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  • 1.
    Hayati, Abolfazl
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Measurements and modeling of airing through porches of a historical church2018In: Science and Technology for the Built Environment, ISSN 2374-4731, E-ISSN 2374-474X, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 270-280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In churches, intentional airing may be a measure to evacuate temporarily high levels of contaminants, emitted during services. Crucial contaminants include moisture and other emissions that may deteriorate and/or soil painted surfaces and other precious artefacts. Most old churches do not have any mechanical ventilation system or any purpose provided openings for natural ventilation, but the ventilation is governed by air infiltration. Enhanced airing may be achieved by opening external windows or doors. Thus, models provided in energy simulation programs should predict this kind of airflows correctly, to get a proper estimation of the total energy use. IDA Indoor Climate and Energy (IDA-ICE) simulation program is examined here and its model for airflow through large vertical openings is investigated. Moreover, field measurements were performed for airing rate in a historical church including. The simulated single-sided flows were of the same magnitude of the measured ones, but the effect of wind direction was less considered by the simulation program. At cross flow, when wind is approaching the opening it has a choice; flow through the opening or around and above the building. This process is not considered in the IDA-ICE model, which can contribute to the discrepancy between measurements and predictions.

  • 2. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Hayati, Abolfazl
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Natural Ventilation and Air Infiltration in Large Single‑Zone Buildings: Measurements and Modelling with Reference to Historical Churches2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural ventilation is the dominating ventilation process in ancient buildings like churches, and also in most domestic buildings in Sweden and in the rest of the world. These buildings are naturally ventilated via air infiltration and airing. Air infiltration is the airflow through adventitious leakages in the building envelope, while airing is the intentional air exchange through large openings like windows and doors. Airing can in turn be performed either as single-sided (one opening) or as cross flow ventilation (two or more openings located on different walls). The total air exchange affects heating energy and indoor air quality. In churches, deposition of airborne particles causes gradual soiling of indoor surfaces, including paintings and other pieces of art. Significant amounts of particles are emitted from visitors and from candles, incense, etc. Temporary airing is likely to reduce this problem, and it can also be used to adjust the indoor temperature. The present study investigates mechanisms and prediction models regarding air infiltration and open-door airing by means of field measurements, experiments in wind tunnel and computer modelling.

    In natural ventilation, both air infiltration and airing share the same driving forces, i.e. wind and buoyancy (indoor-outdoor temperature differences). Both forces turn out to be difficult to predict, especially wind induced flows and the combination of buoyancy and wind. In the first part of the present study, two of the most established models for predicting air infiltration rate in buildings were evaluated against measurements in three historical stone churches in Sweden. A correction factor of 0.8 is introduced to adjust one of the studied models (which yielded better predictions) for fitting the large single zones like churches. Based on field investigation and IR-thermography inspections, a detailed numerical model was developed for prediction of air infiltration, where input data included assessed level of the neutral pressure level (NPL). The model functionality was validated against measurements in one of the case studies, indicating reasonable prediction capability. It is suggested that this model is further developed by including a more systematic calibration system for more building types and with different weather conditions.

    Regarding airing, both single-sided and cross flow rates through the porches of various church buildings were measured with tracer gas method, as well as through direct measurements of the air velocity in a porch opening. Measurement results were compared with predictions attained from four previously developed models for single‑sided ventilation. Models that include terms for wind turbulence were found to yield somewhat better predictions. According to the performed measurements, the magnitude of one hour single-sided open-door airing in a church typically yields around 50% air exchange, indicating that this is a workable ventilation method, also for such large building volumes. A practical kind of diagram to facilitate estimation of suitable airing period is presented.

    The ability of the IDA Indoor Climate and Energy (IDA-ICE) computer program to predict airing rates was examined by comparing with field measurements in a church. The programs’ predictions of single-sided airflows through an open door of the church were of the same magnitude as the measured ones; however, the effect of wind direction was not well captured by the program, indicating a development potential.

    Finally, wind driven air flows through porch type openings of a church model were studied in a wind tunnel, where the airing rates were measured by tracer gas. At single-sided airing, a higher flow rate was observed at higher wind turbulence and when the opening was on the windward side of the building, in agreement with field measurements. Further, the airing rate was on the order of 15 times higher at cross flow than at single-sided airing. Realization of cross flow thus seems highly recommendable for enhanced airing. Calibration constants for a simple equation for wind driven flow through porches are presented. The measurements also indicate that advection through turbulence is a more important airing mechanism than pumping.

     

    The present work adds knowledge particularly to the issues of air infiltration and airing through doors, in large single zones. The results can be applicable also to other kinds of large single-zone buildings, like industry halls, atriums and sports halls.

  • 3.
    Hayati, Abolfazl
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Akander, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Mattsson, Magnus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Development of a Numerical Air Infiltration Model Based On Pressurization Test Applied On a Church2016In: ASHRAE and AIVC IAQ 2016 — Defining Indoor Air Quality: Policy, Standards and Best Practices, 2016, ASHRAE, 2016, p. 224-231, article id C030Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pressurization (blower door) test is a well-established standardized method, performed in order to quantify the total leakage in a building envelope. However, blower door results are not adequate to use when air leakage through the building envelope during natural conditions (non-pressurized) is to be estimated. A common assumption made when estimating air leakage during natural conditions, is that air leakage paths are evenly distributed in the areas of the building envelope. This assumption gives quite poor calculation results since different leakage configurations are often situated unevenly in the envelope. In order to improve the correspondence between Blower door and air leakage model results, more information on the types and locations of the leakage paths are required as input to simulation models. 

    This paper investigates if additional information from visual inspection and IR-thermography observations at site can increase the precision when simulating air change rates due to air leakage in natural conditions.  A numerical model is developed in this study by allocating leakage in various parts of the building envelope. The leakage allocation is based on visual inspection and IR-thermography observations at the site during the blower door test.

    This procedure is tested in the case study of a large single zone church. Blower door, neutral pressure level measurement and leakage allocation results are used as input in the numerical model. Model results are compared with tracer gas measurements and result accuracy is compared with results from the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory model (LBL) and the Alberta Air Infiltration Model (AIM-2) for the same church. 

  • 4.
    Hayati, Abolfazl
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Akander, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Mattsson, Magnus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Simulation of Ventilation Rates and Heat Losses during Airing in Large Single Zone Buildings in Cold Climates2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Airing can be a solution to introduce extra ventilation in large single zone buildings, especially where there are large aggregations of people such as churches or atriums. In naturally ventilated domestic and ancient buildings, opening of a window or door can introduce extra fresh air and remove particles and other contaminants emitted from people and other sources such as lit candles in churches. However, the energy use might be an issue in cold climates, where airing might lead to waste of heated air, at the same time as indoor air temperatures can be uncomfortably low. In the present study, the energy loss and ventilation rate due to airing in a large single zone (church) building is investigated via IDA-ICE simulation on annual basis in cold weather conditions. The results can be used in order to prepare airing guidelines for large single zone buildings such as atriums, churches, industry halls and large sport halls. According to the results, one-hour of airing in the studied church building resulted in 40-50 % of exchanged room air and, if practiced once a week, an increase of around 1 % in heating energy.

  • 5.
    Hayati, Abolfazl
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Mattsson, Magnus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Sandberg, Mats
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    A Study on Airing Through the Porches of a Historical Church – Measurements and IDA-ICE Modelling2016In: ASHRAE and AIVC IAQ 2016 - Defining Indoor Air Quality: Policy, Standards and Best Practices, 2016, ASHRAE, 2016, p. 216-223, article id C029Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In churches, intentional airing may be a measure to evacuate temporarily high levels of contaminants that are emitted during services and other occasions. Crucial contaminants include moisture and other emissions that may deteriorate and/or soil painted surfaces and other precious artefacts. Most old churches do not have any mechanical ventilation system or any purpose provided openings for natural ventilation, but the ventilation is governed by air infiltration. Enhanced airing may be achieved by opening external windows or doors. Thus, models provided in energy simulation programs should predict this kind of air flows correctly, also in order to get a proper estimation of the total energy use. IDA-ICE is examined here and the model for air flow through a large vertical opening used in the program is investigated. In the present study, field measurements were performed for airing rate in a historical church. In comparison with measured air flow rates, the simulated results were of the same magnitude, but the effect of wind direction was less considered by the simulation program.

  • 6.
    Hayati, Abolfazl
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Mattsson, Magnus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Sandberg, Mats
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    A wind tunnel study of wind-driven airing through open doors2018In: The International Journal of Ventilation, ISSN 1473-3315, E-ISSN 2044-4044Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Temporarily enhanced natural ventilation of indoor environments can be achieved by opening windows and/or doors, i.e. airing. In this study, wind driven airing rate through doors was measured by tracer gas at a building model in a wind tunnel. Both single opening and cross flow airing was investigated, with doors placed in centrally on the long side of an elongated building model. It was found that cross flow airing yielded 4–20 times higher airing rate than single opening airing; lowest value occurring with opening surfaces perpendicular to wind direction. At single opening airing, windward positioned door yielded about 53% higher airing rate than leeward positioned. Inclusion of a draught lobby (extended entrance space) lowered airing rate by 27%, while higher wind turbulence increased it by 38%. Advection through turbulence appeared a more important airing mechanism than pumping. At cross flow, however, turbulence and draught lobby had practically no effect.

  • 7.
    Hayati, Abolfazl
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Mattsson, Magnus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Sandberg, Mats
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Evaluation of the LBL and AIM-2 air infiltration models on large single zones: three historical churches2014In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 81, p. 365-379Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Air infiltration in ancient churches and other historical and monumental buildings is of great importance considering moisture transfer, energy consumption, thermal comfort and air pollutants that induce surface soiling. Two of the most established models for predicting air infiltration rate in buildings are the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) model and the Alberta air Infiltration Model (AIM-2). Being originally developed mainly for dwellings, their applicability to large single zone buildings is evaluated in this study by comparing model predictions with field measurements in three historical stone churches that are naturally ventilated only through infiltration. The somewhat more developed AIM-2 model yielded slightly better predictions than the LBL model. However, an LBL version that allows inclusion of the Neutral Pressure Level (NPL) of the building envelope produced even better predictions and also proved less sensitive to assumptions on air leakage distribution at the building envelopes. All models yielded however significant overpredictions of the air infiltration rate. Since NPL may be difficult to attain in practice, the AIM-2 model was chosen for model modification to improve predictions. Tuning of this model by varying its original coefficients yielded however unrealistic model behaviors and the eventually suggested modification implied introducing a correction factor of 0.8. This reduced the median absolute prediction error from 25% to 11%. Thus, especially when the NPL is not at hand, this modification of the AIM-2 model may suit better for air infiltration assessment of churches and other buildings similar to the tested kind.

  • 8.
    Hayati, Abolfazl
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Mattsson, Magnus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Sandberg, Mats
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Single-sided ventilation through external doors: measurements and model evaluation in five historical churches2017In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 141, p. 114-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ventilation through open doors is a simple way to temporarily enhance ventilation of indoor spaces, with the purpose to evacuate indoor air pollutants or to adjust the indoor temperature. In churches and other historical buildings, which otherwise are ventilated only through air infiltration, temporarily enhanced ventilation through open doors or windows may be a prudent deed after e.g. services involving large congregations and burning of candles or incense. In the present study, the air exchange occurring at single-sided ventilation through the external doors of five historical churches is measured by tracer gas decay method. Further, air velocity measurements and smoke visualization in a doorway are performed. Measurement results are compared with predictions attained from four previously developed models for single‐sided ventilation. Models that include terms for wind turbulence yielded somewhat better predictions. According to the performed measurements, the magnitude of one hour single-sided open-door airing in a church is typically around 50% air exchange, indicating that this is a workable ventilation method, also for such large building volumes. A practical diagram to facilitate estimation of a suitable airing period is also presented. The study adds particularly knowledge to the issue of airing through doors, in large single zones.

  • 9.
    Hayati, Abolfazl
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Building science - installation technology. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Building science - installation technology. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Building science - installation technology. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Building science - installation technology.
    Mattsson, Magnus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Building science - installation technology. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Building science - installation technology.
    Sandberg, Mats
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Building science - installation technology. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Building science - installation technology.
    Linden, Elisabet
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, BMG Laboratory. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, BMG Laboratory.
    Evaluation of two air infiltration models on a church2013In: Conference proceedings: Cultural heritage preservation – 3rd European Workshop on Cultural Heritage Preservation, 2013, p. 47-53Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Air infiltration in ancient churches and other historical and monumental buildings is of great importance considering moisture transfer, energy consumption, thermal comfort and indoor surface soiling. Two of the most established models for simulatingand predicting air infiltration in buildings are the Lawrence BerkeleyLaboratory (LBL) model and the Alberta air Infiltration Model (AIM-2). The applicability of these models in superimposing wind and buoyancy driven infiltration in large single zone buildings such as churches are evaluated in this study by comparing model predictions with field measurements in a 19thcentury stone church. Both tested air infiltration models yielded significant positive correlations between measured and predicted data, and it is concludedthat the AIM-2 model works better than the LBL model for the studied church. Both models tend however to over-predict the air infiltration rate significantly. The over‑predictions were larger in cases with high wind speed and it seems that the models are more fragile in wind dominating conditions. Inclusion of crawl space coefficients in the AIM-2 model improved however the predictions, especially at high wind speeds. It seems that models of the tested kind can be useful in predicting air infiltration in churches and similar buildings, but that some empirically attained model coefficients might need some adjustment to suit this kind of buildings better.

  • 10.
    Mattsson, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Building science - installation technology. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Building science - installation technology.
    Sandberg, Mats
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Building science - installation technology. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Building science - installation technology.
    Claesson, Leif
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, BMG Laboratory. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, BMG Laboratory.
    Lindström, Svante
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, BMG Laboratory. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, BMG Laboratory.
    Hayati, Abolfazl
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Building science - installation technology. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Building science - installation technology. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Building science - installation technology. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Building science - installation technology.
    Fan pressurization method for measuring air leakage in churches – wind and stack induced uncertainties2013In: Conference proceedings: Cultural heritage preservation – 3rd European Workshop on Cultural Heritage Preservation / [ed] A. Troi and E. Luchi., 2013, p. 63-68Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The air leakage of the building envelope of ancient churches and other historical and monumental buildings has impact on energy consumption, thermal comfort, humidity and indoor surface soiling. To measure the air leakage in such large and naturally ventilated single-zone buildings is however challenging, especially due to wind and buoyancy (stack) induced disturbances. This study describes experiences in this regard, attainedat field tests where the fan pressurization technique (“Blower door”) was employed. Reference is made to the European test standard EN 13829. Also results of wind-tunnel tests are utilized. It is shown that both buoyancy and wind at commonly occurring conditions can cause significant uncertainty in fan pressurization tests, and that some of the directions in the standard might need to be strengthened or amended. While the uncertainty in measured air leakage rate at the standard (high) pressure of 50 Pa may be small, the predictions of the air leakage rate occurring at realistically (low) indoor-outdoor pressures tend to suffer from significant uncertainty. That uncertainty is then conveyed to later utilizations of the test results, e.g. building energy modeling and prediction. It is also shown that the wind induced pressure at buildings like churches extends a considerable way out into the surroundings of the building; in the order of two times the building height. This has particular importance when choosing a reference point for outdoorpressure measurement.

  • 11.
    Sandberg, Mats
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Mattsson, Magnus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Wigö, Hans
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Hayati, Abolfazl
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Claesson, Leif
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, BMG laboratory. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, BMG laboratory.
    Linden, Elisabet
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, BMG laboratory. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, BMG laboratory.
    Khan, Mubashar
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Viewpoints on wind and air infiltration phenomena at buildings illustrated by field and model studies2015In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 92, p. 504-517Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ventilation and infiltration caused by wind are difficult to predict because they are non-local phenomena: driving factors depend on the surrounding terrain and neighbouring buildings and on the building orientation with respect to the wind direction. Wind-driven flow through an opening is complex because wind can flow through the opening or around the building, in contrast to buoyancy driven flow. We explored wind and air infiltration phenomena in terms of pressure distributions on and around buildings, stagnation points, flow along façades, drag forces, and air flow through openings. Field trials were conducted at a 19th-century church, and wind tunnel tests were conducted using a 1:200 scale model of the church and other models with openings.

     

    The locations of stagnation points on the church model were determined using particle image velocimetry measurements. Multiple stagnation points occurred. The forces exerted on the church model by winds in various directions were measured using a load cell. The projected areas affected by winds in various directions were calculated using a CAD model of the church. The area-averaged pressure difference across the church was assessed. A fairly large region of influence on the ground, caused by blockage of the wind, was revealed by testing the scale model in the wind tunnel and recording the static pressure on the ground at many points. The findings of this study are summarized as a number of steps that we suggest to be taken to improve analysis and predictions of wind driven flow in buildings.

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