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  • 1.
    Airey, John
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Eriksson, Urban
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Fredlund, Tobias
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Linder, Cedric
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    On the Disciplinary Affordances of Semiotic Resources2014In: IACS-2014 Book of abstracts, 2014, p. 54-55Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the late 70’s Gibson (1979) introduced the concept of affordance. Initially framed around the needs of an organism in its environment, over the years the term has been appropriated and debated at length by a number of researchers in various fields. Most famous, perhaps is the disagreement between Gibson and Norman (1988) about whether affordances are inherent properties of objects or are only present when they are perceived by an organism. More recently, affordance has been drawn on in the educational arena, particularly with respect to multimodality (see Linder (2013) for a recent example). Here, Kress et al. (2001) have claimed that different modes have different specialized affordances. Then, building on this idea, Airey and Linder (2009) suggested that there is a critical constellation of modes that students need to achieve fluency in before they can experience a concept in an appropriate disciplinary manner. Later, Airey (2009) nuanced this claim, shifting the focus from the modes themselves to a critical constellation of semiotic resources, thus acknowledging that different semiotic resources within a mode often have different affordances (e.g. two or more diagrams may form the critical constellation).

    In this theoretical paper the concept of disciplinary affordance (Fredlund et al., 2012) is suggested as a useful analytical tool for use in education. The concept makes a radical break with the views of both Gibson and Norman in that rather than focusing on the discernment of one individual, it refers to the disciplinary community as a whole. Put simply, the disciplinary affordances of a given semiotic resource are determined by those functions that the resource is expected to fulfil by the disciplinary community. Disciplinary affordances have thus been negotiated and developed within the discipline over time. As such, the question of whether these affordances are inherent or discerned becomes moot. Rather, from an educational perspective the issue is whether the meaning that a semiotic resource affords to an individual matches the disciplinary affordance assigned by the community. The power of the term for educational work is that learning can now be framed as coming to discern the disciplinary affordances of semiotic resources.

    In this paper we will briefly discuss the history of the term affordance, define the term disciplinary affordance and illustrate its usefulness in a number of educational settings.

  • 2.
    Airey, John
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Eriksson, Urban
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Fredlund, Tobias
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Linder, Cedric
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    The Concept of Disciplinary Affordance2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since its introduction by Gibson (1979) the concept of affordance has been discussed at length by a number of researchers. Most famous, perhaps is the disagreement between Gibson and Norman (1988) about whether affordances are inherent properties of objects or are only present when perceived by an organism. More recently, affordance has been drawn on in the educational arena, particularly with respect to multimodality (see Linder (2013) for a recent example). Here, Kress et al (2001) claim that different modes have different specialized affordances.

     

    In this theoretical paper the concept of disciplinary affordance (Fredlund et al., 2012) is suggested as a useful analytical educational tool. The concept makes a radical break with the views of both Gibson and Norman in that rather than focusing on the perception of an individual, it focuses on the disciplinary community as a whole. Put simply, the disciplinary affordances of a given semiotic resource are determined by the functions that it is expected to fulfil for the discipline. As such, the question of whether these affordances are inherent or perceived becomes moot. Rather, the issue is what a semiotic resource affords to an individual and whether this matches the disciplinary affordance. The power of the term is that learning can now be framed as coming to perceive the disciplinary affordances of semiotic resources.

     

    In this paper we will discuss the history of the term affordance, define the term disciplinary affordance and illustrate its usefulness in a number of educational settings.

     

    References

    Airey, J. (2009). Science, Language and Literacy. Case Studies of Learning in Swedish University Physics. Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis. Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology 81. Uppsala  Retrieved 2009-04-27, from http://publications.uu.se/theses/abstract.xsql?dbid=9547

    Fredlund, T., Airey, J., & Linder, C. (2012). Exploring the role of physics representations: an illustrative example from students sharing knowledge about refraction. European Journal of Physics, 33, 657-666.

    Gibson, J. J. (1979). The theory of affordances The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception (pp. 127-143). Boston: Houghton Miffin.

    Kress, G., Jewitt, C., Ogborn, J., & Tsatsarelis, C. (2001). Multimodal teaching and learning: The rhetorics of the science classroom. London: Continuum.

    Linder, C. (2013). Disciplinary discourse, representation, and appresentation in the teaching and learning of science. European Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 1(2), 43-49.

    Norman, D. A. (1988). The psychology of everyday things. New York: Basic Books.

     

     

  • 3.
    Fredlund, Tobias
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Airey, John
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Linder, Cedric
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Att välja lämpliga semiotiska resurser2013In: Scientific literacy: teori och praktik / [ed] E. Lundqvist, R. Säljö & L. Östman, Malmö: Gleerups Utbildning AB, 2013, p. 59-70Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Fredlund, Tobias
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Airey, John
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Linder, Cedric
    University of the Western Cape, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Choosing appropriate resources: investigating students’ scientific literacy2012In: ECER 2012, 2012, article id 18275Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Fredlund, Tobias
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Airey, John
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Linder, Cedric
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Critical aspects of scientific phenomena -- to the fore, in the background, or not present in scientific representations2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Fredlund, Tobias
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Airey, John
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Linder, Cedric
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Enhancing the possibilities for learning: Variation of disciplinary-relevant aspects in physics representations2015In: European journal of physics, ISSN 0143-0807, E-ISSN 1361-6404, Vol. 36, no 5, article id 055001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this theoretical article we propose three factors that can enhance the possibilities for learning physics from representations, namely: (1) the identification of disciplinary-relevant aspects for a particular disciplinary task, such as solving a physics problem or explaining a phenomenon, (2) the selection of appropriate representations that showcase these disciplinary-relevant aspects, and (3) the creation of variation within the selected representations to help students notice these disciplinary-relevant aspects and the ways in which they are related to each other. An illustration of how these three factors can guide teachers in their efforts to promote physics learning is presented.

  • 7.
    Fredlund, Tobias
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Airey, John
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Linder, Cedric
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Exploring the role of physics representations: an illustrative example from students sharing knowledge about refraction2012In: European journal of physics, ISSN 0143-0807, E-ISSN 1361-6404, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 657-666Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has shown that interactive engagement enhances student learning outcomes. A growing body of research suggests that the representations we use in physics are important in such learning environments. In this paper we draw on a number of sources in the literature to explore the role of representations in interactive engagement in physics. In particular we are interested in the potential for sharing disciplinary knowledge inherent in so-called persistent representations (such as equations, diagrams and graphs), which we use in physics. We use selected extracts from a case study, where a group of senior undergraduate physics students are asked to explain the phenomenon of refraction, to illustrate implications for interactive engagement. In this study the ray diagram that was initially introduced by the students did not appear to sufficiently support their interactive engagement. However, the introduction of a wavefront diagram quickly led their discussion to an agreed conclusion. From our analysis we conclude that in interactive engagement it is important to choose appropriate persistent representations to coordinate the use of other representations such as speech and gestures. Pedagogical implications and future research are proposed.

  • 8.
    Fredlund, Tobias
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Linder, Cedric
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Making physics learning possible: exploring a variation perspective on representations2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Fredlund, Tobias
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Linder, Cedric
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Naturvetarnas ‘språk’: användandet av figurer, artefakter, ekvationer och ord i studentdiskussioner om fysikaliska fenomen2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Klyftan mellan vardagsspråket och språkbruket i en naturvetenskaplig disciplin, som t.ex. fysik, kan upplevas problematisk av den som inte har tillägnat sig det aktuella vetenskapliga språket. Detta blir extra tydligt om vi utökar definitionen av ”språk” till att också innefatta andra semiotiska resurser än talad och skriven text, som t.ex figurer, grafer, ekvationer och andra ”artefakter” såsom laboratorieutrustning. Olika semiotiska resurser kan antas ha olika styrkor, och lämna kompletterande information. Från ett lärandeperspektiv är det viktigt att veta hur den nämnda språkklyftan kan överbryggas, särskilt när nya fenomen ska introduceras i undervisningen. Finns det för ett visst fenomen någon semiotisk resurs (läs språngbräda) som är särskilt viktig för förståelsen av de vetenskapliga förklaringarna?

    Refraktion är ett fysikaliskt fenomen som innebär att exempelvis ljus ändrar riktning, bryts, när det går från ett medium till ett annat, i vilka ljushastigheterna är olika. Denna riktningsändring ger upphov till att en rak pinne som är delvis i luften och delvis nedsänkt i vatten, ser ut att böjas vid vattenytan. Detta fenomen kan beskrivas av en rad olika semiotiska resurser, som olika typer av diagram och ekvationer. I denna undersökning har jag tittat på vilka semiotiska resurser som används när tre fysikstudenter diskuterar hur de skulle förklara upplevelsen att en pinne delvis nedsänkt i vatten ser ut att böjas vid vattenytan för dels en icke fysik-studerande, dels en kurskamrat i en fysikkurs. Diskussionen har videofilmats och transkriberats. Ytterligare material har insamlats från liknande gruppdiskussioner, där deltagarna fått anteckna sina resultat på papper. Data har analyserats efter vilka semiotiska resurser som förekommer, och vilken betydelse de haft för diskussionen.

    Resultatet av undersökningen kommer att presenteras i form av en poster, där bilder på de använda semiotiska resurserna visas. Den pågående analysen antyder att en viss typ av diagram, som utnyttjar ljusets vågnatur, är av särskild vikt för förståelsen av detta fenomen, och en möjlig nyckel till djupare förståelse av fenomenet.

  • 10.
    Fredlund, Tobias
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Linder, Cedric
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Airey, John
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    A case study of the role of representations in enabling and constraining the sharing of physics knowledge in peer discussions2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Fredlund, Tobias
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Linder, Cedric
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Airey, John
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    A social semiotic approach to identifying critical aspects2015In: International Journal for Lesson and Learning Studies, ISSN 2046-8253, E-ISSN 2046-8261, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 302-316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    This article proposes a social semiotic approach to analysing objects of learning in terms of their critical aspects.

    Design/methodology/approach

    The design for this article focuses on how the semiotic resources – including language, equations, and diagrams – that are commonly used in physics teaching realise the critical aspects of a common physics object of learning. A social semiotic approach to the analysis of a canonical text extract from optics is presented to illustrate how critical aspects can be identified. 

    Findings

    Implications for university teaching and learning of physics stemming from this social semiotic approach are suggested.

    Originality/value

    Hitherto under-explored similarities between the Variation Theory of Learning, which underpins learning studies, and a social semiotic approach to meaning-making are identified. These similarities are used to propose a new, potentially very powerful approach to identifying critical aspects of objects of learning.

    References:

    Airey, J. and Linder, C. (2009), “A disciplinary discourse perspective on university science learning: achieving fluency in a critical constellation of modes”, Journal of Research in Science Teaching, Vol. 46 No. 1, pp. 27-49.

    Bernhard, J. (2010), “Insightful learning in the laboratory: some experiences from 10 years of designing and using conceptual labs”, European Journal of Engineering Education, Vol. 35 No. 3, pp. 271-287.

    Booth, S. (1997), “On phenomenography, learning and teaching”, Higher Education Research & Development, Vol. 16 No. 2, pp. 135-158. 

    Booth, S. and Hultén, M. (2003), “Opening dimensions of variation: an empirical study of learning in a web-based discussion”, Instructional Science, Vol. 31 Nos 1/2, 65-86.

    Chandler, D. (2007), Semiotics: The Basics, Routledge, New York, NY. Clerk-Maxwell, J.C. (1871), “Remarks on the mathematical classification of physical quantities”, Proceedings London Math. Soc., London, pp. 224-233.

    Cope, C. (2000), “Educationally critical aspects of the experience of learning about the concept of an information system”, PhD thesis, La Trobe University, Bundoora.

    Einstein, A. (1936), “Physics and reality”, Journal of the Franklin Institute, Vol. 221 No. 3, pp. 349-382.

    Feynman, R.P., Leighton, R.P. and Sands, M. (1963), The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol. I, Perseus Books, Reading, available at: www.feynmanlectures.caltech.edu, (accessed 9 March 2015).

    Fredlund, T., Airey, J. and Linder, C. (2012), “Exploring the role of physics representations: an illustrative example from students sharing knowledge about refraction”, Eur. J. Phys., Vol. 33 No. 3, pp. 657-666.

    Fredlund, T., Airey, J. and Linder, C. (2015), “Enhancing the possibilities for learning: variation of disciplinary-relevant aspects in physics representations”, Eur. J. Phys, Vol. 36, 055001.

    Fredlund, T., Linder, C., Airey, J. and Linder, A. (2014), “Unpacking physics representations: towards an appreciation of disciplinary affordance”, Phys. Rev. ST Phys. Educ. Res., Vol. 10, 020129.

    Gurwitsch, A. (1964), The Field of Consciousness, Vol. 2, Duquesne University Press, Pittsburgh, PA. Halliday, M.A.K. (1978), Language as Social Semiotic, Edward Arnold, London.

    Halliday, M.A.K. (1993), “On the language of physical science”, in Halliday, M.A.K. and Martin, J.R. (Eds), Writing Science: Literacy and Discursive Power, The Falmer Press, London, pp. 59-75.

    Halliday, M.A.K. (1998), “Things and relations: regrammaticising experience as technical knowledge”, in Martin, J.R. and Veel, R. (Eds), Reading Science: Critical and Functional Perspectives on Discourses of Science, Routledge, London, pp. 185-236.

    Halliday, M.A.K. (2004a), “The grammatical construction of scientific knowledge: the framing of the English clause”, in Webster, J.J. (Ed.), Collected Works of M.A.K. Halliday: The Language of Science, Vol. 5, Continuum, London, pp. 102-134.

    Halliday, M.A.K. (2004b), “Language and the reshaping of human experience”, in Webster, J.J. (Ed.), Collected Works of M.A.K. Halliday: The Language of Science, Vol. 5, Continuum, London, pp. 7-23.

    Halliday, M.A.K. and Matthiessen, C.M.I.M. (1999), Construing Experience Through Meaning, Cassell, New York, NY.

    Halliday, M.A.K. and Matthiessen, C.M.I.M. (2004), An Introduction to Functional Grammar, Hodder Education, London.

    Hodge, R. and Kress, G. (1988), Social Semiotics, Cornell University Press, New York, NY.

    Ingerman, Å., Linder, C. and Marshall, D. (2009), “The learners’ experience of variation: following students’ threads of learning physics in computer simulation sessions”, Instructional Science, Vol. 37 No. 3, pp. 273-292.

    Kress, G. (1997), Before Writing: Rethinking the Paths to Literacy, Routledge, London.

    Kress, G. (2010), Multimodality: A Social Semiotic Approach to Contemporary Communication, Routledge, London.

    Kress, G. and Van Leeuwen, T. (2006), Reading Images: The Grammar of Visual Design, Routledge, New York, NY. 

    Kryjevskaia, M., Stetzer, M.R. and Heron, P.R.L. (2012), “Student understanding of wave behavior at a boundary: the relationships among wavelength, propagation speed, and frequency”, Am. J. Phys., Vol. 80 No. 4, pp. 339-347.

    Lemke, J.L. (1983), “Thematic analysis, systems, structures, and strategies”, Semiotic Inquiry, Vol. 3 No. 2, pp. 159-187.

    Lemke, J.L. (1990), Talking Science, Ablex Publishing, Norwood, NJ. Lemke, J.L. (1998), “Multiplying meaning: visual and verbal semiotics in scientific text”, in Martin, J.R. and Veel, R. (Eds), Reading Science: Critical and Functional Perspectives on Discourses of Science, Routledge, London, pp. 87-114.

    Lemke, J.L. (2003), “Mathematics in the middle: measure, picture, gesture, sign and word”, in Anderson M., Saenz-Ludlow A., Zellweger S. and Cifarelli V. (Eds), Educational Perspectives on Mathematics as Semiosis: From Thinking to Interpreting to Knowing, Legas, Ottawa, pp. 215-234.

    Linder, C., Fraser, D. and Pang, M.F. (2006), “Using a variation approach to enhance physics learning in a college classroom”, The Physics Teacher, Vol. 44 No. 9, pp. 589-592.

    Lo, M.L. (2012), Variation Theory and the Improvement of Teaching and Learning, Göteborgs Universitet, Gothenburg.

    Lo, M.L. and Marton, F. (2011), “Towards a science of the art of teaching: using variation theory as a guiding principle of pedagogical design”, International Journal for Lesson and Learning Studies, Vol. 1 No. 1, pp. 7-22.

    Mahoney, M.S. (1994), The Mathematical Career of Pierre de Fermat, 1601-1665, Princeton University Press, Princeton, MA.

    Marton, F. (2006), “Sameness and difference in transfer”, The Journal of the Learning Sciences, Vol. 15 No. 4, pp. 499-535.

    Marton, F. (2015), Necessary Conditions of Learning, Routledge, New York, NY.

    Marton, F. and Booth, S. (1997), Learning and Awareness, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ.

    Marton, F. and Pang, M.F. (2013), “Meanings are acquired from experiencing differences against a background of sameness, rather than from experiencing sameness against a background of difference: putting a conjecture to the test by embedding it in a pedagogical tool”, Frontline Learning Research, Vol. 1 No. 1, pp. 24-41.

    Marton, F. and Tsui, A.B.M. (2004), Classroom Discourse and the Space of Learning, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, London.

    Marton, F., Runesson, U. and Tsui, A.B.M. (2004), “The space of learning”, in Marton, F. and Tsui, A.B.M. (Eds), Classroom Discourse and the Space of Learning, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, London, pp. 3-40.

    New London Group (1996), “A pedagogy of multiliteracies: designing social futures”, Harvard Educational Review, Vol. 66 No. 1, pp. 60-93. Norris, S.P. and Phillips, L.M. (2003), “How literacy in its fundamental sense is central to scientific literacy”, Science Education, Vol. 87 No. 2, pp. 224-240.

    O’Halloran, K.L. (2005), Mathematical Discourse: Language, Symbolism and Visual Images, Continuum, London.

    Pang, M.F. and Marton, F. (2013), “Interaction between the learners’ initial grasp of the object of learning and the learning resource orded”, Instructional Science, Vol. 41 No. 6, pp. 1065-1082.

    Van Leeuwen, T. (2005), Introducing Social Semiotics, Routledge, New York, NY.

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    Wood, K. (2013), “A design for teacher education based on a systematic framework of variation to link teaching with learners’ ways of experiencing the object of learning”, International Journal for Lesson and Learning Studies, Vol. 2 No. 1, pp. 56-71.

    Young, H.D. and Freedman, R.A. (2004), University Physics with Modern Physics, Pearson, San Francisco, CA.

  • 12.
    Fredlund, Tobias
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Linder, Cedric
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Airey, John
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Towards addressing transient learning challenges in undergraduate physics: An example from electrostatics2015In: European journal of physics, ISSN 0143-0807, E-ISSN 1361-6404, Vol. 36, no 5, article id 055002Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we characterize transient learning challenges as learning challenges that arise out of teaching situations rather than conflicts with prior knowledge. We propose that these learning challenges can be identified by paying careful attention to the representations that students produce. Once a transient learning challenge has been identified, teachers can create interventions to address it. By illustration, we argue that an appropriate way to design such interventions is to create variation around the disciplinary-relevant aspects associated with the transient learning challenge.

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