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  • 1.
    Almstedt, Åsa
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Peterson, Niclas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Lägesosäkerhet vid nätverks-RTK-mätning med inbyggd lutningskompensator: en undersökning av Leica GS18 T2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A recently introduced GNSS instrument on the market is Leica GS18 T with tilt compensation, based on GNSS/Inertial Navigation Systems (INS) integration, with no need to centre the survey pole with the GNSS instrument over the target point being measured. Besides making surveying faster, the tilt compensation technique enables measuring of hidden points where the use of conventional GNSS measuring normally is not possible without more time-consuming methods. The instrument also has advanced GNSS signal tracking which makes surveying in challenging environments possible.

    In this study, the Leica GS18 T has on behalf of Lantmäteriet been tested through studying the measurement uncertainty in network RTK measurement with tilted survey pole in three different situations: with the survey pole tilted in various degrees in both favourable and challenging survey environments; with tilt towards north, east, south and west to test if the tilt direction would affect the result; and for surveying of building corners as a possible field of application. In the latter case, the result was compared with what can be achieved with the conventional hidden point method using intersection of distances. The analysis of the measurement uncertainty was based on calculations of standard uncertainty, RMS (Root Mean Square) and mean deviation.

    The measurement uncertainty from the first part of the test was on cm-level horizontally, both in favourable and challenging survey environments, and in height on mm-level in favourable survey environment and on cm-level in challenging survey environment. Further, the results indicate that the tilt direction affects measurement uncertainty. The reason for this is not clarified and needs further investigation. The measurements of building corners resulted in a mean deviation of approximately 12 mm when the survey pole was tilted 30°. The hidden point method using intersection of distances generally resulted in lower mean deviation, even though the difference is relatively small (4 mm at best). To summarize, Leica GS18 T seems to be well suited for measuring with tilt in detailed surveying, at least if the requirements of position uncertainty is on cm-level.

  • 2.
    Amin, Hadi
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Sjöberg, Lars
    Division of Geodesy and satellite positioning, KTH.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    A global vertical datum defined by the conventional geoid potential and the Earth ellipsoid parameters2019In: Journal of Geodesy, ISSN 0949-7714, E-ISSN 1432-1394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The geoid, according to the classical Gauss–Listing definition, is, among infinite equipotential surfaces of the Earth’s gravity field, the equipotential surface that in a least squares sense best fits the undisturbed mean sea level. This equipotential surface, except for its zero-degree harmonic, can be characterized using the Earth’s global gravity models (GGM). Although, nowadays, satellite altimetry technique provides the absolute geoid height over oceans that can be used to calibrate the unknown zero-degree harmonic of the gravimetric geoid models, this technique cannot be utilized to estimate the geometric parameters of the mean Earth ellipsoid (MEE). The main objective of this study is to perform a joint estimation of W0, which defines the zero datum of vertical coordinates, and the MEE parameters relying on a new approach and on the newest gravity field, mean sea surface and mean dynamic topography models. As our approach utilizes both satellite altimetry observations and a GGM model, we consider different aspects of the input data to evaluate the sensitivity of our estimations to the input data. Unlike previous studies, our results show that it is not sufficient to use only the satellite-component of a quasi-stationary GGM to estimate W0. In addition, our results confirm a high sensitivity of the applied approach to the altimetry-based geoid heights, i.e., mean sea surface and mean dynamic topography models. Moreover, as W0 should be considered a quasi-stationary parameter, we quantify the effect of time-dependent Earth’s gravity field changes as well as the time-dependent sea level changes on the estimation of W0. Our computations resulted in the geoid potential W0 = 62636848.102 ± 0.004 m2 s−2 and the semi-major and minor axes of the MEE, a = 6378137.678 ± 0.0003 m and b = 6356752.964 ± 0.0005 m, which are 0.678 and 0.650 m larger than those axes of GRS80 reference ellipsoid, respectively. Moreover, a new estimation for the geocentric gravitational constant was obtained as GM = (398600460.55 ± 0.03) × 106 m3 s−2.

  • 3.
    Andersson Skått, Kristian
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Bergkvist, Kristoffer
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Småhusfastigheters värdeförändring vid större infrastrukturprojekt: En studie av ombyggnationen E4 Sundsvall2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Infrastructure investments is a large part of the regional development in Sweden, researchers in the subject agrees that investment in infrastructure generate increased economic development, one thing they still share a disagreement in which calculating methods are suitable. Are there any winners or losers in infrastructure projects, for example, smaller cities in the countryside where highways have previously passed, have they benefited from a quicker and easier commuting to the city, or have they been adversely affected when the highway has been given a new stretch?

    This research report focuses in one of the largest infrastructure investments in northern Sweden, European road 4 (E4) through Sundsvall. The research, combined with location-based sales comparison method and local analyzes, will show what effect market values will have on the houses real estate’s and what influence the road construction might have regarding to the values of the properties.

    The results of these studies are shown trough the average changes in property prices in the areas of Njurundabommen, Nedre Haga/Skönsberg, Nolby/Kvissleby and Västbo. However, the result was shown to have too few transactions, which is common in local level sales analyzes. This generates uncertainty in the result, meaning that the values can be large in relation to the actual sales development. The uncertainty was minimized in the results by merging two similar areas, which finally gave a result that indicates that the areas in the study had a more negative development towards Sundsvall and Sweden, since the area received a new infrastructure in the form of the E4 Sundsvall.

  • 4.
    Asplund, Adam
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Resiliens i stadsutveckling: En kvalitativ jämförelse mellan teori och kommunal planering2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    We face a number of uncertainties, challenges and risks, known and unknown, many of which are linked to global changes. Urban development must be planned to become sustainable in the long term despite future changes and to succeed, planning must handle uncertainties. The current view of sustainability has resulted in a planning ideal that strives for sustainability as a vision of an ideal structure and design. The research on resilience question this by asking how something static can be sustainable in the face of uncertainties and future changes. The work towards sustainability must focus on increasing the capacity of cities to be resilient. Cities which are resilient have the capacity to adapt to future changes while retaining the same function, structure and identity.

    Näringen is an existing industrial area in Gävle which has been designated suitable for a larger urban development exploitation project. The study aims to investigate how resilience is incorporated into the planning and development process of Näringen. The study compared Gävle municipality's intentions and ambitions for the development of Näringen in relation to theoretical principles for increased resilience in urban environment. The comparison between theory and practice was done through a qualitative content analysis of policy documents and interviews with two officials.

    The findings show that the intentions and ambitions of Gävle municipality in some ways are in line with the principles for increased resilience in cities but miss important aspects within the principles. The municipality strives for novel and innovative ways of planning which the principles for resilience can contribute with. One problem which can lead to reduced sustainability and resilience is that socio-economic prerequisites and conditions are prioritized over natural geographical ones.

    Implementation of the principles in municipal planning is not easily achieved in all situations because the principles in some respects overlap depending on the scale. Gävle Municipality's view of sustainability is also not in line with the approach that the research of resilience advocates, that we all live and operate in complex social-ecological systems. Resilience deals with complex theories and attempts to implement resilience principles without an understanding for the complexity of systems can lead to an unsuccessful outcome. The resilience principle adaptive planning holds the potential for continuous learning about social-ecological systems and is considered the principle that should be prioritized in planning for sustainability through resilience.

  • 5.
    Astner, Frida
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Ohlsson, Mathilda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Kajplats för permanentboende på vatten: Vilken lagstiftning tillämpas vid upplåtelsen för boendeformen?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To live on a house boat is a housing form that still is establishing on the housing market, but the regulations about this are almost non-existent. You cannot find any legislation regarding living on the water today and there are doubts about what applies for grants of house boats at a berth. The rules about establishment of house boats falls between the “plan- och bygglagen” and the rules of the harbor, which makes it difficult to say which one of the grant agreement that is the most applicable for the property owner and the person who wants to live on the water. To get answers the questions in this thesis interviews were performed with different parties and different cadastral procedures were analyzed regarding water properties. The interviews were completed by phone interviews with a semi structured method and with a few respondents the questions were put through email. In this thesis a few different respondents were asked to answer the questions, this to see different perspectives of the grant of berth. The different respondents that answered the questions were a few contract managers, usufructuary, a real estate agent, a lawyer, a company which produce house boats and a cadastral surveyor. The analysis of the cadastral procedures gave a deeper understanding how property formation on water can be done. The respondents in this thesis perceived the Swedish law as incomplete as the authors of this thesis regarding living on the water. The results show that the law can be applied in different ways depending on which type of housing form it is. The study shows that the best solutions for floating houses should be property formation, that will make the house real property and will make financing of the house possible. When house boats, which are formed like ships, the study shows that the best solutions for this housing form is to apply ground lease in general with the longest grant as possible, which is 25 years. To have ground lease in general as a solution makes it hard for the house boat owners to get a loan.

  • 6.
    Behnisch, Martin
    et al.
    Leibniz Institute of Ecological Urban and Regional Development, Dresden, Germany.
    Hecht, Robert
    Leibniz Institute of Ecological Urban and Regional Development, Dresden, Germany.
    Herold, Hendrik
    Leibniz Institute of Ecological Urban and Regional Development, Dresden, Germany.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Urban big data analytics and morphology2019In: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, ISSN 2399-8083, Vol. 46, no 7 (SI), p. 1203-1205Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Berg, Erika
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Berglund, Terés
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Renskötselrätt vid lantmäteriförrättning: Hur beaktas rättigheten?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Renskötselrätt innebär enligt rennäringslagen en rätt för samer att använda mark inom ett renskötselområde till underhåll för sig och sina renar. Renskötselrätten grundas på urminnes hävd och tillkommer den som är same och medlem i en sameby. Renskötselrätt innebär en särskild rätt till fast egendom vilken existerar parallellt med äganderätten och omfattas av egendomsskyddet i 2 kap. 15 § regeringsformen.

    Enskilda individer kan tvingas till rådighetsinskränkningar eller till att avstå mark till förmån för allmänna intressen som infrastruktur och bebyggelse. Detta ska ske enligt reglerna för markåtkomst som återfinns i ett tjugotal lagar. Enligt Europakonventionen och regeringsformen ska den som tvingas avstå mark eller rättigheter ersättas.

    En fastighetsbildningsförrättning handläggs av lantmäterimyndigheten enligt reglerna i fastighetsbildningslagen. Ett återkommande problem är att värdera vilken skada en sameby lider när ersättning enligt lag måste prövas i samband med ett intrång.

    Syftet med detta arbete är dels att bidra med ökad kunskap om renskötselrättens juridiska innebörd, och dels att synliggöra hur renskötselrätten i nutid beaktas vid markåtkomst inom en lantmäteriförrättning. Detta för att bidra till att skapa en samsyn och en enhetlig handläggning av åtgärder som påverkar renskötselrätten. För att svara på denna studies frågeställningar har studier av förrättningsakter och intervjuer med förrättningslantmätare och en representant från Länsstyrelsen genomförts.

    Resultatet av studien visar att det i dagsläget är oklart hur renskötselrätten ska beaktas inom en lantmäteriförrättning och att det saknas arbetsstöd för hur renskötselrätten ska värderas vid ett intrång. I slutsatserna i detta arbete framgår det att detta beror på att det finns luckor i rennäringslagen vilket gör att den inte integrerar väl med annan lag och att det många gånger är oklart vilken myndighet som äger vilken fråga rörande renskötselrätten. För en enhetlig handläggning av ärenden som berör renskötselrätten krävs utbildning, klarläggande av vissa begrepp och bättre samverkan mellan myndigheter. Men framförallt krävs en revidering av rennäringslagen och relationen mellan den och annan lag.

  • 8.
    Bäckström, Arvid
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Fredrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Galileo i jämförelse med GPS och GLONASS vid deformationsmätning: En fallstudie på Gävle flygplats2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is a generic term for a number of satellite system which makes it possible for worldwide navigation, deformation monitoring and satellite positioning. GNSS includes four global operational satellite systems BeiDou, Global Positioning System (GPS), Globalnaya navigatsionnaya sputnikovaya Sistema (GLONASS) and the European Galileo. The Galileo satellite system is gradually expanding and currently offers 22 active satellites but will include a total of 30 satellites when it is completed 2020.

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate Galileo during simulated deformation measurements, individually and in combination with GPS and GLONASS, and to compare these satellite systems. Also, to see these systems deviations with different methods static measurement in a local network, static measurement linked to an external reference station and post processing of single- frequencies in the local network.

    A local network was established, and data was processed in Leica Infinity. Static measurements with three GNSS receivers was carried out over one day with a session time of nine hours. The measurements were divided into three sessions with movements of one receiver between the sessions.

    The results from the study shows that for all satellite systems individually and in the different combinations, deviations on millimeter level were obtained for the static measurements in a local network. Generally, deviations on millimeter level were obtained for post-processing calculations with only single frequencies for each system. For post-processing with the local network linked to MAR700SWE; which is a SWEPOS reference station located about 17 km from the established network, the result showed higher and more scattered values where the deviations were generally obtained at millimeter- to centimeter level. Generally, the results showed that Galileo compared with GPS and GLONASS receives deviations similar to the other two systems for all methods. The deviations showed with all three systems combined the best results were achieved.

    The conclusion from the study is that Galileo is found to have a similar performance as the other GNSS systems in static measurements, though Galileo is not yet fully developed. The results shows that with all three systems, low deviations are regularly obtained. With this Galileo contributes to an improvement when the system is combined with GPS and GLONASS. For deformation monitoring, Galileo is acceptable to use in plane. The methods recommended for deformation measurement are static measurement in a local network and post processing with single frequency measurement, although the latter is not preferred. Connecting a local network to an external reference station is not recommended.

  • 9.
    Eriksson, Jessica
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Digitalisering av detaljplaneprocessen samt påverkan på efterföljande fastighetsbildning2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study will describe how a digitization of the detailed planning process affects the formation of a property in a plan implementation. 

    How the investments made by the state to the authorities, municipalities and organizations to try to be at the forefront of society's growth and leading edge reaches out. 

    The purpose of the government is to provide easier access to detailed plans through digital aids, in order to make the information more easily available compared to todays analogue formats in the municipality's archive, ie in paper form. Today, the subject of digitalization is extremely relevant in the media, but also a large part of our processes for developing and streamlining highlights the opportunities that it brings. Although the journey within a digital community building process as a whole has been going on for a long time and does not stop here, there are clear examples that Sweden's municipalities are not united in the work and development.

    The study will mainly highlight the opportunity for medium-sized municipalities to keep up with the development and how private developers are affected by the changes that take place in the digitization work. The study deals with how a digital detailed planning process can influence the planning work, the plan implementation and subsequent property formation.

    The focus of the study lies on the effect that digital detailed planning process will have on the plan implementation and subsequent property formation. These points address both economic and legal aspects of land surveying.

    Keywords: Digitization, Plan implementation, Municipality, Developer

  • 10.
    Erlandsson, Axel
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Frelin, Alexander
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Deformationsmätning och uppdatering av geodetiskt nätverk i Mårtsbo provfält2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Geodetic test fields are important because they allow geodetic instruments to be tested and calibrated. For example, the baseline can be used when checking the zero-point error in an Electronic Distance Measurement. The high accuracy of the test field will also make it possible to use the detail points for checking the accuracy of the measurements when surveying. Keeping the coordinates of the field updated is important to maintain the high accuracy of the points. Previous research shows that known points were used to check GNSS-antennas before commercial use.

    The precision of measurements was something that the Swedish Institute of Constructional Science chose to develop even further in the late 1970s. A geodetic test field was constructed in Mårtsbo where points were established and presented in a coordinate list. The field was at first used to control different measuring equipment and methods, but in later years it has not been used at all. The aim of this study is to re-measure and update the coordinates of the test field.

    For this study, the instruments was controlled and calibrated before any measurements. To link to the well-established points with known coordinates in the control network static GNSS-measurements were performed on the two points located in the most open areas and positioned in SWEREF 99 16 30 and RH 2000. The angles and distances between the points were given by using rounds of measurements. To get coordinates for every detail point a coordinate transformation was used with the measured points as control points.

    During the post-processing of the GNSS-data the Leica Geo Office software was used to compute the coordinates. The rounds of measurements with multistation were processed in the software SBG Geo and network adjustments with both old and new coordinates were carried out. Finally, the rest of the coordinates were transformed into the new coordinate system which was done in the software Gtrans..

    The result shows that significant local deformation has occurred on several points. The largest of deformation in plane is 2,2 mm in P5 and in height is 1,7 mm in P7. The uncertainties of the measured points are a bit higher in this study compared to earlier one, but they are still good enough to be use in this test field.

  • 11.
    Fryksten, Jonas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Study on ongoing subsidence in Uppsala City using Sentinel-1 radar data2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many cities in Sweden are partly located on clay and because of that, some urban city centres are undergoing significant subsidence. To measure subsidence in cities, precise leveling has been the traditional technique, but the interest for the Persistent Scatter InSAR (PSI) technique has increased in the last years, in this application. With the PSI technique, a mm-accuracy can be obtained and the analyses can be done over large areas. In this study, a validation between the PSI and the precise leveling techniques was performed for a selection of buildings located in areas that are facing great subsidence. A correlation between the subsidence rate achieved in the PSI analyses and near-surface soil type was also done, to easier identify risk zones. The city of Uppsala was chosen as study area, because it is partly built on deep layers of clay and the consulting company Bjerking AB has established a leveling network with metal pegs on many buildings. One ascending and one descending PSI analysis was performed, with Sentinel-1 data from the period mid-2015 to mid-2019, and the PSI analyses were done in SARPROZ. After the PSI analyses, comparative permanent scatters (PS) points and metal pegs were identified creating validation pairs. 15 different validation pairs were identified in four different objects, which was one or two buildings. The PSI analyses showed that Uppsala is undergoing significant subsidence in some parts, with an annual rate of about 6 mm/year in the line-of-sight (LOS) direction, which corresponds to about 7.5 mm/year in the vertical direction. The areas of greatest deformation were exclusively found on postglacial clay. The standard deviation of the time series were calculated around their linear regression lines, which was a measure of how temporal coherent the points were. The mean of this standard deviation for the PS points in the 15 validation pairs was 1.5 mm. This standard deviation increased to 2.3 mm in the time series where the direction was transformed from LOS to vertical and where the movements were in respect to the benchmarks. Between the PSI and the precise leveling techniques, in the validation, the vertical subsidence rate differed less than 1 mm/year in all validation pairs and the mean of all differences was 0.56 mm/year. Based on these results, Sentinel-1 data can measure urban subsidence in a satisfactory way, when the PSI technique is applied.

  • 12.
    Gadaan, Kim
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Lund, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Riktlinjer för trafiksäkerhetsåtgärder i småstäder: Exemplifierat i Söderfors tätort2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Trafiksäkerhet är den viktigaste utgångspunkten vid planering av vägar. Små tätorter saknar ofta underlag för storskaliga trafiksäkerhetslösningar och kräver istället mer lokala åtgärder i det befintliga vägnätet. Lokal trafikplanering är kommunernas ansvar som de genomför med hjälp av TRAST (2015) framtaget av bland annat Boverket och Trafikverket. TRAST (2015) inkluderar bland annat riktlinjer för ökad trafiksäkerhet, främst inom stadsmiljöer, men saknar konkreta riktlinjer för små tätorter. Examensarbetets syfte är att bli ett komplement till TRAST (2015) och tillhandahålla riktlinjer med rekommendationer för trafiksäkerhet i små tätorter (1000-5000 invånare).

    I framtagandet av riktlinjerna har olycksstatistik från tre likvärdiga tätorter undersökts där olycksorsakerna har brutits ned i sina beståndsdelar. Lämpliga åtgärder har framställts genom litteraturöversikten som består av underlag från huvudaktörerna inom området, vetenskapligt forskningsunderlag, samt exempel från likvärdiga tätorter där trafiksäkerhetsåtgärder har framtagits tidigare. I examensarbetet har fallstudier i Söderfors genomförts för att framställa riktlinjerna genom att undersöka lokal olycksstatistik, göra inventeringar och observationsstudier på orten. Söderfors har sedan använts som exemplifierad ort där de framtagna riktlinjerna har applicerats.

    Resultatet består av det sammanställda materialet från all olycksstatistik där de olika olyckskomponenterna har brutits ned samt kartor och bilder från inventeringen och observationsstudierna i Söderfors. De vanligaste olycksorsakerna är höga hastigheter samt distraherade förare. De mest olycksdrabbade platserna i Söderfors är Tamms väg och området kring Tierpsvägen. Riktlinjerna framgår under 4 huvudrubriker: gator, hastigheter, passager och beteendeförändringar. Därefter demonstreras de framtagna riktlinjerna i ett flödesschema där arbetsmetoden framställs och problemställningar matchas mot åtgärder. Riktlinjerna appliceras sedan på de olycksdrabbade vägarna samt ytterligare tre gator i Söderfors.

    För förankring till lokala förhållanden har inventering och observationsstudier varit tillräckliga metoder för att göra kopplingar och finna lämpliga åtgärdsförslag till problemområden. Mer djupgående fallstudier med fler observationstillfällen samt tekniska verktyg hade gett ett säkrare resultat. Bra komplement till vidare studier är även frågor kring ägoförhållanden samt projekt tillsammans med medborgarna om estetisk utformning av gatumiljöerna.

  • 13.
    Gelotte, Elisabet
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Analys av bruksvärdessystemet: En undersökning i Uppsala2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det svenska hyressättningssystemet, bruksvärdessystemet, har under flera år varit föremål för kritik. Detta till följd av en påtaglig bostadsbrist i storstadsregionerna, som främst tagit sig uttryck i form av brist på hyresrättsbostäder i allmänhet och billiga sådana i synnerhet. Enligt vissa har denna bostadsbrist kunnat kopplas till bruksvärdessystemet och dess effekter på hyresnivåerna.

    Denna studie syftade därför till att undersöka bruksvärdessystemets eventuella påverkan på det svenska hyresrättsbeståndet idag med utgångspunkt i Uppsala, en svensk storstad där bostadsbrist och brist på hyresrättsbostäder förekommer. Vidare syftade studien till att utreda hur och om bruksvärdessystemet kan anses ha någon påverkan på investeringsviljan när det kommer till att producera nya hyresrättsbostäder.

    De frågeställningar som studien grundade sig på var gällande hur hyressättning enligt bruksvärdessystemet påverkat dagens bestånd av hyresrätter i Uppsala, hur byggherrars och fastighetsägares investeringsvilja ser ut när det kommer till byggandet av nya hyresrätter i Uppsala samt vilka tänkbara alternativ till bruksvärdessystemet eller övriga åtgärder som finns för att öka investeringsviljan. Frågeställningarna besvarades med hjälp av intervjuer och en litteraturstudie.

    Av resultatet i studien kunde främst konstateras att det inte råder några entydiga meningar kring om eller hur bruksvärdessystemet bör förändras, vara kvar eller bytas ut helt. Bruksvärdessystemet tycks förvisso ha haft en negativ påverkan på hyresrättsbeståndet och hyresmarknaden, bland annat genom att ha bidragit till att en stor del av hyresrättsbeståndet ombildats till bostadsrätter, men det fyller även en viktig funktion när det kommer till hyresgästers trygghet och besittningsskydd.

    Trots att meningarna kring bruksvärdessystemets fortlevnad går isär framkom av resultatet i studien att det inte räcker med att enbart förändra hyressättningssystemet för att lösa problemen med bostadsbrist, utan det tycks krävas åtgärder och förändringar på bostadsmarknaden i stort och även inom den förda bostadspolitiken. Resultatet i studien talade även för att en stor del av lösningen kring bostadsbristen bör grunda sig på att staten tar ett större ansvar när det kommer till att producera bostäder till den del av marknaden som inte har möjlighet att betala för sin bostad.

  • 14.
    Gido, Nureldin A. A.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences. Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences. Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sjöberg, Lars E.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences. Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    A gravimetric method to determine horizontal stress field due to flow in the mantle in Fennoscandia2019In: Geosciences Journal, ISSN 1226-4806, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 377-389Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mass changes and flow in the Earth's mantle causes the Earth's crust not only to movevertically, but also horizontally and to tilt, and produce a major stress in the lithosphere.Here we use a gravimetric approach to model sub-lithosphere horizontal stress in theEarth's mantle and its temporal changes caused by geodynamical movements likemantle convection in Fennoscandia. The flow in the mantle is inferred from tectonicsand convection currents carrying heat from the interior of the Earth to the crust. Theresult is useful in studying how changes of the stress influence the stability of crust.The outcome of this study is an alternative approach to studying the stress and itschange using forward modelling and the Earth's viscoelastic models. We show that thedetermined horizontal stress using a gravimetric method is consistent with tectonicsand seismic activities. In addition, the secular rate of change of the horizontal stress,which is within 95 kPa/year, is larger outside the uplift dome than inside.

  • 15.
    Gido, Nureldin A. A.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences. Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences. Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sjöberg, Lars E.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences. Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tenzer, Robert
    Department of Land Surveying and Geo‑Informatics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Studying permafrost by integrating satellite and in situ data in the northern high-latitude regions2019In: Acta Geophysica, ISSN 1895-6572, E-ISSN 1895-7455, Vol. 67, no 2, p. 721-734Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an exceptional opportunity of achieving simultaneous and complementary data from a multitude of geoscience and environmental near-earth orbiting artificial satellites to study phenomena related to the climate change. These satellite missions provide the information about the various phenomena, such as sea level change, ice melting, soil moisture variation, temperature changes and earth surface deformations. In this study, we focus on permafrost thawing and its associated gravity change (in terms of the groundwater storage), and organic material changes using the gravity recovery and climate experiment (GRACE) data and other satellite- and ground-based observations. The estimation of permafrost changes requires combining information from various sources, particularly using the gravity field change, surface temperature change, and glacial isostatic adjustment. The most significant factor for a careful monitoring of the permafrost thawing is the fact that this process could be responsible for releasing an additional enormous amount of greenhouse gases emitted to the atmosphere, most importantly to mention carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane that are currently stored in the frozen ground. The results of a preliminary numerical analysis reveal a possible existence of a high correlation between the secular trends of greenhouse gases (CO2), temperature and equivalent water thickness (in permafrost active layer) in the selected regions. Furthermore, according to our estimates based on processing the GRACE data, the groundwater storage attributed due to permafrost thawing increased at the annual rates of 3.4, 3.8, 4.4 and 4.0 cm, respectively, in Siberia, North Alaska and Canada (Yukon and Hudson Bay). Despite a rather preliminary character of our results, these findings indicate that the methodology developed and applied in this study should be further improved by incorporating the in situ permafrost measurements.

  • 16.
    Hanson, Erik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Öqvist, Joel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Jämförelse av metoder för anslutning av GNSS-mätning till referenssystemet SWEREF 992019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    GNSS is at present the most frequently used method for positioning, as well as connecting new points to the Swedish national reference frame, SWEREF 99. The reference frame is realized by a network of permanent reference stations, SWEPOS. The network consists of a small number of rigidly mounted class-A stations and a larger number of less stable class-B stations.

    Lantmäteriet, the mapping, cadastral and land registration authority of Sweden, cur-rently offers three services for post processing of GNSS data that utilizes the SWEPOS network: 1) SWEPOS Post Processing Service, which computes coordinates by connecting baselines to class-A stations leading to long baselines. 2) Downloading of RINEX data from any SWEPOS stations leading to medium baseline lengths, and 3) creation of virtual reference stations (VRS), leading to very short baselines. The aim of this thesis is, by using these services, to compare different methods for connecting new points to SWEREF 99, using post processing of static GNSS measurements and to investigate the impact of session duration and baseline length on the uncertainty of the measurements. The impact of different measurement environments and systematic effects between the methods are also investigated.

    Four SWEREF-points were used as test points. The points were measured in three 8 h sessions. The data were divided into windows and sent to SWEPOS post processing service, as well as processed with a commercial software, where baselines were pro-cessed against class-A, class-B stations and a VRS. To compare the different methods RMS and standard uncertainties were calculated.

    The results indicate that shorter session duration yields higher RMS for SWEPOS post processing service when compared with the other methods, but in easy measurement environments RMS decreases to the same level as the other methods after 1 h session duration, which is 1 cm or less horizontally and 2 cm or less vertically. However, in complex measurement environments RMS continues to decrease up to 4 h session duration and is higher than in easy environments. For the other methods the decrease of RMS is not as pronounced. It is clear that the measurement environment impacts the results. Both standard uncertainty and RMS are higher in complex environments compared with easy and moderate environments. Significant differences of the mean deviation for each method could be detected, which indicates systematic effects between the methods, that could depend on different troposphere models and that SWEPOS Post Processing Service uses the reference system ITRF and then make a transformation to SWEREF 99.

  • 17.
    Hedlund, Samuel
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Roos, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Rörelse hos stompunkter längs med järnvägen i Sverige2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Passiva geodetiska referenssystem ger möjlighet till noggranna positionsbestämmelser via fysiska koordinatbestämda markeringar. Detta ger i sin tur goda möjligheter för etablering av instrument och noggranna detaljmätningar av objekt. För att mätosäkerheten i referenssystemen ska hållas stabilt över tid bör markeringar av punkter ske där yttre faktorer påverkar stompunkter så lite som möjligt. I stomnät längs med järnvägen finns många olika markeringstyper som kan påverkas olika mycket av yttre påfrestningar. Då det kostar mycket pengar på att underhålla stomnät längs järnvägen bör dessa stompunkter markeras på bästa möjliga sätt.  I studien är syftet att undersöka hur mycket olika markeringstyper tenderar att deformera sig över tid längs järnvägen för att eventuellt kunna ge Trafikverket ett bättre beslutsunderlag för framtida markeringar av stompunkter. Detta görs genom undersöka Trafikverkets stompunktsarkiv.  Resultaten visade att olika markeringstyper deformeras olika mycket vid samma epoker, men att det är väldigt små skillnader vid jämförelser av medelvärden och standardosäkerheter. För stompunkter som befinner sig nära spåret kan ett tydligare samband ses kring att de punkterna deformeras mer än punkter som ligger längre bort från spåret.

  • 18.
    Hjelmblom, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Decision, Risk and Policy Analysis.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Paulsson, Jenny
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Edlund, Marina
    The Swedish Mapping, Cadastral and Land Registration Authority.
    Bökman, Fredrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Decision, Risk and Policy Analysis.
    Towards Automation of the Swedish Property Formation Process: A Structural and Logical Analysis of Property Subdivision2019In: Nordic Journal of Surveying and Real Estate Research, ISSN 1459-5877, E-ISSN 2341-6599, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 29-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ongoing digitalization of public administration and increasedautomation of legal decision-making bears promise to benefit citizens,businesses and other stakeholders through simpler and more efficient civilprocesses, and thus has great impact on the urban planning and buildingprocess. However, automation of decision-making that is directed orconstrained by normative systems such as laws, regulations and policies,requires a detailed and accurate representation of these concepts andtheir constituent parts, and the domain to which they are applied. Thispaper combines two perspectives on formalisation and classification oflegal relations within the urban planning and building domain. In a crossdisciplinaryfashion, the paper analyses and describes a small part of thisdomain at a higher level of abstraction and formalization using two differentanalysis instruments. Using these tools, we perform structural and conceptualas well as logical analyses of two specific snapshots of a fictitious propertysubdivision case in Sweden, focusing on the legal relations between differententities and parties involved in the specific situations. The structural analysisuses the Land Administration Domain Model ISO 19152:2012 standardformalism, and the logical analysis is based on the notion of atomic types oflegal relations. The paper discusses some of the strengths and weaknesses ofthe two tools regarding the formal representation of rights, restrictions andresponsibilities of different parties in the land administration domain, as wellas how the tools relate to each other and how they can be aligned. This papertakes one step towards a deeper understanding of the domain, and identifyareas for future research that may provide better conditions for efficient andtransparent use of geospatial information, and automation of the propertysubdivision process and other related civil processes.

  • 19.
    Holm, Josefine
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Kvalitetsbrister i den digitala registerkartan - den praktiska användningen och dess konsekvenser: I Dalarnas- och Gävleborgs län2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The development of society towards an increasingly digitalized society leads to an increased use and demand for digital map material. The increased access to easy-to-use map management technology also makes it possible for the digital map material to be easily used by the public. The cadastral index map, which is part of the property register's general part is regulated primarily in the “lag om fastighetsregister” and ”förordning om fastighetsregister”. The cadastral index map shows, among other things, boundaries and designations for real estate joint property unit, areas for easement, rights of use, utility easement, right of way, as well as plans and more. The cadastral index map is often used, by other authorities, municipalities and other professionals, to perform various tasks where a digital accounting of real estate boundaries is necessary.

    In this work, employers' use of the cadastral index maps in five different areas of activity has been studied, to see how the use of the cadastral index map can affect the individual property owners financially and legally.

    The purpose of this study was to create a basis for improving the guidelines on the use of the cadastral index map and to motivate a more uniform and legal-safe handling of the social construction process. The aim of the study was to map the employers' use of the cadastral index map in order to draw conclusions about possible legal and economic consequences that could affect the property owners.

    The study's results were mainly generated from a qualitative interview study where twenty-three respondents participated. In addition to this interview study, a document study has been conducted to study the existing guidelines of the professionals.

    From the collected results it appeared that there was a great variety of areas of use and handling methods for the cadastral index map. But also that knowledge and insight into the material varied. Which can lead to an inconsistent management that can contribute to the property owners being legally and financially affected.

    The conclusion of this was that there is a great need to produce uniform guidelines and information on the cadastral index map to ensure that the register map is used in a customized manner in relation to its shortcomings.

  • 20.
    Holmström, Johan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Karlsson, Edvin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Social hållbarhet i kommunal planering: En utredande studie av arbetet med social hållbarhet i tretton kommuner2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Social sustainability is together with economic and ecological a part of the larger concept sustainable development. Existing research within social sustainability ascertain that the concept even today does not have a clear definition due to the many interpretations of the concept. The scope of this study is to find out how social sustainability is used within spatial planning. 

    To be able to answer the research questions and defining social sustainability within the field of spatial planning the literature study was delimited to articles including accessibility, housing segregation, integration, urbanity, diversity, barriers and public places was made. To get a deeper insight of how spatial planning deal with the social aspect of sustainability interviews with thirteen public officials. The geographical allocation across Sweden was important to get at representative sample of Swedish municipalities. The interviews focused on how the public officials act according to the definition of social sustainability. 

    After the interviews an analysis of the different comprehensive plans took place to see how the municipalities work with social sustainability. Henceforth a comparison analysis between the comprehensive plan and the statements from the public officials showed that it exists differences between municipalities for how they consider guidelines according to their comprehensive plan. Municipalities mention that social sustainability is often less prioritized than economic and ecological sustainability in spatial planning. Experience and collaborations within the organization and with other actors matters when it comes to prioritizing social sustainability. 

    Interesting for future research in the field of social sustainability would be to produce a measuring tool for social sustainability in order to facilitate for officials. 

  • 21.
    Holmström, Petra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Stängning av plankorsningar – med eller utan järnvägsplan?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present essay set out to investigate the work methodology of closing level crossings and chart the process from the initial need to close the level crossing up to completed closing of level crossing, furthermore; to investigate which factors affect the projects efficiency and progress both in terms of planning and implementation. This essay sets out to answer the following questions: “What is the current way of dealing with closing off level crossings and when would the implementation of a railway plan be useful?” and “How does project-implementation look like when dealing with the project of removal of level crossings in regard to time and cost?”.

    When it comes to repealing an overpass easement in order to be able to close a level crossing, a railway plan can be established to facilitate such easement measures. Although it does not directly imply "construction of the railway", if it is to be cancelled without support in a railway plan, the conditions of protection in Chapter 5 and Chapter 7 of the FBL must be fully applied.

    The method used was partly interview and partly study of railway plans and cadastral dossier. Twelve interviews were conducted, of which seven represented the Swedish Transport Agency and five persons who represented the National Land Survey, who were considered to fulfil the response required to answer the questions to an enough extent. There were only a limited number of railway plans which included only the closure of level crossings. However, there were a number of railway plans that dealt with the closure of level crossings, but then in connection with other measures which by law are the construction or rebuilding of railways. The united nations global sustainable objective strive to reach 17 objectives before the year 2030 wereof objective 11 is as follows: “Sustainable cities and societies”, which was considered to be connected with this essays problem formulation.

    It has emerged from the result that there are both pros and cons of applying railway plan in connection with the closure of level crossings. What can be stated after the implementation of the study is that the Swedish Transport Administration has a desire to implement more railway plans at complicated level crossings and the National Land Survey Office sees certain advantages from a handling perspective to applying a railway plan.

  • 22.
    Hägglund, Sandra
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Lindh, Rose-Marie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Optimering av datainsamling med UAS: En studie i alternativa flyghöjder kontra mätosäkerheter utförd i Avesta2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to collect data through UAS photogrammetry and investigate if it was possible to achieve an uncertainty of 2-3 cm. The second aim was to investigate if it was possible to use spray-colored crosses as control points (GCP) instead of hourglass-painted fibreboards to achieve the same uncertainty. This was done from two different flight heights, 80 m and 110 m to add another dimension to the investigation. The GCPs were measured with GNSS and in the study a UAS DJI Phantom 4 v2.0 was used for aerial photography. The plane coordinates was checked by measuring details using multistation established with the 180-second method. Height control was done by measuring profiles with GNSS and multistation. All together data from 4 measurements were processed; from 80 m where GCPs consisted of hourglass and crosses, respectively, and the same from 110 m. The processing was performed in Agisoft PhotoScan where the images were aligned to an orthophoto mosaic. A DEM and DSM were also created. The orthophoto mosaic and DEM were used in ArcMap for digitizing a base map and for checking the plane coordinates. The DEM was imported to SBG Geo for further processing and control of deviation between profiles and DEM. 

    The result of the 42 measured details was made by calculating the RMSE value between the measured plane coordinates and the corresponding points in the map. In aerial photography from 80 m, hourglass showed an RMSE value of 0.038 m and crosses an RMSE value of 0.039 m. Corresponding from 110 m, hourglass gave an RMSE value of 0.062 m and a cross of 0.048 m. All measurements except hourglass from 110 m can withstand the tolerance to HMK – Geodatakvalitet (2017) which is 5 cm. If only ground-level objects were to be measured the RMSE value of 0.026 m for hourglass from 80 m and 0.023 m for crosses reached the wanted measurement uncertainties of 2–3 cm. From 110 m the value was 0.054 m with hourglass and 0.035 m with cross. 

    The control of the height uncertainty was made in accordance with SIS-TS 21144:2016, where 12 profiles were measured and compared with the DEM. The result from 80 m with hourglass showed a total mean deviation (MD) of 0.006 m with 0.019 m in standard deviation (SD). From the same flight height, but with crosses, a result of -0.001 m with SD showed 0.030 m. From the higher height with hourglass, a total MD of 0.010 m with SD 0.033 m was generated. The corresponding crosses got a MD of 0,026 m and a SD of 0,040 m. All 4 DEM can handle the required measurement uncertainty of 2-3 cm. 

  • 23.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    A recursive definition of goodness of space for bridging the concepts of space and place for sustainability2019In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 15, article id 4091Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conceived and developed by Christopher Alexander through his life's work, The Nature of Order, wholeness is defined as a mathematical structure of physical space in our surroundings. Yet, there was no mathematics, as Alexander admitted then, that was powerful enough to capture his notion of wholeness. Recently, a mathematical model of wholeness, together with its topological representation, has been developed that is capable of addressing not only why a space is good, but also how much goodness the space has. This paper develops a structural perspective on goodness of space (both large- and small-scale) in order to bridge two basic concepts of space and place through the very concept of wholeness. The wholeness provides a de facto recursive definition of goodness of space from a holistic and organic point of view. A space is good, genuinely and objectively, if its adjacent spaces are good, the larger space to which it belongs is good, and what is contained in the space is also good. Eventually, goodness of space, or sustainability of space, is considered a matter of fact rather than of opinion under the new view of space: space is neither lifeless nor neutral, but a living structure capable of being more living or less living, or more sustainable or less sustainable. Under the new view of space, geography or architecture will become part of complexity science, not only for understanding complexity, but also for making and remaking complex or living structures. 

  • 24.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    New Paradigm in Mapping: A Critique on Cartography and GIS2019In: Cartographica, ISSN 0317-7173, E-ISSN 1911-9925, Vol. 54, no 3, p. 193-205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As noted in the epigraph, a map was long ago seen as the map of the map, the map of the map, of the map, and so on endlessly. This recursive perspective on maps, however, has received little attention in cartography. Cartography, as a scientific discipline, is essentially founded on Euclidean geometry and Gaussian statistics, which deal respectively with regular shapes and more or less similar things. It is commonly accepted that geographic features are not regular and that the Earth's surface is full of fractal or scaling or living phenomena: far more small things than large ones are found at different scales. This article argues for a new paradigm in mapping, based on fractal or living geometry and Paretian statistics, and – more critically – on the new conception of space, conceived and developed by Christopher Alexander, as neither lifeless nor neutral, but a living structure capable of being more living or less living. The fractal geometry is not limited to Benoit Mandelbrot's framework, but tends towards Christopher Alexander's living geometry and is based upon the third definition of fractal: A set or pattern is fractal if the scaling of far more small things than large ones recurs multiple times. Paretian statistics deals with far more small things than large ones, so it differs fundamentally from Gaussian statistics, which deals with more or less similar things. Under the new paradigm, I make several claims about maps and mapping: (1) the topology of geometrically coherent things – in addition to that of geometric primitives – enables us to see a scaling or fractal or living structure; (2) under the third definition, all geographic features are fractal or living, given the right perspective and scope; (3) exactitude is not truth – to paraphrase Henri Matisse – but the living structure is; and (4) Töpfer's law is not universal, but the scaling law is. All these assertions are supported by evidence, drawn from a series of previous studies. This article demands a monumental shift in perspective and thinking from what we are used to in the legacy of cartography and GIS. 

  • 25.
    Jiang, Bin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Ren, Zheng
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Geographic space as a living structure for predicting human activities using big data2019In: International Journal of Geographical Information Science, ISSN 1365-8816, E-ISSN 1365-8824, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 764-779Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inspired by Christopher Alexander's conception of the world - space is not lifeless or neutral, but a living structure involving far more small things than large ones - a topological representation has been previously developed to characterize the living structure or the wholeness of geographic space. This paper further develops the topological representation and living structure for predicting human activities in geographic space. Based on millions of street nodes of the United Kingdom extracted from OpenStreetMap, we established living structures at different levels of scale in a nested manner. We found that tweet locations at different levels of scale, such as country and city, can be well predicted by the underlying living structure. The high predictability demonstrates that the living structure and the topological representation are efficient and effective for better understanding geographic forms. Based on this major finding, we argue that the topological representation is a truly multiscale representation, and point out that existing geographic representations are essentially single scale, so they bear many scale problems such as modifiable areal unit problem, the conundrum of length and the ecological fallacy. We further discuss on why the living structure is an efficient and effective instrument for structuring geospatial big data, and why Alexander's organic worldview constitutes the third view of space.

  • 26.
    Jivall, Lotti
    et al.
    Geodata Division, Lantmäteriet, Gävle, Sweden.
    Nilfouroushan, Faramarz
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences. Geodata Division, Lantmäteriet, Gävle, Sweden.
    Al Munaizel, Naim
    Geodata Division, Lantmäteriet, Gävle, Sweden.
    Lilje, Christina
    Geodata Division, Lantmäteriet, Gävle, Sweden.
    Kempe, Christina
    Geodata Division, Lantmäteriet, Gävle, Sweden.
    Maintenance of the National Realization of ETRS89 in Sweden : re-analysis of 20 years’ GPS data for SWEREF stations2019In: EUREF 2019 Symposium: Abstracts, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The national geodetic reference frame of Sweden called SWEREF 99, was adopted in 2000 by EUREF as the realisation of ETRS89 in Sweden and was officially introduced in 2001 as a national reference frame, that eventually in 2007 replaced the former reference frame. The SWEREF 99 reference frame is defined by an active approach through the 21 fundamental SWEPOS permanent GNSS stations, hence relying on positioning services such as the network real time kinematic (NRTK) and post processing service. The SWEREF 99 coordinates are assumed to be fixed in time and no temporal variations are expected. However, the stability of the stations and their coordinates can be altered due to equipment change or software as well as local movements at the reference stations.

    To be able to check all alterations mentioned above and having a backup national network of GNSS stations, approximately 300 passive so-called consolidation stations are used. The consolidation stations are a subset (main part) of the so-called SWEREF stations established from 1996 and onwards. All 300 stations are remeasured with static GNSS for 2x24 hours using choke ring antennas on a yearly basis with 50 stations each year. The original processing was done with the Bernese GNSS software (here called Bernese original) and the reprocessing was carried out with both the Bernese and the GAMIT-GLOBK software packages during 2017-2018.

    The resulting coordinates in SWEREF 99 from GAMIT and Bernese processing are equal at 1.2 mm level for horizontal and 4 mm for vertical components (1 sigma) when using the same models and processing strategy. The original processing, which partly is based on other models and parameters, differs slightly more (rms 2.4mm) for the north component. Our analysis both from Bernese and GAMIT shows that the standard uncertainties for a single SWEREF 99 determination (2x24 hrs) is 2 mm for the horizontal components and 6-7 mm in height. However, since some stations are slowly moving they have slightly increased the estimated uncertainties. It is interesting to note that the repeatability is on the same level also for the original processing, where we have differences in models and parameters used during the years. This indicates that the SWEREF-concept of determining SWEREF 99 coordinates has worked well on the mentioned uncertainty level.

    We performed trend analysis and statistical tests to investigate the stability of the estimated SWEREF 99 coordinates. The analysed station time series (minimum three observations) showed that about 14% of the stations had significant trends at the 95%-level. The possible explanation for those trends can be either local deformation and/or residuals of uplift model and/or computational effects such as lack of good or enough close-by stations for Helmert transformations from ITRF to SWEREF 99.

    The outcomes of the new processing and analysis reported here, are used to analyse the stability of SWEREF99 after two decades. The results have also been used to define the SWEREF 99 component in the fit of theSWEN17_RH2000 new geoid model to SWEREF 99 and RH 2000 (Swedish realisation of EVRS).

  • 27.
    Jonsson, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Eriksson, Pernilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Statisk deformationsmätning med fotobaserad skanning: Utförd med icke-professionella digitalkameror2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As a result of the development of digital cameras and image processing software in recent years, the interest in close-range photogrammetry (CRP) has grown. In this study, CRP was evaluated as an alternative method to terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) for static deformation measurements and it was related to cavitation damage on water turbine pistons where the volume and maximum depth is measured. A large part of the purpose of the study was that it should be done with simple conditions so that the method will be easy to carry out and applies especially in industrial environments. Simulated deformations were created on a wooden board with a flat surrounding surface, and on a ball made of cork.

    The shooting was done with non-professional cameras, a digital camera and a smartphone camera. The objects that was examined had a matte texture, the images were taken with a large overlap (80–100%) and the lighting conditions were good enough to avoid shading and glare in the pictures. What was evaluated in the study was how many coded markers that should be used to improve image alignment, what the optimal number of scale bars for scaling the model is, and which camera model and self-calibration model that gave the lowest measurement uncertainty. The alignment of the images and creation of the 3D-models of the deformations were performed in the software Agisoft Photoscan. The analysis of the models was performed in the softwares 3DReshaper and CloudCompare. The results were evaluated against a scanned reference model developed with a ROMER Absolute Arm which has the ability to display measurement uncertainties on hundreds of millimetres and could thus be considered as a “true” value in this study.

    The result showed that the coded markers were not necessary in the image alignment procedure. It also showed that, regardless of which camera, self- calibration model and number of scale bars (4, 3 & 2), all the models created were below the permitted deviation in volume and maximum depth as the standard for cavitation damage on water turbine pistons (IEC 60609-1, from the Swedish Standards Institute) prescribes. The standard states that the measurement uncertainty of the method used must not exceed ±15% from the true value. This method has been found to be applicable and can replace TLS for documentation and volume measurement with a temporary filler for static deformations when the requirements for a relative measurement uncertainty are ±5% from the true value.

  • 28.
    Jonsson, Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Bristfälligt formulerade anläggningsbeslut för gemensamhetsanläggningar med ändamålet väg2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Two or more property units with a common need can together form a joint facility. A joint facility is formed during a cadastral procedure in which a facility order is announced. The facility order regulates, among other things, the implementation and operation of the joint facility. The purpose of this study is to investigate the problems behind a poorly formulated facility order serving a joint facility with the purpose to serve as a road. The study also aims to make suggestions on how a facility order should be formulated so as not to be perceived as deficient.

    A qualitative study with two different methods has been carried out, in order to answer the thesis questions. Interviews have been conducted to collect privileged information from experienced cadastral surveyors. The interviews were supplemented with a review of dossiers from facility procedures. The result shows several difficulties in the process leading up to a facility order. The preparation of proper documentation, setting the right road standard and finding the right level of investigations, among other things, are sometimes perceived as problematic.

    Analysis of the result has led to the conclusion that most problems with the facility order can be derived to the formulation of the map and description. Furthermore, it is stated that finding the right level of investigation is important to create a successful facility order and in order to find the right level of investigation experience is crucial. In order to document the prevailing conditions, it is proposed to use drones.

  • 29.
    Karlsson, Martin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Dirie, Mohamed
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Upphävande av strandskydd inom detaljplan: En granskning av vilka skäl som kommuner åberopar vid upphävande av strandskydd samt vad domstolarna anser vara giltiga och ogiltiga skäl2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the popularity of settlement in coastal areas, measures need to be taken in the form of rules and guidelines for construction close to beaches in order to achieve a more ecologically sustainable construction and contribute to sustainable social development.In Sweden, shore protection is used, which aims to protect the public's access to shores, which the right public advocates according to Chapter 2. Section 15, The form of government. Today, shore protection is regulated in the Environmental Code (MB), and a general rule is that it must not be built within 100 meters from the shoreline on land and in water according to MB.A municipality can revoke shore protection if one of the particular reasons in chap-ter 7. Section 18c of the MB is fulfilled. Municipalities' decision on cancellation can be appealed to the County Administrative Board, then to the Land and Environment Court (MMD) and then to the Land and Environment Court of Appeal (MOD).The purpose of the study is to investigate what is considered valid and invalid rea-sons for cancelling shore protection in a detailed development plan, this through a legal case study. The goal is that this study will lead to more equitable and fair man-agement when repealing shore protection within the detailed development plan.A quantitative and qualitative analysis forms the basis of the results presented in this study. The quantitative method consists of categorization of detailed plans that are examined. Through this categorization, it can be deduced which reasons municipali-ties with different population conditions demand when cancelling shore protection within the detailed development plan. The detailed development plan study was de-limited to Ostergotland County at the beginning, after which the study was supple-mented with Kalmar County. It's because Ostergotland did not fill up the quota for the requested number of detailed plans. The qualitative method of the case study makes it possible for a report to clarify which reasons are legally sustainable based on the judgments that are being studied.The results highlighted by the study have shown that there are differences between the interval sizes, that is, that the municipalities interpret and handle the shore pro-tection legislation differently in connection with the shore protection being repealed within the detailed development plan. Thus, the County Administrative Board should check the municipalities more closely, as their task is to monitor the objec-tives of the shore protection.

  • 30.
    Khodaverdi, Niloofar
    et al.
    School of Surveying and Geospatial Engineering, College of Eng., University of Tehran, Iran.
    Rastiveis, Heidar
    School of Surveying and Geospatial Engineering, College of Eng., University of Tehran, Iran.
    Jouybari, Arash
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Combination of Post-Earthquake LiDAR Data and Satellite Imagery for Buildings Damage Detection2019In: Earth Observation and Geomatics Engineering, ISSN 2588-4352, p. 12-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Earthquakes are known as one of the deadliest natural disasters that have caused many fatalities and homelessness through history. Due to the unpredictability of earthquakes, quick provision of buildings damage maps for reducing the number of losses after an earthquake has become an essential topic in Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing. Low-accuracy building damage maps waste the time that is required to rescue the people in destructed areas by wrongly deploying the rescue teams toward undamaged areas. In this research, an object-based algorithm based on combining LiDAR raster data and high-resolution satellite imagery (HRSI) was developed for buildings damage detection to improve the relief operation. This algorithm combines classification results of both LiDAR raster data and high-resolution satellite imagery (HRSI) for categorizing the area into three classes of “Undamaged,” “Probably Damaged,” and “Surely Damaged” based on the object-level analysis. The proposed method was tested using Worldview II satellite image and LiDAR data of the Port-au-Prince, Haiti, acquired after the 2010 earthquake. The reported overall accuracy of 92% demonstrated the high ability of the proposed method for post-earthquake damaged building detection.

  • 31.
    Khorrami, F.
    et al.
    National Cartographic Center, Geodesy and Land Surveying, Tehran, Iran (Islamic Republic of).
    Vernant, P.
    Géosciences Montpellier- CNRS, Geosciences, Montpeliier, France.
    Masson, F.
    IPGS/EOST CNRS/University Strasbourg, Earth Sciences, Strasbourg, France.
    Nilfouroushan, Faramarz
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences. Lantmäteriet, Gävle, Sweden.
    Mousavi, Z.
    Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences IASBS.
    Nankali, H.
    National Cartographic Center, Geodesy and Land Surveying, Tehran, Iran (Islamic Republic of).
    Saadat, S.A.
    National Cartographic Center, Geodesy and Land Surveying, Tehran, Iran (Islamic Republic of).
    Walpersdorf, A.
    University Grenoble Alpes- CNRS, ISTerre, Grenoble, France.
    Hosseini, S.
    National Cartographic Center, Geodesy and Land Surveying, Tehran, Iran (Islamic Republic of).
    Tavakoli, P.
    National Cartographic Center, Geodesy and Land Surveying, Tehran, Iran (Islamic Republic of).
    Aghamohammadi, A.
    National Cartographic Center, Geodesy and Land Surveying, Tehran, Iran (Islamic Republic of).
    Alijanzade, M.
    National Cartographic Center, Geodesy and Land Surveying, Tehran, Iran (Islamic Republic of).
    An up-to-date block model and strain rate map of Iran using integrated campaign-mode and permanent GPS velocities2019In: 27th IUGG General Assembly: G06 - Posters - Monitoring and Understanding the Dynamic Earth With Geodetic Observations, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Iran accommodates a large part of the ongoing Arabia-Eurasia collision deformation. Because of such active tectonics, the country suffers from intensive seismicity and frequent destructive earthquakes in different locations.To study further the crustal deformation in Iran, we processed the data collected during 10 years (2006-2015) from the Iranian Permanent GNSS Network and combined them with previously published velocity solutions from GPS survey measurements during 1997–2013. We analysed this velocity field using a continuum approach to compute a new strain rate map for this region and we designed a block model based on the main geological, morphological, and seismic structures. Comparison between both approaches suggests similar results and allow us to present the first comprehensive first order fault slip rate estimates for the whole of Iran. Our results confirm most of the results from previous geodetic studies. Moreover, we also show a trade-off between the coupling ratio of the Iranian Makran subduction interface and the kinematic of the faults north of the Makran in the Jazmurian depression. Although too scarce to accurately estimate a coupling ratio, we show that coupling higher than 0.4 on the plate interface down to a depth of 25 km will induce extension on the E-W faults in the Jazmurian region. However, the sites close to the shoreline suggest a low coupling ratio, hence the coupling on this plate interface is probably more complicated than previously described and the Iranian Makran subduction interface mechanical behaviour might be similar to that on the Hellenic subduction zone.

  • 32.
    Khorrami, Fatemeh
    et al.
    National Cartographic Center, Tehran, Iran.
    Vernant, Philippe
    Géosciences Montpellier, CNRS/University Montpellier, Montpellier, France.
    Masson, Frederic
    IPGS/EOST CNRS/University Strasbourg, Strasbourg Cedex, France.
    Nilfouroushan, Faramarz
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences. Lantmäteriet, Gävle, Sweden.
    Mousavi, Zahra
    Department of Earth Sciences, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences (IASBS), Zanjan, Iran.
    Nankali, Hamidreza
    National Cartographic Center, Tehran, Iran.
    Saadat, Seyed Abdolreza
    National Cartographic Center, Tehran, Iran.
    Walpersdorf, Andrea
    University Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IRD, IFSTTAR, ISTerre, Grenoble, France.
    Hosseini, Sedighe
    National Cartographic Center, Tehran, Iran.
    Tavakoli, Parastoo
    National Cartographic Center, Tehran, Iran.
    Aghamohammadi, Azade
    National Cartographic Center, Tehran, Iran.
    Alijanzade, Mahnaz
    National Cartographic Center, Tehran, Iran.
    An up-to-date crustal deformation map of Iran using integrated campaign-mode and permanent GPS velocities2019In: Geophysical Journal International, ISSN 0956-540X, E-ISSN 1365-246X, Vol. 217, no 2, p. 832-843Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the most extensive and up-to-date unified GPS velocity field for Iran. We processed the data collected during 10 years (2006–2015) from the Iranian Permanent GNSS Network (IPGN) and combined them with previously published velocity solutions from GPS survey measurements during 1997–2013. We analysed this velocity field using a continuum approach to compute a new strain rate map for this region and we designed a block model based on the main geological, morphological, and seismic structures. Comparison between both approaches suggests similar results and allow us to present the first comprehensive first order fault slip rate estimates for the whole of Iran. Our results confirm most of the results from previous geodetic studies. But we also show a trade-off between the coupling ratio of the Iranian Makran subduction interface and the kinematic of the faults north of the Makran in the Jazmurian depression. Indeed, although too scarce to accurately estimate a coupling ratio, we show that coupling higher than 0.4 on the plate interface down to a depth of 25 km will induce extension on the E-W faults in the Jazmurian region. However, the sites close to the shoreline suggest a low coupling ratio, hence the coupling on this plate interface is probably more complicated than previously described and the Iranian Makran subduction interface mechanical behaviour might be similar to that on the Hellenic subduction zone.

  • 33.
    Larsson, Johan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Stark, Marcus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Utvärdering av lägesosäkerheter i ortofoton framtagna med hjälp av DJI Phantom 4 RTK2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aerial photography with UAS is in comparison with traditional photogrammetry more efficient, cheaper and safer which has led to this technology being preferred by many performers. A time-consuming job that has been difficult to avoid is to establish signals at the ground that are used for georeferencing and evaluate the results. In 2018, the UAS manufacturer DJI presented its new quadcopter with integrated Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) module. This allows continuous and accurate positions delivered via Network RTK (NRTK) and the need of ground control points can be reduced. In this study, investigations of the position uncertainties in orthophotos produced using a DJI Phantom 4 RTK carried out where the aerial images were georeferenced with limited numbers or without ground control points. The position uncertainties were calculated and controlled according to the Swedish HMK – Ortofoto (Orthophoto) which is a document within the subject. When producing an orthophoto, a digital terrain model (DTM) or a digital surface model (DSM) is also required and the quality of this has a great impact on the result. Therefore, a part of the DSM used for orthophoto production for each set was checked and evaluated according to the Swedish technical specification, SIS-TS 21144:2016. The result of the study shows that an orthophoto can be produced without ground control points and at the same time meet the requirements for specified position uncertainty according to HMK standard level 3. The total position uncertainty was calculated to be 0,029 m, which is 5 mm higher compared to the orthophoto based on the traditional georeferencing method, i.e. with ground control points. The requirement for quality in height data was also met for orthophoto production even though a systematic effect in height occurred. This effect did not affect the plane coordinates in the orthophoto because of the low standard uncertainties in height. The result showed that if two ground control points were added at each end of the area, the systematic effects were minimized, and it was possible to produce a DSM that fulfils the requirements for accuracy class 1-3 according to SIS-TS 21144:2016.

  • 34.
    Leijon, Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Länsstyrelsens bevakning av allmänna intressen inom fastighetsbildning2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Enligt Fastighetsbildningslagen 15 kap 8 § så ska länsstyrelsen bevaka allmänt intresse i lantmäteriförrättningar utanför detaljplanerat område. Detta sker genom att man granskar samtliga genomförda förrättningsakter från Lantmäteriet och överklagar om man anser att allmänt intresse inte i tillräcklig grad tillgodosetts. För att titta närmre på hur detta arbete fungerar och vilka allmänna intressen som leder till flest överklaganden så har en studie genomförts. Samtliga överklaganden mellan 2013-2018 har studerats och kategoriserats utifrån skälen till överklagande. För att begränsa studien valdes de fem norrländska länen, Norrbotten, Västerbotten, Jämtland, Västernorrland samt Gävleborg. Som komplement till detta har även intervjuer med fyra handläggare vid länsstyrelserna intervjuats för att få deras syn på saken. Slutsatserna är att strandskyddet är det vanligaste skälet till överklagande med över hälften av de totala överklagandena. Det är också där man ser mest olika på bestämmelserna från Lantmäteriet och länsstyrelsens sida. Andra vanliga skäl till överklaganden är fastighetsbildning i strid mot varaktighetsvillkoret i Fastighetsbildningslagen 3 kap 1 §, förrättning som innebär olägenhet för lantbruket enligt Fastighetsbildningslagen 3 kap 6 § eller fastighetsbildning som inte möjliggör rationellt skogsbruk enligt Fastighetsbildningslagen 3 kap 7 §. Från intervjuerna med handläggare kan man konstatera att de flesta upplever att arbetet med granskning och överklaganden fungerar bra och att man upplever att länsstyrelsen och Lantmäteriet har ett bra samarbete.

  • 35.
    Lenke, Niklas
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Sundholm, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Allmänyttan - Nytta för äldre?: En kvalitativ fallstudie om kommunal bostadsförsörjning med fokus på äldre2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The population in Sweden is growing older. One fourth of the population will be over 65 years of age by the year 2070, a development that will set pressure on the Swedish welfare system. One way to reduce the public expenses has been to introduce kvarboendeprincipen, which is that elderly will be given the possibility to live in ordinary homes instead of nursing homes. By law, it is up to municipalities to secure local housing by conducting appropriate policies and guidelines. An important tool has for a long time been municipal housing companies.

    The municipal housing companies are obligated by Swedish law to act with a public purpose and at the same time to act in a businesslike way. The legislation from 2011 has been questioned by several researchers whether it is possible to combine a public purpose and still act in a businesslike way.

    The purpose of the study is by a qualitative multi-case study describing how the municipalities alongside the municipality housing companies are working together to provide housing customized for the elderly. The study is delimited to the municipalities: Söderhamn and Ljusdal in the county of Gävleborg. The selected cases have a negative population growth and most of their housing stock consists of property rights, which according to previous studies and research entails difficulties to provide the elderly with customized housing.

    To answer the research questions a qualitative content analysis of different municipal guiding documents has been performed: like comprehensive plans, housing supply documents and owner directives of the municipal housing companies. Interviews with public servants from the municipality’s city planning offices and representatives from the municipality housing companies have also been made.

    The study shows that the current housing stock in the analyzed municipalities: Söderhamn and Ljusdal is outdated which constitutes a problem concerning availability. The analyzed cases promote the production of customized housing for elderly in order to secure the housing needs of an aging population. The relationships between the municipalities and the municipal housing companies differ between the two analyzed cases which may affect the supply of customized housing. The results indicate that the provision of housing for the elderly not only can be understood by economic theories regarding supply and demand.

  • 36.
    Lindström, Erika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Hållbart resande och detaljplaneringens inverkan: En studie av kvarteret Runstenen i Gävle2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable traveling is an important part of sustainable development for cities and communities both today and in the future. Sustainable development are a goal both at national and local levels. This means a development where a transition for less car traffic and more sustainable traveling modes. To achieve a change in traveling modes actions can be made when planning for development of new dwellings to reduce car traffic in the stage of. This study examines the effect of the actions for sustainable transports by a study of the block Runstenen in Gävle. The block Runstenen was chosen for the study as the proposal was chosen in a competition for its sustainability among other factors. By looking at how planned actions such as car pool, parking and other factors influence the residents' travel habits, the results of the planning efforts can be studied. Interviews with five residents in the unit and questionnaires answered by 34 respondents give the residents a picture of how they look at their travels, what they have changed and what they want to change. The interest in changing their travel habits has proved to be different in different groups among residents. There are groups of residents who would like to change their travel to a more sustainable alternative and there are groups that do not see this as an alternative. It has proved to be important to plan actions in such a way that they can get implemented. Several of the measures planned in the Runstenen quarter have not been implemented.  The study has been able to demonstrate strengths and weaknesses when planning with actions for sustainable travel. Nearby access to service is important for sustainable traveling. Factors such as nearby and easy access to garages prove to make an opposite effect and not contribute to the vision of sustainable travel with less car traffic. Especially in cases where bicycles become less accessible than the car because there is no protected bicycle parking. By studying an example from the implementation of a new construction project, residents' experiences have been made visible, which can be used for future new construction projects in central locations. 

  • 37.
    Ljunggren, Carl
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Lundgren, Emil
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Automatiska metoder för igenkänning, klassificering och extrahering av objekt från punktmoln insamlade med mobil laserskanning: En litteraturstudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Digitalisering är för tillfället ett stort diskussionsämne och i de flesta delarnaav världen pågår det en övergång från analoga till digitala data. Digitala data ärmer flexibelt och kan innehålla mycket högre detaljnivå än vad som ärpraktiskt möjligt med analoga data. Digitala data är dock fortfarande i sinvagga och det krävs mycket mer arbete för att effektivisera och optimerainsamlingen och bearbetningen av den. Denna litteraturstudie undersökermobil laserskanning (MLS) och dess databearbetning för att hitta var teknikensframkant ligger gällande automation samt hur detta reflekterar sig motlaserskanningsbranschen. I litteraturstudien har ett stort antal artiklarhanterats och sållats, vilket i slutändan resulterade i 25 artiklar som redovisas iresultatet. Utöver litteraturstudien har det även utförts ett mindre antalintervjuer och utskickade enkäter, detta i syftet att dra paralleller mellanteorin i artiklarna och det praktiska utförandet i Sverige. Resultatet gårigenom de olika artiklarnas metoder, redovisar vad som är speciellt med dem,samt redovisar likheter mellan dem. I diskussionen jämförs artiklarna vi lästmot hur laserskanningsbranschen för närvarande ser ut i Sverige, och varför vitror att de inte alltid speglar varandra. Slutsatserna vi drar är att de nyametoderna vi läst om är lovande och att automation är på framfart. Tyvärrfinns det ett glapp mellan dessa metoder och de tillämpade metoderna pågrund av hur mycket testning och mjukvaruutveckling som krävs för att föra innya metoder på marknaden. Beställarna är heller inte alltid motiverade till attprova nya och obeprövade metoder då det kan innebära förhöjda kostnader ide fall då den använda metoden inte fungerar, eller annan att komplikationuppstår.

  • 38.
    Ma, Ding
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Omer, Itzhak
    Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel.
    Osaragi, Toshihiro
    Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.
    Sandberg, Mats
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Why Topology Matters in Predicting Human Activities2019In: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, ISSN 2399-8083, Vol. 46, no 7, p. 1297-1313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Geographic space is best understood through the topological relationship of the underlying streets (note: entire streets rather than street segments), which enabales us to see scaling or fractal or living structure of far more less-connected streets than well-connected ones. It is this underlying scaling structure that makes human activities or urban traffic predictable, albeit in the sense of collective rather than individual human moving behavior. This power of topological analysis has not yet received its deserved attention in the literature, as many researchers continue to rely on segment analysis for predicting urban traffic. The segment-analysis-based methods are essentially geometric, with a focus on geometric details such as locations, lengths, and directions, and are unable to reveal the scaling property, which means they cannot be used for human activities prediction. We conducted a series of case studies using London streets and tweet location data, based on related concepts such as natural streets, and natural street segments (or street segments for short), axial lines, and axial line segments (or line segments for short). We found that natural streets are the best representation in terms of traffic prediction, followed by axial lines, and that neither street segments nor line segments bear a good correlation between network parameters and tweet locations. These findings point to the fact that the reason why axial lines-based space syntax, or the kind of topological analysis in general, works has little to do with individual human travel behavior or ways that human conceptualize distances or spaces. Instead, it is the underlying scaling hierarchy of streets – numerous least-connected, a very few most-connected, and some in between the least- and most-connected – that makes human activities or urban traffic predictable.

  • 39.
    Malmqvist, Kristin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Sundin, Jonna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Fastighetsköpares värdering av skyddad skogsmark2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A new type of classification for forest land was introduced in the Swedish Tax Agency's property taxation of 2017. Forest land protected by biotope protection area or nature reserve is now called productive forest land with forestry restrictions. This is a relatively new type of classification and there is a lack of basis to support property valuation. The thesis focuses on how property buyers value protected forest land when purchasing a property. The type of information that is given to the property buyer is also investigated. The purpose of the thesis is to provide information that can be used when working with valuation of protected forest land with forestry restrictions. Previous research in this field has included, among other things, nature values and key biotopes.

    Two methods have been used in order to get answers to the thesis questions. Questionnaire survey, and study of estate agent leaflets and forestry plans. The surveys have been sent out to private property owners who have bought a forest property with presence of protected forest land. The property buyers have responded to how they think the value of the forest property was affected by the existence of protected forest land. The result shows, among other things, that the market value of nature reserves or biotope protection area is higher than the value of land with limited growth (e.g. swamps) and lower than half of the value of productive forest land.

    The study of estate agent leaflets and forestry plans has shown that the information provided for purchases only amounts to stating that nature reserves or biotope protection exists on the property. Whether limited information about protected forest land can affect the price is discussed in section 5.2. The choice of method is not considered to entail any ethical risks that need to be considered. The work connects to several environmental goals, including Sweden's national environmental goal “Sustainable Forests”.

  • 40.
    Milutinovic, Goran
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Computer Science.
    Ahonen-Jonnarth, Ulla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Decision, Risk and Policy Analysis.
    Seipel, Stefan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Computer Science. Division of Visual Information and Interaction, Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Brandt, S. Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    The impact of interactive visualization on trade-off-based geospatial decision-making2019In: International Journal of Geographical Information Science, ISSN 1365-8816, E-ISSN 1365-8824, Vol. 33, no 10, p. 2094-2123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a previous work we developed GISwaps, a novel method for geospatial decision-making based on Even Swaps. In this paper, we present the results of an evaluation of a visualization framework integrated with this method, implemented within a decision support system. This evaluation is based on two different studies. In the quantitative study, 15 student participants used GISwaps with no visual features, and 15 participants used GISwaps with the integrated visual framework, as the tool in a solar farm site location case study. The results of the quantitative evaluation show positive impact of the visualization in terms of increased coherency in trade-offs. The results also show a statistically significant difference in average trade-off values between the groups, with users from the non-visual group setting on average 20% higher trade-off values compared with the users in the visual group. In the qualitative study, we had one expert in GIS, two experts in decision-making and two experts in solar energy as a focus user group. Data in this study were obtained by observations and semi-structured interviews with the participants. The impact of the visualization framework was assessed positively by all participants in the expert group. 

  • 41.
    Mohammed, Peshawa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Deformation monitoring using GNSS:A study on a local network with preset displacements2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the past two decades, the number of observations and the accuracy of satellite-basedgeodetic measurements like Global Navigation satellite systems (GNSS) greatly increased,providing measured values of displacements and velocities of permanent geodetic stations.Establishment of the geodetic control networks and collecting geodetic observations, indifferent epochs, are a commonly used method for detection of displacements andconsequently disaster management. Selecting proper processing parameters for differenttypes of monitoring networks are critical factors of the deformation monitoring analysisusing GNSS, which is the main aim of this research. In this study, a simulation study and acontrolled survey were performed using simultaneous GNSS measurements of 5 geodeticpillars, established by Lantmäteriet at Gävle airport. Sensitivity analyses were performed ondifferent types of monitoring networks using different set of processing paarameters . Thesescenarios consider different sets of parameters, different types of monitoring networks, andvarious number of monitoring stations to evaluate the detectable displacements andcompare with the known millimeter displacements (simulated one). The results showed thatthe selection of processing parameters depends on the type and size of the monitoringnetwork and the location of the monitoring stations. Analyses also show that onlineprocessing services can provide mm-cm level accuracy for displacement detection ifsufficient observation time is available. Finally, checks were performed on the two ofsample scenarios to find the minimum observation time required for reaching to the mostaccurate simulated (preset) displacements.

  • 42.
    Nordberg, Amanda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Ledningsrätt i enskild väg: Hur beaktas samfällighetsföreningars intressen och rättigheter vid upplåtelse av ledningsrätt i enskild väg?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a bachelor thesis at the Study Programme in Land Management with financialand legal focus at the University of Gävle. This study is on the initiative and missionof the Swedish private road association, in Swedish Riksförbundet Enskilda Vägar, andis about the utility easement in private roads. The aim of this study is to investigatewhether joint road management associations has interests and rights that’s not consideredin the utility easement procedure, identify the cause and give concrete solutionsto the problem. In order to fulfill the objectives of the study, the followingquestions have been formulated: How is utility easement actually established within a privateroad that is managed by a joint road management association? and Do joint road managementassociations have interests, that should be taken into consideration, that’s not attendedin the utility easement procedure?

    In order to answer the questions above, interviews have been conducted with theSwedish private road association, the National Land Survey authority, owners ofutilities and a joint road management association. Several cadastral dossiers and legaldocuments, which has been of importance for the study, has also been summarized.

    What could be ascertained based on the results and the discussion was that eventhough the utility easement procedure is carried out correctly in practice, it doesnot mean that deficiencies cannot occur. This is believed to be due, among otherthings, to the agreement that the utility easement right is based. Furthermore, itcould be concluded that the regulations and standard documents used in the utilityorder are not adapted according to private roads, which means that some of the jointroad management association's interests are not considered in the utility easementprocedure. For example, there are no strict regulations regarding the location of theutility easement, restoration of the road, how the work should be carried out orsome sort of planning for the traffic during the utility construction. This should beremedied by educating the cadastral surveyors in how they should pay regard to privateroad owners as well as adapting the standard documents and regulations to privateroads. Suggested through a collaboration between the National Land Survey authoritiesand the Swedish private road association.

  • 43.
    Olsson, Sara
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Kommuners bostadsförsörjningsmål i Stockholms län: -och deras förutsättningar att uppnå dem.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden's population is increasing sharply every year, while there is a shortage of housing, not least in Stockholm. The municipality has a plan monopoly and thus has a great responsibility in what is to be built and, according to law, will create guidelines for the housing supply as a complement to the comprehensive plan. Most municipalities have municipal housing companies whose task is to offer economically affordable rental apartments, but on the other hand, it is mainly private builders who contribute most of the housing construction in Stockholm County. It has been built a lot lately, but not in favor of the groups that are outside the open housing market.

    The aim of the study is to investigate and present the municipalities' goals for the housing supply in Stockholm County through a case study. Also how the conditions for achieving the goals look and how dependent they are on the interest of the builders and the willingness to invest. The municipalities examined are Nacka, Upplands-Bro, Stockholm city, Haninge and Vallentuna.

    The study's four questions were answered through a qualitative content analysis of the municipalities' guidelines for housing supply and interviews with officials from the municipality and developer’s who are active in Stockholm County.

    The study shows that all municipalities want a variety of sizes and forms of tenure of the housing stock and prioritize the construction of housing for young adults and the elderly. The municipalities have high goals for how many homes will be built and most municipalities find that the goals will not be reached due to a declining construction rate. Most municipalities believe that the interest of the builders is still large, although it has declined and the interest in erecting rental apartments has increased and interviewed developers agree. For the developer’s, there are several factors that determine whether they invest or not but that it may vary depending on the developer. Smaller developers are waiting when the market is uncertain, while larger ones often have an employment obligation and can also take greater risks.

  • 44.
    Ren, Zheng
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Seipel, Stefan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Computer Science.
    Capturing and characterizing human activities using building locations in America2019In: ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, ISSN 2220-9964, Vol. 8, no 5, article id 200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Capturing and characterizing collective human activities in a geographic space have become much easier than ever before in the big era. In the past few decades it has been difficult to acquire the spatiotemporal information of human beings. Thanks to the boom in the use of mobile devices integrated with positioning systems and location-based social media data, we can easily acquire the spatial and temporal information of social media users. Previous studies have successfully used street nodes and geo-tagged social media such as Twitter to predict users’ activities. However, whether human activities can be well represented by social media data remains uncertain. On the other hand, buildings or architectures are permanent and reliable representations of human activities collectively through historical footprints. This study aims to use the big data of US building footprints to investigate the reliability of social media users for human activity prediction. We created spatial clusters from 125 million buildings and 1.48 million Twitter points in the US. We further examined and compared the spatial and statistical distribution of clusters at both country and city levels. The result of this study shows that both building and Twitter data spatial clusters show the scaling pattern measured by the scale of spatial clusters, respectively, characterized by the number points inside clusters and the area of clusters. More specifically, at the country level, the statistical distribution of the building spatial clusters fits power law distribution. Inside the four largest cities, the hotspots are power-law-distributed with the power law exponent around 2.0, meaning that they also follow the Zipf’s law. The correlations between the number of buildings and the number of tweets are very plausible, with the r square ranging from 0.53 to 0.74. The high correlation and the similarity of two datasets in terms of spatial and statistical distribution suggest that, although social media users are only a proportion of the entire population, the spatial clusters from geographical big data is a good and accurate representation of overall human activities. This study also indicates that using an improved method for spatial clustering is more suitable for big data analysis than the conventional clustering methods based on Euclidean geometry.

  • 45.
    Scherdin, Mikaela
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Örnehag, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Landsbygdens behov, förutsättningar & möjligheter för ett landsbygdsavtal2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    For a prosperous country it is required that all regions are prioritized, both urban and rural areas. It is important that everyone is given the same basic conditions for sustainable development. The Swedish Traffic Authority has the Urban Environment Agreement (Stadsmiljöavtalet) which promotes sustainable traffic solutions in urban areas, the is a lack of the same type of contribution for rural areas. There are both challenges and opportunities in the rural areas. It is therefore important to find solutions that contribute to the sustainable development of rural areas and the future of Sweden. To succeed the politics needs to take the step from theory to practice for the whole of Sweden to be given the same opportunities to prosper. This study aims to investigate the needs, conditions and opportunities that for a possible Rural Environment Agreement. A rural agreement would create opportunities for growth, supply of skills and conversion to fossil-free transport systems and contribute to sustainable development of rural areas. An insight of the work at municipal, regional and state level has been the base to see what they think is needed to succeed with rural development and thoughts about a future Rural Environment Agreement. The approach taken in this study has been two methods, interviews and case studies. Five interviewees provided insight into municipal, regional and state work. The case studies are based on a selection of four applications to the Swedish Transport Administration's Urban Environment Agreement. Finally, the interviewees and the case studies were analyzed to produce a result. The result has indicated that there are shortcomings in investments in rural areas even though there is an interest. There is a difficulty in making efforts in rural areas, as it is lived in by fewer people. Accessibility, such as infrastructure and digitizing, is necessary for a living rural area and for maintaining service. It has emerged that smaller municipalities do not have the same financial means or resources as are required for the development of rural areas. A Rural Environment Agreement is seen to have major positive effects where the municipality and the region cannot provide support. For a possible agreement, the definition of the concept of rural areas must be made clear in order to create equivalent assessments. The rural areas of the future do not necessarily have to look like they do today, it needs to be developed in step with the country, while adapted to its conditions. A Rural Environment Agreement can be a solution for rural development.

  • 46.
    Strömberg, Sophie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Thelin, Stina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Utvärdering av digitala höjdmodeller som underlag vid hydrologisk modellering: Jämförelse mellan nationella höjdmodellen och DEM skapad från UAS och fotogrammetri2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the area Ren in Bollnäs municipality, development of a new residential area shall take place based on detailed development plan Ren 30: 1. Hydrological modeling with the national height model (NH) is usually carried out as a basis for development. Using methods such as mapping rainfall, the risk of flooding and its possible consequences can be predicted. NH is available at Lantmäteriet as point cloud and 2 m grid and can be used as a basis for hydrological modeling. NH is best suited for national and regional planning to be done briefly, because of the point density that is relatively low.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate different data sources for hydrological modeling by comparing NH against digital height models collected with unmanned aerial system (UAS) at flight heights of 80 and 120 m. The UAS flights were performed using the model DJI Phantom 4 Pro V2.0 which collected height data photogrammetric. Processing, geo-referencing and creation of height model were performed in the Agisoft Photoscan and ESRI ArcGIS software. GNSS with network RTK was used for surveying flight signals and control profiles.

    Hydrological modeling was carried out with calculations of flow direction and flow accumulation based on NH and UAS data in ArcGIS. Rainfall modeling were carried out in Caesar Lisflood-FP. Since Caesar Lisflood-FP had a limit on how large amounts of data could be handled, the cell size of the raster was changed to 1 m instead of 0.5 m, NH was evaluated in the original size 2 m.

    A higher point density was obtained with UAS and due to that, a higher resolution grid of 0.5 m could be created compared to NH with a grid size of 2 m. Control of height data from 120 m and 80 m showed that the lower flight height generated a height model with higher accuracy. The evaluation of rainfall mapping and water depth showed that data collected with UAS from 120 m and 80 m corresponded to 96.7% in water extent, and the largest water depths were 0.51 and 0.48 m. Between NH and the two UAS data, there were greater differences in both water depth and extent.

    The conclusion in this study was that different basis affect the hydrological modeling by for example flow direction, water depth and water spread differ depending on the data source (UAS or NH) as well on the resolution used, and the flight height.

  • 47.
    Sundberg, Julia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Hyrköp: Intresse och användning2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ease-purchase is in general newly produced housing which is initially rented out with the possibility for the tenant to acquire the accommodation within a certain time frame at a predetermined price.

    The purpose of this thesis is to describe how rent purchase has been used by various realestate companies and the challenges they are experiencing with lease-purchase both in the present and the future. The work will also investigate the interest in lease-purchase in young adults regarding apartments and townhouses. Qualitative and quantitative methods have been used, where the qualitative method has consisted of interviews by e-mail and phone calls with real estate companies and Hyresgästföreningen. The quantitative method has been implemented as a web survey spread to the respondents by social media.

    Lease-purchase models with the opportunity to stay if the option to buy is unutilized, opportunities to not stay and lease-purchase that entail a purchase from the beginning are the types of leasing-purchases the property companies haveused.

    Most of the real estate companies that have participated in the interviews are positive about rent leasing-purchase. Offering lease-purchase provides the opportunity for the real estate companies to sell to those who do not buy otherwise, which benefits both the property companies and those who do not have the opportunity to acquire their accommodation differently. Young adults believe that having the opportunity to set up living quarters and then buying it is a great motive for seeking a living quarter while a motive for buying their home is the possibility of more control over the residence. The survey respondents estimated that the probability of buying the accommodation within 4-6 years if the accommodation was satisfactory to 4-5 where 5 was thegreatest.

  • 48.
    Svedman, Linda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Svens, Josefina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Vilande lagfart vid köp av del av fastighet: Avskaffande av expeditionsavgiften2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An application for registration of ownership that is dormant declared when buying a part of a property can be used to secure ownership. An expedition fee of SEK 825 must be paid by the buyer when the dormant registration of ownership is taken. An expedition fee of SEK 825 is to be paid by the buyer when the dormant registration of ownership becomes a registration of ownership or becomes rejected. In the case of a respite decision no expedition fee is paid for the respite decision. An expedition fee of SEK 825 shall be paid by the buyer when the respite decision becomes a registration of ownership or becomes rejected. 

    This study is requested by Lantmäteriet and is based on the question of whether an abolition of the expedition fee should take place. The purpose of this study is to increase the knowledge of dormant registration of ownership during the process of buying a part of a property. The study also examines whether the expedition fee affects the buyer's approach when buying a part of a property. The aim of this study is to clarify how the real estate market looks at the expedition fee for the application for registration of ownership that receives a dormant decision.

    To find out the answer to study's research questions, two methods have been applied. A qualitative study in which interviews with three different target groups have been selected and a quantitative study in which statistics from the Real Property Register have examined.

    The results of the study show a lack of knowledge of dormant registration of ownership among the study's target groups. The result also shows that realtor and bank clerk rarely recommend sale of a part of a property. It is also a lacking information to customers and interested parties about the stage at which an application for registration of ownership can be made when buying part of a property. Registration clerks at Registration of real property are looking for reasons why the application for registration of ownership should receive a respite decision instead of a dormant decision for the customer to avoid the double expedition fee, which indicates an unsustainable system. The study's discussion covers the opinions that emerged from the study's results. In addition, it is discussed how the abolition of the expedition fee for dormant registration of ownership enforcement would affect the purchase buying a part of a property.

    The conclusion for the study is that that real estate market generally looks at dormant registration of ownership during the process of buying a part of a property as a mistake or as something missing instead of a security. And that the use of dormant registration of ownership when buying a part of a property should not be changed.

  • 49.
    Sälg, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Hjorter, August
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Undersökning av GNSS flervägsfel på campusområdet vid Högskolan i Gävle2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Multipath error is a source of uncertainty within GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) where signals are reflected on various surfaces before they reach the receiver. The phenomenon causes a delay in the receiver when the reflected signal travels a longer distance than the direct one. Despite the fact that there is a good knowledge of the error, multipath effects are still a complex subject since its origin varies a lot. This has led to a number of different methods being developed for the purposes to distinguish and treat the error. The main goal of this study is to investigate the size and distribution of multipath errors and to present which satellites contributes to the most multipath effects meanwhile evaluating the existence of possible reflective objects. As a result, static measured coordinates are also analyzed against coordinates from a real-time measurement in order to study possible connections related to multipath errors. The study is based on observations measured over 16 points on the green area in front of house 45 at the University of Gävle. Furthermore, data processing and analysis are performed in the open software RTKlib with associated program extensions.

    The result of the study shows that multipath errors have an influence on GNSS-measurements over the survey area and that these errors vary in centimeters to a decimeter level in mean value and RMS for all points. Furthermore, it also appears from the study that satellites that are at higher elevation also emit signals containing multipath errors.

    In addition, it may be noted that signals even at higher elevation masks contribute to multipath errors over the points where points 2, 3 and 12 are most affected. Furthermore, signals from the satellites R10, R11, R19, R20 and G15 contain high multipath on both L1 and L2 frequencies. Possible sources of reflections was estimated over the area for points 2, 3 and 12 from the correlation between high multipath errors and direction towards the investigation area.

  • 50.
    Tenzer, Robert
    et al.
    The Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment and GeodesySchool of Geodesy and Geomatics, Wuhan UniversityWuhanChina.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences. Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning.
    Comparative Study of the Uniform and Variable Moho Density Contrast in the Vening Meinesz-Moritz’s Isostatic Scheme for the Gravimetric Moho Recovery2014In: IGFS 2014, Proceedings of the 3rd International Gravity Field Service (IGFS), Shanghai, China, 30 June - 6 July 2014 / [ed] Shuanggen Jin, Riccardo Barzaghi, Springer, 2014, p. 199-207Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In gravimetric methods for a determination of the Moho geometry, the constant value of the Moho density contract is often adopted. Results of gravimetric and seismic studies, however, showed that the Moho density contrast varies significantly. The assumption of a uniform density contrast thus might yield large errors in the estimated Moho depths. In this study we investigate these errors by comparing the Moho depths determined globally for the uniform and variable models of the Moho density contrast. These two gravimetric results are obtained based on solving the Vening Meinesz-Moritz’s inverse problem of isostasy. The uniform model of the Moho density contrast is defined individually for the continental and oceanic lithosphere to better reproduce the reality. The global data of the lower crust and upper mantle retrieved from the CRUST1.0 seismic crustal model are used to define the variable Moho density contrast. This seismic model is also used to validate both gravimetric solutions. Results of our numerical experiment reveals that the consideration of the variable Moho density contrast improves the agreement between the gravimetric and seismic Moho models; the RMS of differences is 5.4 km (for the uniform density contrast) and 4.7 km (for the variable density contrast).

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