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  • 1.
    Abraha, Desalegn
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Hyder, Akmal S
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    From industrial networks to strategic alliances or vice-versa2009In: International Journal of Business and Emerging Markets, ISSN 1753-6219, Vol. 1, no 4, 361-386 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2. Abraha, Desalegn
    et al.
    Hyder, Akmal S
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    The service firms' establishments in developing countries2000In: Journal of Euromarketing, ISSN 1049-6483, Vol. 9, no 1, 57-86 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Chowdhury, Ehsanul Huda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Sundström, Agneta
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Hyder, Akmal
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Supply Chain CSR Image Challenges - A study on Bangladesh Clothing Industry2016In: International Journal of Supply Chain Management, ISSN 2050-7399, Vol. 5, no 2, 16-25 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides a deep insight into the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) image scenario of the international buying firms and Bangladesh suppliers as well as identifies the challenges for building a positive supply chain (SC) CSR image for the suppliers of Bangladesh clothing industry. The contribution of this paper is that it improves knowledge of SC CSR image from the supplier’s as well as the buyer’s perspective. This paper also provides suggestions regarding improvement of Suppliers’ CSR image that can influence the SC CSR image.

  • 4.
    Chowdhury, Ehsanul Huda
    et al.
    American International University-Bangladesh, Bangladesh.
    Sundström, Agneta
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Hyder, Akmal S.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Improving the CSR image: a study on suppliers of Bangladesh garments industry2013In: Multidisciplinary Academic Research 2013, Prague: MAC Prague consulting , 2013, 1-8 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research study aims to evaluate the issues and factors for building a positive organizational CSR image that enables suppliers to create positive perception in relation to stakeholders. The study identified major challenges to improve CSR image for the suppliers. Based on the findings, it is suggested that suppliers need to improve in the following areas for changes of CSR image: (1) initiate education and measures to improve the employees’ understanding and importance of CSR; (2) develop a corporate culture to give priority in building positive CSR image; (3) develop link with educational institutions for educating middle managers on CSR and its effect on company image; (4) arrange short trainings for new workers to make them understand the concept of CSR and educate them on their own responsibilities as part of the organization; (5) establish platforms for sharing knowledge between suppliers to increase compliance.

  • 5.
    Fregidou-Malama, Maria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Hyder, Akmal
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Interest Free Co-operatives: A study of JAK Members Bank – Sweden2013In: Decentralisation and Development: Experiences and Experiments / [ed] P.P. Balan, Sunny George and T.P. Kunhikannan, Thrissur: Kerala Institute of Local Administration (KILA) , 2013, 64-85 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    This study analyses how the system of an interest-free cooperative bank is operating and its advantages. JAK is running an interest-free loan and savings system for individuals, small companies and associations. JAK´s philosophy and values are based on the principle that no one should earn money by passive owning of money lending them to others and thus JAK question the traditional financial system.

     

    Methodology/Approach

    We study in depth the case of JAK Members Bank. Qualitative data is collected in form of semi-structured interviews and direct observations. Seven people have been interviewed in 2010 and 2012.

     

    Findings

    Our research shows that JAK- Members Bank creates relations with the members by communicating their value base as a cooperative organisation. They get advantage to attract new members by stressing democratic management and members´ sovereignty, educating members, supporting ecological projects, involving young people, networking with people and organisations locally and globally and using relationships and mouth to mouth marketing.  By applying an interest-free saving-borrowing principle the bank succeeds getting people together in a financial alternative relationship. For the enlargement of the market and members participation it is a need for innovations to complete their financial services as a bank and sustain their business. Despite its success, new entrepreneurial activities face difficulties because of lack of access to financial resources which limits JAKs presence and business development.

     

    Research Limitation

    This research is based on a single case. In future research, similar in-depth studies in Sweden or other countries can show how interest-free banking functions, and the results can be compared with the current study.

     

    Implications

    The study contributes to the literature by presenting a model of successful operation of JAK a cooperative bank. We recommend managers to develop networks with members and other stakeholders to promote cooperative banking activities and social entrepreneurship in the local economy.  The structure of the global financial system and its contribution to development is an emerging and challenging issue, can local cooperative banks be considered as a viable local financial initiative?  

     

    Originality value of the paper

    In this research work we developed a theoretical model by combining cooperative identity and cooperative values in a successful operation of an alternative interest-free bank.

  • 6.
    Fregidou-Malama, Maria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Hyder, Akmal
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Trust in International Health Services Marketing: A Comparative Study2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Fregidou-Malama, Maria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Hyder, Akmal
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    What are the advantages of JAK Members Bank?2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    This study analyses how the system of an interest-free cooperative bank is operating and its advantages. JAK is running an interest-free loan and savings system for individuals, small companies and associations. JAK´s philosophy and values are based on the principle that no one should earn money by passive owning of money lending them to others and thus JAK question the traditional financial system.

     

    Methodology/Approach

    We study in depth the case of JAK Members Bank. Qualitative data is collected in form of semi-structured interviews and direct observations. Seven people have been interviewed in 2010 and 2012.

     

    Findings

    Our research shows that JAK- Members Bank creates relations with the members by communicating their value base as a cooperative organisation. They get advantage to attract new members by stressing democratic management and members´ sovereignty, educating members, supporting ecological projects, involving young people, networking with people and organisations locally and globally and using relationships and mouth to mouth marketing.  By applying an interest-free saving-borrowing principle the bank succeeds getting people together in a financial alternative relationship. For the enlargement of the market and members participation it is a need for innovations to complete their financial services as a bank and sustain their business. Despite its success, new entrepreneurial activities face difficulties because of lack of access to financial resources which limits JAKs presence and business development.

     

    Research Limitation

    This research is based on a single case. In future research, similar in-depth studies in Sweden or other countries can show how interest-free banking functions, and the results can be compared with the current study.

     

    Implications

    The study contributes to the literature by presenting a model of successful operation of JAK a cooperative bank. We recommend managers to develop networks with members and other stakeholders to promote cooperative banking activities and social entrepreneurship in the local economy.  The structure of the global financial system and its contribution to development is an emerging and challenging issue, can local cooperative banks be considered as a viable local financial initiative?  

     

    Originality value of the paper

    In this research work we developed a theoretical model by combining cooperative identity and cooperative values in a successful operation of an alternative interest-free bank.

     

     

     

  • 8.
    Fregidou-Malama, Maria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Hyder, Akmal S.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Health care services marketing in a cross-cultural context: Elekta in Brazil2011In: The Impact of Globalization on Networks and Relationship dynamics, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT

    Purpose of the paper

    This research deals with the Internationalization of health services focusing on two services characteristics intangibility and heterogeneity. The study analyzes how adaptation/standardization, trust and network development are achieved when marketing a Swedish health care service in Brazil, a culturally distant country to Sweden.

    Literature addressed

    The theoretical framework of the study is based on theories on International Marketing Services, trust, networks and cultural differences. Adaptation/standardization is important when operating in a foreign market for acceptance of services, creating confidence in the foreign market and establishing contacts with the local environment. Networks are needed to get information and gain access to resources the firms need to run their activities. By creating trust long term business relationships can be developed. Using trust and networks can service providers communicate with customers and understand and satisfy their needs.

    Research Method

    We apply a case study for data collection. A case on a Swedish invention for radio surgery, Gamma Knife in Brazil has been conducted in its real life context. Qualitative data have been collected in form of semi-structured interviews. Direct observation of the working environment and activities in Sweden has also been used as data source. We concentrate on the process of the marketing of the service.

    Research Findings

    The study shows that cultural adaptation makes service characteristics tangible by increasing the understanding between service providers and local customers. It suggests that foreign company’s service offerings, values and beliefs connected to the quality of the service are to be standardised. This standardisation communicates the offering both of a treatment and also of a learning process and helps the service to be visible and tangible. It further demonstrates that relationships related to the local market are to be adapted to customers´ tastes, habits and preferences to develop trust and networks. The study suggest that a balanced combination of adaptation and standardisation makes services homogenous and tangible increasing the possibility of success for service providers and the acceptance of services by the local customers.

    Main contribution

    The research contributes to the International services marketing literature developing a model of internationalization of health services marketing based on adaptation/standardization, trust and network, to overcome issues of intangibility and heterogeneity of services. Managers should recognize that marketing people-processing services requires development of local networks to gain trust, and legitimacy in the local market.

     

    Keywords: Cultural Adaptation, Network, Intangibility, Heterogeneity, Trust, Gamma Knife, Health Service, Brazil.

     

  • 9.
    Fregidou-Malama, Maria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Hyder, Akmal S
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Health Services Marketing in a Cross-Cultural Context: Elekta in India2015In: Proceedings of International Conference on Social Media, SEO & Marketing Strategies / [ed] AddMark, 2015, Vol. 4, 29- p., 3Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this research is to investigate how culture impacts on international marketing strategy of a Swedish health service in India, a culturally distant country to Sweden. It is examined how confidence in the market is achieved to establish and maintain trust and relationships, and the level of standardization and adaptation for the acceptance of the service in the foreign market is suggested. A case study was conducted in its real life context. An inductive qualitative research method has been applied and data has been collected in the form of semi-structured interviews, direct observation and company documents. We found that the cultural dimensions of power distance and individualism/collectivism have an impact on trust development, relationships and standardization and adaptation. The study shows that innovative image of the service offering and after service maintenance act as means for competition on the private and public market. Standardization of prices and service processes comprising maintenance of service quality, support contracts and service contracts develop commitment and trust. Personal relationships with the government, doctors and involvement with customers are regarded important and should be adapted to and follow local traditions. It is further demonstrated that moral and emotional issues, respect to the human face, hierarchy and social responsibility for regional development are required to develop relationships, trust and networks. It is argued that word of mouth, tactics and diplomacy sustain the possibility of success for service providers and the acceptance of the health service by local customers. The research contributes to the International services marketing literature by developing a model and extending understanding of internationalization of health services marketing from a culture context. For future studies, it suggests a comparison between more culturally distant countries to observe how culture influences development of marketing strategy in international business. The research shows how managers can establish relationships and networks to gain trust and legitimacy in the local market.

  • 10.
    Fregidou-Malama, Maria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Hyder, Akmal S.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Health services marketing in India: the relevance of the cultural context2016In: IMP ASIA in Africa: Book of Abstracts / [ed] Peter J. Batt, Industrial Marketing and Purchasing Group , 2016, 22- p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research analyzes how culture impacts on the international marketing strategy of a Swedish health service provider in India. It examines how confidence in the market is achieved to establish and maintain trust and relationships, which influence the level of standardization and adaption in the market. A case study was conducted and an inductive qualitative research method applied. Data have been collected in the form of semi-structured interviews, direct observation and company documents. We found that the cultural dimensions of power distance, individualism/collectivism and masculinity and femininity imact on trust development, relationships and standardization and adaptation. The study highlights the importance of the cultural context in marketing health services. It reveals that respect for the human face and social responsibility in regional development are required to cultivate relationships and to develop trust and networks. The research contributes to international services marketing literature by developing a model of health services marketing from a cultural context. For future study it is suggested a comparison be made between more culturally distant countries to observe how culture influences the development of marketing strategy in international business.

  • 11.
    Fregidou-Malama, Maria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Hyder, Akmal S.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Impact of culture on marketing of health services: Elekta in Brazil2015In: International Business Review, ISSN 0969-5931, E-ISSN 1873-6149, Vol. 24, no 3, 530-540 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine how culture influences the international marketing of health services. This is done by analyzing how culture affects trust, networks and standardization/adaptation and how trust develops and operates in relation to culture, networks and standardization and adaptation. Using qualitative data gathered through semi-structured interviews and researcher observations, we find that the cultural dimensions of power distance, individualism/collectivism and uncertainty avoidance have an impact on trust, network development and standardization/adaptation. This finding helps in deciding what parts of the service to standardize and what to adapt for successful services marketing. We conceptualize three interrelated levels of trust comprising country-, company- and individual trust. This multilevel trust offers an important understanding of how to manage cultural complexity in the international marketing of services. The theoretical model developed based on cultural dimensions can be useful when marketing services in other countries. 

  • 12.
    Hyder, Akmal
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Fregidou-Malama, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Does Culture Matter?: Marketing Strategy in Health Services2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Hyder, Akmal
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Fregidou-Malama, Maria
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    International services marketing: What can be learnt from a medical case?2006In: ILTG conference in Graz, Austria, 6-7 April 2006.: 2nd International Conference on Intercultural Communication Competence, 2006Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The international market of services is growing at a faster rate. Despite the importance of the service sector in both domestic and world markets, the amount of empirical research addressing the internationalization of services remains relatively low. Nature and characteristic of services have made service marketing and study related to it difficult. If the service is set for international market, question around intangibility, quality, and the demand for simultaneous production and consumption is likely to aggravate the situation. As people across the borders are different from a cultural viewpoint, the same service element can be perceived differently making the service internationalization process further difficult. This paper deals with a case of Swedish medical service marketing process in Egypt and offers a profound insight on the complex issue of international services marketing by addressing the following research questions:

    The data collection was a rigorous process and mainly took place in the form of direct interviews. Eight people including the managing director and the major owner of the Swedish-Egyptian firm were interviewed. Further three local consultants were interviewed and two seminars were held in Egypt to have an idea on general business practice in the host country. The conceptual framework is based on three variables, i.e. cultural adaptation, trust and network. Selling service internationally requires that the service provider is aware of the local taste, preference and habit. To be successful in internationalization, it is usually necessary that some cultural adaptation takes place, probably from both sides. The intangible characteristic of the services requires that trust is built and maintained throughout if the internationalization process has to be successful. Network represents a critical point of investigation in understanding internationalization. Network development is very important where the uncertainty is high due to physical and cultural distance, communication gap and service characteristics themselves which make the offerings heterogeneous, perishable and difficult to readily display. This study shows that cultural adaptation has taken place in respect to timing, building trust in the local environment, handling bureaucratic issues, local traditions and offering services to the clients. Problem of intangibility, heterogeneity and quality has been solved by providing consistent services and establishing links with the medical colleges and other institutions. This research work offers several opportunities for learning. First, it is important to recognize cultural differences and local traditions to design the service concept. Second, there is a need to develop sufficient local contacts and trust to make the service offerings tangible. Finally, the adaptation needs to take place from both sides, otherwise promising factors and strength may be kept outside the final business concept offered to the clients.

  • 14.
    Hyder, Akmal
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Lönnstedt, Lars
    North Carolina State University.
    Penttinen, Markku
    Finnish Forest Research Institute.
    Outline of accounting for non-industrial private woodlots1994In: Silva Fennica, ISSN 0037-5330, Vol. 28, no 2, 115-137 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Hyder, Akmal
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Lönnstedt, Lars
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Penttinen, Markku Juhani
    Finnish Forest Research Institute.
    Accounting as a management tool for non-industrial private forestry1999In: Scandinavian Journal of Management, ISSN 0956-5221, Vol. 15, no 2, 173-191 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Hyder, Akmal
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Partial or total integration in a cross-border merger?: building a Nordic bank culture2017In: Thunderbird International Business Review, ISSN 1096-4762, E-ISSN 1520-6874Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rate of failure for international mergers and acquisitions (M&As) is exceptionally high, since the integration of merging firms does not function well. Using a process perspective, this study aims to analyze the integration process in a cross-border merger and the development of a common organizational culture. A framework based on premerger cultural and organizational fit, synergy, and resulting organizational culture is developed to study the growth of Nordea, a merger of four Nordic banks. Data include in-depth interviews and secondary sources. This case study shows how cultural and managerial differences are dealt with and synergies realized. Building a broad organizational culture involving human resource management, decision making, technology, competitiveness, and customer relationships is necessary for merger integration, but it is costly and difficult. We suggest that success in mergers lies in managers creating a new cultural identity with unique values and perspectives.

  • 17.
    Hyder, Akmal S.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Interest-free banking in Sweden: How much is it Islamic?2013In: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Emerging Research Paradigms in Business and Social Sciences (ERPBSS 2013), 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This paper illustrates how a European bank operates interest-free and how it resembles and differs from Islamic banking.

    Design/Methodology/Approach – By applying a case study method, this study goes into the depth of a European bank which entirely practices interest-free banking for its saving and lending operations. Major actors of the bank have been interviewed face-to-face and on telephone. Complementary information has been received by e-mail and through printed material.

    Findings – The study shows that there are some similarities between JAK and Islamic banks but differences are many. One difference lies in the service offerings as JAK only deal with savings and lending and does not get involved in profit-loss sharing which is central to Islamic banking. Islamic bank can learn from JAK how to educate their customers so that business gets clear to them.

    Practical implications – By comparing with Islamic banking, the European bank management can have the idea how far they do Islamic banking and what is unique with their bank. Even both the banks have common view on interest, they differ much in offering products and carrying out operation. The European bank management has to deal with new challenges how much they can grow of being a non-profit organization in the long run.

    Originality/value – This study offers a rare insight of a European bank which exclusively operates interest free and is driven like Islamic banks with ideological values.

    Paper type – Case study

  • 18.
    Hyder, Akmal S.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Market orientation in a non-profit organisation2016In: World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, ISSN 1746-0573, E-ISSN 1746-0581, Vol. 12, no 4, 414-432 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates how a non-profit, interest-free bank applies market orientation to provide superior value to customers. A theoretical framework integrating market orientation, trust, organisational networking and superior customer value has been developed. A qualitative method was used for data collection and analysis. E-mails, printed booklets, bank newsletters, member surveys and other studies on the bank provided additional information. This research offers an understanding of how networking and trust are developed to ensure effective market orientation for value creation. As a theoretical contribution, three value categories, i.e. product-led, customer-led and market-led, were identified in the non-profit organisational context.

  • 19.
    Hyder, Akmal S.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Market orientation in non-profit organization2013In: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Emerging Research Paradigms in Business and Social Sciences (ERPBSS 2013), 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This paper illustrates how a European bank operates interest-free and how it resembles and differs from Islamic banking.

    Design/Methodology/Approach – By applying a case study method, this study goes into the depth of a European bank which entirely practices interest-free banking for its saving and lending operations. Major actors of the bank have been interviewed face-to-face and on telephone. Complementary information has been received by e-mail and through printed material.

    Findings – The study shows that there are some similarities between JAK and Islamic banks but differences are many. One difference lies in the service offerings as JAK only deal with savings and lending and does not get involved in profit-loss sharing which is central to Islamic banking. Islamic bank can learn from JAK how to educate their customers so that business gets clear to them.

    Practical implications – By comparing with Islamic banking, the European bank management can have the idea how far they do Islamic banking and what is unique with their bank. Even both the banks have common view on interest, they differ much in offering products and carrying out operation. The European bank management has to deal with new challenges how much they can grow of being a non-profit organization in the long run.

    Originality/value – This study offers a rare insight of a European bank which exclusively operates interest free and is driven like Islamic banks with ideological values.

    Paper type – Case study

  • 20.
    Hyder, Akmal S.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Abraha, Desalegn
    School of Technology and Society, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Institutional factors and strategic alliances in eastern and central Europe2008In: Baltic Journal of Management, ISSN 1746-5265, E-ISSN 1746-5273, Vol. 3, no 3, 289-308 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Hyder, Akmal S.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Abraha, Desalegn
    University of Skövde.
    Marketing strategy in emerging market alliance: a longitudinal study2014In: Journal for International Business and Entrepreneurship Development, ISSN 1549-9324, Vol. 7, no 4, 309-325 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By applying a longitudinal perspective, this study examines how an alliance formulates and implements its marketing strategy based on motives, resources, learning, network and performance, in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). An in-depth study on a Hungarian alliance between a Swedish medical engineering company and a local partner has been conducted. The data is collected in two periods: 1999 and 2009, and for the convenience of the analysis, the result has been presented in two phases. By comparing the phases, it is shown how the environment in which the alliance operates changes and how the alliance responses by improving its marketing strategy. Major variation of the strategy includes focus on small and dental clinics, development of intensive contacts with big hospitals to gain huge contracts after the reformation of the healthcare sector and finding a balance between lowering price and maintaining high quality of the products and services.

  • 22.
    Hyder, Akmal S.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Abraha, Desalegn
    Product and skills development in small- and medium-sized high-tech firms through international strategic alliances2004In: Singapore management review: Asia-Pacific journal of management theory and practice, ISSN 0129-5977, Vol. 26, no 2, 1-24 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Major studies on strategic alliances have until now concentrated on large firms, thus opportunities and problems related to the formation and operation of alliances by small- and medium-sized firms remain unexplored. This study concentrates on product and skills development in high-tech small- and medium-sized firms (SMHT) through international strategic alliances. Due to the explorative nature of the study, a qualitative method has been used for data collection and analysis. A theoretical framework consisting of motives, resources, learning, network, and performance has been applied to analyse case studies. Learning, complementarity of resources, and development of long-term relationships are found to be closely related with performance. Another finding is that environmental issues often have significant impact on the development of alliances.

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

  • 23.
    Hyder, Akmal S
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Abraha, Desalegn
    Strategic alliances in Eastern and Central Europe2003 (ed. 1)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 24.
    Hyder, Akmal S.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Abraha, Desalegn
    Strategic alliances in the Baltic states: a case of Swedish firms2006In: Competitiveness Review, ISSN 1059-5422, Vol. 16, no 3/4, 173-196 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of the Baltic states has increased due to increase of capital inflow from the West. A large part of the foreign involvement takes the form of alliance with local partners in the region. But how these alliances operate and fulfill the objectives of the partners in the Baltic states remain almost unexplored. By the help of depth interviews, four alliances, two in Estonia and the other two in Lithuania, have therefore been studied in this research work. The theoretical framework is based on the concepts of motives, resources, learning, network, performance and general environment. Cost reduction, market seeking, and development and maintenance of services have been the main motives of foreign firms in entering into the alliances. No clear cut motive is observed from the local partners’ side. Learning has been found important for both the partners and concerns cultural differences, local knowhow and adaptation to the Western way in doing business. A broader view of performance is presented by including network development in the article. Profitability, market share, and sales have been seen as short term while network development and relationships as longterm performance criteria in the alliances. The role of general environment on alliances and its impact on network development have also been observed. This study further suggests that alliances offering service dominated products concentrate on the local markets, while alliances offering products with less service elements have export as the target.

  • 25.
    Hyder, Akmal S.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Abraha, Desalegn
    University of Skövde.
    Mukhtar, Syeda-Masooda
    King AbdulAziz University, Saudi Arabia.
    Cross-cultural Strategic Alliances: Lessons from Swedish Firms in Eastern and Central Europe2014In: Shifts in global competitiveness, markets and consumers: is management prepared for a new business paradigm?, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to explore factors affecting the formation and operation of strategic alliances, and the impact of these factors on performance. The underlying premise being that different cultures affect strategic alliances differently. The study is based on the analysis of 20 alliances between firms in Eastern and Central Europe and their Swedish partners. Significant differences were found across countries. The paper concludes with implications for managers responsible for managing international alliances in terms of effectiveness of their role, as well as their cultural awareness and ability to deal with cultural differences.  

  • 26.
    Hyder, Akmal S.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Chowdhury, Ehnasul Huda
    American International University Bangladesh.
    Sundström, Agneta
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    CSR & Networking in Supply Chain2013In: Multidisciplinary Academic Research 2013, Prague: MAC Prague consulting , 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By comparing two unequal European buyers, this study explores network relationships in Supply chain (SC) from a corporate social responsibility (CSR) perspective in the Bangladesh apparel industry. A qualitative method has been applied for data collection though interviews and gathering secondary material in the form of newspaper articles and buyers’ websites. A combination of network perspective and compliance and capacity building constitutes the theoretical foundation of the study. The result shows that the larger buyer stresses on control and strictly following the code of conducts while the smaller buyer relies on collaboration and dialog in implementing CSR.

  • 27.
    Hyder, Akmal S.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Chowdhury, Ehsanul Huda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Market Orientation in Service Firms - An International Comparative Study2015In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Strategic Innovative Marketing (IC-SIM 2014), Amsterdam, 2015, Vol. 175, 16-23 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how market orientation is applied in service firms to resolve complexity with intangibility and heterogeneity while offering services to the customers. To conduct this study, two interest-free banks from Sweden and Bangladesh have been compared. It is argued in the paper that these niche banks will emphasize on tangibility and heterogeneity to have competitive advantage over the traditional banks. As interest-free banking is intricate and the research purpose is theory development, a case method has been used to conduct this study. A theoretical framework is developed based on trust and network which influence market orientation, tangibility and heterogeneity resulting to value creation. In the Swedish bank, value creation is found to relate with supporting ecological thinking, visible banking, customers’ friendly terms & conditions and offering normal banking facilities. Partnership, risk sharing, problem solving approach, trust and interest-free borrowing are considered value creating components in the Bangladeshi bank. Future research can include all service characteristics and also compare between pure Islamic banks focusing marketing orientation.

  • 28.
    Hyder, Akmal S.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Chowdhury, Ehsanul
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Sundström, Agneta
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Balancing Control and Trust to Manage CSR Compliance in Supply Chains2017In: International Journal of Supply Chain Management, ISSN 2051-3771, E-ISSN 2050-7399, Vol. 6, no 2, 1-14 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how buyers and suppliers balance control and trust to manage compliance with corporate social responsibility (CSR) requirements in supply chains (SCs). Two in-depth, qualitative case studies of the Bangladesh apparel industry on two multinational companies of the same European country were conducted. This study indicates that a buyer’s need for control and trust is important in contact with other actors for managing CSR compliance. Formal control is found to generate competence trust, whereas intentional trust is achieved through informal control. Intentional trust is helpful for competence and capacity development, but for it to continue the supplier needs to fulfill the buyer’s expectations. Competence of the supplier is viewed as a prerequisite for developing competence trust. This study analyzes control and trust to fill an important gap in SC theory on relationships by stressing how these constructs interact and complement each other to manage CSR compliance in apparel industry. Firms must focus on a balanced relationship between trust and control to manage CSR compliance. Willingness to collaborate can only work when supplier competence and managerial resources are ensured. This study notes that managers need both formal and informal control to create competence and intentional trust in the supply chains. Capacity building is viewed as a complement, not an alternative to CSR compliance. With its closer attention to control and trust, this study fills an important gap in SC theory on relationships by stressing how these constructs interact and complement each other for managing CSR compliance in supply chains.

  • 29.
    Hyder, Akmal S
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Eriksson, Lars Torsten
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Success is not enough: The spectacular rise and fall of a strategic alliance between two multinationals2005In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 34, no 8, 783-796 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Hyder, Akmal S
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Fregidou-Malama, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Health care services marketing of Swedish innovation: A comparative study2016In: Thriving in a new world economy / [ed] Kirk Plangger, Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2016, 318-324 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with a comparative study between Brazil, China and Philippines on services marketing. By focusing on culture, standardization/adaptation, trust and network, attempt is made to illustrate how impact of service characteristics can be handled to smooth marketing of health care services internationally. Data has been collected through face-to-face semi-structured interviews with 21 respondents from Brazil, China, Philippines and Sweden. The result shows that culture has much effect on the operations of Elekta Philippines and China while Brazilian establishment is run by following general marketing practices. Standardization has been common regarding treatment and service quality but some adaptation has taken place in Philippines to treat new diseases not included in the Gamma knife tradition. Trust is found necessary in all the cases but has been built in different ways. In China, guanxi has been used to develop informal relationships with the customers to ensure trust. Trust in Philippines is developed by recruiting relatives and friends and relying on experience in work with old Gamma knife facility. In Brazil, long-term relationships with the customers have been stressed and are built on understanding, business facts, competence and customers' access to Elekta reference centers.

  • 31.
    Hyder, Akmal S.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Fregidou-Malama, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Is health services marketing needed in emerging markets?2016In: IMP ASIA in Africa: Book of Abstracts / [ed] Peter J. Batt, Industrial Marketing and Purchasing Group , 2016, 28- p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to examine how multinational firms deal with challenges in marketing of health services in emerging markets (EMs). To conduct this study, a qualitative method has been used to focus on the marketing process. A single European health services firm operating in seven EMs and in four continents is studied to highlight the role of context. A theoretical framework is developed for service marketing in EMs based on three levels. The macro level deals with infrastructural factors, while the micro level reflects on the marketing process. The meso level, reflecting the local culture, is interconnected with the other two levels.

  • 32.
    Hyder, Akmal S.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Fregidou-Malama, Maria
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Services marketing in a cross-cultural environment: the case of Egypt2009In: Journal of Services Marketing, ISSN 0887-6045, Vol. 23, no 4, 261-271 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this study is to analyze how adaptation/standardization, trust and network development are achieved when marketing services in a culturally distant country through handling the problems of intangibility and heterogeneity. Design/methodology/approach - Qualitative data are collected in the form of unstructured interviews and direct observation to conduct a single case study on Gamma Knife. Findings - Adaptation/standardization plays the central role in internationalization of services marketing. For service development and quality maintenance, values and ideas of the foreign company dominate the adaptation (i.e. standardization), while market-related adaptation is carried out in response to local culture and practices. Research limitations/implications - The research is based on a single case. Future research can involve similar in-depth study examining how internationalization of services works in culturally distant countries, the results of which can be compared with the current study. Practical implications - In international services marketing, in addition to meeting formal and official requirements, managers must concentrate on building trust and informal contacts. Originality/value - The research uses an empirical illustration to provide a model on internationalization of services marketing based on adaptation/ standardization, trust and network, to overcome intangibility- and heterogeneity-related difficulties. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  • 33.
    Hyder, Akmal S.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Gaddefors, Johan
    Strategic alliances and resource-based view: An entrepreneurship orientation perspective2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT

    Purpose of the paper

    This research deals with the Internationalization of health services focusing on two services characteristics intangibility and heterogeneity. The study analyzes how adaptation/standardization, trust and network development are achieved when marketing a Swedish health care service in Brazil, a culturally distant country to Sweden.

    Literature addressed

    The theoretical framework of the study is based on theories on International Marketing Services, trust, networks and cultural differences. Adaptation/standardization is important when operating in a foreign market for acceptance of services, creating confidence in the foreign market and establishing contacts with the local environment. Networks are needed to get information and gain access to resources the firms need to run their activities. By creating trust long term business relationships can be developed. Using trust and networks can service providers communicate with customers and understand and satisfy their needs.

    Research Method

    We apply a case study for data collection. A case on a Swedish invention for radio surgery, Gamma Knife in Brazil has been conducted in its real life context. Qualitative data have been collected in form of semi-structured interviews. Direct observation of the working environment and activities in Sweden has also been used as data source. We concentrate on the process of the marketing of the service.

    Research Findings

    The study shows that cultural adaptation makes service characteristics tangible by increasing the understanding between service providers and local customers. It suggests that foreign company’s service offerings, values and beliefs connected to the quality of the service are to be standardised. This standardisation communicates the offering both of a treatment and also of a learning process and helps the service to be visible and tangible. It further demonstrates that relationships related to the local market are to be adapted to customers´ tastes, habits and preferences to develop trust and networks. The study suggest that a balanced combination of adaptation and standardisation makes services homogenous and tangible increasing the possibility of success for service providers and the acceptance of services by the local customers.

    Main contribution

    The research contributes to the International services marketing literature developing a model of internationalization of health services marketing based on adaptation/standardization, trust and network, to overcome issues of intangibility and heterogeneity of services. Managers should recognize that marketing people-processing services requires development of local networks to gain trust, and legitimacy in the local market.

  • 34.
    Hyder, Akmal S
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Gaddefors, Johan
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Towards a typology of strategic alliances for small firms2009In: International Journal of Strategic Management, ISSN 1555-2411, no FebruaryArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Hyder, Akmal S
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Ghauri, Pervez N
    Managing international joint venture relationships: A longitudinal perspective2000In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 29, no 3, 205-218 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Hyder, Akmal S.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Lövblad, Mikael
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    The repatriation process: a realistic approach2007In: Career Development International, ISSN 1362-0436, E-ISSN 1758-6003, Vol. 12, no 3, 264-281 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - This paper aims to present how a realistic view of the situation for the repatriate can help companies increase the retention rate among this important group of employees. A complete understanding of the repatriation process is crucial to offering repatriating employees proper backing and moral support needed during the process. Design/methodology/approach - A thorough review of the literature on repatriation is carried out to present a repatriation process model and a number of research propositions. Findings - This paper suggests that by focusing on motives and individuals' experience of the repatriation process, researchers and practitioners will be better able to understand the measures and support needed in the repatriation process to increase the retention of an organization's repatriated employees. Research limitations/implications - Suggestions for future research include a test of propositions by a survey, a longitudinal study of repatriates and closer look at the variables of motives and repatriation experience. Originality/value - This paper combines existing knowledge with new insights for understanding the repatriation process.

  • 37. Kaynak, Erdener
    et al.
    Kucukemiroglu, Orsay
    Hyder, Akmal S
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Consumers' country-of-origin (COO) perceptions of imported products in a homogenous less-developed country2000In: European Journal of Marketing, ISSN 0309-0566, Vol. 34, no 9/10, 1221-1241 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Lövblad, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Hyder, Akmal. S.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Lönnstedt, Lars
    Department of Forest Products, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Affective Commitment in Industrial Customer-Supplier Relations: A Psychological Contract Approach2012In: The journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 27, no 4, 275-285 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this conceptual paper is to develop the construct of affective commitment in business-to-business relationships between customers and suppliers, as well as to introduce the psychological contract as a central antecedent to affective commitment.

    Design/methodology/approach

    A review of the literature on psychological contracts and relationship marketing relating to affective relationship commitment was conducted to make a theoretical contribution in a buyer-supplier relationship context.

    Findings

    By focusing on the individual and incorporating relevant mental processes, theories on affective commitment have been developed. A model and propositions concerning the impact of psychological contracts on affective relationship commitment are suggested, where the psychological contract plays a central role in mediating the effects of several antecedents to affective commitment.

    Research limitations/implications

    By focusing on the individual’s role in affective relationship commitment, this paper contrasts with much of the earlier research, which has used the firm as the unit of analysis. For practitioners, using such an approach will provide a more realistic view of the dynamics in the relationship.

    Originality/value

    This study makes two main contributions. First, it develops conceptual clarity of the affective commitment construct by putting a clear focus on the individual. Second, it proposes a model that describes the influence of several antecedents to affective commitment, suggesting a central role of psychological contracts in explaining the presence of affective commitment in business-to-business relationships.

  • 39.
    Nilvander, Frida
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Hyder, Akmal
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Adaptation in international service marketing: Standardization versus adaptation in Eastern Europe2011In: / [ed] Jan Löwstedt, Stockholm, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AbstractPurpose This study aims to describe international marketing strategies of a service firm in Lithuania, focusing on standardization and adaptation. To go into the depth of the study, areas of standardization versus adaptation have been identified and four contents, have been examined.Research design and methodology Considering the complexity of standardization/adaptation dilemma in developing international service marketing strategy, a case study on a Swedish firm is conducted. Semi-structured interviews and a set of open ended questions have been used for data collection. Analysis of the data is carried out focusing on standardization/adaption in the internationalization process and where they should occur.Findings By analyzing the contents internal factors, external factors and standardization/adaptation contents, it has been possible to find where marketing adaptations are needed and where standardization are favored. With help of a conceptual model we have been able to illustrate where in the process of marketing adaptations needs to be done. In case of cultural differences, it is found that the marketing strategy has largely been adapted to local conditions, but at the same time there has been a clear objective to keep the technology and the foreign firm’s knowledge and practices attached to it intact.Originality This paper makes a unique contribution building on the process of adaption/ standardization of international services marketing in a culturally distant country. Introduction of the four contents concept offers a new theoretical insight in seeing how service firms can develop their international marketing strategies through addressing adaptation/standardization issue.Keywords Services marketing, marketing mix content, brand content, service concept content, marketing strategy, cultural differences.Classification: Case

  • 40.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Hyder, Akmal
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Marriage for better or for worse?: Towards an analytical framework to manage post-merger integration process2015In: Business Process Management Journal, ISSN 1463-7154, E-ISSN 1758-4116, Vol. 21, no 4, 857-887 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: A review of extant literatures shows that most mergers fail during the integration process. Little is known about how the realization of operating synergies and dissemination of available know-how in the merged firm are managed in the post-merger phase. We provide insights on the process of integrating operating synergies by focusing on the critical success factors that facilitate integration of the skills of merged banks.

    Design/methodology/approach: We draw on three research traditions in merger literature and reconcile them with three dimensions of integration. In-depth interviews were conducted with Nordea bank’s managers from four Nordic countries.

    Findings: Having learned from the mistakes of previous mergers, Nordea’s “guiding star” for managing its post-merger integration process was expressed as Focus, Speed and Performance from top management. Therefore, a hands-on leadership style, vision-led thinking, a bias for action, involvement of the entire staff, continuous focus on customers, and open and honest communication with employees are critical to success.

    Concluding remarks and implications: We conclude that the motive for a merger has an important impact on the degree of interaction and degree of integration. This study expands on previous findings by, among other things, synthesizing three theoretical lenses into an integrative model, and addresses post-merger issues with a sharp eye toward clear managerial relevance.

    Originality and value: We respond to the call to expand inter-firm relationships study beyond the narrow dyadic relationship focus and not solely conceptualize mergers as one of companies’ entry modes to implement mechanistic growth strategy. The three dimensions of integration imbued with three research traditions in merger literature provides us with a conceptual lens to conceive mergers also as engines for change emerging from the merged firms to enhance a bespoke performance of their business process. Building on this premise in line with our research questions, the focal study broadens the analytical toolbox for radical and incremental change dichotomies identified in prior studies.

  • 41.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Hyder, Akmal
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    The Creation of Nordea Bank: Toward an integrative analytical framework for managing the post-merger Tasks and Knowledge integration process2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Little is currently known about how the realisation of operating synergies and dissemination of available knowhow in the merged firm are managed in post-merger phase. We provide insights on the process of integrating operating synergies by focusing on the critical success factors facilitating integration of the skills of the merged banks. We draw on three perspectives and reconcile them with three dimensions of integration. In-depth interviews were conducted with Nordea bank´s managers from four Nordic countries. Review of extant literatures shows that most mergers fail during the integration process. Having learned from the mistakes of previous mergers, Nordea´s “leading star” for managing its post-merger integration process were expressed as Focus, Speed and Performance from top management. Therefore, a hands-on leadership styles, vision-led thinking, a bias for action, involvement of the entire staff, continuous focus on customers, open and honest communication with employees are critical to success. We conclude that the motive for a merger  have an important impact on the degree of interaction and degree of integration; This study deepens previous findings by, among others, synthesising three theoretical lenses into an integrative model and addresses post-merger issues with a sharp eye towards clear managerial relevance.

  • 42.
    Osman-Gani, A. Ahad M.
    et al.
    Nanyang Business School, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
    Hyder, Akmal S.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Repatriation readjustment of international managers: an empirical study of HRD interventions2008In: Career Development International, ISSN 1362-0436, E-ISSN 1758-6003, Vol. 13, no 5, 456-475 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - With increasing interest in overseas business expansion, particularly in the Asia-Pacific region, expatriate management, including repatriation readjustmenst, has become a critical international human resource development (HRD) issue for multinational enterprises (MNEs). This empirical study therefore aims to investigate the use of HRD interventions relating to training and development for effective readjustment of international managers on repatriation. Design/methodology/approach - The data were collected through a field survey conducted on repatriation experience of international managers from more than five countries, who are working in Singapore. Findings - The study provides valuable insights about repatriation training programmes, training contents, programme duration, delivery modes, and providers of effective training programmes. Research limitations/implications - HRD professionals and senior executives of MNEs will benefit from the findings of this study in making decisions on effective design and implementation of training and career development programmes. Practical implications - The findings have significant implications for career development of managers involved in international business operations. Originality/value - This paper discusses readjustment problems of the repatriating managers and suggests how realistic HRD programmes, mainly based on training, can be developed and implemented for retaining international managers. These findings from the dynamic region of Asia will also help in developing appropriate career development programmes.

  • 43.
    Rydback, Michelle
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Hyder, Akmal
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Borg, Erik
    Södertörns Högskola, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Marketing Medical Tourism in Emerging Market2016In: BAM2016 Conference Proceedings, British Academy of Management (BAM) , 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to examine marketing of medical tourism (MT) from an emerging markets’ (EMs) perspective. In concrete, it analyzes how service providers develop trust, establish contacts with different actors and adapt to customers and the local environment to carry out the marketing in EM. A qualitative multiple case study approach has been employed. The result shows that trust- and network building is significant in mitigating the unfavorable feature, sustain the instability and legitimacy cause by institutional void. While, adaptation is necessary to customize service and support trust and network building. This study shows how healthcare providers are thriving in a turbulent environment in EM to promote medical service. Thus, it confers marketing science influence the MT industry. The proposed theoretical framework can be a relevant tool to improve understanding MT.

  • 44.
    Rydback, Michelle
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Hyder, Akmal S.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Borg, Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    The marketing process of medical tourism2015In: Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Sustainable Value Chain in a Dynamic Environment / [ed] D. Vrontis, Y. Weber, E. Tsoukatos, Marseille: EuroMed Press , 2015, 2720-2722 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Sundström, Agneta
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Ahmadi, Zahra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Hyder, Akmal
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Market and innovation orientation typology: proposition and illustrations2016In: Marketing Intelligence & Planning, ISSN 0263-4503, E-ISSN 1758-8049, Vol. 34, no 3, 376-393 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a typology based on the market orientation (MO) and innovation orientation (IO) of firms, and to illustrate the extent to which public housing companies (PHCs) fit into this framework.

    Design/methodology/approach – A qualitative study of 11 PHCs in central Sweden was conducted to classify their positions in the typology. Interviews with semi-structured and open-ended questions were used to collect the data.

    Findings – Four PHC types were identified by combining high and low MO and IO. This study offers insights on the importance of combining MO and IO. The overall findings show that MO and IO combination is not static and must be handled according to context. The MO-IO typology developed could be tested in a quantitative study on a larger sample of public or combined public and private housing companies.

    Research limitations/implications – An empirical study comparing public and private housing companies on the basis of the proposed typology in relation to economic contingencies in the environment would further knowledge in this area.

    Practical implications – The current study gives managers an indication of their position in the typology, which can be used as a tool for improving performance.

    Originality/value – This paper describes PHCs within a proposed typological framework.

  • 46.
    Sundström, Agneta
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Ahmadi, Zahra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Hyder, Akmal
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Market and Innovation Orientation: A Typology of Public Housing Companies in Sweden2013In: World Academy Of Science, Engineering And Technology Issue 0076 April 2013, 2013, 4-12 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract— The purpose of this paper is to develop a typology based on market orientation (MO) and innovation orientation (IO), and to illustrate to what extent housing companies in Sweden fit within this framework. A qualitative study on 11 public housing companies in the central part of Sweden has been conducted by the help of open and semi-structured questions for data collection. Four public housing company types’ i.e. reactive prospector, proactive prospector, reactive defender and proactive defender have been identified by the combination of MO-IO dimensions. Future research can include other dimensions like entrepreneurship and network to observe how it particularly affects MO. An empirical study can compare public and private housing companies on the basis of MO and IO dimensions. One major contribution of the paper is the proposition of typology which can be used to describe public housing companies and deciding their future course of actions.

     

    Keywords— Customer-led, economy, innovativeness, market orientation.

  • 47.
    Sundström, Agneta
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Hyder, Akmal S.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    A case of a successful company town: partnership between top management, local government and civil sector institutionsIn: European Journal of International Management, ISSN 1751-6757Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Sundström, Agneta
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hyder, Akmal S.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Local management response to corporative restructuring: a case study of a company town2008In: Business and Society Review, ISSN 0045-3609, E-ISSN 1467-8594, Vol. 113, no 3, 375-402 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a case study of top management in a Swedish pulp industry at Skutskär. After decades of proactive response to change, starting in 1976 the pulp industry experienced a rapid and significant restructuring. In 1992, and after a prolonged hold on local investments, came a large-scale investment with major labor reductions, which created a local crisis. The aim of this study is to analyze how top managers of a local business plant perceive and explain their citizenship relationship to the community of the company town during a transition period from 1976 to 2007. Our study shows that too much reliance on top management cost reduction requirements and not caring, or underscoring, local social concerns created gaps and local stakeholder distrust. We discuss how prolonged distrust of the company to bear social responsibility ended up in a broken relationship between the company and the local community. Our case indicates at least two problems that must be handled for successful corporate citizenship. First, the traditional control-oriented management view is too narrow and not adjusted to today's citizenship reality, including how to handle corporate social responsibility. Second, we can see a possibility where the conceived needs on a global corporate level may lead to situations to obscure local needs and consequences.

  • 49.
    Sundström, Agneta
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Hyder, Akmal S.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Chowdhury, Ehsanul Huda
    American International University-Bangladesh, Bangladesh.
    CSR implementation challenges in global supply chain: experiences from Bangladesh garments industry2013In: The Second International Conference on Production and Supply Chain Management 2013, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate how suppliers in Bangladesh garment industry independently can take CSR for their own business affairs. Data is collected through interviews of large international buyers, important Bangladesh suppliers and major organizations having influence on the supply chain context. The findings show high supplier dependency on buying company’s code of conduct in CSR implementation. Five main challenges are identified; weak supplier-driven CSR implementation; non-questioning business culture; dilemma consequences of order pressures; weak coherence between the buyers’ implementation strategies and; absence of self-contained supporting organizational structure. This research considers CSR implementation as prerequisite for ensuring efficiency and sustainability in the supply chain of the garment industry in Bangladesh. Based on the challenges it is suggested that suppliers need to improve by: (1) initiatives and measures to build up responsibility to practice CSR; (2) develop a supply chain culture based on CSR orientation and intelligence and (3) establish link with educational institutions to achieve CSR competence for implementation.  The study offers insight on CSR implementation challenges of international suppliers of Bangladesh garments industry and highlights the understanding of the effects of CSR implementation for supply chain sustainability.

  • 50.
    Sundström, Agneta
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Sammalisto, Kaisu
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics.
    Hyder, Akmal S.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Chowdhury, Ehsanul Huda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    CSR implementation strategy constraints in emerging market supply chain context: Bangladesh garment industry experiences2016In: International Journal of Applied Business and Economic Research, ISSN 0972-7302, Vol. 14, no 13, 9041-9062 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The study aims to explore how SC suppliers respond to corporate social responsibility (CSR) implementation strategies and deal with institutional constraints within the global supply chain. Design/Methodology/approach: This research study followed a mixed method approach. A qualitative case study was developed based on data collected through in-depth interviews, observations, workshops and seminar discussions. Findings: Two CSR strategies were identified, together with managerial, organizational, and societal constraints. Both strategies fail due to CSR ignorance and economic constraints of the suppliers. The corporate-driven strategy is constrained by limiting the supplier's margins forcing them to use less responsible subcontractors. The partnership strategy fails as it allows the suppliers to ignore compliance to CSR implementation rules and especially in economically difficult situations. Research limitations/implications: This paper has several limitations. The data illustrate a specific industry and SC companies in a specific country context which makes generalizations difficult. Practical implications: Long-term economic cooperation and negotiation between involved supply chain (SC) parties is prerequisite to improve supplier ability to act independently. This means that the corporate-driven CSR strategy in SC is so far easier to manage but elicit costs for suppliers. Originality/value: This study addresses the difficulties in managing the corporate-driven strategy and the partnership strategy in emerging market business context that traditionally has institutionalized corporate-driven SC control. With focus on two main CSR implementation strategies applied by two case corporations, this article contributes to show how institutional constraints influence on supplier ability in the studied SC context.

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