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  • 1.
    Alsanius, Beatrix
    et al.
    VKM; SLU.
    Magnusson, Christer
    VKM; NIBIO.
    Nicolaisen, Mogens
    VKM; Aarhus University.
    Wright, Sandra A. I.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology. VKM.
    Wendell, Micael
    VKM.
    Krokene, Paal
    VKM; NINBIO.
    Stenberg, Johan
    VKM; SLU.
    Thomsen, Iben M
    VKM; University of Copenhagen.
    Rafoss, Trond
    VKM; University of Agder.
    Assessment of treatment methods and validation criteria for composting and biogas facilities in relation to plant health risks and the risk of spreading alien organisms: Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Plant Health of the Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food and Environment2021Report (Other academic)
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  • 2.
    Andersson, Jenny
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology.
    Undervisningsstrategier i biologi - ett f-3 lärarperspektiv2022Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Undersökningens syfte var att undersöka vilka undervisningsstrategier behöriga lärare tillämpar i sin biologiundervisning och varför, med det övergripande syftet att diskutera och reflektera kring arbetssätt och metoder som kan skapa en varierad undervisning i biologi. Semistrukturerade intervjuer gjordes med sex behöriga f-3 lärare samt observationer vid två lärares lektioner. Arbetssätten och metoderna som lärarna tillämpar i sin biologiundervisning resulterade i fyra huvudkategorier: Praktiskt arbete, teoretiskt arbete, digitala verktyg och samarbete. Undersökningen visade att flest praktiska arbetssätt och metoder tillämpades av lärarna i biologiundervisning och det även var flest argument för praktiskt arbete. Flest gemensamma argument för praktiskt arbete är att eleverna får nyttja fler sinnen. Genom att lärarna använde och gav många argument för olika arbetssätt och metoder är slutsatsen att lärarna i denna kommun i stor utsträckning varierar sina arbetssätt och metoder i biologiundervisningen.

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  • 3.
    Attorps, Iiris
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Mathematics.
    Kellner, Eva
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology.
    Ett helhetsgrepp för likvärdig skola2021In: Nämnaren : tidskrift för matematikundervisning, ISSN 0348-2723, no 3, p. 35-39Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 4.
    Audusseau, Hélène
    et al.
    Dept of Zoology, Stockholm University; UK Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford, UK..
    Ryrholm, Nils
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology.
    Stefanescu, Constanti
    Museu de Ciències Naturals de Granollers, Granollers, Barcelona, Spain.
    Tharel, Suzanne
    Dept of Zoology, Stockholm University.
    Jansson, Camilla
    Dept of Zoology, Stockholm University.
    Champeaux, Lucile
    Dept of Zoology, Stockholm University.
    Shaw, Mark R.
    National Museums of Scotland.
    Raper, Chris
    Angela Marmont Centre for UK Biodiversity, Natural History Museum, London, UK..
    Lewis, Owen T.
    Dept of Zoology, Univ. of Oxford, Oxford, UK. .
    Janz, Niklas
    Dept of Zoology, Stockholm University.
    Schmucki, Reto
    UK Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford, UK..
    Rewiring of interactions in a changing environment: nettle-feeding butterflies and their parasitoids2021In: Oikos, ISSN 0030-1299, E-ISSN 1600-0706, Vol. 130, no 4, p. 624-636Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate and land use change can alter the incidence and strength of biotic interactions, with important effects on the distribution, abundance and function of species. To assess the importance of these effects and their dynamics, studies quantifying how biotic interactions change in space and time are needed. We studied interactions between nettle-feeding butterflies and their shared natural enemies (parasitoids) locally and across 500 km latitudinal gradient in Sweden. We also examined the potential impact of the range-expansion of the butterfly Araschnia levana on resident butterflies via shared parasitoids, by studying how parasitism in resident butterflies covaries with the presence or absence of the newly-established species. We collected 6777 larvae of four nettle-feeding butterfly species (Aglais urticae, Aglais io, Ar. levana and Vanessa atalanta), over two years, at 19 sites distributed along the gradient. We documented the parasitoid complex for each butterfly species and measured their overlap, and analysed how parasitism rates were affected by butterfly species assemblage, variations in abundance, time, and the arrival of Ar. levana. Parasitoids caused high mortality, with substantial overlap in the complex of parasitoids associated with the four host butterflies. Levels of parasitism differed significantly among butterflies and were influenced by the local butterfly species assemblage. Our results also suggest that parasitism in resident butterflies is elevated at sites where Ar. levana has been established for a longer period. In our study system, variations in butterfly species assemblages were associated in a predictable way with substantial variations in rates of parasitism. This relationship is likely to affect the dynamics of the butterfly host species, and potentially cascade to the larger number of species with which they interact. These results highlight the importance of indirect interactions and their potential to reorganise ecological communities, especially in the context of shifts in species distributions in a warmer world.

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  • 5.
    Berg, Björn
    et al.
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Lönn, Mikael
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology.
    Long-term effects of climate and litter chemistry on rates and stable fractions of decomposing Scots pine and Norway spruce needle litter - A synthesis2022In: Forests, ISSN 1999-4907, E-ISSN 1999-4907, Vol. 13, no 1, article id 125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have reviewed information on early-, late- and limit-value decomposition stages for litter of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus silvestris). This synthesis covers c 16 studies/papers made along a climatic gradient; range in mean annual temperature (MAT) from −1 to +7 °C and mean annual precipitation (MAP) from 425 to 1070 mm. Scots pine has an early stage dominated by carbohydrate decomposition and a late stage dominated by decomposition of lignin; Norway spruce has just one stage dominated by lignin decomposition. We used data for annual mass loss to identify rate-regulating factors in both stages; climate data, namely, MAT and MAP, as well as substrate properties, namely, nitrogen (N), acid unhydrolyzable residue (AUR), manganese (Mn). Early-stage decomposition for Scots pine litter was dominated positively by MAT; the late stage was dominated negatively by MAT, N, and AUR, changing with decomposition stage; there was no effect of Mn. Norway spruce litter had no early stage; decomposition in the lignin-dominated stage was mainly negative to MAP, a negative relationship to AUR and non-significant relationships to N and MAT. Mn had a positive relationship. Limit values for decomposition, namely, the accumulated mass loss at which decomposition is calculated to be zero, were related positively to Mn and AUR for Scots pine litter and negatively to AUR for Norway spruce litter. With different sets of rate-regulating factors as well as different compounds/elements related to the limit values, the decomposition patterns or pathways are different.

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  • 6.
    Berg, Björn
    et al.
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Lönn, Mikael
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology.
    Ni, Xiangyin
    Fujian Normal University, China.
    Sun, Tao
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
    Dong, Lili
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
    Gaitnieks, Talis
    Latvian State Forest Research Institute SILAVA.
    Virzo De Santo, Amalia
    Università di Napoli Federico II, Italy.
    Johansson, Maj-Britt
    SLU.
    Decomposition rates in late stages of Scots pine and Norway spruce needle litter: Influence of nutrients and substrate properties over a climate gradient2022In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 522, article id 120452Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to show different patterns for decomposition of the main mass of needle litter from two boreal and temperate coniferous tree species, both leading to a stabilized fraction of litter. To this purpose we have reviewed information on decomposition patterns in the lignin-dominated (late) stages of two local foliar litter types, namely those of Scots pine (Pinus silvestris) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) from two climatic gradients of equal extension. We have also reviewed factors determining the limit values for both species.

    Long-term decomposition studies were used to calculate annual mass loss in the lignin-dominated decomposition stage and relate these to mean annual temperature (MAT), mean annual precipitation (MAP) and concentrations of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn) and acid unhydrolyzable residue (gravimetric lignin, AUR).

    There was no effect of MAT on decomposition of either needle litter type. MAP had a rate-dampening effect on decomposition of Norway spruce litter. There was a rate-stimulating effect of Mn for Norway spruce litter but not for that of Scots pine. In spite of the strong negative effect of AUR and N on decomposition of Scots pine litter there was none at all for that of Norway spruce.

    Limit values for decomposition were related to the litters’ initial concentrations of N, Mn and AUR and differed between litter types for locally collected, natural litter and for that from experimental litter, the latter having higher N and lower Mn concentrations than the natural litter.

    We conclude that the two litter types have clear differences as regards rate- regulating factors for decomposition in the late lignin-dominated stage as well as for the stable fraction and suggest two different pathways for their decomposition. This is the first time that different pathways have been suggested for decomposing litter.

  • 7.
    Berg, Björn
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Sun, Tao
    Chinese Academy of Sciences Shenyang, China.
    Johansson, Maj-Britt
    Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sanborn, Paul
    University of Northern British Columbia, Canada.
    Ni, Xiangying
    Sichuan Agricultural University, China.
    Lönn, Mikael
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology.
    Magnesium dynamics in decomposing foliar litter - a synthesis2021In: Geoderma, ISSN 0016-7061, E-ISSN 1872-6259, Vol. 382, article id 114756Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We synthesized available data for magnesium (Mg) dynamics in newly shed and decomposing foliar litter of mainly pine (Pinus) species, Norway spruce (Picea abies), and birch (Betula) species. Using original, measured data from 40 stands organized in climatic gradients we intended to determine patterns of Mg concentration and net release vs accumulated mass loss of the litter. This synthesis is likely the first synthesis of Mg dynamics in decomposing litter.

    In paired stands, litter of both Norway spruce and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) had higher Mg concentrations than Scots pine (Pinus silvestris), with concentrations in Norway spruce litter even twice as high.

    In decomposing litter, Mg concentrations followed a quadratic (X2-X) function vs accumulated mass loss and consequently had minima, different for Norway spruce and Scots pine litter. Out of 68 decomposition studies 53 gave minimum concentration. The Mg minimum concentration during decomposition was positively related to initial Mg concentration for Scots pine and Scots pine plus lodgepole pine but not for Norway spruce. The increase in concentration suggests that after the minimum Mg was temporarily limiting.

    For Norway spruce litter there was a relationship between minimum concentration of Mg and the limit value. There was no such relationship for Scots pine and not for the combined pine data.

    Magnesium net release started directly after the incubation and was linear to accumulated mass loss of litter, giving a slope coefficient (release rate) for each study. The net release rate was linear to initial Mg concentration and all studies combined gave a negative linear relationship.

  • 8.
    Bergman, Karl-Olof
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Burman, Joseph
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences; anterbury Christ Church UniversityCanterburyUK.
    Jonason, Dennis
    Linköping University.
    Larsson, Mattias C.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Ryrholm, Nils
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology.
    Westerberg, Lars
    Linköping University.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköping University.
    Clear-cuts are temporary habitats, not matrix, for endangered grassland burnet moths (Zygaena spp.)2020In: Journal of Insect Conservation, ISSN 1366-638X, E-ISSN 1572-9753, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 269-277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Burnet moths (Zygaena spp.) are day-flying Lepidoptera considered indicative of species-rich grasslands. In the present study, our aim was to clarify whether clear-cuts are habitat, supporting habitat or matrix for three species of Zygaena. We did so by sampling these species with sex pheromones on 48 clear-cuts, varying in amount of host and nectar plants, in southern Sweden. To compare the efficiency of such sampling, we also conducted transect walks on these clearcuts. Overall, host-plants on clear-cuts best explained the abundance of Zygaena spp. recorded, better than nectar-plants or connectivity with nearby grasslands. These results indicate that clear-cuts with an abundance of host plants are used as a fully functional habitat, and not a supporting habitat in the sense of only providing nectar. There is no support in these results for considering clear-cuts as an inert matrix. With about half the work-effort, pheromone traps recorded 100 times more Zygaena spp. as transect walks. The poor correspondence between observations during transects walks and pheromone trap catches suggest Zygaena spp. being difficult to monitor by transect walks. In contrast to grasslands, clear-cuts are short-term in nature requiring repeated recolonization, indicating the importance of permanent grasslands. However, clear-cuts are important temporary insect habitats due to their great acreage, and suitable management can increase the time they remain a habitat.

  • 9. Birkedal, Sven
    et al.
    Ryrholm, Nils
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology.
    Hultengren, Svante
    Fritz, Örjan
    Dagfjärilar en fältguide2019Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna nya fältguide till svenska dagfjärilar beskrivs drygt 180 arter, underarter, former och tillfälliga besökare. Boken är rikt illustrerad och fjärilarna åtföljs av fotografier på hane, hona och undersida jämte grafiska bilder över utbredningar och flygtider. Boken är den tredje i Naturcentrums serie om växter och djur i Sverige. Tidigare har "Lavar - en fältguide" och "Mossor en fältguide" utgivits.

    Ett kort inledande avsnitt beskriver bokens tillkomst, hur den är uppbyggd, terminologi, litteratur samt lite om fjärilsskådning. Därefter följer bokens huvuddel som utgörs av artbeskrivningarna och ca 1.000 illustrationer ledsagar läsaren. Boken, som omfattar 200 sidor, är framtagen av Sven Birkedal, naturälskare och fotograf från Åhus. Fjärilsforskaren Nils Ryrholm har stått för kompletterade texter och beskrivningar, vetenskaplig granskning, utbredningskartor, flygtider, m. m.

  • 10.
    Bui, Tuyet
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology. Göteborgs universitet.
    Stridh, H.
    Äppelriket Österlen, Ekonomisk Förening, Sweden.
    Molin, M.
    Göteborgs universitet; Chalmers University of Technology.
    Influence of weather conditions on the quality of ‘Ingrid Marie’ apples and their susceptibility to grey mould infection2021In: Journal of Agriculture and Food Research, ISSN 2666-1543, Vol. 3, article id 100104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Apple (Malus domestica) is one of the most popular fruits consumed around the world. Environmental factors influence the development and quality of apples. We determined the influence of weather conditions on the quality of ‘Ingrid Marie’ apples harvested from eight different orchards in south Sweden in the years 2015–2017 and their susceptibility to infection by grey mould (Botrytis cinerea). We infected apples and collected data on fruit firmness, starch index, weight of fruit and lesion size in addition to collecting data on temperature, rainfall, sunlight and humidity in the period April–September. High rainfall in early April, during tree flowering, and in early June, during early fruit development, correlated with improved quality, namely reduced lesion size and low firmness level. Furthermore, with humidity higher than 77% in early June apples became more tolerant to grey mould, while low temperatures and high humidity in a period from the end of August to end of September, during the end of the fruit cell enlargement stage, correlated with larger apples. We conclude that rainfall, humidity and temperature are important weather factors influencing the quality of apples and their susceptibility to grey mould. This information may help apple growers understand the effects of weather conditions on apples more in detail. From such updated information, preharvest techniques may be applied (e.g. pruning, nutrition, irrigation or drainage) to improve conditions and apple quality as well as to reduce their susceptibility to pathogen attack.

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  • 11.
    Bui, Tuyet T. A.
    et al.
    Laboratory of Fruit Breeding and Biotechnology, Department of Biosystems, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Wright, Sandra A. I.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology.
    Falk, Anders B.
    Valthornsvagen, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Vanwalleghem, Tanja
    Department of Mycology, Proefcentrum Fruitteelt vzw, Sint-Truiden, Belgium.
    Van Hemelrijck, Wendy
    Department of Mycology, Proefcentrum Fruitteelt vzw, Sint-Truiden, Belgium.
    Hertog, Maarten L.A.T.M.
    Division of MeBioS, Department of Biosystems, Faculty of Bioscience Engineer-ing, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Keulemans, Johan
    Laboratory of Fruit Breeding and Biotechnology, Department of Biosystems, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Davey, Mark W.
    Laboratory of Fruit Breeding and Biotechnology, Department of Biosystems, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Botrytis cinerea differentially induces postharvest antioxidant responses in 'Braeburn' and 'Golden Delicious' apple fruit2019In: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, ISSN 0022-5142, E-ISSN 1097-0010, Vol. 99, no 13, p. 5662-5670Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The fruit of two apple cultivars - 'Braeburn', which is susceptible to inoculation with Botrytis cinerea, and the less susceptible cv. 'Golden Delicious' - were investigated with respect to their response to inoculation with B. cinerea. Successful infection by B. cinerea leads to an oxidative burst and perturbation of plant redox homeostasis. To investigate the interaction between apple fruit and B. cinerea, antioxidant metabolism in fruit samples from sun-exposed and shaded sides of different tissue types was measured over time.

    RESULTS: The sun-exposed tissue of 'Braeburn' had higher initial levels of total vitamin C in the peel and phenolic compounds in the flesh than 'Golden Delicious', despite its greater susceptibility to gray mold. A substantial antioxidant response was recorded in diseased 'Braeburn' fruit 14 days after inoculation, which involved an elevated superoxide dismutase activity and ascorbate peroxidase activity, a progressive oxidation of total vitamin C, and a decrease in peroxidase activity and phenolic content. Disease development was slower on the sun-exposed sides than on the shaded sides.

    CONCLUSION: The two cultivars appeared to utilize different strategies to defend themselves against B. cinerea. 'Golden Delicious' almost entirely escaped infection. Preharvest exposure of apple fruit to high light / temperature stress appears to prepare them to better resist subsequent postharvest attack and disease. 

  • 12.
    Carpio, A. J.
    et al.
    University of Cordoba, Spain; IREC (UCLM-CSIC-JCCM)Instituto de Investigación en Recursos CinegéticosCiudad RealSpain.
    De Miguel, R. J.
    University of Cordoba, Spain.
    Oteros, J.
    Center of Allergy and Environment (ZAUM), Member of the German Center for Lung Research (DZL)Technische Universität München/Helmholtz CenterMunichGerman.
    Hillström, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology.
    Tortosa, F. S.
    University of Cordoba, Spain.
    Angling as a source of non-native freshwater fish: a European review2019In: Biological Invasions, ISSN 1387-3547, E-ISSN 1573-1464, Vol. 21, no 11, p. 3233-3248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a context of the growing concern about the impact of biological invasions, our objective is to review the role of those non-native species that have primarily been introduced for angling purposes in at least one European country. We are particularly interested in: (1) the relative role of sport fish species in the context of non-native species introductions; (2) assessing the relative importance of different fish taxa; (3) identifying similarity patterns in the composition of the angling fish species introduced throughout the continent, and (4) assessing the underlying factors that drive their diversity in Europe. According to our results, 23.6% of the freshwater fish introduced into Europe during the last century were released primarily for angling purposes. The species composition differed among countries, with a higher diversity of introduced angling species in larger countries and in those with a greater GDP per capita, along with a lower latitude. This review stresses that angling was a significant pathway for the introduction of invasive fish species into Europe in the last century. Furthermore, some of the introduced angling species had severe environmental impacts on many European regions. However, introductions of non-native angling species are still occurring. Therefore, existing EU regulations need better enforcement as well as to increase public awareness regarding invasive fish. This will help to preserve biodiversity and improve the sustainability of current angling schemes in increasingly managed European freshwater ecosystems. However, non-native fish could make angling sustainable, although not for biodiversity generally.

  • 13.
    Carpio, Antonio J.
    et al.
    Grupo de Sanidad y Biotecnología (SaBio), Instituto de Investigación en Recursos Cinegéticos, (IREC UCLM-CSIC-JCCM), 13071 Ciudad Real, Spain.
    García, Marta
    Faculty of Biological Sciences, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain.
    Hillström, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology.
    Lönn, Mikael
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology.
    Carvalho, Joao
    Department of Biology & CESAM, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal.
    Acevedo, Pelayo
    Grupo de Sanidad y Biotecnología (SaBio), Instituto de Investigación en Recursos Cinegéticos, (IREC UCLM-CSIC-JCCM), 13071 Ciudad Real, Spain.
    Bueno, C. Guillermo
    Department of Botany, Institute of Ecology and Earth Sciences, University of Tartu, 50409 Tartu, Estonia.
    Wild boar effects on fungal abundance and guilds from sporocarp sampling in a boreal forest ecosystem2022In: Animals, E-ISSN 2076-2615, Vol. 12, no 19, article id 2521Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Native wild boar (Sus scrofa) populations are expanding across Europe. This is cause for concern in some areas where overabundant populations impact natural ecosystems and adjacent agronomic systems. To better manage the potential for impacts, managers require more information about how the species may affect other organisms. For example, information regarding the effect of wild boar on soil fungi for management application is lacking. Soil fungi play a fundamental role in ecosystems, driving essential ecological functions; acting as mycorrhizal symbionts, sustaining plant nutrition and providing defense; as saprotrophs, regulating the organic matter decomposition; or as plant pathogens, regulating plant fitness and survival. During autumn (Sep–Nov) 2018, we investigated the effects of wild boar (presence/absence and rooting intensity) on the abundance (number of individuals) of fungal sporocarps and their functional guilds (symbiotic, saprotrophic and pathogenic). We selected eleven forested sites (400–500 × 150–200 m) in central Sweden; six with and five without the presence of wild boar. Within each forest, we selected one transect (200 m long), and five plots (2 × 2 m each) for sites without wild boar, and ten plots for sites with boars (five within and five outside wild boar disturbances), to determine the relationship between the intensity of rooting and the abundance of sporocarps for three fungal guilds. We found that the presence of wild boar and rooting intensity were associated with the abundance of sporocarps. Interestingly, this relationship varied depending on the fungal guild analyzed, where wild boar rooting had a positive correlation with saprophytic sporocarps and a negative correlation with symbiotic sporocarps. Pathogenic fungi, in turn, were more abundant in undisturbed plots (no rooting) but located in areas with the presence of wild boar. Our results indicate that wild boar activities can potentially regulate the abundance of fungal sporocarps, with different impacts on fungal guilds. Therefore, wild boar can affect many essential ecosystem functions driven by soil fungi in boreal forests, such as positive effects on energy rotation and in creating mineral availability to plants, which could lead to increased diversity of plants in boreal forests.

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  • 14.
    Cassel-Lundhagen, Anna
    et al.
    SLU.
    Schmitt, Thomas
    Senckenberg German Entomological Institute, Müncheberg, Germany.
    Wahlberg, Niclas
    Lund University.
    Sarvasová, Lenka
    Slovak Academy of Sciences, Slovakia.
    Konvicka, Martin
    Slovak Academy of Sciences, Slovakia.
    Ryrholm, Nils
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology.
    Kanuch, Peter
    Slovak Academy of Sciences, Slovakia; Institute of Biology and Ecology, Slovakia.
    Wing morphology of the butterfly Coenonympha arcania in Europe: Traces of both historical isolation in glacial refugia and current adaptation2020In: Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research, ISSN 0947-5745, E-ISSN 1439-0469, Vol. 58, no 4, p. 929-943Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we examined the evolutionary outcome of and interplay between historic isolation and current selection pressures on traits more or less closely connected to fitness in the Pearly Heath butterfly (Coenonympha arcania) across its range in Europe. We hypothesized that a trait mean is more related to historic events if it has low connection to fitness, while a trait more closely connected with fitness is expected to have a mean that relates more to current selection pressures. In order to test this, we collected 322 butterflies from across the species range in Europe and measured five wing traits relating to size and color patterns. To infer a phylogeographic history for each individual, we sequenced a 594 bp fragment of the COI gene. The morphological data were then analyzed in relation to selected climatic variables and the history of individuals to disentangle which factors best correlated with morphological variation. The results supported our hypothesis in that wing sizes correlated with summer precipitation but not with its inferred location during the last glaciation. Eyespot position, on the other hand, correlated with the history of individuals but not with the analyzed climatic indicators. The sizes of the black spot and the white band, two traits that were expected to have intermediate selection pressure, were associated with both history and current conditions. Thus, this study illustrates the fascinating interplay between events and processes that lead to a specific evolutionary outcome.

  • 15.
    De Marco, Anna
    et al.
    Università di Napoli, Italy.
    Berg, Björn
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology. University of Helsinki.
    Zarrelli, Armando
    Università di Napoli, Italy.
    Virzo De Santo, Amalia
    Università di Napoli, Italy.
    Shifts in soil chemical and microbial properties across forest chronosequence on recent volcanic deposits2021In: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment. Applied Soil Ecology, ISSN 0929-1393, E-ISSN 1873-0272, Vol. 161, article id 103880Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Afforestation of new unconsolidated volcanic deposits is a practice used to stabilize barren areas and enhance the accumulation of organic matter in the developing soil. Changes in soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) pools, including the soluble and microbial fractions, within the first decades since afforestation have been poorly investigated. Therefore the objective of the present study was to investigate how key C and N pools vary in litter and soil of four forests planted on barren volcanic deposits from recent Mount Vesuvius eruptions. We examined three forest stands (40, 70 and 100 years old) afforested with Stone pine (Pinus pinea L.) and a 40-year old forest of Black pine (Pinus nigra Arn.). As a baseline of C and N pools prior to afforestation, data from treeless sites were included in the study. Both the inputs with litter fall and soil C and N stocks increased with forest age in the Stone pine stands. In the mineral soil, C concentration per gram soil dry weight and C:N ratio increased with age from treeless sites to the oldest forest. Microbial biomass C and fungal biomass as a fraction of organic carbon (OC) and respiration per unit OC (an index of organic matter mineralization potential) decreased significantly with stand age. The results suggest that a main driver of C accumulation in the mineral soil is the decline with increasing stand age of the microbial fraction of organic matter and its activity. The comparison between the two pine species revealed that litter production was more abundant in the Black pine than in the even-aged, 40-year-old, Stone pine stand; moreover Black pine litter was more acidic and had a higher stable residue than Stone pine litter. Therefore a different pattern of C sequestration occurs with a higher C stock in the organic layers and a lower C stock in the mineral soil of Black pine compared to Stone pine.

  • 16.
    Dong, Lili
    et al.
    Erguna Forest-Steppe Ecotone Research Station, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, 110016, China.
    Berg, Björn
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology. University of Helsinki.
    Gu, Weiping
    Erguna Forest-Steppe Ecotone Research Station, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, 110016, China.
    Wang, Zhengwen
    Erguna Forest-Steppe Ecotone Research Station, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, 110016, China.
    Sun, Tao
    Key Laboratory of Forest Ecology and Management, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, 110016, China.
    Effects of different forms of nitrogen addition on microbial extracellular enzyme activity in temperate grassland soil2022In: Ecological Processes, E-ISSN 2192-1709, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Nitrogen (N) deposition alters litter decomposition and soil carbon (C) sequestration by influencing the microbial community and its enzyme activity. Natural atmospheric N deposition comprises of inorganic N (IN) and organic N (ON) compounds. However, most studies have focused on IN and its effect on soil C cycling, whereas the effect of ON on microbial enzyme activity is poorly understood. Here we studied the effects of different forms of externally supplied N on soil enzyme activities related to decomposition in a temperate steppe. Ammonium nitrate was chosen as IN source, whereas urea and glycine were chosen as ON sources. Different ratios of IN to ON (Control, 10:0, 7:3, 5:5, 3:7, and 0:10) were mixed with equal total amounts of N and then used to fertilize the grassland soils for 6 years. Results Our results show that IN deposition inhibited lignin-degrading enzyme activity, such as phenol oxidase (POX) and peroxidase (PER), which may restrain decomposition and thus induce accumulation of recalcitrant organic C in grassland soils. By contrast, deposition of ON and mixed ON and IN enhanced most of the C-degrading enzyme activities, which may promote the organic matter decomposition in grassland soils. In addition, the beta-N-acetyl-glucosaminidase (NAG) activity was remarkably stimulated by fertilization with both IN and ON, maybe because of the elevated N availability and the lack of N limitation after long-term N fertilization at the grassland site. Meanwhile, differences in soil pH, soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and microbial biomass partially explained the differential effects on soil enzyme activity under different forms of N treatments. Conclusions Our results emphasize the importance of organic N deposition in controlling soil processes, which are regulated by microbial enzyme activities, and may consequently change the ecological effect of N deposition. Thus, more ON deposition may promote the decomposition of soil organic matter thus converting C sequestration in grassland soils into a C source.

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  • 17.
    Dong, Lili
    et al.
    Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China.
    Berg, Björn
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology. University of Helsinki.
    Sun, Tao
    Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China.
    Wang, Zhengwen
    Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China.
    Han, Xingguo
    Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Response of fine root decomposition to different forms of N deposition in a temperate grassland2020In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, ISSN 0038-0717, E-ISSN 1879-3428, Vol. 147, article id 107845Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the importance of plant litter decomposition for ecosystem nutrient cycling and soil fertility, it is still largely unknown how this biogeochemical process is affected by different forms of nitrogen (N). Numerous studies have investigated the effects of exogenous N addition on leaf litter decomposition, while the response of decomposing roots and their microbial communities to externally applied N is rarely studied. Fine roots, however, represent a key input to soil organic matter and understanding their decomposition under elevated atmospheric N deposition is important for predicting soil carbon (C) dynamics in response to changes in climatic conditions. In this study, we decomposed fine roots of five dominant grassland species for two years in field plots fertilized with different forms of N in a typical temperate grassland in Inner Mongolia. Ammonium nitrate was selected as inorganic N (IN), while urea and glycine were chosen as organic N (ON). Equal amounts of N (10 g N·m−2·yr−1) with different ratios of IN: ON (control, 10 : 0, 7 : 3, 5 : 5, 3 : 7, and 0 : 10) were added to the soil. Our results showed that all exogenous N additions, either IN or ON forms, stimulated the decomposition rates across species. Furthermore, the treatment with a mixture of IN and ON fertilizers led to the strongest responses in decomposition rate, which were, on average, 20% higher than control, and 12% higher than using just IN addition across the five studied species. Our results suggest that we need to consider the different components in N deposition when examining nitrogen deposition effects on terrestrial ecosystem carbon and nutrient cycles.

  • 18.
    Dong, Lili
    et al.
    Erguna Forest-Steppe Ecotone Research Station, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China.
    Sun, Tao
    Erguna Forest-Steppe Ecotone Research Station, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China.
    Berg, Björn
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology. Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Zhang, Lili
    National Engineering Laboratory for Soil Nutrient Management, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China.
    Zhang, Quanquan
    School of International Education, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing, China.
    Wang, Zhengwen
    Erguna Forest-Steppe Ecotone Research Station, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China.
    Effects of different forms of N deposition on leaf litter decomposition and extracellular enzyme activities in a temperate grassland2019In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, ISSN 0038-0717, E-ISSN 1879-3428, Vol. 134, p. 78-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the importance of decomposition for biogeochemical cycles, it is still not clear how this process is affected by different forms of nitrogen (N). Equal amounts of N with different ratios of inorganic N: organic N (0 : 0, 10 : 0, 7 : 3, 5 : 5, 3 : 7, and 0 : 10) were added to the soil in a steppe. We studied the response of litter decomposition to different forms of N enrichment. The treatment with 30% organic N resulted in the fastest decomposition, which was higher than with inorganic N or organic N addition alone. Our results highlight the need for studies of N deposition on carbon cycles that consider different components in N deposition.

  • 19.
    Durmus, D
    et al.
    Department of Architectural Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology.
    Tengelin, MN
    Department of Measurement Science and Technology, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Borås, Sweden.
    Research Note: Red light to mitigate light pollution: Is it possible to balance functionality and ecological impact?2024In: Lighting Research and Technology, ISSN 1477-1535, E-ISSN 1477-0938Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The widespread use of electric lighting has revolutionised society but brought unintended consequences, notably light pollution, impacting ecosystems and human circadian rhythms. Concerns about anthropogenic light at night (ALAN) have prompted innovative solutions, such as spectral tuning of light sources. In Europe, a recent focus involves the enforcement of red light in outdoor settings to minimise ALAN's impact, particularly on bats. This mini review synthesises literature to provide an overview of the advantages and disadvantages of the use of red light outdoors. There is a need for further examination of the potential ecological consequences of red light, considering challenges in lighting design functionality and broader impacts on diverse species.

  • 20.
    Efetov, Konstantin A
    et al.
    Crimean Federal University.
    Ryrholm, Nils
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology.
    Kucherenko, Elena E
    Crimean Federal University.
    Attraction of the males of Adscita statices (Linnaeus, 1758) (Zygaenidae, Procridinae) by synthetic sex attractants EFETOV-2 and EFETOV-S-2 in Sweden2018In: Abstracts of the XVI International Symposium on Zygaenidae, İzmir-Turkey, 1-5 May 2018, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, there has been an increasing amount of literature on various approaches to the study of pheromone systems in Insecta. Much of the current research on attractive molecules pays particular attention to their chemical structure, isomerism and biosynthesis (Efetov et al., 2010, 2011, 2015, 2016; Efetov & Gorbunov, 2016; Subchev et al., 2010, 2012, 2013). The synthetic sex attractants EFETOV-2 and EFETOV-S-2 created in the Crimean Federal University (Efetov et al., 2014) were tested in Sweden in 2016 and 2017. Cardboard strips containing rubber caps with the baits were hung on plants at a height of 0.5–1.0 m above the ground. A specimen was considered attracted if a male landed on the strip or flew up and touched it. The field trials were conducted in three localities: northern Gästrikland in the village Rönnåsen, 60 km NW of Gävle (eastern central Sweden); Hörröd, Skåne County (south Sweden) and Ravlunda, Skåne County (south Sweden). It was shown that EFETOV-2 and EFETOV-S-2 were attractive for the males of Adscita (Adscita) statices statices (Linnaeus, 1758). It should be noted that EFETOV-2 (the racemic mixture of R- and Senantiomers of 2-butyl 2-dodecenoate) was more active than EFETOV-S-2 (R-enantiomer). In 2016: Gästrikland, Rönnåsen – 400–420 males attracted to EFETOV-2 and 145–160 males attracted to EFETOV-S-2; Skåne, Hörröd – 26 males attracted to EFETOV-2 and 16 males attracted to EFETOV-S-2; Ravlunda – 155 males attracted to EFETOV-2 and 39 males attracted to EFETOV-S-2. The data for 2017 are: Gästrikland, Rönnåsen – 20 males attracted to EFETOV-2 and 3 males attracted to EFETOV-S-2; Skåne, Hörröd – 103 males attracted to EFETOV-2 and 32 males attracted to EFETOV-S-2; Ravlunda – 32 males attracted to EFETOV-2 and 5 males attracted to EFETOV-S-2. The lower number in 2017 is mainly due to more unfavorable weather and thus fewer trials than in the previous year. These results correspond well with the fact that the males of another subspecies A. (A.) statices drenowskii (Alberti, 1939) were also mainly found in traps with EFETOV-2 during investigations in the Thrace Region (European Turkey) in 2016 (Can et al., 2018).

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  • 21.
    Ehl, Stefan
    et al.
    Biogeography, Trier University, Trier, Germany; Senckenberg German Entomological Institute, Müncheberg, Germany.
    Holzhauer, Stephanie I. J.
    Senckenberg German Entomological Institute, Müncheberg, Germany; Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Müncheberg, Germany.
    Ryrholm, Nils
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology.
    Schmitt, Thomas
    Senckenberg German Entomological Institute, Müncheberg, Germany; Entomology, Department of Zoology, Institute of Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences I, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale), Germany.
    Phenology, mobility and behaviour of the arcto-alpine species Boloria napaea in its arctic habitat2019In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 3912Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Arctic and alpine environments present extreme, but different, challenges to survival. We therefore studied the ecological adaptation of the arctic-alpine fritillary Boloria napaea in northern Sweden and compared these results with the eastern Alps. Using mark-release-recapture, we analysed phenology, mobility, activity patterns, change in wing condition and nectar sources. The phenology showed no protandry, but a longer flight period of the females. Wing conditions revealed a linear decay being quicker in males than females. The mean flight distances were higher for males than females (143 vs 92 m). In general, males were more flight active, while females invested more time in feeding and resting. The shortness of the flight period in the Arctic is apparently a particular adaptation to these harsh conditions, not even allowing protandry, and constraining all individuals to hatch during a short period. These conditions also forced the individuals to concentrate on flight and alimentation. In general, Arctic and Alpine populations of B. napaea show few differences, but the species seems to be even better adapted to the northern environments. Thus, the short temporal separation of these populations seems not to have been sufficient for a divergent adaptation in the southern mountains.

  • 22.
    Gautam, Mukesh Kumar
    et al.
    Korea Basic Science Institute; City University of New York.
    Lee, Kwang-Sik
    Korea Basic Science Institute.
    Berg, Björn
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology. University of Helsinki.
    Song, Byeong-Yeol
    Korea Basic Science Institute; National Forensic Service, Korea.
    Major, trace and rare earth elements dynamics in decomposing litters on successional sites in a cool temperate region of South Korea2020In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 749, article id 142352Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evaluating the decomposition-based change dynamics of various elements in plant litter is important for improving our understanding about their biogeochemical cycling in ecosystems. We have studied the concentrations of major, trace, and rare earth elements (REEs) (34 elements) in green tissue litter, and soil and their dynamics in the decomposing litters of successional annual fleabane (Erigeron annuus) and silvergrass (Miscanthus sinensis). Concentrations of major and trace elements in the litter of annual fleabane were 1.02–2.71 times higher compared to silvergrass. For REEs the difference between the two litter types for elements studied was in the range of 1.02–1.29 times. Both the litters showed a general decrease in the concentrations of elements in the initial stages of decomposition (60–90 days). All the major and trace elements (except for Na) in silvergrass showed a net increase in concentration at the end of the decomposition study (48.9–52.5% accumulated mass loss). Contrastingly, a few trace elements (Mn, Mo, Sr, Zn, Sb, and Cd) in annual fleabane showed a net decrease in their concentrations. For REEs, there was an increase in concentrations as well as in net amounts in both litter types. Similarities observed in the dynamics together with high and significant correlations among them likely suggest their common source. The higher concentrations of REEs in soil likely suggest its role in the net increase in REEs' concentrations and amount in litter during decomposition.

  • 23.
    Gautam, Mukesh Kumar
    et al.
    Division of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Korea Basic Science Institute, Ochang, Chungbuk, Republic of Korea; Biology Department, Medgar Evers College, City University of New York, New York, NY, USA.
    Lee, Kwang-Sik
    Division of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Korea Basic Science Institute, Ochang, Chungbuk, Republic of Korea.
    Berg, Björn
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology. Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Song, Byeong-Yeol
    Division of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Korea Basic Science Institute, Ochang, Chungbuk, Republic of Korea; Chemical Analysis Division, National Forensic Service, Wonju, Republic of Korea.
    Yeon, Jeh-Yeong
    Division of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Korea Basic Science Institute, Ochang, Chungbuk, Republic of Korea.
    Trends of major, minor and rare earth elements in decomposing litter in a cool temperate ecosystem, South Korea2019In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 222, p. 214-226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The decomposition dynamics of 34 different elements in four different litter types (foliar and woody litter) from Pinus densiflora (Korean red pine) and Castanea crenata (Korean chestnut) was investigated in a cool temperate ecosystem using the litterbag method. Two contrasting trends were observed in the dynamics of elements with accumulated mass loss of litter and carbon. Leaf litter of Korean chestnut, which was richer in elements, showed a general decrease in concentrations of elements with accumulated mass loss of litter and carbon on a dry mass basis during decomposition in the field. Other litter types, with initially lower concentrations of elements, exhibited an increase in concentration on a dry mass basis during field incubation. Highest relative increase in the concentration was noticed for the minor elements, and for the woody litters. Concentrations of major and minor elements increased by factors ranging from 1.07 for antimony (Sb) to 853.7 for vanadium (V). Rare earth elements (REE) concentrations increased by factors ranging from 1.04 for scandium (Sc) to 83.5 for thorium (Th). Our results suggest that litter type plays an important role for nutrient dynamics. Results from principal component analysis for major, minor, and rare earth elements showed grouping of elements and high correlation among them (P < 0.05), which suggests a common source. At both sites, element concentrations were high in the soil, especially for REE. This suggests that increase in element concentrations during field incubation probably was due to transfer of elements from soil to the overlying decomposing litter.

  • 24.
    Ge, Jielin
    et al.
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Bot, State Key Lab Vegetat & Environm Change, 20 Nanxincun, Beijing 100093, Peoples R China..
    Berg, Björn
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology. Univ Helsinki, Dept Forest Sci, Helsinki, Finland..
    Xie, Zongqiang
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Bot, State Key Lab Vegetat & Environm Change, 20 Nanxincun, Beijing 100093, Peoples R China.;Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing 100049, Peoples R China..
    Climatic seasonality is linked to the occurrence of the mixed evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved forests in China2019In: Ecosphere, ISSN 2150-8925, E-ISSN 2150-8925, Vol. 10, no 9, article id e02862Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved tree species can coexist across the globe and constitute different broad-leaved forests along large-scale geographical and climatic gradients. A better understanding of climatic influence on the distribution of mixed evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved forest is of fundamental importance when assessing this mixed forest's resilience and predicting potential dynamics of broad-leaved forests under future climate change. Here, we quantified the horizontal distribution of this mixed forest in mountains in relation to climate seasonality by compiling vegetation information from the earlier records and our own field sampling on major subtropical mountains of China. We found that the probability of occurrence of this forest in subtropical mountains was positively associated with the latitude but not the longitude. The occurrence probability of this forest was observed at high-temperature but not precipitation seasonality mountains. Temperature seasonality was five times more important than precipitation seasonality in explaining the total variation of occurrence of this mixed forest. For its distribution, our results shed light on that temperature seasonality was generally a more powerful predictor than precipitation seasonality for montane mixed forest distribution. Collectively, this study clearly underscores the important role of temperature seasonality, a previously not quantified climatic variable, in the occurrence of this mixed forest along geographical gradients and hence yields useful insight into our understanding of climate-vegetation relationships and climate change vulnerability assessment in a changing climate.

  • 25.
    Guerrero-Casado, José
    et al.
    Universidad Técnica de Manabí, Ecuador; University of Cordoba, Spain.
    Ström, Helena
    Hillström, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology.
    Prada, Laura M.
    University of Cordoba.
    Carpio, Antonio J.
    University of Cordoba; Instituto de Investigación en Recursos CinegéticosCiudad RealSpain.
    Tortosa, Francisco S.
    University of Cordoba.
    Assessment of the suitability of latrine counts as an indirect method by which to estimate the abundance of European rabbit populations at high and low abundance2020In: European Journal of Wildlife Research, ISSN 1612-4642, E-ISSN 1439-0574, Vol. 66, no 1, article id 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Monitoring European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) populations using suitable methods is crucial, especially in those areas in which endangered predators remain and rabbits occur at low densities. We first counted the number of rabbits, the number of scattered pellets, and the number of latrines counted within 16 plots established in areas of low rabbit density, showing that the number of rabbits counted inside the plots was more closely correlated with the number of pellets counted than with the number of latrines. In addition, no latrines were found in 8 plots. In 53 walking transects, the number of pellets m−2 and the number of latrines km−1 had a positive relationship, but no significant correlation was obtained between the two methods when only the transects with a low rabbit abundance were selected. These results suggest that although counting latrines can be useful to compare areas with different abundances, it may underestimate rabbit abundance at low abundances where counting scattered pellets is, therefore, the most accurate alternative. © 2019, Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.

  • 26.
    Holm, Mia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology.
    Sex- och samlevnad i skolan2022Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
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    Sex- och samlevnad i skolan
  • 27.
    Ivarsson, Lena Norback
    et al.
    Sodertorn Univ, Sch Nat Sci Technol & Environm Studies, Huddinge, Sweden..
    Andren, Thomas
    Sodertorn Univ, Sch Nat Sci Technol & Environm Studies, Huddinge, Sweden..
    Moros, Matthias
    Leibniz Inst Baltic Sea Res Warnemunde, Rostock, Germany..
    Andersen, Thorbjorn Joest
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Geosci & Nat Resource Management, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Lönn, Mikael
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology. Södertörn Univ.
    Andren, Elinor
    Sodertorn Univ, Sch Nat Sci Technol & Environm Studies, Huddinge, Sweden..
    Baltic Sea Coastal Eutrophication in a Thousand Year Perspective2019In: Frontiers in Environmental Science, E-ISSN 2296-665X, Vol. 7, article id 88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sediment cores from three sites along the east-coast of Sweden, north-western Baltic Proper, have been studied with respect to lithologies, geochemistry, and diatom assemblages to trace and date early human impact with emphasis on nutrient discharge. The three sites Braviken, Himmerfjarden, and Adfjarden, have been impacted to various degree during the last millennia by multiple stressors like excessive nutrient discharge and hazardous substances, leading to coastal hypoxia, eutrophication, and pollution. These stressors are mainly caused by drivers in the drainage area as increased human population, changed land use, and point sources as industries and a sewage treatment plant. Even though their detailed history differs, the results show similar general patterns for all three sites. We find no evidence in our data from the coastal zone supporting the hypothesis that the extensive areal distribution of hypoxia in the open Baltic Sea during the Medieval Climate Anomaly was caused by human impact. Timing of the onset of man-made eutrophication, as identified from delta N-15 and changes in diatom composition, differs between the three sites, reflecting the site specific geography and local environmental histories of these areas. The onset of eutrophication dates to similar to 1800 CE in Braviken and Himmerfjarden areas, and to similar to 1900 CE in the less urban area of Adfjarden. We conclude that the recorded environmental changes during the last centuries are unique in a thousand year perspective.

  • 28.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology.
    Andersson, Petter
    Calluna AB.
    Nilsson Tengelin, Maria
    Department of Measurement Science and Technology, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Borås, Sweden.
    Dose–effects in behavioural responses of moths to light in a controlled lab experiment2023In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 13, no 1, article id 10339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Insects play a critical role in providing numerous ecosystem services. However, insect diversity and biomass have been declining dramatically, with artificial light being suggested as a contributing factor. Despite the importance of understanding the dose–effect responses of insects to light emissions, these responses have been rarely studied. We examined the dose–effect responses of the greater wax moth (Galleria mellonella L.) to different light intensities (14 treatments and a dark control) by observing their behavioural responses in a light-tight box equipped with a LED light source (4070 K) and infrared cameras. Our findings reveal dose–effect responses to light, as the frequency of walking on the light source increased with higher light intensity. Additionally, moths exhibited jumps in front of the light source and jump frequency increased with light intensity. No direct flight-to-light behaviour or activity suppression in response to light was observed. Based on our analysis of the dose–effect responses, we identified a threshold value of 60 cd/m2 for attraction (walking on the light source) and the frequency of jumps. The experimental design in this study offers a valuable tool for investigating dose–effect relationships and behavioural responses of various species to different light levels or specific light sources.

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  • 29.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology. Department of Environmental and Bioscience, Halmstad University.
    Brutemark, A
    Biotopia & Uppsala Naturskola, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Correspondence: Addressing and mitigating the ecological effects of light pollution requires ecological perspectives2024In: Lighting Research and Technology, ISSN 1477-1535, E-ISSN 1477-0938, Vol. 59, p. 102-104Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology.
    Spoelstra, Kamiel
    Department of Animal Ecology, Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW), 6700 AB Wageningen, Netherlands..
    Effects of anthropogenic light on species and ecosystems2023In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 380, no 6650, p. 1125-1130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anthropogenic light is ubiquitous in areas where humans are present and is showing a progressive increase worldwide. This has far-reaching consequences for most species and their ecosystems. The effects of anthropogenic light on natural ecosystems are highly variable and complex. Many species suffer from adverse effects and often respond in a highly specific manner. Ostensibly surveyable effects such as attraction and deterrence become complicated because these can depend on the type of behavior and specific locations. Here, we considered how solutions and new technologies could reduce the adverse effects of anthropogenic light. A simple solution to reducing and mitigating the ecological effects of anthropogenic light seems unattainable, because frugal lighting practices and turning off lights may be necessary to eliminate them.

  • 31.
    Kellner, Eva
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology.
    Attorps, Iiris
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Mathematics.
    The school–university intersection as a professional learning arena: evaluation of a two-year action research project2020In: Teacher Development, ISSN 1366-4530, E-ISSN 1747-5120, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 366-383Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents the evaluation of a two-year action research project in biology and mathematics teaching involving a primary school and a university in Sweden. The aim of the study was to contribute knowledge about a school–university intersection as a professional learning arena. The teachers’ conceptions about the project implementation, the impact on their learning, teaching practices and pupil learning were made explicit by focus group interview. The evaluation revealed that several motivating factors in this specific learning community – the relevance of the project and connection to the continuing education course, mentors from university, planning tools and time for collaboration – were critical for project implementation and for professional learning to occur. Furthermore, it indicated how teacher learning and teaching practices were related to pupil learning in the professional learning community. The results are also discussed in the light of new research on teachers’ work identity and self-reported health.

  • 32.
    Krokene, Paal
    et al.
    Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research; Norwegian University of Life Sciences.
    Hatteland, Bjørn Arild
    Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research; University of Bergen.
    Magnusson, Christer
    Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research; Norwegian University of Life Sciences.
    Flø, Daniel
    VKM.
    Thomsen, Iben M.
    University of Copenhagen.
    Stenberg, Johan A.
    SLU.
    Brurberg, May Bente
    Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research; Norwegian University of Life Sciences.
    Wendell, Micael
    VKM.
    Nicolaisen, Mogens
    Aarhus university.
    Rossmann, Simeon
    Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research.
    Talgø, Venche
    Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research.
    Wright, Sandra A. I. (Contributor)
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology.
    Rafoss, Trond (Contributor)
    VKM; University of Agder.
    Pest risk categorization – New plant health regulations for Norway: Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Plant Health of the Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food and Environment2021Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In an ongoing effort to renew Norwegian regulations related to plants and measures against plant pests, the Norwegian Food Safety Authority asked The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food and Environment (VKM) which of the currently regulated pests that should still be regulated (either as a quarantine pest (QP) or a regulated non-quarantine pest (RNQP) for Norway), and whether there are any species that should be deregulated. Following such a risk categorization process the Norwegian Food Safety Authority will determine if pest risk assessments (PRA’s) should be performed for quarantine pests. International trade regulations define quarantine pests (QPs) as pests of potential economic importance to an area that are not yet present, or are present but not widely distributed and are subject to official control. A regulated non-quarantine pest (RNQP) is a pest whose presence in plants for planting affects the intended use of those plants with an economically unacceptable impact and which is therefore subject to official control within the territory of the importing contracting party and regulated in international trade. In this report VKM presents an overview of the pest categorisation of some of the pests regulated in the current Norwegian regulation and concludes on whether each pest should be regulated as a potential QP, RNQP or none of these categories for Norway. The pest categorisation process – the process of determining whether a pest has or has not the characteristics of a QP or RNQP – has been done using the FinnPRIO model. The FinnPRIO model is a pest risk ranking tool that uses a hypervolume approach carry out quick, semiquantitative expert assessments and that allows a high number of pest risk categorizations to be done cost-effectively and in a short period of time. In total 33 pests were assessed as per request from the Norwegian Food Safety Authority. Of those 33 pests VKM suggests that the vast majority – 32 pests – are kept as a QPs for Norway. However, one pest, the cherry leafroll nepovirus (EPPO code CLRV00), fulfils the requirements for being a RNQP since it is most likely present in Norway already. Furthermore, one organism, the flatworm Arthurdendyus triangulates (ARDDTR), is suggested to not be regulated as QP or RNQP. This pest does not fulfil the requirements for being a QP since it would probably not cause direct damage to plants if it established in Norway. Also, it does not fulfill the requirements for being a regulated non-quarantine pest(RNQP) since its potential presence in plants for planting does not directly affect the intended use of those plants with an economically unacceptable impact.

  • 33. Källander, Clas
    et al.
    Moberg, Arne
    Ryrholm, Nils
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology.
    Noctua tertia Mentzer, Moberg & Fibiger, 1991 funnen i Sverige (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae)2020In: Entomologisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0013-886X, Vol. 141, no 1-2, p. 51-59Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Noctu tertia was introduced as a new species for Northern Europe in the annual review of Macrolepidoptera records from Sweden 2017 (Palmqvist 2018). The current article describes the observations and studies underlying this report. An immigration of presumed Noctua janthina females with non-typical characteristics reaching Gotland during late September 2015 aroused our interest and triggered a more thorough investigation. Examination of their genitalia revealed that several of the captured specimens exhibited characteristics that were identical to those of Noctua tertia. We then extended our studies to a larger material including females with a wide range of variations in wing pattern and coloration and of males with typical janthina/tertia appearance. In total we have identified eleven Noctua tertia four males and seven females, most of them from Gotland but also three from Skåne. The oldest specimen was from 1988 and the newest from 2017. Available information of the geographical distribution of N. tertia is reviewed and the characteristics and biological information of the species in the Noctua janthe/janthina/tertia complex is further developed and discussed.

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  • 34. Maes, Dirk
    et al.
    Verovnik, Rudi
    Wiemers, Martin
    Brosens, Dimitri
    Beshkov, Stoyan
    Bonelli, Simona
    Buszko, Jaroslaw
    Cantú-Salazar, Lisette
    Cassar, Louis-Francis
    Collins, Sue
    Dincă, Vlad
    Djuric, Milan
    Dušej, Goran
    Elven, Hallvard
    Franeta, Filip
    Garcia-Pereira, Patricia
    Geryak, Yurii
    Goffart, Philippe
    Gór, Ádám
    Hiermann, Ulrich
    Höttinger, Helmut
    Huemer, Peter
    Jakšić, Predrag
    John, Eddie
    Kalivoda, Henrik
    Kati, Vassiliki
    Kirkland, Paul
    Komac, Benjamin
    Kőrösi, Ádám
    Kulak, Anatolij
    Kuussaari, Mikko
    L’Hoste, Lionel
    Lelo, Suvad
    Mestdagh, Xavier
    Micevski, Nikola
    Mihoci, Iva
    Mihut, Sergiu
    Monasterio-León, Yeray
    Morgun, Dmitry V.
    Munguira, Miguel L.
    Murray, Tomás
    Nielsen, Per Stadel
    Ólafsson, Erling
    Õunap, Erki
    Pamperis, Lazaros N.
    Pavlíčko, Alois
    Pettersson, Lars B.
    Popov, Serhiy
    Popović, Miloš
    Pöyry, Juha
    Prentice, Mike
    Reyserhove, Lien
    Ryrholm, Nils
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology.
    Šašić, Martina
    Savenkov, Nikolay
    Settele, Josef
    Sielezniew, Marcin
    Sinev, Sergey
    Stefanescu, Constanti
    Švitra, Giedrius
    Tammaru, Toomas
    Tiitsaar, Anu
    Tzirkalli, Elli
    Tzortzakaki, Olga
    van Swaay, Chris A. M.
    Viborg, Arne Lykke
    Wynhoff, Irma
    Zografou, Konstantina
    Warren, Martin S.
    Integrating national Red Lists for prioritising conservation actions for European butterflies2019In: Journal of Insect Conservation, ISSN 1366-638X, E-ISSN 1572-9753, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 301-330Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Red Lists are very valuable tools in nature conservation at global, continental and (sub-) national scales. In an attempt to prioritise conservation actions for European butterflies, we compiled a database with species lists and Red Lists of all European countries, including the Macaronesian archipelagos (Azores, Madeira and Canary Islands). In total, we compiled national species lists for 42 countries and national Red Lists for 34 of these. The most species-rich countries in Europe are Italy, Russia and France with more than 250 species each. Endemic species are mainly found on the Macaronesian archipelagos and on the Mediterranean islands. By attributing numerical values proportionate to the threat statuses in the different national Red List categories, we calculated a mean Red List value for every country (cRLV) and a weighted Red List value for every species (wsRLV) using the square root of the country’s area as a weighting factor. Countries with the highest cRLV were industrialised (NW) European countries such as the Netherlands, Belgium, the Czech Republic and Denmark, whereas large Mediterranean countries such as Spain and Italy had the lowest cRLV. Species for which a Red List assessment was available in at least two European countries and with a relatively high wsRLV (≥ 50) are Colias myrmidone, Pseudochazara orestes, Tomares nogelii, Colias chrysotheme and Coenonympha oedippus. We compared these wsRLVs with the species statuses on the European Red List to identify possible mismatches. We discuss how this complementary method can help to prioritise butterfly conservation on the continental and/or the (sub-)national scale.

  • 35.
    Mixter, Susanna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Dimberg, Kent
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology.
    Jahncke, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Lyskov, Eugene
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Stress-related responses to alternations between repetitive physical work and cognitive tasks of different difficulties2020In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 17, no 22, article id 8509Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alternating between physical and cognitive tasks has been proposed as an alternative in job rotation, allowing workers to recover from the physical work while still being productive. However, effects of such alternations on stress have not been investigated. This controlled experiment aimed at determining the extent to which stress-related responses develop during alternating physical and cognitive work, and to determine the extent to which cognitive task (CT) difficulty influences these responses. Fifteen women performed three sessions of 10 consecutive work bouts each including a seven-minute repetitive physical task (pipetting) and a three-minute CT (n-back) at one of three difficulty levels. Stress was assessed in terms of changes in heart rate variability, blood pressure, salivary alpha-amylase, salivary cortisol, perceived stress, and cognitive performance. The work session did not result in any marked stress response, and CT difficulty did not significantly influence stress, apart from alpha-amylase being higher at the easiest CT (F = 5.34, p = 0.02). Thus, according to our results, alternating between repetitive physical tasks and cognitive tasks may be a feasible alternative to classic job rotation between physical tasks only, even if the cognitive task is quite difficult. Future studies should address possible effects of the temporal pattern of alternations, and combine even other occupationally relevant tasks, preferably for extended periods of time.

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  • 36.
    Nielsen, Anders
    et al.
    VKM; Norwegian Institute for Bioeconomy Research.
    Stenberg, Johan A.
    VKM; SLU.
    Wendell, Micael
    VKM.
    Krokene, Paal (Contributor)
    VKM; Norwegian Institute for Bioeconomy Research.
    Magnusson, Christer (Contributor)
    VKM; Norwegian Institute for Bioeconomy Research.
    Nicolaisen, Mogens (Contributor)
    VKM; Aarhus university.
    Thomsen, Iben M. (Contributor)
    VKM; University of Copenhagen.
    Wright, Sandra A. I. (Contributor)
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology. VKM.
    Rafoss, Trond (Contributor)
    VKM; University of Agder.
    Risk assessment of the biological control product Limonica with the organism Amblydromalus limonicus: Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Plant Health of the Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food and Environment2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The product Limonica, with the predatory mite Amblydromalus limonicus as the active organism, is sought to be used as a biological control agent in Norway. Limonica is intended for use against western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentallis), other thrips (e.g. Thripstabaci), spider mites and white flies (e.g. Trialeurodes, Aleyrodes and Bemisia spp.) in protected horticultural crops such as cucumber, sweet pepper, strawberry and ornamentals. The product is not recommended for greenhouse-grown tomatoes. 

  • 37.
    Nyxén, Emmy
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology.
    Collecting rainwater, a comparison between Zambia and Sweden: Can farmers learn from each other?2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates if rainwater collection methods in Zambia are efficient compared to methods used in Sweden. Since the climate changes will affect the rainwater distribution in Sweden, with heavy rainfall, storms and droughts, the comparison is necessary to provide methods for future collection and usage of rainwater in Sweden. The investigation includes the collection of rainwater and two methods for the supply of water onto the ground and the plants. The results show that a correctly built dam will create a good supply of water and thus makes a positive impact for the farm. A proper dam can be the key success factor for water supply all year around. One of the key elements for the dam is the collection of rainwater. The results show that in Zambia it is crucial to obtain a solid capacity of water. The results have shown that the techniques used in Zambia can make a positive impact for methods in Sweden for the collection of rainwater.

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  • 38.
    O’Neill, Hagen M.
    et al.
    Centre for Environmental Research Innovation and Sustainability, Institute of Technology Sligo, Ireland.
    Twiss, Sean D.
    Durham University.
    Stephens, Philip A.
    Durham University.
    Mason, Tom H. E.
    Durham University; Swiss Ornithological Institute.
    Ryrholm, Nils
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology.
    Burman, Joseph
    The importance of direct and indirect trophic interactions in determining the presence of a locally rare day-flying moth2022In: Oecologia, ISSN 0029-8549, E-ISSN 1432-1939, Vol. 198, p. 531-542Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecosystem engineers affect other organisms by creating, maintaining or modifying habitats, potentially supporting species of conservation concern. However, it is important to consider these interactions alongside non-engineering trophic pathways. We investigated the relative importance of trophic and non-trophic effects of an ecosystem engineer, red deer, on a locally rare moth, the transparent burnet (Zygaena purpuralis). This species requires specific microhabitat conditions, including the foodplant, thyme, and bare soil for egg-laying. The relative importance of grazing (i.e., trophic effect of modifying microhabitat) and trampling (i.e., non-trophic effect of exposing bare soil) by red deer on transparent burnet abundance is unknown. We tested for these effects using a novel method of placing pheromone-baited funnel traps in the field. Imago abundance throughout the flight season was related to plant composition, diversity and structure at various scales around each trap. Indirect effects of red deer activity were accounted for by testing red deer pellet and trail presence against imago abundance. Imago abundance was positively associated with thyme and plant diversity, whilst negatively associated with velvet grass and heather species cover. The presence of red deer pellets and trails were positively associated with imago abundance. The use of these sites by red deer aids the transparent burnet population via appropriate levels of grazing and the provision of a key habitat condition, bare soil, in the form of deer trails. This study shows that understanding how both trophic and non-trophic interactions affect the abundance of a species provides valuable insights regarding conservation objectives.

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  • 39. Palmqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Ryrholm, Nils
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology.
    Intressanta fynd av storfjärilar (Macrolepidoptera) i Sverige 20192020In: Entomologisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0013-886X, Vol. 141, no 1-2, p. 65-80Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is the 47th consecutive annual report of new and interesting finds of Macrolepidoptera in Sweden, and also a compilation of new provincial records. This summer was also warmer than average, with periods of favourable S-SE winds, which brought many migrating Lepidoptera to Sweden. Five species were for the first time recorded in Sweden. These are: Isturgia arenacearia, Ascotis selenaria, Eublemma purpurina, Caradrina kadenii and Leucania loreyi. Many other migrant moths like Agrius convolvuli, Macroglossum stellatarum, Hyles livornica, Thaumetopoea processionea, Eilema griseolum, Grammodes stolida, Catocala fulminea, C. adultera, C. elocata, Helicoverpa armigera, Autographa mandarina, Spodoptera exigua, Blepharita amica, Mythimna vittelina, Peridroma saucium, Xestia ditrapezium, and Nycteola asiatica were also recorded. This report also gives numerous examples of native butterflies and moths expanding northwards in the country due to the climate change. The number of Macrolepidoptera species found in Sweden are now 1126, of which 16 are introduced. Possibly the most remarkable observation this year is the rediscovery of Gazoryctra ganna, in northernmost Sweden, 172 year after the last and only time the species has been found in the country. In addition, a second find of the enigmatic species Mniotype bathensis from 2015 in Jämtland is also extraordinary. This observation further supports the view that the species is resident in the southern Scandinavian mountain region. Unfortunately, the situation for the endangered butterfly Melitaea britomartis is becoming extremely critical. No observations at all could be done this year in the two remaining habitats in Småland and Västmanland (Artportalen).

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  • 40. Palmqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Ryrholm, Nils
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology.
    Intressanta fynd av storfjärilar (Macrolepidoptera) i Sverige 20202021In: Entomologisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0013-886X, Vol. 142, no 1-2, p. 95-104Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is the 48th annual report of new and interesting finds of Macrolepidoptera in Sweden with a compilation of new provincial records. This season was warm compared with what was previously average in Sweden, except for the north-easternmost parts of the country and some areas in the Swedish mountains, which partly experienced cool and wet weather. However, the summer temperatures were much less extreme than in 2018, with some cool spells as well. The presence of Gazoryctra ganna as a native species was confirmed by additional observations on the same site as in previous year, plus the discovery of new location further north in the Torne valley. A large number of species continues to expand northwards and inlands like Idaea emarginata, Apeira syringaria, Cryphia algae, Apameaepomidion, Cirrhia ocellaris, Atethmia centrago, Agrotis puta, Apamea scolopacina; and some also are rounding the Gulf of Bothnia from the east like Globia sparganii and Noctua comes. Many migrant species were found in periods with S-SE winds like Agriusconvolvuli, Acherontia atropos, Macroglossum stellatarum, Hyles euphorbiae, Orthonamaobstipata, Hypena lividalis, Eublemma purpurina, Heliothis peltigera, Heliothis adaucta, Heli-coverpa armigera, Spodoptera exigua, Fabula zollikoferi, Mythimna vitellina, Agrotisbigramma, Xestia ditrapezium and Nycteola asiatica. The globally widespread moth Utetheisapulchella was recorded for the first time in Sweden on the Baltic islands Öland and Gotland. The butterfly Melitaea britomartis (CR) could not be rediscovered for the second year and must now be considered as extinct in Sweden. In addition, the butterfly Plebejus argyrognomon(EN) was not found this year and appears to have gone extinct. Both these butterfly specieshave almost unique subspecies in Sweden which makes this loss very serious. 

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  • 41. Palmqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Ryrholm, Nils
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology.
    Intressanta fynd av storfjärilar(Macrolepidoptera) i Sverige 20212022In: Entomologisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0013-886X, Vol. 143, no 1-2, p. 67-80Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is the 49th consecutive annual report of new and interesting finds of Macrolepidopterain Sweden including a compilation of new provincial records, most of the new records are retrieved from the Swedish Species Observation System https://www.artportalen.se. The trend with warmer climate and thus longer vegetation periods continues to have a strong impact on faunal changes and the distribution of the Swedish Lepidopteran fauna. New species, mainly from south and east find their way almost yearly to our country. In 2021 three new species were observed for the first time in Sweden: Amata phegea, Mormo maura and Xylomoia graminea. The trend with expansion mainly northwards and inlands is still strong among species like: Zygaena minos, Pararge aegeria, Apatura ilia, Araschnia levana, Idaea ochrata, Mesoleuca albicillata, Hydrelia sylvata, Melanthia procellata, Eupithecia abbreviata, Cucullia scrophulariae, Cryphia algae, Hoplodrina ambigua, Atethmia centrago, Conisania luteago, Noctua interposita, Epilecta linogrisea, Meganola albula but also among many other species. A new and remarkable feature in the new climatic conditions is that species like Pararge aegeria, Watsonalla binaria and many others can produce full or partial second or even third generations in their just recently reached northernmost range limits. An impressive number of migrants found their way to Sweden, mostly from August to October. Among the more noteworthy are: Argynnis laodice, Acherontia atropos, Scopulani gropunctata, Orthonama obstipata, Horisme corticata, Narraga fasciolaria, Isturgia arenacearia, Rhyparia purpurata, Catocala elocata, Catocala electa, Chrysodeixis chalcites, Heliothis adaucta, Helicoverpa armigera, Caradrina kadenii, Mythimna vitellina, Peridromasaucium, Agrotis bigramma, Xestia ditrapezium, Nycteola asiatica. In northernmost Sweden Gazoryctra ganna was found for the third successive year, showing that the moth is resident in Sweden and presumably has been so during all the year it was not found. Also, one new, small population of Lycaena helle was found indicating that the species still lingers on 3-4 localities in Northernmost Sweden. In Skåne in southernmost Sweden the moths Lithostege farinata, Hadena filograna have been observed again after many years absence. They have been considered as nationally respectively regionally extinct, but hopefully new influx or some concealed unknown population may rescue the species survival in Skåne again. The number of macrolepidoptera found in Sweden is now 1130, of which 16 are introduced.

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  • 42.
    Rahmani, Rizan
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Carrasco, David
    SLU; University of Montpellier.
    Svensson, Glenn P.
    Lunds universitet.
    Roweck, Hartmut
    Christian Albrecht University, Kiel, Germany.
    Ryrholm, Nils
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology.
    Larsson, Mattias C.
    SLU.
    Hedenström, Erik
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Identification and synthesis of putative pheromone components of the threatened salt marsh bagworm moth, Whittleia retiella (Lepidoptera: Psychidae)2020In: Journal of Chemical Ecology, ISSN 0098-0331, E-ISSN 1573-1561, Vol. 46, no 2, p. 115-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whittleia retiella (Newman, 1847) is a threatened salt marsh species of the bagworm moth family Psychidae. For its preservation it is necessary to develop efficient tools to survey its distribution and habitat requirements in order to use appropriate conservation methods. Such tools may be pheromone-based monitoring systems, which have documented efficacy in establishing the occurrence of cryptic insect species in nature. By using gas chromatography combined with electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD), we found two compounds in female W. retiella headspace samples and whole-body extracts that elicited electrophysiological activity in male antennae. Gas chromatograpy coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) operating in electron impact (EI) mode and comparison of the analytical data with those of synthetic reference compounds showed the chemical structures of these putative pheromone components to be (1S)-1-methylpropyl (5Z)-dec-5-enoate and 1-methylethyl (5Z)-dec-5-enoate. Field assays using baits loaded with synthetic compounds revealed that conspecific males were attracted to (1S)-1-methylpropyl (5Z)-dec-5-enoate alone or in combination with 1-methylethyl (5Z)-dec-5-enoate, whereas 1-methylethyl (5Z)-dec-5-enoate neither attracted nor repelled males in the field assays when tested alone. This study shows the potential of using (1S)-1-methylpropyl (5Z)-dec-5-enoate for monitoring W. retiella to gather more detailed information about the geographic distribution and habitat needs of this rare moth.

  • 43.
    Rambaree, Komalsingh
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Social Work.
    Sundström, Agneta
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Wang, Zhao
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Wright, Sandra A. I.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology.
    Qualitative stakeholder analysis for a Swedish regional biogas development: A thematic network approach2021In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, no 14, article id 8003Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The creation of pathways toward a societal transition to clean energy requires the engagement of multiple stakeholders with different and sometimes conflicting interests. In this connection, stakeholder analysis (SA) offers a technique for identifying, assessing and structuring different needs, interests and concerns related to different stakeholders within the context of sustainability. This article aims to present the findings from a qualitative stakeholder analysis (QSA) by using a thematic network approach (TNA), with the help of the ATLAS.ti software. It focuses on Project X, which was aimed at engaging multiple stakeholders and creating favorable conditions for small and medium-sized companies in a region situated in the central part of Sweden, with the potential to start biogas production. In this work, the findings and discussions of the QSA using TNA are structured by using the political, economic, social, technological, environmental and legal (PESTEL) themes of the model. The present study concludes that for the small-scale biogas industry to successfully develop an understanding of the possibilities of the biogas value chain, it is necessary to have analyzed the nature of the main themes by which various stakeholders relate to biogas production and envision their contribution to creating a sustainable society. Herein, we demonstrate that QSA by a TNA, combined with the application of a PESTEL model, are valuable analytical tools in sustainable project management. The lessons from Project X can be applied to other local biogas initiatives, as many identified threats and opportunities are shared by others. 

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  • 44.
    Ryrholm, Nils
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology.
    The Gelechiidae of North-West Europe - ett måste för varje småfjärilsintresserad!: Keld Gregersen & Ole Karsholt. 2022. The Gelechiidae of North-West Europe. NorwegianEntomological Society, Oslo. 939 sidor. ISBN: 97882996923352023In: Entomologisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0013-886X, Vol. 144, no 1-2, p. 37-38Article, book review (Other academic)
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  • 45.
    Ryrholm, Nils
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology.
    Larsson, Mattias C.
    Molander, Mikael A.
    Eriksson, Björn
    Hotade insekter med lockande dofter2019In: Yrfän, ISSN 2002-1151, no 2, p. 15-17Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 46.
    Rönnander, Jonas
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Chemistry.
    Ljunggren, Joel
    Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Wright, Sandra A. I.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology.
    Growth in Spent Sulphite Liquor and Biotransformation of Vanillin by Yeasts from Decaying Wood2019In: The 35th International Specialized Symposium on Yeasts, 21-25 October 2019, Antalya, Turkey: Proceedings book, 2019, p. 124-124Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a challenging ecological niche for microorganisms. Spent sulphite liquor (SSL), which derives from acid hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass, is an even greater challenge, due to the presence of toxic phenolic compounds, specific monosaccharides, lignosulphonates and inhibitors, such as HMF, furfural, formic acid and acetic acid. One of these inhibitors is vanillin, a lignin monomeric derivative. Could yeasts that originate from wood tolerate vanillin and grow in the presence of SSL? A basidiomycetous yeast, Cystobasidium laryngis strain FMYD002, grew in vanillin-supplemented media, and biotransformed vanillin into vanillyl alcohol. It is part of a collection of yeasts isolated from decaying wood on the Faroe Islands. The aim of the present study was to determine the vanillin biodegradation profiles and the ability to grow in the presence of SSL.

    These yeasts were identified by ITS1–5.8S–ITS2 and D1/D2 sequence homology. The relationship between wood-habitat and vanillin tolerance by cultivating the yeasts in the presence of 1 mM vanillin. The vanillin biodegradation profiles were determined by LC-MS, using the standards: vanillin, vanillyl alcohol and vanillic acid. The growth in different concentrations of SSL was evaluated.

    Strains of Cystobasidium laryngis, Cystofilobasidium infirmominiatum, Goffeauzyma gastrica, Goffeauzyma sp., Naganishia sp., Holtermanniella sp., Rhodotorula sp., Nadsonia starkeyi-henricii, Debaryomyces hansenii, Debaryomyces sp., Candida sake and Candida argentea were identified. Most strains were able to grow in vanillin-supplemented medium. The predominant biodegradation product was vanillyl alcohol followed by vanillic acid. Several other biodegradation products were detected. Most strains were able to grow in the presence in SSL. Species of Candida and Debaryomyces were most tolerant, whereas species of Nadsonia, Holtermanniella and Naganishia grew poorly.

    Many of the yeast species described herein are associated with wood or cold environments. Ability to grow in the presence of vanillin did not completely correlate with tolerance to SSL. However, the strains that grew at the highest concentration of SSL also grew well in the presence of vanillin, from which they rapidly producedl arge amounts of vanillyl alcohol, and many other biodegradation products. Conversely, the isolates with poor or no growth in vanillin had extremely low or no tolerance to SSL. Thus, high tolerance to vanillin appeared to be a prerequisite for growth in SSL-based medium. Different yeasts have tolerance to different inhibitors present in SSL. A comprehensive analysis of growth and biodegradation of vanillin produced five groups, containing specific yeast genera.

  • 47.
    Rönnander, Jonas
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Chemistry.
    Wright, Sandra A. I.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology.
    Growth of wood-inhabiting yeasts of the Faroe Islands in the presence of spent sulphite liquor2021In: Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. International Journal of General and Molecular Microbiology, ISSN 0003-6072, E-ISSN 1572-9699, Vol. 114, p. 649-666Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the microbial community of decaying wood, yeasts are important for the recycling of nutrients. Nevertheless, information on their biodiversity in this niche in the Northern hemisphere is limited. Wood-colonising yeasts encounter identical and similar growth-inhibitory compounds as those in spent sulphite liquor (SSL), an energy-rich, acid hydrolysate and waste product from the paper industry, which may render them well-suited for cultivation in SSL. In the present study, yeasts were isolated from decaying wood on the Faroe Islands and identified based on sequence homology of the ITS and D1/D2 regions. Among the yeasts isolated, Candida argentea, Cystofilobasidium infirmominiatum, Naganishia albidosimilis, Naganishia onofrii, Holtermanniella takashimae and Goffeauzyma gastrica were new to decaying wood in cold and temperate climates. C. argentea and Rhodotorula are rarely-isolated species, with no previous documentation from cold and maritime climates. The isolates were further tested for growth in a medium with increasing concentrations of softwood SSL. Most grew in the presence of 10% SSL. Isolates of Debaryomyces sp., C. argentea and Rhodotorula sp. were the most tolerant. Representatives of Debaryomyces and Rhodotorula have previously been found in decaying wood. In contrast, the least tolerant isolates belonged to species that are rarely reported from decaying wood. The relative importance of individual inhibitors to yeast growth is discussed. To our knowledge, none of the present yeast species have previously been cultivated in SSL medium. Decaying wood can be a useful future source of yeasts for valorisation of various hydrolysates to industrial chemicals and biofuels.

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  • 48.
    Stenberg, Johan A.
    et al.
    VKM; SLU.
    Flø, Daniel
    VKM.
    Kirkendall, Lawrence
    VKM; University of Bergen.
    Krokene, Paal
    VKM; Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research (NIBIO).
    Magnusson, Christer (Contributor)
    VKM; Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research (NIBIO).
    Nicolaisen, Mogens (Contributor)
    VKM; Aarhus university.
    Thomsen, Iben M. (Contributor)
    VKM; University of Copenhagen.
    Wright, Sandra A. I. (Contributor)
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology. VKM.
    Rafoss, Trond (Contributor)
    VKM; Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research (NIBIO).
    Pest risk assessment of selected Epitrix species: Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Plant Health of the Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food and Environment2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Epitrix is a taxonomically complex genus, with 162 described species all over the world, and most likely many more undescribed species. Due to taxonomic difficulties identifying the species, there is considerable uncertainty regarding which species that feed on cultivated crops. At least 13 Epitrix species are known to damage the tubers of potato, which is the crop of concern in northern Europe. At least five of those Epitrix species (E. hirtipennis, E. fasciata, E.cucumeris, E. papa and E. pubescens) have established themselves outside their native range, spurring concerns that they may spread further and potentially cause damage in new areas where potato is cultivated. It is unknown how most of these species have moved from country to country, but there have been several interceptions of unknown Epitrix species in shipments of ware potatoes.

  • 49.
    Stenberg, Johan A.
    et al.
    VKM; SLU.
    Nielsen, Anders
    VKM; Norwegian Institute for Bioeconomy Research (NIBIO).
    Krokene, Paal (Contributor)
    VKM; Norwegian Institute for Bioeconomy Research (NIBIO).
    Magnusson, Christer (Contributor)
    VKM; Norwegian Institute for Bioeconomy Research (NIBIO).
    Nicolaisen, Mogens (Contributor)
    VKM; Aarhus university.
    Thomsen, Iben M. (Contributor)
    VKM; University of Copenhagen.
    Wright, Sandra A. I. (Contributor)
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology. VKM.
    Rafoss, Trond (Contributor)
    VKM; University of Agder.
    Risk assessment of the biological control product Atheta-System with the organism Atheta coriaria Kraatz: Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Plant Health of the Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food and Environment2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Atheta-System with the rove beetle Atheta coriaria (Kraatz 1856) as the active organism is sought to be used as a biocontrol agent for augmentation biological control in Norway. Atheta-System is intended for use against soil dwelling stages of fungus gnats (e.g. Bradysiapaupera), shore flies (Scatella stagnalis), and thrips (e.g. Frankliniella occidentallis) in greenhouses, plastic tunnels, and other closed or controlled climate cultivations of horticultural crops, incl. soft-fruit crops, vegetables, ornamentals, and kitchen herbs.

  • 50.
    Stenberg, Johan A.
    et al.
    VKM; SLU.
    Nielsen, Anders
    VKM; Norwegian Institute for Bioeconomy Research (NIBIO).
    Wendell, Micael
    VKM.
    Krokene, Paal (Contributor)
    VKM; Norwegian Institute for Bioeconomy Research (NIBIO).
    Magnusson, Christer (Contributor)
    VKM; Norwegian Institute for Bioeconomy Research (NIBIO).
    Nicolaisen, Mogens (Contributor)
    VKM; Aarhus university.
    Thomsen, Iben M. (Contributor)
    VKM; University of Copenhagen.
    Wright, Sandra A. I.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology. VKM.
    Rafoss, Trond (Contributor)
    VKM; University of Agder.
    Risk assessment of the biological control product ANDERcontrol with the organism Amblyseius andersoni: Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Plant Health of the Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food and Environment2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    ANDERcontrol with the predatory mite Amblyseius andersoni as the active organism is sought to be used as a biological control agent in Norway. ANDERcontrol is intended for use against different mites (such as the two-spotted, fruit-tree, and red spider mite, russetmite, cyclamen mite) and in horticultural crops such as fruits, berries, vegetables, and ornamental. 

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