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  • 1.
    Almstedt, Åsa
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Peterson, Niclas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Lägesosäkerhet vid nätverks-RTK-mätning med inbyggd lutningskompensator: en undersökning av Leica GS18 T2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A recently introduced GNSS instrument on the market is Leica GS18 T with tilt compensation, based on GNSS/Inertial Navigation Systems (INS) integration, with no need to centre the survey pole with the GNSS instrument over the target point being measured. Besides making surveying faster, the tilt compensation technique enables measuring of hidden points where the use of conventional GNSS measuring normally is not possible without more time-consuming methods. The instrument also has advanced GNSS signal tracking which makes surveying in challenging environments possible.

    In this study, the Leica GS18 T has on behalf of Lantmäteriet been tested through studying the measurement uncertainty in network RTK measurement with tilted survey pole in three different situations: with the survey pole tilted in various degrees in both favourable and challenging survey environments; with tilt towards north, east, south and west to test if the tilt direction would affect the result; and for surveying of building corners as a possible field of application. In the latter case, the result was compared with what can be achieved with the conventional hidden point method using intersection of distances. The analysis of the measurement uncertainty was based on calculations of standard uncertainty, RMS (Root Mean Square) and mean deviation.

    The measurement uncertainty from the first part of the test was on cm-level horizontally, both in favourable and challenging survey environments, and in height on mm-level in favourable survey environment and on cm-level in challenging survey environment. Further, the results indicate that the tilt direction affects measurement uncertainty. The reason for this is not clarified and needs further investigation. The measurements of building corners resulted in a mean deviation of approximately 12 mm when the survey pole was tilted 30°. The hidden point method using intersection of distances generally resulted in lower mean deviation, even though the difference is relatively small (4 mm at best). To summarize, Leica GS18 T seems to be well suited for measuring with tilt in detailed surveying, at least if the requirements of position uncertainty is on cm-level.

  • 2.
    Amin, Hadi
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Sjöberg, Lars
    Division of Geodesy and satellite positioning, KTH.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    A global vertical datum defined by the conventional geoid potential and the Earth ellipsoid parameters2019In: Journal of Geodesy, ISSN 0949-7714, E-ISSN 1432-1394, Vol. 93, no 10, p. 1943-1961Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The geoid, according to the classical Gauss–Listing definition, is, among infinite equipotential surfaces of the Earth’s gravity field, the equipotential surface that in a least squares sense best fits the undisturbed mean sea level. This equipotential surface, except for its zero-degree harmonic, can be characterized using the Earth’s global gravity models (GGM). Although, nowadays, satellite altimetry technique provides the absolute geoid height over oceans that can be used to calibrate the unknown zero-degree harmonic of the gravimetric geoid models, this technique cannot be utilized to estimate the geometric parameters of the mean Earth ellipsoid (MEE). The main objective of this study is to perform a joint estimation of W0, which defines the zero datum of vertical coordinates, and the MEE parameters relying on a new approach and on the newest gravity field, mean sea surface and mean dynamic topography models. As our approach utilizes both satellite altimetry observations and a GGM model, we consider different aspects of the input data to evaluate the sensitivity of our estimations to the input data. Unlike previous studies, our results show that it is not sufficient to use only the satellite-component of a quasi-stationary GGM to estimate W0. In addition, our results confirm a high sensitivity of the applied approach to the altimetry-based geoid heights, i.e., mean sea surface and mean dynamic topography models. Moreover, as W0 should be considered a quasi-stationary parameter, we quantify the effect of time-dependent Earth’s gravity field changes as well as the time-dependent sea level changes on the estimation of W0. Our computations resulted in the geoid potential W0 = 62636848.102 ± 0.004 m2 s−2 and the semi-major and minor axes of the MEE, a = 6378137.678 ± 0.0003 m and b = 6356752.964 ± 0.0005 m, which are 0.678 and 0.650 m larger than those axes of GRS80 reference ellipsoid, respectively. Moreover, a new estimation for the geocentric gravitational constant was obtained as GM = (398600460.55 ± 0.03) × 106 m3 s−2.

  • 3.
    Andersson Skått, Kristian
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Bergkvist, Kristoffer
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Småhusfastigheters värdeförändring vid större infrastrukturprojekt: En studie av ombyggnationen E4 Sundsvall2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Infrastructure investments is a large part of the regional development in Sweden, researchers in the subject agrees that investment in infrastructure generate increased economic development, one thing they still share a disagreement in which calculating methods are suitable. Are there any winners or losers in infrastructure projects, for example, smaller cities in the countryside where highways have previously passed, have they benefited from a quicker and easier commuting to the city, or have they been adversely affected when the highway has been given a new stretch?

    This research report focuses in one of the largest infrastructure investments in northern Sweden, European road 4 (E4) through Sundsvall. The research, combined with location-based sales comparison method and local analyzes, will show what effect market values will have on the houses real estate’s and what influence the road construction might have regarding to the values of the properties.

    The results of these studies are shown trough the average changes in property prices in the areas of Njurundabommen, Nedre Haga/Skönsberg, Nolby/Kvissleby and Västbo. However, the result was shown to have too few transactions, which is common in local level sales analyzes. This generates uncertainty in the result, meaning that the values can be large in relation to the actual sales development. The uncertainty was minimized in the results by merging two similar areas, which finally gave a result that indicates that the areas in the study had a more negative development towards Sundsvall and Sweden, since the area received a new infrastructure in the form of the E4 Sundsvall.

  • 4.
    Asplund, Adam
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Resiliens i stadsutveckling: En kvalitativ jämförelse mellan teori och kommunal planering2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    We face a number of uncertainties, challenges and risks, known and unknown, many of which are linked to global changes. Urban development must be planned to become sustainable in the long term despite future changes and to succeed, planning must handle uncertainties. The current view of sustainability has resulted in a planning ideal that strives for sustainability as a vision of an ideal structure and design. The research on resilience question this by asking how something static can be sustainable in the face of uncertainties and future changes. The work towards sustainability must focus on increasing the capacity of cities to be resilient. Cities which are resilient have the capacity to adapt to future changes while retaining the same function, structure and identity.

    Näringen is an existing industrial area in Gävle which has been designated suitable for a larger urban development exploitation project. The study aims to investigate how resilience is incorporated into the planning and development process of Näringen. The study compared Gävle municipality's intentions and ambitions for the development of Näringen in relation to theoretical principles for increased resilience in urban environment. The comparison between theory and practice was done through a qualitative content analysis of policy documents and interviews with two officials.

    The findings show that the intentions and ambitions of Gävle municipality in some ways are in line with the principles for increased resilience in cities but miss important aspects within the principles. The municipality strives for novel and innovative ways of planning which the principles for resilience can contribute with. One problem which can lead to reduced sustainability and resilience is that socio-economic prerequisites and conditions are prioritized over natural geographical ones.

    Implementation of the principles in municipal planning is not easily achieved in all situations because the principles in some respects overlap depending on the scale. Gävle Municipality's view of sustainability is also not in line with the approach that the research of resilience advocates, that we all live and operate in complex social-ecological systems. Resilience deals with complex theories and attempts to implement resilience principles without an understanding for the complexity of systems can lead to an unsuccessful outcome. The resilience principle adaptive planning holds the potential for continuous learning about social-ecological systems and is considered the principle that should be prioritized in planning for sustainability through resilience.

  • 5.
    Astner, Frida
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Ohlsson, Mathilda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Kajplats för permanentboende på vatten: Vilken lagstiftning tillämpas vid upplåtelsen för boendeformen?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To live on a house boat is a housing form that still is establishing on the housing market, but the regulations about this are almost non-existent. You cannot find any legislation regarding living on the water today and there are doubts about what applies for grants of house boats at a berth. The rules about establishment of house boats falls between the “plan- och bygglagen” and the rules of the harbor, which makes it difficult to say which one of the grant agreement that is the most applicable for the property owner and the person who wants to live on the water. To get answers the questions in this thesis interviews were performed with different parties and different cadastral procedures were analyzed regarding water properties. The interviews were completed by phone interviews with a semi structured method and with a few respondents the questions were put through email. In this thesis a few different respondents were asked to answer the questions, this to see different perspectives of the grant of berth. The different respondents that answered the questions were a few contract managers, usufructuary, a real estate agent, a lawyer, a company which produce house boats and a cadastral surveyor. The analysis of the cadastral procedures gave a deeper understanding how property formation on water can be done. The respondents in this thesis perceived the Swedish law as incomplete as the authors of this thesis regarding living on the water. The results show that the law can be applied in different ways depending on which type of housing form it is. The study shows that the best solutions for floating houses should be property formation, that will make the house real property and will make financing of the house possible. When house boats, which are formed like ships, the study shows that the best solutions for this housing form is to apply ground lease in general with the longest grant as possible, which is 25 years. To have ground lease in general as a solution makes it hard for the house boat owners to get a loan.

  • 6.
    Behnisch, Martin
    et al.
    Leibniz Institute of Ecological Urban and Regional Development, Dresden, Germany.
    Hecht, Robert
    Leibniz Institute of Ecological Urban and Regional Development, Dresden, Germany.
    Herold, Hendrik
    Leibniz Institute of Ecological Urban and Regional Development, Dresden, Germany.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Urban big data analytics and morphology2019In: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, ISSN 2399-8083, Vol. 46, no 7 (SI), p. 1203-1205Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Berg, Erika
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Berglund, Terés
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Renskötselrätt vid lantmäteriförrättning: Hur beaktas rättigheten?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Renskötselrätt innebär enligt rennäringslagen en rätt för samer att använda mark inom ett renskötselområde till underhåll för sig och sina renar. Renskötselrätten grundas på urminnes hävd och tillkommer den som är same och medlem i en sameby. Renskötselrätt innebär en särskild rätt till fast egendom vilken existerar parallellt med äganderätten och omfattas av egendomsskyddet i 2 kap. 15 § regeringsformen.

    Enskilda individer kan tvingas till rådighetsinskränkningar eller till att avstå mark till förmån för allmänna intressen som infrastruktur och bebyggelse. Detta ska ske enligt reglerna för markåtkomst som återfinns i ett tjugotal lagar. Enligt Europakonventionen och regeringsformen ska den som tvingas avstå mark eller rättigheter ersättas.

    En fastighetsbildningsförrättning handläggs av lantmäterimyndigheten enligt reglerna i fastighetsbildningslagen. Ett återkommande problem är att värdera vilken skada en sameby lider när ersättning enligt lag måste prövas i samband med ett intrång.

    Syftet med detta arbete är dels att bidra med ökad kunskap om renskötselrättens juridiska innebörd, och dels att synliggöra hur renskötselrätten i nutid beaktas vid markåtkomst inom en lantmäteriförrättning. Detta för att bidra till att skapa en samsyn och en enhetlig handläggning av åtgärder som påverkar renskötselrätten. För att svara på denna studies frågeställningar har studier av förrättningsakter och intervjuer med förrättningslantmätare och en representant från Länsstyrelsen genomförts.

    Resultatet av studien visar att det i dagsläget är oklart hur renskötselrätten ska beaktas inom en lantmäteriförrättning och att det saknas arbetsstöd för hur renskötselrätten ska värderas vid ett intrång. I slutsatserna i detta arbete framgår det att detta beror på att det finns luckor i rennäringslagen vilket gör att den inte integrerar väl med annan lag och att det många gånger är oklart vilken myndighet som äger vilken fråga rörande renskötselrätten. För en enhetlig handläggning av ärenden som berör renskötselrätten krävs utbildning, klarläggande av vissa begrepp och bättre samverkan mellan myndigheter. Men framförallt krävs en revidering av rennäringslagen och relationen mellan den och annan lag.

  • 8.
    Bäckström, Arvid
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Fredrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Galileo i jämförelse med GPS och GLONASS vid deformationsmätning: En fallstudie på Gävle flygplats2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is a generic term for a number of satellite system which makes it possible for worldwide navigation, deformation monitoring and satellite positioning. GNSS includes four global operational satellite systems BeiDou, Global Positioning System (GPS), Globalnaya navigatsionnaya sputnikovaya Sistema (GLONASS) and the European Galileo. The Galileo satellite system is gradually expanding and currently offers 22 active satellites but will include a total of 30 satellites when it is completed 2020.

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate Galileo during simulated deformation measurements, individually and in combination with GPS and GLONASS, and to compare these satellite systems. Also, to see these systems deviations with different methods static measurement in a local network, static measurement linked to an external reference station and post processing of single- frequencies in the local network.

    A local network was established, and data was processed in Leica Infinity. Static measurements with three GNSS receivers was carried out over one day with a session time of nine hours. The measurements were divided into three sessions with movements of one receiver between the sessions.

    The results from the study shows that for all satellite systems individually and in the different combinations, deviations on millimeter level were obtained for the static measurements in a local network. Generally, deviations on millimeter level were obtained for post-processing calculations with only single frequencies for each system. For post-processing with the local network linked to MAR700SWE; which is a SWEPOS reference station located about 17 km from the established network, the result showed higher and more scattered values where the deviations were generally obtained at millimeter- to centimeter level. Generally, the results showed that Galileo compared with GPS and GLONASS receives deviations similar to the other two systems for all methods. The deviations showed with all three systems combined the best results were achieved.

    The conclusion from the study is that Galileo is found to have a similar performance as the other GNSS systems in static measurements, though Galileo is not yet fully developed. The results shows that with all three systems, low deviations are regularly obtained. With this Galileo contributes to an improvement when the system is combined with GPS and GLONASS. For deformation monitoring, Galileo is acceptable to use in plane. The methods recommended for deformation measurement are static measurement in a local network and post processing with single frequency measurement, although the latter is not preferred. Connecting a local network to an external reference station is not recommended.

  • 9.
    Dahlvik, Linn
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Öster, Sandra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Underlag för utformning av nybyggnation i kulturmiljö: En fallstudie i Strömsbro, Gävle2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today residential shortage occurs in several municipalities in Sweden. Densification could be a strategy to solve this problem. Areas where cultural heritage exists are vulnerable to new construction. The aim of this study is to examine how densification on a property could adapt to the surrounding cultural heritage and contribute to good quality of life. The objective is to form criteria for new housing in a cultural heritage environment as a foundation of exploitation. A visualization proposal has also been designed by the criteria. The study is delimited to Strömsbro in Gävle, Sweden and have been exemplified at the property Strömsbro 37:2 that is located in the area.  

    The method DIVE has been used to analyze cultural heritage values and to demonstrate future development opportunities. The DIVE-analysis is performed in four steps: Describe, Interpret, Valuate, and Enable. By performing site visits and inventory in the analysis, values have been identified and a perception over the area have been obtained. Interviews and questionnaires have also been a part of the analysis and have contributed to identification of values, to understand the sense of place and to clarify possible developments. Building volumes have been studied as another method of this thesis. Calculations of volumes and floor area ratio of the surrounding environment have provided guidelines for the visualization.  

    The work resulted in a design proposal of attractive new dwellings, considering the cultural heritage values and seclusion to reduce unwanted observation to create better qualities of life. The design proposal resulted in two apartment buildings, one townhouse and one complementary building that pursue traditional formation with modern details. 

    The result can not represent everyone’s opinion regarding cultural preservation. Cultural heritage is a sensitive subject and citizens might get upset with the result. Residents should therefore be involved in an early stage of planning. 

    Physical qualities that are important when planning for new housing in a cultural environment are coloring, material, building placement, street network, roofing and height scale. Volumes and floor area ratio are also important in the physical environment. The design proposal in this study shows how new housing could be implemented in a cultural district regarding the criteria. 

  • 10.
    Dimopooulou, Efi
    et al.
    School of Rural and Surveying Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou, Greece.
    Karki, Sudarshan
    Queensland Government, Department of Natural Resources and Mines, Brisbane, Australia.
    Roić, Miodrag
    Faculty of Geodesy, University of Zagred, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Duarte de Almeida, José-Paulo
    Geomatic Engineering Laboratory, Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science & Technology, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.
    Griffith-Charles, Charisse
    epartment of Geomatics Engineering and Land Management, Faculty of Engineering, The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago.
    Thompson, Rod
    Department OTB, Section GIS - technology, Faculty of Architecture and the Built Environment, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands.
    Ying, Shen
    School of Resource and Environmental Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Oosterom, Peter van
    Department OTB, GIS Technology Section, Faculty of Architecture and the Built Environment, Delft University of Technology, Delft, the Netherlands .
    Chapter 2. Initial Registration of 3D Parcels2018In: Best Practices 3D Cadastres - Printed version / [ed] Peter van Oosterom, Copenhagen, Denmark: International Federation of Surveyors , 2018, p. 19-27Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    3D geoinformation is becoming increasingly important towards decision-making, land management and land development. Research has demonstrated the actual added value of 3D information over 2D in the cases of an overall more efficient integration of urban vs. regional planning and management, especially when dealing with 3D under- ground/aboveground infrastructures. Despite the fact that there has been consistent research within geoinformation science (GISc) on the concept of 3D for more than a decade now, several potentially involved parties are still reluctant to invest in 3D data, 3D techniques and applications. As a consequence, large administration processes re- lating to urban/ rural planning often run up financial losses simply because generic geoinformation is not part of the process (Stoter, 2011; Stoter et al, 2012).

  • 11.
    Donoyan, Alexis
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Wahlberg, Emil
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Jämförelse mellan 2D- och 3D-fastigheter för station och spårsträcka i upphöjt läge2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This document is a degree project written at the University of Gavle.

    By station and track section in elevated position is meant that they lie on a plane above the ground surface. Previously, ground planes in the air with the help of 3D properties have never been implemented in Sweden.

    Today, relatively few 3D properties are formed in Sweden in comparison to how many properties there are in total. This study aims to investigate which property formation is most appropriate and what advantages there are with using 3D or traditional 2D properties for a station and track section in elevated position.

    In order to get answers to the questions, the thesis work was initiated with a literature review and then interviews and the collection of legal acts were applied. These collections were later compiled in a result of what advantages are available with 2D and 3D-properties, respectively, and what is most appropriate for a station and track section in elevated position.

    The authors examined a planned railway station and track section in elevated position in Norrkoping municipality in connection with the implementation of Ostlanken. Ostlanken is a railway project for double-track high-speed rail between Stockholm and Linkoping. The purpose of Ostlanken is to increase the capacity for rail traffic for both passenger and freight traffic and to expand a new strain path. It is an investment in environmentally friendly communications and faster trains that contribute to sustainable travel and transport. The property for the future railway station in Norrkoping has not yet been formed and this study will be the basis for decisions. The study was designed to apply generally to railway tracks in elevated position and can be applied to similar cases like that in Norrkoping municipality.

    The authors compared which property formation is most appropriate for a station and track section in elevated position. The conclusion is that 3D properties have more advantages and benefits compared to a traditional 2D property and associated easements, which means that 3D properties should be used for such an infrastructure project as a railway station in elevated position.

  • 12.
    Eklundh, Lars
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Ågren, Jonas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Olsson, Håkan
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Harrie, Lars
    Lunds universitet.
    Klang, Dan
    Insamling av geografiska data2019In: Geografisk informationsbehandling: Teori, metoder och tillämpningar / [ed] Lars Harrie, Studentlitteratur AB, 2019, 7:1, p. 85-126Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Det här kapitlet fokuserar på att förklara de grundläggande principerna för insamling av geografiska data, och vi lägger tonvikten på fjärranalys och geodetiska metoder. Fjärranalys innefattar olika tekniker som fotogrammetri, laserskanning och analys av bilder från mark, flyg och satelliter. Geodetiska datainsamling används för att mäta in koordinater för objekt på marken och innefattar satellitbaserade tekniker såväl som användning av fältinstrument. Olika tekniker, avseende både fjärranalys och geodesi, används i olika situationer beroende på krav på noggrannhet och innehåll, och kompletterar därför varandra. Vi börjar med att beskriva satellitfjärranalys som kan täcka stora områden med relativt begränsad detaljeringsgrad, beskriver sedan flygbilder och laserskanning där detaljnivån ökar, för att till sist beskriva de geodetiska metoderna för noggranna mätningar på marknivå.

  • 13.
    Eriksson, Jessica
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Digitalisering av detaljplaneprocessen samt påverkan på efterföljande fastighetsbildning2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study will describe how a digitization of the detailed planning process affects the formation of a property in a plan implementation. 

    How the investments made by the state to the authorities, municipalities and organizations to try to be at the forefront of society's growth and leading edge reaches out. 

    The purpose of the government is to provide easier access to detailed plans through digital aids, in order to make the information more easily available compared to todays analogue formats in the municipality's archive, ie in paper form. Today, the subject of digitalization is extremely relevant in the media, but also a large part of our processes for developing and streamlining highlights the opportunities that it brings. Although the journey within a digital community building process as a whole has been going on for a long time and does not stop here, there are clear examples that Sweden's municipalities are not united in the work and development.

    The study will mainly highlight the opportunity for medium-sized municipalities to keep up with the development and how private developers are affected by the changes that take place in the digitization work. The study deals with how a digital detailed planning process can influence the planning work, the plan implementation and subsequent property formation.

    The focus of the study lies on the effect that digital detailed planning process will have on the plan implementation and subsequent property formation. These points address both economic and legal aspects of land surveying.

    Keywords: Digitization, Plan implementation, Municipality, Developer

  • 14.
    Erlandsson, Axel
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Frelin, Alexander
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Deformationsmätning och uppdatering av geodetiskt nätverk i Mårtsbo provfält2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Geodetic test fields are important because they allow geodetic instruments to be tested and calibrated. For example, the baseline can be used when checking the zero-point error in an Electronic Distance Measurement. The high accuracy of the test field will also make it possible to use the detail points for checking the accuracy of the measurements when surveying. Keeping the coordinates of the field updated is important to maintain the high accuracy of the points. Previous research shows that known points were used to check GNSS-antennas before commercial use.

    The precision of measurements was something that the Swedish Institute of Constructional Science chose to develop even further in the late 1970s. A geodetic test field was constructed in Mårtsbo where points were established and presented in a coordinate list. The field was at first used to control different measuring equipment and methods, but in later years it has not been used at all. The aim of this study is to re-measure and update the coordinates of the test field.

    For this study, the instruments was controlled and calibrated before any measurements. To link to the well-established points with known coordinates in the control network static GNSS-measurements were performed on the two points located in the most open areas and positioned in SWEREF 99 16 30 and RH 2000. The angles and distances between the points were given by using rounds of measurements. To get coordinates for every detail point a coordinate transformation was used with the measured points as control points.

    During the post-processing of the GNSS-data the Leica Geo Office software was used to compute the coordinates. The rounds of measurements with multistation were processed in the software SBG Geo and network adjustments with both old and new coordinates were carried out. Finally, the rest of the coordinates were transformed into the new coordinate system which was done in the software Gtrans..

    The result shows that significant local deformation has occurred on several points. The largest of deformation in plane is 2,2 mm in P5 and in height is 1,7 mm in P7. The uncertainties of the measured points are a bit higher in this study compared to earlier one, but they are still good enough to be use in this test field.

  • 15.
    Fontaeus, Oliwer
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Virtual Reality i planering: Ett kompletterande underlag för ungdomars förståelse av plankartor2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A lot of Swedish citizens struggle to understand parts of detailed development plans when they are presented by Municipalities. The presented material can at often times be seen as difficult to understand and previous knowledge regarding development plans are usually needed to fully understand them. In occurrence with this, Swedish municipalities find themselves struggling in order to attract participants to public participation events regarding upcoming development plans. Today’s youth is especially difficult to attract and also integrate into planning dialogue events and are thus greatly underrepresented and some youth even feel like their voice goes unheard (Alinazari & Alvinder, 2018). In order to change this downgrade in citizens dialogue attendance, and to increase citizens knowledge regarding detailed development plans, municipalities could use a couple of new techniques. These techniques range from the use of 3D-renderings to using Virtual Reality (VR), which also in some cases could be used with the help smartphones. The use of VR is although a pretty fresh establishment to the market which means that there’s only a few municipalities who actually established it as part of their citizens dialogue techniques. The majority of Sweden's municipalities don’t even know that it is possible to use VR in citizens dialogue nor have the knowledge of how to use it. By implementing smartphone based VR with a sharp focus on youth, they would be able to take part of 3D/VR based development plans anywhere at any time. This study aimed to test how smartphone based VR could be used as a complementary visualization material to development plans with the help of other visualizations such as the software Juxtapose. The provision of smartphone based VR was  handed out with the help of an online service called RoundMe (2019), which took part in this study. The visualized material which were present in the study had been made with Sketchup. A software which not only is easy to access but also widely used by Sweden's municipalities. Questions regarding the different visualizations was handed out through a questionnaire. The summed up statistics was then analysed with the help of simple linear regression analysis. The participants were also able to rank their own understanding of the presented material. The actual representation of their knowledge was analysed with the help of their answers from the questionnaire. The result of the study could with the help of the answered questionnaires be analysed and the answered that followed was that the complementary use of visualized material and VR could actually increase the understanding of development plans. The biggest noted implication during the study was that participants with a urban planning background had the lowest actual knowledge of the presented visualizations. The implementation of this could thus be of viable use when it comes to improving on younger people's understanding of development plans. And also mean that other societal groups learning would improve and interest more people to attend at public consultation events.

  • 16.
    Fryksten, Jonas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Study on ongoing subsidence in Uppsala City using Sentinel-1 radar data2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many cities in Sweden are partly located on clay and because of that, some urban city centres are undergoing significant subsidence. To measure subsidence in cities, precise leveling has been the traditional technique, but the interest for the Persistent Scatter InSAR (PSI) technique has increased in the last years, in this application. With the PSI technique, a mm-accuracy can be obtained and the analyses can be done over large areas. In this study, a validation between the PSI and the precise leveling techniques was performed for a selection of buildings located in areas that are facing great subsidence. A correlation between the subsidence rate achieved in the PSI analyses and near-surface soil type was also done, to easier identify risk zones. The city of Uppsala was chosen as study area, because it is partly built on deep layers of clay and the consulting company Bjerking AB has established a leveling network with metal pegs on many buildings. One ascending and one descending PSI analysis was performed, with Sentinel-1 data from the period mid-2015 to mid-2019, and the PSI analyses were done in SARPROZ. After the PSI analyses, comparative permanent scatters (PS) points and metal pegs were identified creating validation pairs. 15 different validation pairs were identified in four different objects, which was one or two buildings. The PSI analyses showed that Uppsala is undergoing significant subsidence in some parts, with an annual rate of about 6 mm/year in the line-of-sight (LOS) direction, which corresponds to about 7.5 mm/year in the vertical direction. The areas of greatest deformation were exclusively found on postglacial clay. The standard deviation of the time series were calculated around their linear regression lines, which was a measure of how temporal coherent the points were. The mean of this standard deviation for the PS points in the 15 validation pairs was 1.5 mm. This standard deviation increased to 2.3 mm in the time series where the direction was transformed from LOS to vertical and where the movements were in respect to the benchmarks. Between the PSI and the precise leveling techniques, in the validation, the vertical subsidence rate differed less than 1 mm/year in all validation pairs and the mean of all differences was 0.56 mm/year. Based on these results, Sentinel-1 data can measure urban subsidence in a satisfactory way, when the PSI technique is applied.

  • 17. Fryksten, Jonas
    et al.
    Nilfouroushan, Faramarz
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Analysis of Clay-Induced Land Subsidence in Uppsala City Using Sentinel-1 SAR Data and Precise Leveling2019In: Remote Sensing, ISSN 2072-4292, E-ISSN 2072-4292, Vol. 11, no 23, article id 2764Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Land subsidence and its subsequent hazardous effects on buildings and urban infrastructure are important issues in many cities around the world. The city of Uppsala in Sweden is undergoing significant subsidence in areas that are located on clay. Underlying clay units in parts of Uppsala act as mechanically weak layers, which for instance, cause sinking of the ground surface and tilting buildings. Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) has given rise to new methods of measuring movements on earth surface with a precision of a few mm. In this study, a Persistent Scatterer InSAR (PSI) analysis was performed to map the ongoing ground deformation in Uppsala. The subsidence rate measured with PSI was validated with precise leveling data at different locations. Two ascending and descending data sets were analyzed using SARPROZ software, with Sentinel-1 data from the period March 2015 to April 2019. After the PSI analyses, comparative permanent scatterer (PS) points and metal pegs (measured with precise leveling) were identified creating validation pairs. According to the PSI analyses, Uppsala was undergoing significant subsidence in some areas, with an annual rate of about 6 mm/year in the line-of-sight direction. Interestingly, the areas of great deformation were exclusively found on postglacial clay.

  • 18.
    Gadaan, Kim
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Lund, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Riktlinjer för trafiksäkerhetsåtgärder i småstäder: Exemplifierat i Söderfors tätort2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Trafiksäkerhet är den viktigaste utgångspunkten vid planering av vägar. Små tätorter saknar ofta underlag för storskaliga trafiksäkerhetslösningar och kräver istället mer lokala åtgärder i det befintliga vägnätet. Lokal trafikplanering är kommunernas ansvar som de genomför med hjälp av TRAST (2015) framtaget av bland annat Boverket och Trafikverket. TRAST (2015) inkluderar bland annat riktlinjer för ökad trafiksäkerhet, främst inom stadsmiljöer, men saknar konkreta riktlinjer för små tätorter. Examensarbetets syfte är att bli ett komplement till TRAST (2015) och tillhandahålla riktlinjer med rekommendationer för trafiksäkerhet i små tätorter (1000-5000 invånare).

    I framtagandet av riktlinjerna har olycksstatistik från tre likvärdiga tätorter undersökts där olycksorsakerna har brutits ned i sina beståndsdelar. Lämpliga åtgärder har framställts genom litteraturöversikten som består av underlag från huvudaktörerna inom området, vetenskapligt forskningsunderlag, samt exempel från likvärdiga tätorter där trafiksäkerhetsåtgärder har framtagits tidigare. I examensarbetet har fallstudier i Söderfors genomförts för att framställa riktlinjerna genom att undersöka lokal olycksstatistik, göra inventeringar och observationsstudier på orten. Söderfors har sedan använts som exemplifierad ort där de framtagna riktlinjerna har applicerats.

    Resultatet består av det sammanställda materialet från all olycksstatistik där de olika olyckskomponenterna har brutits ned samt kartor och bilder från inventeringen och observationsstudierna i Söderfors. De vanligaste olycksorsakerna är höga hastigheter samt distraherade förare. De mest olycksdrabbade platserna i Söderfors är Tamms väg och området kring Tierpsvägen. Riktlinjerna framgår under 4 huvudrubriker: gator, hastigheter, passager och beteendeförändringar. Därefter demonstreras de framtagna riktlinjerna i ett flödesschema där arbetsmetoden framställs och problemställningar matchas mot åtgärder. Riktlinjerna appliceras sedan på de olycksdrabbade vägarna samt ytterligare tre gator i Söderfors.

    För förankring till lokala förhållanden har inventering och observationsstudier varit tillräckliga metoder för att göra kopplingar och finna lämpliga åtgärdsförslag till problemområden. Mer djupgående fallstudier med fler observationstillfällen samt tekniska verktyg hade gett ett säkrare resultat. Bra komplement till vidare studier är även frågor kring ägoförhållanden samt projekt tillsammans med medborgarna om estetisk utformning av gatumiljöerna.

  • 19.
    Gelotte, Elisabet
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Analys av bruksvärdessystemet: En undersökning i Uppsala2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det svenska hyressättningssystemet, bruksvärdessystemet, har under flera år varit föremål för kritik. Detta till följd av en påtaglig bostadsbrist i storstadsregionerna, som främst tagit sig uttryck i form av brist på hyresrättsbostäder i allmänhet och billiga sådana i synnerhet. Enligt vissa har denna bostadsbrist kunnat kopplas till bruksvärdessystemet och dess effekter på hyresnivåerna.

    Denna studie syftade därför till att undersöka bruksvärdessystemets eventuella påverkan på det svenska hyresrättsbeståndet idag med utgångspunkt i Uppsala, en svensk storstad där bostadsbrist och brist på hyresrättsbostäder förekommer. Vidare syftade studien till att utreda hur och om bruksvärdessystemet kan anses ha någon påverkan på investeringsviljan när det kommer till att producera nya hyresrättsbostäder.

    De frågeställningar som studien grundade sig på var gällande hur hyressättning enligt bruksvärdessystemet påverkat dagens bestånd av hyresrätter i Uppsala, hur byggherrars och fastighetsägares investeringsvilja ser ut när det kommer till byggandet av nya hyresrätter i Uppsala samt vilka tänkbara alternativ till bruksvärdessystemet eller övriga åtgärder som finns för att öka investeringsviljan. Frågeställningarna besvarades med hjälp av intervjuer och en litteraturstudie.

    Av resultatet i studien kunde främst konstateras att det inte råder några entydiga meningar kring om eller hur bruksvärdessystemet bör förändras, vara kvar eller bytas ut helt. Bruksvärdessystemet tycks förvisso ha haft en negativ påverkan på hyresrättsbeståndet och hyresmarknaden, bland annat genom att ha bidragit till att en stor del av hyresrättsbeståndet ombildats till bostadsrätter, men det fyller även en viktig funktion när det kommer till hyresgästers trygghet och besittningsskydd.

    Trots att meningarna kring bruksvärdessystemets fortlevnad går isär framkom av resultatet i studien att det inte räcker med att enbart förändra hyressättningssystemet för att lösa problemen med bostadsbrist, utan det tycks krävas åtgärder och förändringar på bostadsmarknaden i stort och även inom den förda bostadspolitiken. Resultatet i studien talade även för att en stor del av lösningen kring bostadsbristen bör grunda sig på att staten tar ett större ansvar när det kommer till att producera bostäder till den del av marknaden som inte har möjlighet att betala för sin bostad.

  • 20.
    Gido, Nureldin A. A.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences. Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences. Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sjöberg, Lars E.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences. Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    A gravimetric method to determine horizontal stress field due to flow in the mantle in Fennoscandia2019In: Geosciences Journal, ISSN 1226-4806, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 377-389Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mass changes and flow in the Earth's mantle causes the Earth's crust not only to movevertically, but also horizontally and to tilt, and produce a major stress in the lithosphere.Here we use a gravimetric approach to model sub-lithosphere horizontal stress in theEarth's mantle and its temporal changes caused by geodynamical movements likemantle convection in Fennoscandia. The flow in the mantle is inferred from tectonicsand convection currents carrying heat from the interior of the Earth to the crust. Theresult is useful in studying how changes of the stress influence the stability of crust.The outcome of this study is an alternative approach to studying the stress and itschange using forward modelling and the Earth's viscoelastic models. We show that thedetermined horizontal stress using a gravimetric method is consistent with tectonicsand seismic activities. In addition, the secular rate of change of the horizontal stress,which is within 95 kPa/year, is larger outside the uplift dome than inside.

  • 21.
    Gido, Nureldin A. A.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences. Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences. Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sjöberg, Lars E.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences. Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tenzer, Robert
    Department of Land Surveying and Geo‑Informatics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Studying permafrost by integrating satellite and in situ data in the northern high-latitude regions2019In: Acta Geophysica, ISSN 1895-6572, E-ISSN 1895-7455, Vol. 67, no 2, p. 721-734Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an exceptional opportunity of achieving simultaneous and complementary data from a multitude of geoscience and environmental near-earth orbiting artificial satellites to study phenomena related to the climate change. These satellite missions provide the information about the various phenomena, such as sea level change, ice melting, soil moisture variation, temperature changes and earth surface deformations. In this study, we focus on permafrost thawing and its associated gravity change (in terms of the groundwater storage), and organic material changes using the gravity recovery and climate experiment (GRACE) data and other satellite- and ground-based observations. The estimation of permafrost changes requires combining information from various sources, particularly using the gravity field change, surface temperature change, and glacial isostatic adjustment. The most significant factor for a careful monitoring of the permafrost thawing is the fact that this process could be responsible for releasing an additional enormous amount of greenhouse gases emitted to the atmosphere, most importantly to mention carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane that are currently stored in the frozen ground. The results of a preliminary numerical analysis reveal a possible existence of a high correlation between the secular trends of greenhouse gases (CO2), temperature and equivalent water thickness (in permafrost active layer) in the selected regions. Furthermore, according to our estimates based on processing the GRACE data, the groundwater storage attributed due to permafrost thawing increased at the annual rates of 3.4, 3.8, 4.4 and 4.0 cm, respectively, in Siberia, North Alaska and Canada (Yukon and Hudson Bay). Despite a rather preliminary character of our results, these findings indicate that the methodology developed and applied in this study should be further improved by incorporating the in situ permafrost measurements.

  • 22.
    Hanson, Erik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Öqvist, Joel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Jämförelse av metoder för anslutning av GNSS-mätning till referenssystemet SWEREF 992019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    GNSS is at present the most frequently used method for positioning, as well as connecting new points to the Swedish national reference frame, SWEREF 99. The reference frame is realized by a network of permanent reference stations, SWEPOS. The network consists of a small number of rigidly mounted class-A stations and a larger number of less stable class-B stations.

    Lantmäteriet, the mapping, cadastral and land registration authority of Sweden, cur-rently offers three services for post processing of GNSS data that utilizes the SWEPOS network: 1) SWEPOS Post Processing Service, which computes coordinates by connecting baselines to class-A stations leading to long baselines. 2) Downloading of RINEX data from any SWEPOS stations leading to medium baseline lengths, and 3) creation of virtual reference stations (VRS), leading to very short baselines. The aim of this thesis is, by using these services, to compare different methods for connecting new points to SWEREF 99, using post processing of static GNSS measurements and to investigate the impact of session duration and baseline length on the uncertainty of the measurements. The impact of different measurement environments and systematic effects between the methods are also investigated.

    Four SWEREF-points were used as test points. The points were measured in three 8 h sessions. The data were divided into windows and sent to SWEPOS post processing service, as well as processed with a commercial software, where baselines were pro-cessed against class-A, class-B stations and a VRS. To compare the different methods RMS and standard uncertainties were calculated.

    The results indicate that shorter session duration yields higher RMS for SWEPOS post processing service when compared with the other methods, but in easy measurement environments RMS decreases to the same level as the other methods after 1 h session duration, which is 1 cm or less horizontally and 2 cm or less vertically. However, in complex measurement environments RMS continues to decrease up to 4 h session duration and is higher than in easy environments. For the other methods the decrease of RMS is not as pronounced. It is clear that the measurement environment impacts the results. Both standard uncertainty and RMS are higher in complex environments compared with easy and moderate environments. Significant differences of the mean deviation for each method could be detected, which indicates systematic effects between the methods, that could depend on different troposphere models and that SWEPOS Post Processing Service uses the reference system ITRF and then make a transformation to SWEREF 99.

  • 23.
    Hedlund, Samuel
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Roos, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Rörelse hos stompunkter längs med järnvägen i Sverige2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Passiva geodetiska referenssystem ger möjlighet till noggranna positionsbestämmelser via fysiska koordinatbestämda markeringar. Detta ger i sin tur goda möjligheter för etablering av instrument och noggranna detaljmätningar av objekt. För att mätosäkerheten i referenssystemen ska hållas stabilt över tid bör markeringar av punkter ske där yttre faktorer påverkar stompunkter så lite som möjligt. I stomnät längs med järnvägen finns många olika markeringstyper som kan påverkas olika mycket av yttre påfrestningar. Då det kostar mycket pengar på att underhålla stomnät längs järnvägen bör dessa stompunkter markeras på bästa möjliga sätt.  I studien är syftet att undersöka hur mycket olika markeringstyper tenderar att deformera sig över tid längs järnvägen för att eventuellt kunna ge Trafikverket ett bättre beslutsunderlag för framtida markeringar av stompunkter. Detta görs genom undersöka Trafikverkets stompunktsarkiv.  Resultaten visade att olika markeringstyper deformeras olika mycket vid samma epoker, men att det är väldigt små skillnader vid jämförelser av medelvärden och standardosäkerheter. För stompunkter som befinner sig nära spåret kan ett tydligare samband ses kring att de punkterna deformeras mer än punkter som ligger längre bort från spåret.

  • 24.
    Hjelmblom, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Decision, Risk and Policy Analysis.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Paulsson, Jenny
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Edlund, Marina
    The Swedish Mapping, Cadastral and Land Registration Authority.
    Bökman, Fredrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Decision, Risk and Policy Analysis.
    Towards Automation of the Swedish Property Formation Process: A Structural and Logical Analysis of Property Subdivision2019In: Nordic Journal of Surveying and Real Estate Research, ISSN 1459-5877, E-ISSN 2341-6599, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 29-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ongoing digitalization of public administration and increasedautomation of legal decision-making bears promise to benefit citizens,businesses and other stakeholders through simpler and more efficient civilprocesses, and thus has great impact on the urban planning and buildingprocess. However, automation of decision-making that is directed orconstrained by normative systems such as laws, regulations and policies,requires a detailed and accurate representation of these concepts andtheir constituent parts, and the domain to which they are applied. Thispaper combines two perspectives on formalisation and classification oflegal relations within the urban planning and building domain. In a crossdisciplinaryfashion, the paper analyses and describes a small part of thisdomain at a higher level of abstraction and formalization using two differentanalysis instruments. Using these tools, we perform structural and conceptualas well as logical analyses of two specific snapshots of a fictitious propertysubdivision case in Sweden, focusing on the legal relations between differententities and parties involved in the specific situations. The structural analysisuses the Land Administration Domain Model ISO 19152:2012 standardformalism, and the logical analysis is based on the notion of atomic types oflegal relations. The paper discusses some of the strengths and weaknesses ofthe two tools regarding the formal representation of rights, restrictions andresponsibilities of different parties in the land administration domain, as wellas how the tools relate to each other and how they can be aligned. This papertakes one step towards a deeper understanding of the domain, and identifyareas for future research that may provide better conditions for efficient andtransparent use of geospatial information, and automation of the propertysubdivision process and other related civil processes.

  • 25.
    Holm, Josefine
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Kvalitetsbrister i den digitala registerkartan - den praktiska användningen och dess konsekvenser: I Dalarnas- och Gävleborgs län2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The development of society towards an increasingly digitalized society leads to an increased use and demand for digital map material. The increased access to easy-to-use map management technology also makes it possible for the digital map material to be easily used by the public. The cadastral index map, which is part of the property register's general part is regulated primarily in the “lag om fastighetsregister” and ”förordning om fastighetsregister”. The cadastral index map shows, among other things, boundaries and designations for real estate joint property unit, areas for easement, rights of use, utility easement, right of way, as well as plans and more. The cadastral index map is often used, by other authorities, municipalities and other professionals, to perform various tasks where a digital accounting of real estate boundaries is necessary.

    In this work, employers' use of the cadastral index maps in five different areas of activity has been studied, to see how the use of the cadastral index map can affect the individual property owners financially and legally.

    The purpose of this study was to create a basis for improving the guidelines on the use of the cadastral index map and to motivate a more uniform and legal-safe handling of the social construction process. The aim of the study was to map the employers' use of the cadastral index map in order to draw conclusions about possible legal and economic consequences that could affect the property owners.

    The study's results were mainly generated from a qualitative interview study where twenty-three respondents participated. In addition to this interview study, a document study has been conducted to study the existing guidelines of the professionals.

    From the collected results it appeared that there was a great variety of areas of use and handling methods for the cadastral index map. But also that knowledge and insight into the material varied. Which can lead to an inconsistent management that can contribute to the property owners being legally and financially affected.

    The conclusion of this was that there is a great need to produce uniform guidelines and information on the cadastral index map to ensure that the register map is used in a customized manner in relation to its shortcomings.

  • 26.
    Holmström, Johan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Karlsson, Edvin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Social hållbarhet i kommunal planering: En utredande studie av arbetet med social hållbarhet i tretton kommuner2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Social sustainability is together with economic and ecological a part of the larger concept sustainable development. Existing research within social sustainability ascertain that the concept even today does not have a clear definition due to the many interpretations of the concept. The scope of this study is to find out how social sustainability is used within spatial planning. 

    To be able to answer the research questions and defining social sustainability within the field of spatial planning the literature study was delimited to articles including accessibility, housing segregation, integration, urbanity, diversity, barriers and public places was made. To get a deeper insight of how spatial planning deal with the social aspect of sustainability interviews with thirteen public officials. The geographical allocation across Sweden was important to get at representative sample of Swedish municipalities. The interviews focused on how the public officials act according to the definition of social sustainability. 

    After the interviews an analysis of the different comprehensive plans took place to see how the municipalities work with social sustainability. Henceforth a comparison analysis between the comprehensive plan and the statements from the public officials showed that it exists differences between municipalities for how they consider guidelines according to their comprehensive plan. Municipalities mention that social sustainability is often less prioritized than economic and ecological sustainability in spatial planning. Experience and collaborations within the organization and with other actors matters when it comes to prioritizing social sustainability. 

    Interesting for future research in the field of social sustainability would be to produce a measuring tool for social sustainability in order to facilitate for officials. 

  • 27.
    Holmström, Petra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Stängning av plankorsningar – med eller utan järnvägsplan?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present essay set out to investigate the work methodology of closing level crossings and chart the process from the initial need to close the level crossing up to completed closing of level crossing, furthermore; to investigate which factors affect the projects efficiency and progress both in terms of planning and implementation. This essay sets out to answer the following questions: “What is the current way of dealing with closing off level crossings and when would the implementation of a railway plan be useful?” and “How does project-implementation look like when dealing with the project of removal of level crossings in regard to time and cost?”.

    When it comes to repealing an overpass easement in order to be able to close a level crossing, a railway plan can be established to facilitate such easement measures. Although it does not directly imply "construction of the railway", if it is to be cancelled without support in a railway plan, the conditions of protection in Chapter 5 and Chapter 7 of the FBL must be fully applied.

    The method used was partly interview and partly study of railway plans and cadastral dossier. Twelve interviews were conducted, of which seven represented the Swedish Transport Agency and five persons who represented the National Land Survey, who were considered to fulfil the response required to answer the questions to an enough extent. There were only a limited number of railway plans which included only the closure of level crossings. However, there were a number of railway plans that dealt with the closure of level crossings, but then in connection with other measures which by law are the construction or rebuilding of railways. The united nations global sustainable objective strive to reach 17 objectives before the year 2030 wereof objective 11 is as follows: “Sustainable cities and societies”, which was considered to be connected with this essays problem formulation.

    It has emerged from the result that there are both pros and cons of applying railway plan in connection with the closure of level crossings. What can be stated after the implementation of the study is that the Swedish Transport Administration has a desire to implement more railway plans at complicated level crossings and the National Land Survey Office sees certain advantages from a handling perspective to applying a railway plan.

  • 28.
    Hägglund, Sandra
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Lindh, Rose-Marie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Optimering av datainsamling med UAS: En studie i alternativa flyghöjder kontra mätosäkerheter utförd i Avesta2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to collect data through UAS photogrammetry and investigate if it was possible to achieve an uncertainty of 2-3 cm. The second aim was to investigate if it was possible to use spray-colored crosses as control points (GCP) instead of hourglass-painted fibreboards to achieve the same uncertainty. This was done from two different flight heights, 80 m and 110 m to add another dimension to the investigation. The GCPs were measured with GNSS and in the study a UAS DJI Phantom 4 v2.0 was used for aerial photography. The plane coordinates was checked by measuring details using multistation established with the 180-second method. Height control was done by measuring profiles with GNSS and multistation. All together data from 4 measurements were processed; from 80 m where GCPs consisted of hourglass and crosses, respectively, and the same from 110 m. The processing was performed in Agisoft PhotoScan where the images were aligned to an orthophoto mosaic. A DEM and DSM were also created. The orthophoto mosaic and DEM were used in ArcMap for digitizing a base map and for checking the plane coordinates. The DEM was imported to SBG Geo for further processing and control of deviation between profiles and DEM. 

    The result of the 42 measured details was made by calculating the RMSE value between the measured plane coordinates and the corresponding points in the map. In aerial photography from 80 m, hourglass showed an RMSE value of 0.038 m and crosses an RMSE value of 0.039 m. Corresponding from 110 m, hourglass gave an RMSE value of 0.062 m and a cross of 0.048 m. All measurements except hourglass from 110 m can withstand the tolerance to HMK – Geodatakvalitet (2017) which is 5 cm. If only ground-level objects were to be measured the RMSE value of 0.026 m for hourglass from 80 m and 0.023 m for crosses reached the wanted measurement uncertainties of 2–3 cm. From 110 m the value was 0.054 m with hourglass and 0.035 m with cross. 

    The control of the height uncertainty was made in accordance with SIS-TS 21144:2016, where 12 profiles were measured and compared with the DEM. The result from 80 m with hourglass showed a total mean deviation (MD) of 0.006 m with 0.019 m in standard deviation (SD). From the same flight height, but with crosses, a result of -0.001 m with SD showed 0.030 m. From the higher height with hourglass, a total MD of 0.010 m with SD 0.033 m was generated. The corresponding crosses got a MD of 0,026 m and a SD of 0,040 m. All 4 DEM can handle the required measurement uncertainty of 2-3 cm. 

  • 29.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    A recursive definition of goodness of space for bridging the concepts of space and place for sustainability2019In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 15, article id 4091Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conceived and developed by Christopher Alexander through his life's work, The Nature of Order, wholeness is defined as a mathematical structure of physical space in our surroundings. Yet, there was no mathematics, as Alexander admitted then, that was powerful enough to capture his notion of wholeness. Recently, a mathematical model of wholeness, together with its topological representation, has been developed that is capable of addressing not only why a space is good, but also how much goodness the space has. This paper develops a structural perspective on goodness of space (both large- and small-scale) in order to bridge two basic concepts of space and place through the very concept of wholeness. The wholeness provides a de facto recursive definition of goodness of space from a holistic and organic point of view. A space is good, genuinely and objectively, if its adjacent spaces are good, the larger space to which it belongs is good, and what is contained in the space is also good. Eventually, goodness of space, or sustainability of space, is considered a matter of fact rather than of opinion under the new view of space: space is neither lifeless nor neutral, but a living structure capable of being more living or less living, or more sustainable or less sustainable. Under the new view of space, geography or architecture will become part of complexity science, not only for understanding complexity, but also for making and remaking complex or living structures. 

  • 30.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    A topological representation for taking cities as a coherent whole2019In: The Mathematics of Urban Morphology: Modeling and Simulation in Science, Engineering and Technology, Springer , 2019, p. 335-352Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A city is a whole, as are all cities in a country. Within a whole, individual cities possess different degrees of wholeness, defined by Christopher Alexander as a life-giving order or simply a living structure. To characterize the wholeness and in particular to advocate for wholeness as an effective design principle, this paper developed a geographic representation that views cities as a whole. This geographic representation is topology-oriented, so fundamentally differs from existing geometry-based geographic representations. With the topological representation, all cities are abstracted as individual points and are put into different hierarchical levels, according to their sizes and based on head/tail breaks—a classification and visualization tool for data with a heavy-tailed distribution. These points of different hierarchical levels are respectively used to create Thiessen polygons. Based on polygon–polygon relationships, we set up a complex network. In this network, small polygons point to adjacent large polygons at the same hierarchical level and contained polygons point to containing polygons across two consecutive hierarchical levels. We computed the degrees of wholeness for individual cities, and subsequently found that the degrees of wholeness possess both properties of differentiation and adaptation. To demonstrate, we developed four case studies of all China and UK natural cities, as well as Beijing and London natural cities, using massive amounts of street nodes and Tweet locations. The topological representation and the kind of topological analysis in general can be applied to any design or pattern, such as carpets, Baroque architecture and artifacts, and fractals in order to assess their beauty, echoing the introductory quote from Christopher Alexander. © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019.

  • 31.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Natural Cities Generated from All Building Locations in America2019In: Data, ISSN 2306-5729, Vol. 4, no 2, article id 59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Authorities define cities-or human settlements in general-through imposing top-down rules in terms of whether buildings belong to cities. Emerging geospatial big data makes it possible to define cities from the bottom up, i.e., buildings determine themselves whether they belong to a city using the notion of natural cities and based on head/tail breaks, which is a classification and visualization tool for data with a heavy-tailed distribution. In this paper, we used 125 million building locations-all building footprints of America (mainland) or their centroids more precisely-to generate 2.1 million natural cities in the country (see the URL as shown in the note of Figure 1). In contrast to government defined city boundaries, these natural cities constitute a valuable data source for city-related research.

  • 32.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    New Paradigm in Mapping: A Critique on Cartography and GIS2019In: Cartographica, ISSN 0317-7173, E-ISSN 1911-9925, Vol. 54, no 3, p. 193-205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As noted in the epigraph, a map was long ago seen as the map of the map, the map of the map, of the map, and so on endlessly. This recursive perspective on maps, however, has received little attention in cartography. Cartography, as a scientific discipline, is essentially founded on Euclidean geometry and Gaussian statistics, which deal respectively with regular shapes and more or less similar things. It is commonly accepted that geographic features are not regular and that the Earth's surface is full of fractal or scaling or living phenomena: far more small things than large ones are found at different scales. This article argues for a new paradigm in mapping, based on fractal or living geometry and Paretian statistics, and – more critically – on the new conception of space, conceived and developed by Christopher Alexander, as neither lifeless nor neutral, but a living structure capable of being more living or less living. The fractal geometry is not limited to Benoit Mandelbrot's framework, but tends towards Christopher Alexander's living geometry and is based upon the third definition of fractal: A set or pattern is fractal if the scaling of far more small things than large ones recurs multiple times. Paretian statistics deals with far more small things than large ones, so it differs fundamentally from Gaussian statistics, which deals with more or less similar things. Under the new paradigm, I make several claims about maps and mapping: (1) the topology of geometrically coherent things – in addition to that of geometric primitives – enables us to see a scaling or fractal or living structure; (2) under the third definition, all geographic features are fractal or living, given the right perspective and scope; (3) exactitude is not truth – to paraphrase Henri Matisse – but the living structure is; and (4) Töpfer's law is not universal, but the scaling law is. All these assertions are supported by evidence, drawn from a series of previous studies. This article demands a monumental shift in perspective and thinking from what we are used to in the legacy of cartography and GIS. 

  • 33.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Spatial heterogeneity, scale, data character, and sustainable transport in the big data era2019In: CSUM 2018: Data Analytics: Paving the Way to Sustainable Urban Mobility: Proceedings of 4th Conference on Sustainable Urban Mobility (CSUM2018), 24 - 25 May, Skiathos Island, Greece / [ed] Nathanail E.G., and Karakikes I.D., Springer Verlag , 2019, Vol. 879, p. 730-736Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    I have advocated and argued for a paradigm shift from Tobler’s law to scaling law, from Euclidean geometry to fractal geometry, from Gaussian statistics to Paretian statistics, and – more importantly – from Descartes’ mechanistic thinking to Alexander’s organic thinking. Fractal geometry falls under the third definition of fractal given by Bin Jiang – that is, a set or pattern is fractal if the scaling of far more small things than large ones recurs multiple times – rather than under the second definition of fractal by Benoit Mandelbrot, which requires a power law between scales and details. The new fractal geometry is more towards Christopher Alexander’s living geometry, not only for understanding complexity, but also for creating complex or living structure. This short paper attempts to clarify why the paradigm shift is essential and to elaborate on several concepts, including spatial heterogeneity (scaling law), scale (or the fourth meaning of scale), data character (in contrast to data quality), and sustainable transport in the big data era.

  • 34.
    Jiang, Bin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Ren, Zheng
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Geographic space as a living structure for predicting human activities using big data2019In: International Journal of Geographical Information Science, ISSN 1365-8816, E-ISSN 1365-8824, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 764-779Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inspired by Christopher Alexander's conception of the world - space is not lifeless or neutral, but a living structure involving far more small things than large ones - a topological representation has been previously developed to characterize the living structure or the wholeness of geographic space. This paper further develops the topological representation and living structure for predicting human activities in geographic space. Based on millions of street nodes of the United Kingdom extracted from OpenStreetMap, we established living structures at different levels of scale in a nested manner. We found that tweet locations at different levels of scale, such as country and city, can be well predicted by the underlying living structure. The high predictability demonstrates that the living structure and the topological representation are efficient and effective for better understanding geographic forms. Based on this major finding, we argue that the topological representation is a truly multiscale representation, and point out that existing geographic representations are essentially single scale, so they bear many scale problems such as modifiable areal unit problem, the conundrum of length and the ecological fallacy. We further discuss on why the living structure is an efficient and effective instrument for structuring geospatial big data, and why Alexander's organic worldview constitutes the third view of space.

  • 35.
    Jivall, Lotti
    et al.
    Geodata Division, Lantmäteriet, Gävle, Sweden.
    Nilfouroushan, Faramarz
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences. Geodata Division, Lantmäteriet, Gävle, Sweden.
    Al Munaizel, Naim
    Geodata Division, Lantmäteriet, Gävle, Sweden.
    Lilje, Christina
    Geodata Division, Lantmäteriet, Gävle, Sweden.
    Kempe, Christina
    Geodata Division, Lantmäteriet, Gävle, Sweden.
    Maintenance of the National Realization of ETRS89 in Sweden : re-analysis of 20 years’ GPS data for SWEREF stations2019In: EUREF 2019 Symposium: Abstracts, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The national geodetic reference frame of Sweden called SWEREF 99, was adopted in 2000 by EUREF as the realisation of ETRS89 in Sweden and was officially introduced in 2001 as a national reference frame, that eventually in 2007 replaced the former reference frame. The SWEREF 99 reference frame is defined by an active approach through the 21 fundamental SWEPOS permanent GNSS stations, hence relying on positioning services such as the network real time kinematic (NRTK) and post processing service. The SWEREF 99 coordinates are assumed to be fixed in time and no temporal variations are expected. However, the stability of the stations and their coordinates can be altered due to equipment change or software as well as local movements at the reference stations.

    To be able to check all alterations mentioned above and having a backup national network of GNSS stations, approximately 300 passive so-called consolidation stations are used. The consolidation stations are a subset (main part) of the so-called SWEREF stations established from 1996 and onwards. All 300 stations are remeasured with static GNSS for 2x24 hours using choke ring antennas on a yearly basis with 50 stations each year. The original processing was done with the Bernese GNSS software (here called Bernese original) and the reprocessing was carried out with both the Bernese and the GAMIT-GLOBK software packages during 2017-2018.

    The resulting coordinates in SWEREF 99 from GAMIT and Bernese processing are equal at 1.2 mm level for horizontal and 4 mm for vertical components (1 sigma) when using the same models and processing strategy. The original processing, which partly is based on other models and parameters, differs slightly more (rms 2.4mm) for the north component. Our analysis both from Bernese and GAMIT shows that the standard uncertainties for a single SWEREF 99 determination (2x24 hrs) is 2 mm for the horizontal components and 6-7 mm in height. However, since some stations are slowly moving they have slightly increased the estimated uncertainties. It is interesting to note that the repeatability is on the same level also for the original processing, where we have differences in models and parameters used during the years. This indicates that the SWEREF-concept of determining SWEREF 99 coordinates has worked well on the mentioned uncertainty level.

    We performed trend analysis and statistical tests to investigate the stability of the estimated SWEREF 99 coordinates. The analysed station time series (minimum three observations) showed that about 14% of the stations had significant trends at the 95%-level. The possible explanation for those trends can be either local deformation and/or residuals of uplift model and/or computational effects such as lack of good or enough close-by stations for Helmert transformations from ITRF to SWEREF 99.

    The outcomes of the new processing and analysis reported here, are used to analyse the stability of SWEREF99 after two decades. The results have also been used to define the SWEREF 99 component in the fit of theSWEN17_RH2000 new geoid model to SWEREF 99 and RH 2000 (Swedish realisation of EVRS).

  • 36.
    Jonsson, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Eriksson, Pernilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Statisk deformationsmätning med fotobaserad skanning: Utförd med icke-professionella digitalkameror2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As a result of the development of digital cameras and image processing software in recent years, the interest in close-range photogrammetry (CRP) has grown. In this study, CRP was evaluated as an alternative method to terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) for static deformation measurements and it was related to cavitation damage on water turbine pistons where the volume and maximum depth is measured. A large part of the purpose of the study was that it should be done with simple conditions so that the method will be easy to carry out and applies especially in industrial environments. Simulated deformations were created on a wooden board with a flat surrounding surface, and on a ball made of cork.

    The shooting was done with non-professional cameras, a digital camera and a smartphone camera. The objects that was examined had a matte texture, the images were taken with a large overlap (80–100%) and the lighting conditions were good enough to avoid shading and glare in the pictures. What was evaluated in the study was how many coded markers that should be used to improve image alignment, what the optimal number of scale bars for scaling the model is, and which camera model and self-calibration model that gave the lowest measurement uncertainty. The alignment of the images and creation of the 3D-models of the deformations were performed in the software Agisoft Photoscan. The analysis of the models was performed in the softwares 3DReshaper and CloudCompare. The results were evaluated against a scanned reference model developed with a ROMER Absolute Arm which has the ability to display measurement uncertainties on hundreds of millimetres and could thus be considered as a “true” value in this study.

    The result showed that the coded markers were not necessary in the image alignment procedure. It also showed that, regardless of which camera, self- calibration model and number of scale bars (4, 3 & 2), all the models created were below the permitted deviation in volume and maximum depth as the standard for cavitation damage on water turbine pistons (IEC 60609-1, from the Swedish Standards Institute) prescribes. The standard states that the measurement uncertainty of the method used must not exceed ±15% from the true value. This method has been found to be applicable and can replace TLS for documentation and volume measurement with a temporary filler for static deformations when the requirements for a relative measurement uncertainty are ±5% from the true value.

  • 37.
    Jonsson, Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Bristfälligt formulerade anläggningsbeslut för gemensamhetsanläggningar med ändamålet väg2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Two or more property units with a common need can together form a joint facility. A joint facility is formed during a cadastral procedure in which a facility order is announced. The facility order regulates, among other things, the implementation and operation of the joint facility. The purpose of this study is to investigate the problems behind a poorly formulated facility order serving a joint facility with the purpose to serve as a road. The study also aims to make suggestions on how a facility order should be formulated so as not to be perceived as deficient.

    A qualitative study with two different methods has been carried out, in order to answer the thesis questions. Interviews have been conducted to collect privileged information from experienced cadastral surveyors. The interviews were supplemented with a review of dossiers from facility procedures. The result shows several difficulties in the process leading up to a facility order. The preparation of proper documentation, setting the right road standard and finding the right level of investigations, among other things, are sometimes perceived as problematic.

    Analysis of the result has led to the conclusion that most problems with the facility order can be derived to the formulation of the map and description. Furthermore, it is stated that finding the right level of investigation is important to create a successful facility order and in order to find the right level of investigation experience is crucial. In order to document the prevailing conditions, it is proposed to use drones.

  • 38.
    Jouybari, Arash
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Amiri, Hadi
    School of Engineering Science, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Iran.
    Ardalan, Alireza A.
    School of Surveying and Geomatics Engineering, University of Tehran, Iran.
    Zahraee, Niloofar K.
    School of Surveying and Geomatics Engineering, University of Tehran, Iran.
    Methods comparison for attitude determination of a lightweight buoy by raw data of IMU2019In: Measurement, ISSN 0263-2241, E-ISSN 1873-412X, Vol. 135, p. 348-354Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, one of the most important issues is the determination of instantaneous sea level and distinguishing the Tsunami by floating buoy in the ocean. Usually, gyroscopes are used to measure the angular velocity of a buoy. On the other hand, considering the advancement of various technologies in the field of precise accelerometers, make it possible to use these kinds of sensors for navigation purpose. In this research, stable and optimal methods for determining the orientation of a moving buoy is presented using a combination of the gyroscope, accelerometers, and magnetic sensors data. In order to prove the effectiveness of the proposed methods, the raw data were collected from accelerometers, gyroscopes, and magnetometers of (Xsens MTI-G-700) mounted on a Buoy in coastal waters of Kish Island, Iran. Then, by using the proposed methods, the Euler angles of the buoy are determined, while the Euler angles are derived from the Xsens sensor we are considered as a reference. Based on the results, RMSD for Madgwick algorithm are 0.57° 0.37° and 0.50° for Mahony algorithm are 0.56° 0.37° and 0.50° and finally for Complementary algorithm is 0.63° 0.26° and 2.38° which these values are for roll, pitch, and yaw angles respectively. Thus Mahony algorithm for determining roll and yaw Euler angles is more accurate than other algorithms; however, this differences is negligible compared to the Madgwick algorithm. The Complementary algorithm is less accurate than the other two algorithms, especially for determining the yaw angle of the buoy.

  • 39.
    Karlsson, Martin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Dirie, Mohamed
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Upphävande av strandskydd inom detaljplan: En granskning av vilka skäl som kommuner åberopar vid upphävande av strandskydd samt vad domstolarna anser vara giltiga och ogiltiga skäl2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the popularity of settlement in coastal areas, measures need to be taken in the form of rules and guidelines for construction close to beaches in order to achieve a more ecologically sustainable construction and contribute to sustainable social development.In Sweden, shore protection is used, which aims to protect the public's access to shores, which the right public advocates according to Chapter 2. Section 15, The form of government. Today, shore protection is regulated in the Environmental Code (MB), and a general rule is that it must not be built within 100 meters from the shoreline on land and in water according to MB.A municipality can revoke shore protection if one of the particular reasons in chap-ter 7. Section 18c of the MB is fulfilled. Municipalities' decision on cancellation can be appealed to the County Administrative Board, then to the Land and Environment Court (MMD) and then to the Land and Environment Court of Appeal (MOD).The purpose of the study is to investigate what is considered valid and invalid rea-sons for cancelling shore protection in a detailed development plan, this through a legal case study. The goal is that this study will lead to more equitable and fair man-agement when repealing shore protection within the detailed development plan.A quantitative and qualitative analysis forms the basis of the results presented in this study. The quantitative method consists of categorization of detailed plans that are examined. Through this categorization, it can be deduced which reasons municipali-ties with different population conditions demand when cancelling shore protection within the detailed development plan. The detailed development plan study was de-limited to Ostergotland County at the beginning, after which the study was supple-mented with Kalmar County. It's because Ostergotland did not fill up the quota for the requested number of detailed plans. The qualitative method of the case study makes it possible for a report to clarify which reasons are legally sustainable based on the judgments that are being studied.The results highlighted by the study have shown that there are differences between the interval sizes, that is, that the municipalities interpret and handle the shore pro-tection legislation differently in connection with the shore protection being repealed within the detailed development plan. Thus, the County Administrative Board should check the municipalities more closely, as their task is to monitor the objec-tives of the shore protection.

  • 40. Kaviani, A.
    et al.
    Mahmoodabadi, M.
    Rümpker, G.
    Yamini-Fard, F.
    Tatar, M.
    Motavalli-Anbaran, J.
    Rahimzadeh, S.
    Moradi, A.
    Nilfouroushan, Faramarz
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Complex pattern of seismic anisotropy beneath the Iranian plateau and Zagros2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We performed shear wave splitting analyses on core-refracted teleseismic shear waveforms from 150 broad-bandstations across the Iranian plateau and Zagros to investigate seismic anisotropy in the region. Seismic anisotropyis quantified by shear-wave splitting parameters, i.e. fast polarization direction and split delay time.Our measurements revealed a complex pattern of splitting parameters with variations in the trend and strength ofanisotropy across the tectonic boundaries. This complex pattern implies that a system of simple asthenosphericflow related to the absolute plate motion cannot alone explain our observations and that the lithosphere also hasa significant contribution in many parts. We compare our results to the surface deformation and velocity fieldsinferred from geodetic measurements to assess the role of the mantle in continental deformation. The rotationalpattern of the fast directions around the collision zone in Central Zagros may indicate the presence of a mantleflow around a continental keel beneath the Zagros. The agreement between the crustal and mantle deformationfield in Central Iran implies a vertically coherent deformation in this region, whereas the azimuthal variations insplitting parameters in the collision zone may suggest multi-layered anisotropy with different contributions fromthe crust and mantle.

  • 41.
    Khodaverdi, Niloofar
    et al.
    School of Surveying and Geospatial Engineering, College of Eng., University of Tehran, Iran.
    Rastiveis, Heidar
    School of Surveying and Geospatial Engineering, College of Eng., University of Tehran, Iran.
    Jouybari, Arash
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Combination of Post-Earthquake LiDAR Data and Satellite Imagery for Buildings Damage Detection2019In: Earth Observation and Geomatics Engineering, ISSN 2588-4352, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 12-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Earthquakes are known as one of the deadliest natural disasters that have caused many fatalities and homelessness through history. Due to the unpredictability of earthquakes, quick provision of buildings damage maps for reducing the number of losses after an earthquake has become an essential topic in Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing. Low-accuracy building damage maps waste the time that is required to rescue the people in destructed areas by wrongly deploying the rescue teams toward undamaged areas. In this research, an object-based algorithm based on combining LiDAR raster data and high-resolution satellite imagery (HRSI) was developed for buildings damage detection to improve the relief operation. This algorithm combines classification results of both LiDAR raster data and high-resolution satellite imagery (HRSI) for categorizing the area into three classes of “Undamaged,” “Probably Damaged,” and “Surely Damaged” based on the object-level analysis. The proposed method was tested using Worldview II satellite image and LiDAR data of the Port-au-Prince, Haiti, acquired after the 2010 earthquake. The reported overall accuracy of 92% demonstrated the high ability of the proposed method for post-earthquake damaged building detection.

  • 42.
    Khorrami, F.
    et al.
    National Cartographic Center, Geodesy and Land Surveying, Tehran, Iran (Islamic Republic of).
    Vernant, P.
    Géosciences Montpellier- CNRS, Geosciences, Montpeliier, France.
    Masson, F.
    IPGS/EOST CNRS/University Strasbourg, Earth Sciences, Strasbourg, France.
    Nilfouroushan, Faramarz
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences. Lantmäteriet, Gävle, Sweden.
    Mousavi, Z.
    Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences IASBS.
    Nankali, H.
    National Cartographic Center, Geodesy and Land Surveying, Tehran, Iran (Islamic Republic of).
    Saadat, S.A.
    National Cartographic Center, Geodesy and Land Surveying, Tehran, Iran (Islamic Republic of).
    Walpersdorf, A.
    University Grenoble Alpes- CNRS, ISTerre, Grenoble, France.
    Hosseini, S.
    National Cartographic Center, Geodesy and Land Surveying, Tehran, Iran (Islamic Republic of).
    Tavakoli, P.
    National Cartographic Center, Geodesy and Land Surveying, Tehran, Iran (Islamic Republic of).
    Aghamohammadi, A.
    National Cartographic Center, Geodesy and Land Surveying, Tehran, Iran (Islamic Republic of).
    Alijanzade, M.
    National Cartographic Center, Geodesy and Land Surveying, Tehran, Iran (Islamic Republic of).
    An up-to-date block model and strain rate map of Iran using integrated campaign-mode and permanent GPS velocities2019In: 27th IUGG General Assembly: G06 - Posters - Monitoring and Understanding the Dynamic Earth With Geodetic Observations, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Iran accommodates a large part of the ongoing Arabia-Eurasia collision deformation. Because of such active tectonics, the country suffers from intensive seismicity and frequent destructive earthquakes in different locations.To study further the crustal deformation in Iran, we processed the data collected during 10 years (2006-2015) from the Iranian Permanent GNSS Network and combined them with previously published velocity solutions from GPS survey measurements during 1997–2013. We analysed this velocity field using a continuum approach to compute a new strain rate map for this region and we designed a block model based on the main geological, morphological, and seismic structures. Comparison between both approaches suggests similar results and allow us to present the first comprehensive first order fault slip rate estimates for the whole of Iran. Our results confirm most of the results from previous geodetic studies. Moreover, we also show a trade-off between the coupling ratio of the Iranian Makran subduction interface and the kinematic of the faults north of the Makran in the Jazmurian depression. Although too scarce to accurately estimate a coupling ratio, we show that coupling higher than 0.4 on the plate interface down to a depth of 25 km will induce extension on the E-W faults in the Jazmurian region. However, the sites close to the shoreline suggest a low coupling ratio, hence the coupling on this plate interface is probably more complicated than previously described and the Iranian Makran subduction interface mechanical behaviour might be similar to that on the Hellenic subduction zone.

  • 43.
    Khorrami, Fatemeh
    et al.
    National Cartographic Center, Tehran, Iran.
    Vernant, Philippe
    Géosciences Montpellier, CNRS/University Montpellier, Montpellier, France.
    Masson, Frederic
    IPGS/EOST CNRS/University Strasbourg, Strasbourg Cedex, France.
    Nilfouroushan, Faramarz
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences. Lantmäteriet, Gävle, Sweden.
    Mousavi, Zahra
    Department of Earth Sciences, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences (IASBS), Zanjan, Iran.
    Nankali, Hamidreza
    National Cartographic Center, Tehran, Iran.
    Saadat, Seyed Abdolreza
    National Cartographic Center, Tehran, Iran.
    Walpersdorf, Andrea
    University Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IRD, IFSTTAR, ISTerre, Grenoble, France.
    Hosseini, Sedighe
    National Cartographic Center, Tehran, Iran.
    Tavakoli, Parastoo
    National Cartographic Center, Tehran, Iran.
    Aghamohammadi, Azade
    National Cartographic Center, Tehran, Iran.
    Alijanzade, Mahnaz
    National Cartographic Center, Tehran, Iran.
    An up-to-date crustal deformation map of Iran using integrated campaign-mode and permanent GPS velocities2019In: Geophysical Journal International, ISSN 0956-540X, E-ISSN 1365-246X, Vol. 217, no 2, p. 832-843Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the most extensive and up-to-date unified GPS velocity field for Iran. We processed the data collected during 10 years (2006–2015) from the Iranian Permanent GNSS Network (IPGN) and combined them with previously published velocity solutions from GPS survey measurements during 1997–2013. We analysed this velocity field using a continuum approach to compute a new strain rate map for this region and we designed a block model based on the main geological, morphological, and seismic structures. Comparison between both approaches suggests similar results and allow us to present the first comprehensive first order fault slip rate estimates for the whole of Iran. Our results confirm most of the results from previous geodetic studies. But we also show a trade-off between the coupling ratio of the Iranian Makran subduction interface and the kinematic of the faults north of the Makran in the Jazmurian depression. Indeed, although too scarce to accurately estimate a coupling ratio, we show that coupling higher than 0.4 on the plate interface down to a depth of 25 km will induce extension on the E-W faults in the Jazmurian region. However, the sites close to the shoreline suggest a low coupling ratio, hence the coupling on this plate interface is probably more complicated than previously described and the Iranian Makran subduction interface mechanical behaviour might be similar to that on the Hellenic subduction zone.

  • 44.
    Kitsakis, Dimitrios
    et al.
    School of Rural and Surveying Engineeriing, National Technical University of Athens, Athens, Greece.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences. The Swedish mapping, cadastral and land registration authority, Gävle, Sweden.
    Paulsson, Jenny
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Navratil, Gerhard
    Department for Geodesy and Geoinformation, Technical Unviersity Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
    Vučić, Nikola
    Department for Administrative and Professional Supervision, The State Geodetic Administration of the Republic of Croatia, Zagrec, Croatia.
    Karabin, Marcin
    Department of Cadastre and Land Management, Faculty of Geodesy and Cartography, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland.
    El-Mekawy, Mohamed
    Department of Computer and Systems Sciences, Stockholm University, Kista, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Koeva, Mila
    Department of Urban and Regional Planning, ITC FAcultu, University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands.
    Janečka, Karel
    Geomatics, University of West Bohemia, Pilsen, Czech Republic.
    Erba, Diego
    Faculty of Engineering and Hydric Sciences, National University of Litoral, Santa Fe, Argentina.
    Alberdi, Ramiro
    Faculty of Engineering and Hydrics Sciences, National University of Catamarca, Santa Fe, Argentina.
    Kalantari, Mohsen
    Centre for SDIs and Land Administration (CSDILA), Department of Infrastructure Engineering, University of Melbourne, Australia.
    Yang, Zhixuan
    School of Investment and Construction Management, Dongbei University of Finance and Economics, Dalian, Liaoning, China.
    Pouliot, Jacynthe
    Department of Geomatics Sciences, Laval University, Québec, Canada.
    Roy, Francis
    Department of Geomatics Sciences, Laval University, Québec, Canada.
    Montero, Monica
    Provincia de Heredia, Costa Rica.
    Alvarado, Adrian
    Alajuela, Costa Rica.
    Karki, Sudarshan
    Department of Natural Resource and Mines, Queensland Government, Brisbande, Australia.
    Chapter 1. Legal Foundations2018In: Best Practices 3D Cadastres - Extended version / [ed] Peter van Oosterom, Copenhagen, Denmark: International Federation of Surveyors , 2018, p. 1-66Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concepts of three-dimensional (3D) real property have been the subject of increased interest in land use management and research since the late ‘90s.Literature provides various examples of extensive research towards 3D Cadastres as well as those that are alreadyimplementing3D cadastral systems. However, in most countries the legal aspects of 3D real property and its incorporation into 3D cadastral systems have not been so rigorously examined.This paper compares and discusses 3D property concepts in 15 cadastral jurisdictions, based on the authors’ national experience, covering Europe, North and Latin America, Middle East and Australia. Each of the legal system in these cadastral jurisdiction arebased on different origins of Civil Law, including German, Napoleonic and Scandinavian Civil Law, which can prove useful to research in other Civil Law jurisdictions interested in introducing 3D cadastral systems. These jurisdictionsare atdifferent stages of introducing and implementing a 3D cadastral system.This contributesto the detection of the 3D real property concepts that apply as well as deficiencies that prohibit introduction of 3D cadastral systems,whilehighlighting challenges that may have not yet surfacedin individual jurisdictions. This paper aims to present the different legal concepts regarding 3D real property in the examined countries, focusing on the characteristic features of cadastral objects described as 3D within each country’s legal and cadastral framework. The analysis of the case studies revealed that the countries are on different stages of 3D Cadastralimplementation, starting from countries with operational 3D cadastral systems, to others where there is yet no interest in introducing a 3D cadastral system.This paper presents the nature of 3D cadastral objects in each country, as well as differences in the regulatory framework regarding definition, description and registration. The paper continues the legal workshop discussions of the 4th International Workshop on 3D Cadastres in Dubai 2014 by analysing the legal concepts of 3D cadastres in the above-mentioned countries. The outcome is an overview and discussion of existing concepts of 3D property describing their similarities and differences in use, focusing on the legal framework of 3D cadastres. The article concludes by presenting a possible way forward and identifies what further research is needed which can be used to draft national and international research proposals and form legislative amendments towards introduction of national 3D cadastral systems.

  • 45.
    Kitsakis, Dimitrios
    et al.
    School of Rural and Surveying Engineeriing, National Technical University of Athens, Athens, Greece.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences. The Swedish mapping, cadastral and land registration authority, Gävle, Sweden.
    Paulsson, Jenny
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Navratil, Gerhard
    Department for Geodesy and Geoinformation, Technical Unviersity Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
    Vučić, Nikola
    Department for Administrative and Professional Supervision, The State Geodetic Administration of the Republic of Croatia, Zagrec, Croatia.
    Karabin, Marcin
    Department of Cadastre and Land Management, Faculty of Geodesy and Cartography, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland.
    El-Mekawy, Mohamed
    Department of Computer and Systems Sciences, Stockholm University, Kista, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Koeva, Mila
    Department of Urban and Regional Planning, ITC FAcultu, University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands.
    Janečka, Karel
    Geomatics, University of West Bohemia, Pilsen, Czech Republic.
    Erba, Diego
    Faculty of Engineering and Hydric Sciences, National University of Litoral, Santa Fe, Argentina.
    Alberdi, Ramiro
    Faculty of Engineering and Hydrics Sciences, National University of Catamarca, Santa Fe, Argentina.
    Kalantari, Mohsen
    Centre for SDIs and Land Administration (CSDILA), Department of Infrastructure Engineering, University of Melbourne, Australia.
    Yang, Zhixuan
    School of Investment and Construction Management, Dongbei University of Finance and Economics, Dalian, Liaoning, China.
    Pouliot, Jacynthe
    Department of Geomatics Sciences, Laval University, Québec, Canada.
    Roy, Francis
    Department of Geomatics Sciences, Laval University, Québec, Canada.
    Montero, Monica
    Provincia de Heredia, Costa Rica.
    Alvarado, Adrian
    Alajuela, Costa Rica.
    Karki, Sudarshan
    Department of Natural Resource and Mines, Queensland Government, Brisbande, Australia.
    Chapter 1. Legal Foundations2018In: Best Practices 3D Cadastres - Printed version / [ed] Peter van Oosterom, Copenhagen, Denmark: International Federation of Surveyors , 2018, p. 1-18Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The concepts of three-dimensional (3D) real property have been the subject of increasedinterest in land use management and research since the late ‘90s while literatureprovides various examples of extensive research towards 3D Cadastres as well asalready implementing 3D cadastral systems. However, in most countries the legal aspectsof 3D real property and its incorporation into 3D cadastral systems have not beenso rigorously examined.This chapter compares and discusses 3D property concepts in fifteen selected countries,based on the authors’ national experience, covering Europe, North and LatinAmerica, Middle East and Australia.

  • 46.
    Larsson, Johan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Stark, Marcus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Utvärdering av lägesosäkerheter i ortofoton framtagna med hjälp av DJI Phantom 4 RTK2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aerial photography with UAS is in comparison with traditional photogrammetry more efficient, cheaper and safer which has led to this technology being preferred by many performers. A time-consuming job that has been difficult to avoid is to establish signals at the ground that are used for georeferencing and evaluate the results. In 2018, the UAS manufacturer DJI presented its new quadcopter with integrated Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) module. This allows continuous and accurate positions delivered via Network RTK (NRTK) and the need of ground control points can be reduced. In this study, investigations of the position uncertainties in orthophotos produced using a DJI Phantom 4 RTK carried out where the aerial images were georeferenced with limited numbers or without ground control points. The position uncertainties were calculated and controlled according to the Swedish HMK – Ortofoto (Orthophoto) which is a document within the subject. When producing an orthophoto, a digital terrain model (DTM) or a digital surface model (DSM) is also required and the quality of this has a great impact on the result. Therefore, a part of the DSM used for orthophoto production for each set was checked and evaluated according to the Swedish technical specification, SIS-TS 21144:2016. The result of the study shows that an orthophoto can be produced without ground control points and at the same time meet the requirements for specified position uncertainty according to HMK standard level 3. The total position uncertainty was calculated to be 0,029 m, which is 5 mm higher compared to the orthophoto based on the traditional georeferencing method, i.e. with ground control points. The requirement for quality in height data was also met for orthophoto production even though a systematic effect in height occurred. This effect did not affect the plane coordinates in the orthophoto because of the low standard uncertainties in height. The result showed that if two ground control points were added at each end of the area, the systematic effects were minimized, and it was possible to produce a DSM that fulfils the requirements for accuracy class 1-3 according to SIS-TS 21144:2016.

  • 47.
    Larsson, Karolina
    et al.
    Stockholms Stad.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Paulsson, Jenny
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Representation of 3D cadastral boundaries: From analogue to digital2019In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses problems and challenges concerning the process of conversion of 2D analogue cadastral boundary plans into 3D digital information and is based on experiences from a research project on visualization of 3D property boundaries in Sweden. An area next to a newly constructed sports– and event arena in Stockholm, where 3D properties are formed, is used as a case study in the project to illustrate the process and the problems related to it. Focus lies on legal issues, although other aspects are mentioned as well. The rights, restrictions and responsibilities (RRRs) are registered in the national Real Property Register, which also includes registration in the two–dimensional Digital Cadastral Index Map. 

    A description of the process of forming 3D property is included in the paper regarding the documents and parties involved. The result of the study is that it is necessary to interpret two–dimensional cadastral data and textual descriptions in order for it to be used in a digital 3D environment, e.g. BIM.

    The study shows that current legislation has to be investigated and interpreted in detail to be able to add or transform into using 3D models as part of cadastral decisions in Sweden. The current cadastral process is also analysed and suggestions for further development are provided.

  • 48.
    Leijon, Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Länsstyrelsens bevakning av allmänna intressen inom fastighetsbildning2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Enligt Fastighetsbildningslagen 15 kap 8 § så ska länsstyrelsen bevaka allmänt intresse i lantmäteriförrättningar utanför detaljplanerat område. Detta sker genom att man granskar samtliga genomförda förrättningsakter från Lantmäteriet och överklagar om man anser att allmänt intresse inte i tillräcklig grad tillgodosetts. För att titta närmre på hur detta arbete fungerar och vilka allmänna intressen som leder till flest överklaganden så har en studie genomförts. Samtliga överklaganden mellan 2013-2018 har studerats och kategoriserats utifrån skälen till överklagande. För att begränsa studien valdes de fem norrländska länen, Norrbotten, Västerbotten, Jämtland, Västernorrland samt Gävleborg. Som komplement till detta har även intervjuer med fyra handläggare vid länsstyrelserna intervjuats för att få deras syn på saken. Slutsatserna är att strandskyddet är det vanligaste skälet till överklagande med över hälften av de totala överklagandena. Det är också där man ser mest olika på bestämmelserna från Lantmäteriet och länsstyrelsens sida. Andra vanliga skäl till överklaganden är fastighetsbildning i strid mot varaktighetsvillkoret i Fastighetsbildningslagen 3 kap 1 §, förrättning som innebär olägenhet för lantbruket enligt Fastighetsbildningslagen 3 kap 6 § eller fastighetsbildning som inte möjliggör rationellt skogsbruk enligt Fastighetsbildningslagen 3 kap 7 §. Från intervjuerna med handläggare kan man konstatera att de flesta upplever att arbetet med granskning och överklaganden fungerar bra och att man upplever att länsstyrelsen och Lantmäteriet har ett bra samarbete.

  • 49.
    Lenke, Niklas
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Sundholm, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Allmänyttan - Nytta för äldre?: En kvalitativ fallstudie om kommunal bostadsförsörjning med fokus på äldre2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The population in Sweden is growing older. One fourth of the population will be over 65 years of age by the year 2070, a development that will set pressure on the Swedish welfare system. One way to reduce the public expenses has been to introduce kvarboendeprincipen, which is that elderly will be given the possibility to live in ordinary homes instead of nursing homes. By law, it is up to municipalities to secure local housing by conducting appropriate policies and guidelines. An important tool has for a long time been municipal housing companies.

    The municipal housing companies are obligated by Swedish law to act with a public purpose and at the same time to act in a businesslike way. The legislation from 2011 has been questioned by several researchers whether it is possible to combine a public purpose and still act in a businesslike way.

    The purpose of the study is by a qualitative multi-case study describing how the municipalities alongside the municipality housing companies are working together to provide housing customized for the elderly. The study is delimited to the municipalities: Söderhamn and Ljusdal in the county of Gävleborg. The selected cases have a negative population growth and most of their housing stock consists of property rights, which according to previous studies and research entails difficulties to provide the elderly with customized housing.

    To answer the research questions a qualitative content analysis of different municipal guiding documents has been performed: like comprehensive plans, housing supply documents and owner directives of the municipal housing companies. Interviews with public servants from the municipality’s city planning offices and representatives from the municipality housing companies have also been made.

    The study shows that the current housing stock in the analyzed municipalities: Söderhamn and Ljusdal is outdated which constitutes a problem concerning availability. The analyzed cases promote the production of customized housing for elderly in order to secure the housing needs of an aging population. The relationships between the municipalities and the municipal housing companies differ between the two analyzed cases which may affect the supply of customized housing. The results indicate that the provision of housing for the elderly not only can be understood by economic theories regarding supply and demand.

  • 50.
    Lim, Nancy J.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Brandt, S. Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Are Feature Agreement Statistics Alone Sufficient to Validate Modelled Flood Extent Quality?: A Study on Three Swedish Rivers Using Different Digital Elevation Model Resolutions2019In: Mathematical problems in engineering (Print), ISSN 1024-123X, E-ISSN 1563-5147, Vol. 2019, article id 9816098Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydraulic modelling is now, at increasing rates, used all over the world to provide flood risk maps for spatial planning, flood insurance, etc. This puts heavy pressure on the modellers and analysts to not only produce the maps but also information on the accuracy and uncertainty of these maps. A common means to deliver this is through performance measures or feature statistics. These look at the global agreement between the modelled flood area and the reference flood that is used. Previous studies have shown that the feature agreement statistics do not differ much between models that have been based on digital elevation models (DEMs) of different resolutions, which is somewhat surprising since most researchers agree that high-resolution DEMs are to be preferred over poor resolution DEMs. Hence, the aim of this study was to look into how and under which conditions the different feature agreement statistics differ, in order to see when the full potential of high-resolution DEMs can be utilised. The results show that although poor resolution DEMs might produce high feature agreement scores (around F > 0.80), they may fail to provide good flood extent estimations locally, particularly when the terrain is flat. Therefore, when high-resolution DEMs (1 to 5 m) are used, it is important to carefully calibrate the models by the use of the roughness parameter. Furthermore, to get better estimates on the accuracy of the models, other performance measures such as distance disparities should be considered.

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