friendly way of building cities. In this paper, we analyze the environmental validity of the SG-approach based on a review of the scientific literature. We found a lack of proof of environmental gains, in combination with a great inconsistency in the measurements of different SG attributes. We found that a surprisingly limited number of studies have actually examined the environmental rationales behind SG, with 34% of those studies displaying negative environmental outcomes of SG. Based on the insights from the review, we propose that research within this context must first be founded in more advanced and consistent knowledge of geographic and spatial analyses. Second, it needs to a greater degree be based on a system's understanding of urban processes. Third, it needs to aim at making cities more resilient, e.g., against climate-change effects.

  • 10.
    Guven, Huseyin
    et al.
    Istanbul Technical University, Civil Engineering Faculty, Environmental Engineering Department, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Wang, Zhao
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap.
    Eriksson, Ola
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap.
    Evaluation of future food waste management alternatives in Istanbul from the life cycle assessment perspective2019Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 239, artikkel-id 117999Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In developing countries like Turkey, food waste has the highest share compared to other municipal solid waste components. A detailed life cycle assessment has been performed to evaluate different food waste management options (i.e., landfilling, anaerobic digestion, thermal treatment, co-treatment with municipal wastewater) for Istanbul which is the largest city of Turkey and Europe. The current waste management has the worst environmental performance compared to proposed waste management scenarios as follows: Anaerobic digestion, thermal treatment and co-treatment with municipal wastewater. The thermal treatment scenario has been found to have the best environmental performance in most of the impact categories including climate change. The anaerobic digestion scenario ranks in the first place only in freshwater eutrophication, which is attributed to avoided fertilizer use in this scenario. A drastic improvement with 866% has been found in this category if the anaerobic digestion scenario was followed. Co-treatment with municipal wastewater refers to use of food waste disposers at households and provides improvements especially in marine eutrophication and ecotoxicity. Lower effluent emissions by means of biological wastewater treatment in the co-treatment scenario compared to other proposed scenarios lead to better performance in these categories. Various sub-scenarios have also been investigated such as using biogas as vehicle fuel, replacing a combined heat and power with a condensing plant and increasing food waste addition to sewer lines. Important improvements are not achievable in the first two sub-scenarios; however, increasing food waste addition to sewer lines reduces various environmental impact categories by −41% and −60%. © 2019 Elsevier Ltd

  • 11.
    Holmgren, Mattias
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap.
    Kabanshi, Alan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Langeborg, Linda
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Psykologi.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap.
    Colding, Johan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap. Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Ola
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap.
    Deceptive sustainability: Cognitive bias in people's judgment of the benefits of CO2 emission cuts2019Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Psychology, ISSN 0272-4944, E-ISSN 1522-9610, Vol. 64, s. 48-55Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    People's beliefs in the actions necessary to reduce anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are important to public policy acceptability. The current paper addressed beliefs concerning how periods of small emission cuts contribute to the total CO2 concentration in the atmosphere, by asking participants to rate the atmospheric CO2 concentration for various time periods and emission rates. The participants thought that a time period with higher emission rates combined with a period of lower emission rates generates less atmospheric CO2 in total, compared to the period with high emission rates alone – demonstrating a negative footprint illusion (Study 1). The participants appeared to base their CO2 estimates on the average, rather than on the accumulated sum, of the two periods' emissions – i.e. an averaging bias (Study 2). Moreover, the effect was robust to the wordings of the problem presented to the participants (Study 3). Together, these studies suggest that the averaging bias makes people exaggerate the benefits of small emission cuts. The averaging bias could make people willing to accept policies that reduce emission rates although insufficiently to alleviate global warming.

  • 12.
    Hughes, Robert W.
    et al.
    Deparment of Psychology, University of London, Egham, UK.
    Marsh, John Everett
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap. School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    When is forewarned forearmed?: Predicting auditory distraction in short-term memory2019Inngår i: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory and Cognition, ISSN 0278-7393, E-ISSN 1939-1285Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Two experiments critically examined a predictive-coding based account of the vulnerability of short-term memory to auditory distraction, particularly the disruptive effect of changing-state sound on verbal serial recall. Experiment 1 showed that providing participants with the opportunity to predict the contents of an imminent spoken distractor sentence via a forewarning reduced its particularly disruptive effect but only to the same level of disruption as that produced by ‘simpler’ changing-state sequences (a sequence of letter-names). Moreover, a post-categorically unpredictable changing-state sequence (e.g., “F, B, H, E …”) was no more disruptive than a post-categorically predictable sequence (“A, B, C, D …”). Experiment 2 showed that a sentence distractor was disruptive regardless of whether participants reported adopting a serial rehearsal strategy to perform the focal task (in this case, a missing-item task) whereas, critically, the disruptive effect of simpler changing-state sequences was only found in participants who reported using a serial rehearsal strategy. Moreover, when serial rehearsal was not used to perform the focal task, the disruptive effect of sentences was completely abolished by a forewarning. These results indicate that predictability plays no role in the classical changing-state irrelevant sound effect and that foreknowledge selectively attenuates a functionally distinct stimulus-specific attentional-diversion effect. As such, the results are at odds with a unitary, attentional, account of auditory distraction in short-term memory and instead strongly support a duplex-mechanism account.

  • 13.
    Isendahl, Christian
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Department of Historical Studies, Archaeology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap. Stockholm Resilience Center, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Archaeology, history, and urban food security Integrating cross-cultural and long-term perspectives2018Inngår i: ROUTLEDGE HANDBOOK OF LANDSCAPE AND FOOD / [ed] Zeunert, J; Waterman, T, ROUTLEDGE , 2018, s. 61-72Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 14.
    Jahncke, Helena
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Keus van de Poll, Marijke
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap.
    Viktiga frågor glöms bort i debatten om kontorslandskap2019Inngår i: Göteborgs-Posten, ISSN 1103-9345, nr 18-sepArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 15.
    Jakobsson, Malin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap.
    Lund, Elin
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap.
    Organisatoriska förutsättningar vid implementering av kommunala miljöstrategier2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The following study deals with organizational conditions that affect the implementation of municipal environmental strategies. It aims to increase understanding of and contribute with material of empirical studies of implementing the environmental responsibility of municipalities. The aim of the study was to identify how organizational conditions affect the implementation of environmental strategies and to present solutions to how municipalities can handle the challenges that occur when environmental strategy work is to be incorporated and implemented in a municipality. In order to provide answers to whether there were any, and in that case which, organizational conditions that could promote or hinder municipalities' ability to implement environmental strategies, a literature study and a case study of a medium-sized Swedish municipality was conducted with the aim of collecting experience-based knowledge. The result shows that it is difficult to point out the influence of individual organizational conditions on the implementation process, as they interact. However, the implications are that the organization's structure, culture and leadership influence the work process. Limitation of or the uncertainty on access to resources is highlighted as an obstacle in the work with the environmental strategy. It is pointed out that it will most likely not be an increased resource supply, but instead it is necessary to prioritize what the tax money will be used for. Furthermore, the existence of target conflicts has proved to be a challenge that municipalities need to handle. Target conflicts have been spotted between environmental goals and other municipal goals. Because municipalities generally work on the basis of many, and sometimes conflicting, goals, the ability to prioritize is central. To succeed with the environmental work, municipalities are recommended to identify and enable synergies between the environmental goals and other welfare goals.

  • 16.
    Jönsson, Petra
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap.
    Mattsson, Julia
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap.
    "Jag har inget emot kollektivtrafiken om jag säger så, men...": En kvalitativ studie om män och kvinnors resvanor och inställningar till arbetspendling2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The traffic sector is responsible for the greatest amount of greenhouse emissions in Sweden because of its combustion of fossil fuels. Sandviken is the municipality in Gävleborg county that uses the least amount of public transportation in form of bus traffic. The aim of this study is to gain an understanding through qualitative research how the individual looks and reflects upon their own commuting, and to identify which factors that mostly affects the individuals commuting habits. The study is geo-graphically delimited to look to Sandbacka Park. The amount of interview partici-pants was in total 18, seven women and eleven men. The main themes that could be identified from the interviews was stress, environmental awareness, flexibility, effi-ciency and control. The average distance to the workplace was about 19,25 km. In total stated 73% of men and 57% of women that car was the main mode of transport to the workplace. This means that more men than women travelled by car to the workplace, and also show more positive feeling to car use. Many of the par-ticipants of the interview had knowledge of climate change and the connection it has to transportation but could still defend their own individual car use. Some of the men that were interviewed claimed to have a greater need of flexibility and maintain status, which can be an explanation as to why the need of car use is greater with men than women. 42% of women and 27% of men commutes which more sustainable modes of transportation, such as public transportation and walking or bicycling. Two of the women who commuted with public transportation expressed content with their mode of transportation. They had also during the interviews mentioned an environmental awareness, which shows that there is a connection between mak-ing sustainable choices and being content with the chosen more sustainable mode of transportation. The results from Sandbacka Park is generalizable to other work-places with the same kind of prerequisites. This study shows that men have more positive emotions connected to car use and uses the car more as a mode of commut-ing to work. During future studies it may be of importance to focus more on longer interviews timewise to create an even greater understanding of the individuals need and prerequisites when commuting. With a greater sample size a more generalisable result could have been achieved.Key words: Commuting, stress, public transportation, commute mode, travel mode choice, gender

  • 17.
    Keus van de Poll, Marijke
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap.
    Sjödin, Louise
    Gösta Ekman Laboratory, Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Mats
    Gösta Ekman Laboratory, Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Disruption of writing by background speech: does sound source location and number of voices matter?2019Inngår i: Applied Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0888-4080, E-ISSN 1099-0720, Vol. 33, nr 4, s. 537-543Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It is not unusual that people have to write in an environment where background speech is present. Background speech can vary in both speech intelligibility and location of the sound source. Earlier research has shown disruptive effects of background speech on writing performance. To expand and reinforce this knowledge, the present study investigated the role of number of voices and sound source location in the relation between background speech and writing performance. Participants wrote texts in quiet or in background speech existing of one or seven voices talking simultaneously, located in front of or behind them. Overall, one voice was more disruptive than seven voices talking simultaneously. Self-reports showed that sound from the front was more disruptive compared to sound from behind. Results are in line with theory of interference-by-process, attentional capture and the cross-modal theory of attention. The relevance of the results for open-office environments is discussed.

  • 18.
    Lilja, Grace
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap.
    Appelgren, Victoria
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap.
    Strategiskt arbete med att minska invasiva växtarters spridningsrisker: Klimatförändringar och trädgårdsavfallets inverkan på spridning2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Invasive species are an increasing problem worldwide, threatening indigenous communities and species. In a world where people travel and trade a lot in a global market, many organisms are transported to new parts of the world where they have never existed before. Most do not survive in the new environment but die, but some thrive and thrive. When such species are established and multiply in places outside their natural range, it can be followed by negative consequences for species that have existed there for a long time - so-called indigenous species. Then the new species are often called alien invasive species. An example of this is the beautiful and colourful plant flower lupin (Lupinus polyphyllus)that people on their travels brought with them from North America, among other things, Europe. Global warming and increased trade between countries is the main reason why foreign species are introduced to new ecosystems while climate change means that habitats can change to become more suitable for an invasive alien species. The invasive species currently causes major economic losses worldwide. Lupins, park slides, and giant sheds are examples of invasive plants that have been introduced in European gardens because they are beautiful and easy to care for. They are also invasive, spread aggressively and are detrimental to our nature because they penetrate our native species. To stop these invasive plants and from damaging Europe's nature, the EU countries have decided to take action against certain species. On January 1, 2015, the EU adopted a regulation on invasive alien species and how to combat it within the Union. On February 5, 2016, the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency submitted the Authority's proposal to the Swedish Government on new rules and measures on how to stop invasive harmful species. Already today, great resources are being devoted to combating invading plants such in our nature reserves. However, an early preventive or direct targeted intervention is much more cost effective than a continuous control of unwanted, invasive species with well-established populations. In order to succeed in this, we need an increased awareness of the problem of alien, invasive species among the public and decision makers, but also a sharp global analysis. Only with knowledge and continuous monitoring can we put in early action against future, aggressive invaders.

  • 19.
    MacCutcheon, Douglas
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap.
    Hurtig, Anders
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap.
    Pausch, Florian
    Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Hygge, Staffan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap.
    Fels, Janina
    Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Ljung, Robert
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap.
    Second language vocabulary level is related to benefits for second language listening comprehension under lower reverberation time conditions2019Inngår i: Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, E-ISSN 2044-592X, Vol. 31, nr 2, s. 175-185Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The acoustic qualities of a room can have a deleterious effect on the quality of speech signals. The acoustic measurement of reverberation time (RT) has shown to impact second language (L2) speech comprehension positively when lower due to release from spectral and temporal masking effects as well as top-down processing factors. This auralization experiment investigated the benefits of better L2 vocabulary and executive function (updating) skills during L2 listening comprehension tests under shorter versus longer RT conditions (0.3 and 0.9 s). 57 bilingual university students undertook L2 vocabulary, number updating and L2 listening comprehension tests. After splitting groups into high/low vocabulary and updating groups, a mixed ANOVA was conducted. The high number updating group showed no significant differences or interactions in L2 listening comprehension than the lower number updating group across RT conditions. The high vocabulary group had 22% better L2 listening comprehension than the low vocabulary group in long RT, and 9% better in short RT. A significant benefit in L2 listening comprehension due to release from reverberation was only evident in the high vocabulary group. Results indicate that the benefit of good room acoustics for listening comprehension is greatest for those with better language (vocabulary) ability.

  • 20.
    MacCutcheon, Douglas
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap.
    Pausch, Florian
    Medical Acoustics Group, Institute of Technical Acoustics, Rheinisch Westfalische Technische Hochschule Aachen, Germany.
    Füllgrabe, Christian
    School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, UK.
    Eccles, Renata
    Department of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology, University of Pretoria, South Africa.
    van der Linde, Jeannie
    Panebianco, Clorinda
    Department of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology, University of Pretoria, South Africa.
    Fels, Janina
    Medical Acoustics Group, Institute of Technical Acoustics, Rheinisch Westfalische Technische Hochschule Aachen, Germany.
    Ljung, Robert
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap.
    The contribution of individual differences in memory span and language ability to spatial release from masking in young children2019Inngår i: Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, ISSN 1092-4388, E-ISSN 1558-9102, Vol. 62, nr 10, s. 3741-3751Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Working memory capacity and language ability modulate speech reception; however, the respective roles of peripheral and cognitive processing are unclear. The contribution of individual differences in these abilities to utilization of spatial cues when separating speech from informational and energetic masking backgrounds in children has not yet been determined. Therefore, this study explored whether speech reception in children is modulated by environmental factors, such as the type of background noise and spatial configuration of target and noise sources, and individual differences in the cognitive and linguistic abilities of listeners.

    Method: Speech reception thresholds were assessed in 39 children aged 5-7 years in simulated school listening environments. Speech reception thresholds of target sentences spoken by an adult male consisting of number and color combinations were measured using an adaptive procedure, with speech-shaped white noise and single-talker backgrounds that were either collocated (target and back-ground at 0°) or spatially separated (target at 0°, background noise at 90° to the right). Spatial release from masking was assessed alongside memory span and expressive language.

    Results and Conclusion: Significant main effect results showed that speech reception thresholds were highest for informational maskers and collocated conditions. Significant interactions indicated that individual differences in memory span and language ability were related to spatial release from masking advantages. Specifically, individual differences in memory span and language were related to the utilization of spatial cues in separated conditions. Language differences were related to auditory stream segregation abilities in collocated conditions that lack helpful spatial cues, pointing to the utilization of language processes to make up for losses in spatial information.

  • 21.
    Magnusson, Peter
    et al.
    Centre for Research and Development, Uppsala University/Region Gävleborg, Gävle, Sweden; Cardiology Research Unit, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kihlström, Gabriella
    Centre for Research and Development, Uppsala University/Region Gävleborg, Gävle, Sweden.
    Wallhagen, Marita
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap.
    Rambaree, Komalsingh
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för socialt arbete och kriminologi, Socialt arbete.
    Life‐threatening peripartum cardiomyopathy — not expected when expecting2019Inngår i: Clinical Case Reports, E-ISSN 2050-0904, Vol. 7, nr 6, s. 1127-1132Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Peripartum cardiomyopathy is challenging to diagnose as it mimics symptoms present in normal pregnancy. The clinical course and prognosis are various. In selected cases, a cardioverter implantable defibrillator with/without cardiac resynchronization therapy, mechanical ventricular assist device treatment, and transplantation is indicated.

  • 22.
    Marcus, Lars
    et al.
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Architecture & Civil Engn, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Pont, Meta Berghauser
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Architecture & Civil Engn, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Barthel, Stephan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap. Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Towards a socio-ecological spatial morphology: integrating elements of urban morphology and landscape ecology2019Inngår i: Urban morphology, ISSN 1027-4278, Vol. 23, nr 2, s. 115-124Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The recent shift towards greater emphasis on biodiversity and urban ecosystems has increased the need for greater understanding of the green areas in cities as ecological environments. However, landscape ecology and urban morphology have yet to be integrated into a joint field. In this paper steps are taken towards developing an integrated socio-ecological urban morphology based on developments in each field. Such a morphology can inform professional practice in urban design. Comparisons of the different objects of description in the two fields are made and their different means of description - notably the patches, corridors and the matrix in landscape ecology, and the streets, plots and buildings in urban morphology. This provides a basis for a joint description in which these elements together form a configuration of patches.

  • 23.
    Marois, Alexandre
    et al.
    Université Laval, Québec, Canada.
    Marsh, John E.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap. University of Central Lancashire, Preston, United Kingdom.
    Vachon, François
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap. Université Laval, Québec, Canada.
    Is auditory distraction by changing-state and deviant sounds underpinned by the same mechanism?: Evidence from pupillometry2019Inngår i: Biological Psychology, ISSN 0301-0511, E-ISSN 1873-6246, Vol. 141, s. 64-74Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The mere presence of task-irrelevant auditory stimuli is known to interfere with cognitive functioning. Disruption can be caused by changing auditory distractors (the changing-state effect) or by a sound that deviates from the auditory background (the deviation effect). The unitary account of auditory distraction explains both phenomena in terms of attentional capture whereas the duplex-mechanism account posits that they reflect two fundamentally different forms of distraction in which only the deviation effect is caused by attentional capture. To test these predictions, we exploited a physiological index of attention orienting: the pupillary dilation response (PDR). Participants performed visual serial recall while ignoring sequences of spoken letters. These sequences either comprised repeated or changing letters, and one letter could sometimes be replaced by pink noise (the deviant). Recall was poorer in both changing-state and deviant trials. Interestingly, the PDR was elicited by deviant sounds but not changing-state sounds, while a tonic increase in pupil size was found throughout changing-state trials. This physiological dissociation of the changing-state and the deviation effects suggests they are subtended by distinct mechanisms thereby procuring support for the duplex-mechanism account over the unitary account. 

  • 24.
    Marsh, John E.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap. School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Campbell, Tom A.
    Faculty of Information Technology and Communication Sciences, Tampere UniversityTampereFinland.
    Vachon, François
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap. Université Laval, Quebec City, Canada.
    Taylor, Paul J.
    School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Hughes, Robert W.
    Department of Psychology, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, UK.
    How the deployment of visual attention modulates auditory distraction2019Inngår i: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, ISSN 1943-3921, E-ISSN 1943-393XArtikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Classically, attentional selectivity has been conceptualized as a passive by-product of capacity-limits on stimulus-processing. Here, we examine the role of more active cognitive control processes in attentional selectivity, focusing on how distraction from task-irrelevant sound is modulated by levels of task-engagement in a visually-presented short-term memory task. Task-engagement was varied by manipulating the load involved in the encoding of the (visually-presented) to-be-remembered items. Using a list of Navon letters (where a large letter is composed of smaller, different-identity, letters), participants were oriented to attend and serially recall the list of large letters (low encoding-load) or to attend and serially recall the list of small letters (high encoding-load). Attentional capture by a single deviant noise burst within a task-irrelevant tone sequence (the deviation effect) was eliminated under high encoding-load (Experiment 1). However, distraction from a continuously changing sequence of tones (the changing-state effect) was immune to the influence of load (Experiment 2). This dissociation in the amenability of the deviation effect and the changing-state effect to cognitive control supports a duplex- over a unitary-mechanism account of auditory distraction in which the deviation effect is due to attentional capture while the changing-state effect reflects direct interference between the processing of the sound and processes involved in the focal task. That the changing-state effect survives high encoding-load also goes against an alternative explanation of the attenuation of the deviation effect under high load in terms of the depletion of a limited perceptual resource that would result in diminished auditory processing.

  • 25.
    Marsh, John E.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap. School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, United Kingdom.
    Hansson, Patrik
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Körning Ljungberg, Jessica
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Division of Human Work Science, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Executive Processes Underpin the Bilingual Advantage on Phonemic Fluency: Evidence from Analyses of Switching and Clustering2019Inngår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, artikkel-id 1355Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Bilinguals often show a disadvantage in lexical access on verbal fluency tasks wherein the criteria require the production of words from semantic categories. However, the pattern is more heterogeneous for letter (phonemic) fluency wherein the task is to produce words beginning with a given letter. Here, bilinguals often outperform monolinguals. One explanation for this is that phonemic fluency, as compared with semantic fluency, is more greatly underpinned by executive processes and that bilinguals exhibit better performance on phonemic fluency due to better executive functions. In this study, we re-analyzed phonemic fluency data from the Betula study, scoring outputs according to two measures that purportedly reflect executive processes: clustering and switching. Consistent with the notion that bilinguals have superior executive processes and that these can be used to offset a bilingual disadvantage in verbal fluency, bilinguals (35-65 years at baseline) demonstrated greater switching and clustering throughout the 15-year study period.

  • 26.
    Norell, Pontus
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap.
    Prospects for biodiesel in Gävleborg County: Feedstocks and production2019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing emissions from the transport sector have become a global concern as these emissions contribute to climate change. One way to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the transport sector is to replace fossil fuels with biofuels. The diesel engine is important for transports in society, especially since it is more efficient and more powerful compared with the gasoline engine. Therefore, replacing fossil diesel with biodiesel is one feasible option for achieving short and long-term emission targets. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) and hydrotreated vegetable oils (HVO) are the two kinds of biodiesel being used in Sweden. The raw materials are vegetable and animal oils and fats and the production method is esterification for FAME and hydrotreatment for HVO. HVO is more similar to fossil diesel and higher blends can be used in existing diesel engines if the vehicle manufacturer has approved it whereas FAME requires vehicle modifications when used in higher blends. Both HVO and FAME can be used as drop-in fuel with fossil diesel, but only up to 7% for FAME according to regulations. The Swedish consumption of HVO has increased rapidly in recent years. In 2017 it was more than 20% of the total globally produced HVO that year. Furthermore, the dependence on imported raw materials is heavy. Only 3% of the raw materials for FAME and only 5% of the raw materials for HVO sold in Sweden were of Swedish origin in 2017.

    Since the feedstocks used for biodiesel production are of limited availability and have competing uses, it is important to increase the knowledge of local resources. The County of Gävleborg has many large forest-related industries. The actors at different levels of the supply chain have important roles in the challenges to reduce fossil fuel dependence. The overall aim of this report is to investigate the current status and future prospects of biodiesel feedstocks and production technologies for FAME and HVO from a regional perspective. This is achieved by two separate approaches. First, a literature review is done through which potential feedstocks and production processes are described. The feedstocks are categorized into different generations. Second, ongoing and upcoming activities related to biodiesel production in Gävleborg County are explored through interviews with regional actors. The interviewees are representatives from companies with activities in Gävleborg County: Setra, BillerudKorsnäs, Iggesund, Rottneros and Colabitoil.

    Raw materials belonging to the first generation compete with food production. For biodiesel these raw materials are different types of vegetable oils. The main ones worldwide are palm oil, soybean oil, rapeseed oil and sunflower oil. These raw materials can be used as feedstock for both FAME and HVO. In Sweden the agricultural activity is relatively low and even lower in Gävleborg County. The extensive use of land and competition with food production makes these type of raw materials for biodiesel production questionable. But arguments can be made that the vegetable oils have good traceability and this can lead to better control to ensure a sustainable biodiesel value chain.

    Second-generation raw materials are non-food based. There are a variety of different types. Some are already being used and some are potential biodiesel feedstocks for the future. The ones presented in this report are animal fats, fish oils, waste cooking oils (WCO), pyrolysis oil, lignin and crude tall oil (CTO). Animal fats and fish oils can also be considered first-generation raw materials since they might be edible. There are strict health regulations for human food and the fats and oils that do not live up to the regulations can be used for other purposes. Animal fats and fish oils can also be used as animal feed and production of different chemicals. It is not obvious which use is best, but generally it seems that biodiesel and other energy uses are regarded as the least valuable in comparison. An important issue to consider is that the availability of animal fats and fish oils depends on the demand for meat.

    WCO is a feedstock for biodiesel which is currently used by Colabitoil in their pilot plant for HVO. It seems that the profitability of using WCO is dependent on the production capacity of the WCO producers and the distance between them since these two factors affect the fuel consumption during collection. It is optimal to have one big WCO producer in order to minimize the collection costs. In theory, there could be a situation in which there are so many small producers that more fuel is required for collection than is gained in biodiesel production.

    Pyrolysis oil from biomass is an interesting future source for biodiesel. It is a heterogeneous mixture of compounds and contains a lot of oxygen. Pyrolysis oil is definitely a raw material that needs catalytic hydrotreatment for upgrading. It is therefore considered an HVO feedstock and not feasible for FAME. This study did not clarify how much pyrolysis oil will end up as diesel fuel and how much will end up as gasoline or other products. A pyrolysis plant for production of pyrolysis oil from sawdust might be built at Setra’s sawmill Kastet in Gävle. The pyrolysis oil will then be used as a feedstock for diesel and gasoline fuels in Preem’s refinery.

    Lignin is one of the main components of wood. In the production of pulp by the sulfate process lignin is separated from the pulp as a component in the black liquor. The lignin is then primarily burned for energy purposes in the recovery boiler. The three pulp mills within Gävleborg County all use the sulfate process. At the pulp mill owned by Rottneros in Vallvik a plant for extraction of lignin and a plant for conversion into a lignin oil might be built. This pulp mill has a surplus of energy and therefore a potential to extract some of the lignin. The lignin will be processed together with a bio-based carrier oil to the lignin oil. This lignin oil will then be used as a feedstock for gasoline and diesel fuel in Preem’s refinery. It was not clarified in this study what the source of the bio-based carrier oil will be. Additionally, the composition of the lignin oil was not revealed and therefore it could not be determined what share of it can be used for biodiesel production. Lignin oil is very interesting as a feedstock due to the large amount of lignin that is available in the forests. However, the interviews with the two other pulp mills (i.e., Iggesund and BillerudKorsnäs) showed that the availability is limited by other factors. These two pulp mills are integrated with production of paper products and therefore they have no surplus of energy. If lignin is extracted the energy has to be replaced by other sources. An eventual extraction of lignin is associated with reconstruction of different parts of the plant and thereby large investment costs.

    CTO is a by-product from pulp mills that use the sulfate process. It is of limited availability and consists mainly of fatty acids and rosin acids. The fatty acids can be converted to biodiesel. One way to utilize the components of CTO is to fractionate it into different product streams through distillation. These product streams include one stream with fatty acids, one stream with rosin acids and one stream called pitch. The pitch can be seen as a residue. There are two main refineries to which the three pulp mills in Gävleborg County deliver their CTO: Sunpine in Piteå and Kraton in Sandarne. Sunpine produces tall oil diesel and other products from the CTO, and the tall oil diesel is used for HVO production by Preem. Kraton produces different chemicals from the CTO. For all three pulp mills an important factor is to get tall oil pitch back from Sunpine and Kraton to be used for energy purposes.

    A potential source of lipids for biodiesel production was mentioned in the interview with Colabitoil. This was the conversion of lignocellulosic material into lipids by microbes. A particularly suitable feedstock for the microbes would be waste fibers from pulp and paper industries. This still appears to be at the research stage, but it will be interesting to follow the development since it has promising opportunities if it can be achieved at a commercial scale.

    Third-generation feedstocks for biodiesel are oils obtained from microalgae. Microalgae are potentially superior to the other raw materials. Biodiesel from microalgae is not commercially available so it is up to the future to determine its destiny. Due to the cold climate of Gävleborg County it is questionable if it is a good place for large-scale cultivation of microalgae.

    The optimal feedstock for FAME are triglycerides. Therefore, first-generation raw materials are wanted. Catalytic hydrotreatment can handle more complex raw materials and the feedstock range can thereby be increased to second-generation feedstocks. There is no producer of FAME in Gävleborg County, but there is a company (Colabitoil) that distributes HVO produced by Neste. Colabitoil also has a pilot plant for HVO production and might build a large-scale production plant in the future. The activities in Norrsundet, which Colabitoil is part of, has a potential to provide synergy effects if different companies settle there. There can then be knowledge-sharing and utilization of different by-products between the companies.

    There are two aspects about the limitations of the report that should be mentioned. First, the environmental performance of the different raw materials and production technologies is not considered. This is an important issue since the main purpose of biofuels is to reduce the environmental impact of fossil fuels. Second, it cannot be ruled out that there could have been intentional or unintentional bias in the interviews, even though there is no reason to suspect this. Additionally, it is very tricky to assess the certainty behind different statements from different persons since they have different backgrounds and different expectations about the future. Apart from this, the aim of the report was met to a large extent by shedding light on the future prospects of biodiesel through the challenges, uncertainties and success factors related to projects that the different actors described in the interviews. The challenges are technical and financial. The uncertainties are related to political stability but also to the environmental permit and future availability of raw materials. The success factors are the high demand for transport fuels and cooperation with other companies.

  • 27.
    Petrovic, Bojana
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap. Department of Energy and Construction Technology, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Myhren, Jonn Are
    Department of Energy and Construction Technology, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Zhang, Xingxing
    Department of Energy and Construction Technology, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Wallhagen, Marita
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap.
    Eriksson, Ola
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap.
    Life cycle assessment of a wooden single-family house in Sweden2019Inngår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 251, artikkel-id 113253Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To understand the reasons behind the large environmental impact from buildings the whole life cycle needs to be considered. Therefore, this study evaluates the carbon dioxide emissions in all stages of a single-family house in Sweden from the production of building materials, followed by construction and user stages until the end-of-life of the building in a life cycle assessment (LCA). The methodology applied is attributional life cycle assessment (LCA) based on ‘One Click LCA’ tool and a calculated life span of 100 years. Global warming potential (GWP) and primary energy (PE) are calculated by using specific data from the case study, furthermore the data regarding building materials are based on Environmental Product Declarations (EPDs). The results show that the selection of wood-based materials has a significantly lower impact on the carbon dioxide emissions in comparison with non-wood based materials. The total emissions for this single-family house in Sweden are 6 kg CO 2 e/m 2 /year. The production stage of building materials, including building systems and installations represent 30% of the total carbon dioxide equivalent emissions, while the maintenance and replacement part represents 37%. However, energy use during the in-use stage of the house recorded lower environmental impact (21%) due to the Swedish electricity mix that is mostly based on energy sources with low carbon dioxide emissions. The water consumption, construction and the end-of-life stages have shown minor contribution to the buildings total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (12%). The primary energy indicator shows the largest share in the operational phase of the house. © 2019

  • 28.
    Ramirez Villegas, Ricardo
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik. School of Technology and Business Studies, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Ola
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Umeå University, 90187 Umeå, Sweden.
    Life Cycle Assessment of Building Renovation Measures: Trade-off between Building Materials and Energy2019Inngår i: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, nr 3, artikkel-id 344Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The scope of this study is to assess how different energy efficient renovation strategies affect the environmental impacts of a multi-family house in a Nordic climate within district heating systems. The European Union has set ambitious targets to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions by the year 2030. There is special attention on reducing the life cycle emissions in the buildings sector. However, the focus has often been on new buildings, although existing buildings represent great potential within the building stock in Europe. In this study, four different renovation scenarios were analyzed with the commercially available life cycle assessment software that follows the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) standard. This study covers all life cycle steps from the cradle to the grave for a residential building in Borlange, Sweden, where renewable energy dominates. The four scenarios included reduced indoor temperature, improved thermal properties of building material components and heat recovery for the ventilation system. One finding is that changing installations gives an environmental impact comparable to renovations that include both ventilation and building facilities. In addition, the life cycle steps that have the greatest environmental impact in all scenarios are the operational energy use and the building and installation processes. Renovation measures had a major impact on energy use due to the cold climate and low solar irradiation in the heating season. An interesting aspect, however, is that the building materials and the construction processes gave a significant amount of environmental impact.

  • 29.
    Ramírez-Villegas, Ricardo
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap. School of Technology and Business Studies, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Ola
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Combined Environmental and Economic Assessment of Energy Efficiency Measures in a Multi-Dwelling Building2019Inngår i: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, nr 13, artikkel-id 2484Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to assess how different renovation scenarios affect the environmental and economic impacts of a multi-dwelling building in a Nordic climate, how these aspects are correlated and how different energy carriers affect different environmental impact categories. In order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, the European Union has set an agenda in order to reduce energy use in buildings. New buildings on the European market have a low replacement rate, which makes building renovation an important factor for achieving the European Union goals. In this study, eight renovation strategies were analyzed following the European Committee for Standardization standards for life cycle assessment and life cycle costs of buildings. This study covers all life cycle steps from cradle to grave. The renovation scenarios include combinations of photovoltaics, geothermal heat pumps, heat recovery ventilation and improved building envelopes. Results show that, depending on the energy carrier, reductions in global warming potential can be achieved at the expense of an increased nuclear waste disposal. It also shows that for the investigated renovation strategies in Sweden there is no correlation between the economic and the environmental performance of the building. Changing energy carriers in Sweden in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions can be a good alternative, but it makes the system more dependent on nuclear power.

  • 30.
    Samuelsson, Karl
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik. Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap.
    Colding, Johan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap. Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap. Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Urban resilience at eye level: spatial analysis of empirically defined experiential landscapes2019Inngår i: Landscape and Urban Planning, ISSN 0169-2046, E-ISSN 1872-6062, Vol. 187, s. 70-80Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An unresolved issue in creating resilient cities is how to obtain sustainability benefits from densification while not eroding the capacity of social-ecological systems to generate wellbeing for urban dwellers. To understand how different relationships between urban form and wellbeing together play out, we analysed geocoded experiential data (1460 experiences from 780 respondents) together with variables of the physical environment. Through statistical and spatial analysis, we operationalised resilience principles to assess what urban environments provide “resilience at eye level” – a diversity of experiences and a level of connectivity between them that limit adverse outcomes. We found 8 typologies of experiential landscapes – distinct compositions of 11 categories of experiences. Our analysis shows that typologies with experiences supportive of wellbeing are diverse and exist in environments that balance residents and workplaces, avoid extreme spatial integration and/or density and have accessible nature. Typologies with many experiences hindering wellbeing fail in one or several of these respects. Our findings suggest that resilience principles can act as a guiding heuristic for urban densification that does not compromise human wellbeing.

  • 31.
    Soam, Shveta
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap.
    Hillman, Karl
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap.
    Factors influencing the environmental sustainability and growth of hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) in Sweden2019Inngår i: Bioresource Technology Reports, ISSN 2589-014X, Vol. 7, artikkel-id 100244Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The study analyzes the factors influencing the environmental sustainability and growth of hydrotreated vegetableoil (HVO) in Sweden. The major feedstocks identified in the HVO supply chain are palm oil, rapeseed oil,PFAD, tallow and tall oil. LCA studies reveal that feedstock grown on-purpose have larger life cycle GHGemissions than residual feedstock. However, due to the limited supply of residual feedstock there is a need to bemore dependent on domestic sustainable resources. The complexity of feedstock, origin, processing technologies,allocation approach, land use changes (LUC) and selection of environmental categories could result in variationsof the LCA results. To achieve national emissions target, policy instruments such as reduction obligations and taxincentives favor the market for HVO. However, to see more comprehensive results of the HVO development,research is needed to integrate the technological perspective from pilot scale to the commercialized market atlocal, regional and global level.

  • 32.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap.
    Langeborg, Linda
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Psykologi.
    Compensating for climate misdeeds can make you a worse carbon emitter2019Inngår i: New scientist (1971), ISSN 0262-4079Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 33.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap.
    Langeborg, Linda
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Psykologi.
    Hurting the world you love2019Inngår i: New scientist (1971), ISSN 0262-4079, Vol. 241, nr 3221, s. 24-25Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 34.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap.
    Langeborg, Linda
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Psykologi.
    Why People Harm the Environment Although They Try to Treat It Well: An Evolutionary-Cognitive Perspective on Climate Compensation2019Inngår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, artikkel-id 348Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate changes stress the importance of understanding why people harm the environment despite their attempts to behave in climate friendly ways. This paper argues that one reason behind why people do this is that people apply heuristics, originally shaped to handle social exchange, on the issues of environmental impact. Reciprocity and balance in social relations have been fundamental to social cooperation, and thus to survival, and therefore the human brain has become specialized by natural selection to compute and seek this balance. When the same reasoning is applied to environment-related behaviors, people tend to think in terms of a balance between ‘environmentally friendly’ and ‘harmful’ behaviors, and to morally account for the average of these components rather than the sum. This balancing heuristic leads to compensatory green beliefs and negative footprint illusions—the misconceptions that ‘green’ choices can compensate for unsustainable ones. ‘Eco-guilt’ from imbalance in the moral environmental account may promote pro-environmental acts, but also acts that are seemingly pro-environmental but in reality more harmful than doing nothing at all. The current paper suggests strategies for handling this cognitive insufficiency.

  • 35.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap.
    Marsh, John E.Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap.
    The Cognitive Psychology of Climate Change2019Collection/Antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is one of society’s great challenges. The scientific community agrees that human activity is to a large degree responsible for these changes and efforts to promote more sustainable behaviors and lifestyles often backfire. People travel for longer distances when driving a vehicle that uses a ‘sustainable’ energy source; they purchase ‘organic’ food as a means to be environmentally friendly without necessarily reducing other means of consumption; and those who deliberately change their behavior to be more environmentally friendly in one area often start behaving environmentally irresponsibly in another. Environmentally harmful behavior and decision making often have their roots in cognitive biases and cognitive inabilities to properly understand climate change issues, to understand the effects of one's own behavior on the environment, and other means by which thinking and reasoning about climate change issues are biased.

    This Research Topic addresses the cognitive challenges of climate change: how people perceive, understand and solve environmental problems. It covers studies on individual and collective judgment and decision making, heuristics and biases, reasoning and thinking, perception and problem solving in relation to climate change and sustainability-related problems. It also covers, but is not limited to, the cognitive psychology of the CO2 accumulation problem, biases in judgments of environmental impact of objects and actions, confirmation biases in thinking and reasoning about climate change issues, and ways in which people's thinking about and understanding of climate change problems can be improved.

  • 36.
    Threadgold, Emma
    et al.
    School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Marsh, John E.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap. School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    McLatchie, Neil
    Department of Psychology, Lancaster University, Lancaster, UK.
    Ball, Linden J.
    School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Background music stints creativity: evidence from compound remote associate tasks2019Inngår i: Applied Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0888-4080, E-ISSN 1099-0720, Vol. 33, nr 5, s. 873-888Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Summary Background music has been claimed to enhance people's creativity. In three experiments, we investigated the impact of background music on performance of Compound Remote Associate Tasks (CRATs), which are widely thought to tap creativity. Background music with foreign (unfamiliar) lyrics (Experiment 1), instrumental music without lyrics (Experiment 2), and music with familiar lyrics (Experiment 3) all significantly impaired CRAT performance in comparison with quiet background conditions. Furthermore, Experiment 3 demonstrated that background music impaired CRAT performance regardless of whether the music induced a positive mood or whether participants typically studied in the presence of music. The findings challenge the view that background music enhances creativity and are discussed in terms of an auditory distraction account (interference-by-process) and the processing disfluency account.

  • 37.
    Wallberg, Ellinor
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap.
    Nyberg, Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap.
    Klimatförändringarnas påverkan pågrundvattnet: En effektstudie över den framtida grundvattensituationen iHedesundaåsen, med fokus på vattenkvantitet2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Klimatförändringarna kan komma att påverka den hydrologiska cykeln på en global skala. Förändringarna kommer tydligast att märkas på ytan, med ökande neder-bördsmängder, en ökad avdunstning och ett minskat snötäcke. Det som sker vid ytan har dock en stor inverkan på vad som sker med grundvattnet och varierar i hög grad mellan magasin, rådande klimat och markanvändning. Den Europeiska miljöby-rån har därför eftersökt att framtida grundvattenförhållanden undersöks på lokala ni-våer. Hedesundaåsen valdes till denna studie på grund av att dess vattenmagasin an-vänds som dricksvattentäkt, utan mänsklig modifiering på dess tillrinning. Inga lik-nande studier har tidigare utförts på Hedesundaåsen. Den är en rullstensås i Gävle-borgs län som förser befolkningen i Hedesunda med dricksvatten. Syftet med detta arbete har varit att presentera en bild över hur grundvattnet i Hedesundaåsen kan komma att påverkas i ett framtida klimat.

    Den hydrologiska modellen HBV-light kalibrerades för tidsperioden 2000-2009 med hjälp av meteorologiska mätvärden från SMHI, och validerades mot tidsperioden 2011-2017. Simuleringar utfördes för tidsperioderna 2022-2050 samt 2072-2100. I simuleringarna användes två vitt skilda framtidsscenarier för att täcka in en stor bredd över framtida möjliga scenarier. Simuleringarna i studien visade genomgående på trender med ökande grundvattennivåer och -bildning oavsett scenario. Beroende på valt scenario kan grundvattennivån enligt simuleringarna komma att öka med mellan 6,3–11,5 % och grundvattenbildningen med mellan 4,8–13,6 % för tidspe-rioden 2072-2100 jämfört med tidsperioden 1988-2017. En liknande studie som ti-digare genomfördes i ett närliggande område visade på en ökning av grundvatten-bildning med upp till 15 % i slutet av seklet. En jämförelse av resultaten mellan stu-dierna gör det troligt att resultaten från Hedesundaåsen mycket väl kan vara kor-rekta.

    Det står klart efter denna studie att klimatförändringarna kommer att påverka grundvattnet i Hedesunda i framtiden. Osäkerheterna om detaljerna är dock många, då de framtida scenarierna endast är en uppskattning över hur nederbörd, tempera-tur etc. kommer att påverkas i ett framtida klimat. Osäkerheten byggs på av att dessa faktorer används som en prognos i en hydrologisk modell som också innehåller osäkerheter från den matematiska modellen och framtidsscenarierna. Trots de många osäkerheterna kan simuleringarna ge en indikation över hur klimatföränd-ringarna kan komma att påverka grundvattnet i framtiden, och de kan användas för att förbereda samhället för möjliga framtida konsekvenser av grundvattnets föränd-rade kvantitet och i förlängningen även vattenkvaliteten.

  • 38.
    Wallhagen, Marita
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap.
    Holmgren, Mattias
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap.
    Andersson, Hanna
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap.
    Brister i vårt logiska tänkande ett hinder för klimatkloka beslut2019Inngår i: Husbyggaren, ISSN 0018-7968, nr 1, s. 23-25Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 39.
    Åkerström, Johan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap.
    Alsade, Noor
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap.
    Nudging för att minska köttkonsumtion: En studie för att förändra studenters beteende2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte med studien är att undersöka om nudging är en effektiv metod för att förändra beteende hos studenter på Högskolan i Gävle. Studien kommer att undersöka om två nudgingmetoder (informationskampanj och nudge) kan förändra studenternas beteende, samtidigt jämföra vilken metod som ger bättre effekt till att förändra beteende och minska köttkonsumtion. Först undersöks genom en litteraturstudie om kött påverkar klimat och hur mycket växthusgasutsläpp från kött potentiellt kan reduceras hos studenter på högskolan i Gävle med hjälp av informationskampanjer och nudge. För att vidare besvara syfte har två enkätstudier och två nudgingmetoder utförts på Högskolan i Gävle. Första enkätstudie har genomförts för att mäta hur mycket kött och vilken typ av kött som konsumeras av studenter, sedan har två nudging metoder använts i syfte till att förändra beteende och minska eller förändra val av kött hos studenter. Den andra enkätstudien har genomförts för att undersöka om kampanjerna har förändrat beteende och minskat eller förändrat val av kött hos studenter. Resultat visar att nudging har gett effekt då beteende har förändrats. Nudge har gett effekt till att reducera köttkonsumtion och koldioxidutsläpp. Enkätstudien innehöll 6 frågor där endast fråga 1 visade sig vara signifikant och kan kopplas till att nudge vid interaktion är en bidragande orsak till denna förändring.

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  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf