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  • 1.
    Alizadeh, Mahmoud
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Amin, Shoaib
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Measurement and analysis of frequency-domain Volterra kernels of nonlinear dynamic 3x3 MIMO systems2017In: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, Vol. 66, no 7, p. 1893-1905Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) frequency-domain Volterra kernels of nonlinear order 3 are experimentally determined in bandwidth-limited frequency regions. How the effect of higher nonlinear orders can be reduced and how this affects the estimated errors are discussed. The magnitude and phase of the kernels areKramers-Kronig consistent. The self- and cross-kernels have different symmetries and the kernels are therefore determined and analyzed in different regions in the 3D frequency space. By analyzing the properties along certain paths in the 3D frequency space, the block structures for the respective kernels are determined. These block structures contain the significant blocks of the general block structures for third-order kernels. The device under test is a MIMO transmitter for radio frequency signals.

  • 2.
    Amin, Shoaib
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Characterization and Linearization of Multi-band Multi-channel RF Power Amplifiers2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The World today is deeply transformed by the advancement in wireless technology. The envision of a smart society where interactions between physical and virtual dimensions of life are intertwined and where human interaction is mediated by machines, e.g., smart phones, demands increasingly more data traffic. This continual increase in data traffic requires re-designing of the wireless technologies for increased system capacity and flexibility. In this thesis, aspects related to behavioral modeling, characterization, and linearization of multi-channel/band power amplifiers (PAs) are discussed.

    When building a model of any system, it is advantageous to take into account the knowledge of the physics of the system and include into the model. This approach could help to improve the model performance. In this context, three novel behavioral models and DPD schemes for nonlinear MIMO transmitters are proposed.

    To model and compensate distortions in GaN based RF PAs in presence of long-term memory effects, novel models for SISO and concurrent dual-band PAs are proposed. These models are based on a fixed pole expansion technique and have infinite impulse response. They show substantial performance improvement. A behavioral model based on the physical knowledge of the concurrent dual-band PA is derived, and its performance is investigated both for behavioral modeling and compensation of nonlinear distortions.

    Two-tone characterization is a fingerprint method for the characterization of memory effects in dynamic nonlinear systems. In this context, two novel techniques are proposed. The first technique is a dual two-tone characterization technique to characterize the memory effects of self- and cross-modulation products in concurrent dual-band transmitter. The second technique is for the characterization and analysis of self- and cross-Volterra kernels of nonlinear 3x3 MIMO systems using three-tone signals.

  • 3.
    Amin, Shoaib
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Characterization and Linearization of Multi-channel RF Power Amplifiers2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The demands for high data rates and broadband wireless access requirethe development of wireless systems that can support wide and multi-bandsignals. To deploy these signals, new radio frequency (RF) front-ends are requiredwhich impose new challenges in terms of power consumption efficiencyand sources of distortion e.g., nonlinearity. These challenges are more pronouncedin power amplifiers (PAs) that degrade the overall performance ofthe RF transmitter.Since it is difficult to optimize the linearity and efficiency characteristicsof a PA simultaneously, a trade-off is needed. At high input power, a PAexhibits high efficiency at the expense of linearity. On the other hand, atlow input power, a PA is linear at the expense of the efficiency. To achievelinearity and efficiency at the same time, digital pre-distortion (DPD) is oftenused to compensate for the PA nonlinearity at high input power. In case ofmulti-channel PAs, input and output signals of different channels interactwith each other due to cross-talk. Therefore, these PAs exhibit differentnonlinear behavior than the single-input single-output (SISO) PAs. The DPDtechniques developed for SISO PAs do not result in adequate performancewhen used for multi-channel PAs. Hence, an accurate behavioral modeling isessential for the development of DPD for multi-channel RF PAs.In this thesis, we propose three novel behavioral models and DPD schemesfor nonlinear multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) transmitters in presenceof cross-talk. A study of the source of cross-talk in MIMO transmittershave been investigated to derive simple and powerful modeling schemes.These models are extensions of a SISO generalized memory polynomial model.A comparative study with a previously published MIMO model is also presented.The effect of coherent and partially non-coherent signal generationon DPD performance is also highlighted. It is shown experimentally thatwith partially non-coherent signal generation, the performance of the DPDdegrades compared to coherent signal generation.In context of multi-channel RF transmitters, PA behavioral models andDPD schemes suffer from a large number of model parameters with the increasein nonlinear order and memory depth. This growth leads to highcomplexity model identification and implementation. We have designed aDPD scheme for MIMO PAs using a sparse estimation technique for reducingmodel complexity. This technique also increases the numerical stability whenlinear least square estimation model identification is used.A method to characterize the memory effects in a nonlinear concurrentdual-band PAs is also presented. Compared to the SISO PAs, concurrentdual-band PAs are not only affected by intermodulation distortions but alsoby cross-modulation distortions. The characterization of memory effects inconcurrent dual-band transmitter is performed by injecting a two-tone testsignal in each input channel of the transmitter. Asymmetric energy surfacesare introduced for the intermodulation and cross-modulation products, whichcan be used to identify the power and frequency regions where the memory effects are dominant.

  • 4.
    Amin, Shoaib
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. Dept of Signal Processing, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Händel, Peter
    Dept of Signal Processing, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Characterization and modeling of RF amplifiers with multiple input signals2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A characterization technique for RF PAs excited with multiple signals is presented. The technique can be used for characterization of memory effects in IM/CM products. The extracted information can in return be of use for modifying behavioral models to better capture memory in IM/CM products.

  • 5.
    Amin, Shoaib
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. Department of Signal Processing, School of Electrical Engineering, KTH.
    Händel, Peter
    Department of Signal Processing, School of Electrical Engineering, KTH.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Digital Predistortion of Single and Concurrent Dual Band Radio Frequency GaN Amplifiers with Strong Nonlinear Memory Effects2017In: IEEE transactions on microwave theory and techniques, ISSN 0018-9480, E-ISSN 1557-9670, Vol. 65, no 7, p. 2453-2464, article id 7855827Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrical anomalies due to trapping effects in Gallium Nitride (GaN) power amplifiers (PAs)give rise to long-term or strong memory effects. We propose novel models based on infinite impulse response (IIR) fixed pole expansion techniques for the behavioural modeling and digital pre-distortion of single-input-single-output (SISO) and concurrent dual-bandGaN PAs. Experimental results show that the proposed models outperform the corresponding finite impulse response (FIR) models by up to 17 dB for the same number of model parameters. For the linearization of a SISO GaN PA the proposed models give adjacent channel power ratios (ACPRs) that are 7 to 17 dBlower than the FIR models. For the concurrent dual-band case, the proposed models give ACPRs that are 9to 14 dB lower than the FIR models.

  • 6.
    Amin, Shoaib
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. ACCESS Linnaeus Centre, Department of Signal Processing, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Khan, Zain Ahmed
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. ACCESS Linnaeus Centre, Department of Signal Processing, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Isaksson, Magnus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Händel, Peter
    ACCESS Linnaeus Centre, Department of Signal Processing, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Concurrent dual-band power amplifier model modification using dual two-tone test2016In: 46th Europena Microwave Conference (EUMC) 2016, 2016, p. 186-189Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A dual two-tone technique for the characterization of memory effects in concurrent dual-band transmitters is revisited to modify a 2D-DPD model for the linearization of concurrent dual-band transmitters. By taking into account the individual nonlinear memory effects of the self- and cross-kernels, a new2D modified digital pre-distortion (2D-MDPD) model is proposed,which not only supersedes the linearization performance but also reduces the computational complexity compared to the 2DDPDmodel in terms of a number of floating point operations(FLOPs). Experimental results show an improvement of 1.7 dBin normalized mean square error (NMSE) and a 58% reduction in the number of FLOPs.

  • 7.
    Amin, Shoaib
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. KTH.
    Landin, Per
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Händel, Peter
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. ACCESS Linnaeus Centre, Signal Processing Lab, KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Behavioral Modeling and Linearization of Crosstalk and Memory Effects in RF MIMO Transmitters2014In: IEEE transactions on microwave theory and techniques, ISSN 0018-9480, E-ISSN 1557-9670, Vol. 62, no 4, p. 810-823Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes three novel models for behavioral modeling and digital pre-distortion (DPD) of nonlinear 2$,times,$ 2 multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) transmitters in the presence of crosstalk. The proposed models are extensions of the single-input single-output generalized memory polynomial model. Three types of crosstalk effects were studied and characterized as linear, nonlinear, and nonlinear & linear crosstalk. A comparative study was performed with previously published models for the linearization of crosstalk in a nonlinear 2 $,times,$2 MIMO transmitter. The experiments indicate that, depending on the type of crosstalk, the selection of the correct model in the transmitter is necessary for behavioral modeling and sufficient DPD performance. The effects of coherent and partially noncoherent signal generation on the performance of DPD were also studied. For crosstalk levels of ${-}{hbox{30}}$ dB, the difference in the normalized mean square error and adjacent channel power ratio was found to be 3–4 dB between coherent and partially noncoherent signal generation.

  • 8.
    Amin, Shoaib
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. KTH, Signalbehandling.
    Landin, Per N.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Händel, Peter
    KTH, Signalbehandling.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    2D Extended envelope memory polynomial model for concurrent dual-band RF transmitters2017In: International journal of microwave and wireless technologies, ISSN 1759-0795, E-ISSN 1759-0787, Vol. 9, no 8, p. 1619-1627Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents a 2D extended envelope memory polynomial (2D-EEMP) model for concurrent dual-band radio frequency (RF) power amplifiers (PAs). The model is derived based on the physical knowledge of a dual-band RF PA. The derived model contains cross-modulation terms not included in previously published models; these terms are found to be of importance for both behavioral modeling and digital pre-distortion (DPD). The performance of the derived model is evaluated both as the behavioral model and DPD, and the performance is compared with state-of-the-art2D-DPD and dual-band generalized memory polynomial (DB-GMP) models. Experimental result shows that the proposed model resulted in normalized mean square error (NMSE) of -51.7/-51.6dB and adjacent channel error power ratio (ACEPR) of -63.1/-63.4 dB, for channel 1/2, whereas the 2D-DPD resulted in the largest model error and DB-GMP resulted in model parameters that are 3 times more than those resulted with the proposed model with the same performance. As pre-distorter, the proposed model resulted in adjacent channel power ratio (ACPR) of -55.8/ -54.6 dB for channel 1/2 and is 7-10 dB lower than those resulted with the 2D-DPD model and2-4 dB lower compared to the DB-GMP model.

  • 9.
    Amin, Shoaib
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. KTH, Signalbehandling.
    Van Moer, Wendy
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Händel, Peter
    Department of Signal Processing, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Rönnow, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Characterization of concurrent dual-band power amplifiers using a dual two-tone excitation signal2015In: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, Vol. 64, no 10, p. 2781-2791, article id 7104121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method to characterize the memory effects in a nonlinear concurrent dual-band transmitter is presented. It is an extension of the conventional two tone test for power amplifiers to concurrent dual band transmitters. The output signal of a concurrent dual-band transmitter is affected not only by intermodulation products but also by cross-modulation products. In one frequency band, the transmitter is excited by a two tone signal which frequency separation is swept. In the second band the transmitter is concurrently excited by an other two tone signal with slightly wider frequency separation. The frequency difference of the two signals is fixed during the frequency sweep. The two tone test is made at different power levels. The upper and lower third-order inter- and cross-modulation products are measured. The asymmetry between the upper and lower third-order inter- and cross-modulation products are measures of the transmitter's memory effects. The measurement results show that the memory effects are more dominant in the third-order intermodulation products than in the cross modulation products. An error analysis and system calibration was performed and measurement results for two different devices are presented.

  • 10.
    Amin, Shoaib
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Zenteno, Efrain
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Landin, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Isaksson, Magnus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Händel, Peter
    ACCESS Linnaeus Centre, Signal Processing Lab, KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Noise Impact on the Identification of DigitalPredistorter Parameters in the Indirect LearningArchitecture2012In: 2012 Swedish Communication Technologies Workshop (Swe-CTW), IEEE conference proceedings, 2012, p. 36-39Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The indirect learning architecture (ILA) is the mostused methodology for the identification of Digital Pre-distorter(DPD) functions for nonlinear systems, particularly for highpower amplifiers. The ILA principle works in black box modelingrelying on the inversion of input and output signals of thenonlinear system, such that the inverse is estimated. This paperpresents the impact of disturbances, such as noise in the DPDidentification. Experiments were performed with a state-of-artDoherty power amplifier intended for base station operationin current telecommunication wireless networks. As expected,a degradation in the performance of the DPD (measured innormalized mean square error (NMSE)) is found in our experiments.However, adjacent channel power ratio (ACPR) canbe a misleading figure of merit showing improvement in theperformance for wrongly estimated DPD functions.

  • 11.
    Flattery, Kyle
    et al.
    Indiana University - Purdue University Fort Wayne, Fort Wayne, USA.
    Amin, Shoaib
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. ACCESS Linnaeus Centre, Signal Processing Dept, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mahamat, Yaya
    Indiana University - Purdue University Fort Wayne, Fort Wayne, USA..
    Eroglu, Abdullah
    Indiana University - Purdue University Fort Wayne, Fort Wayne, USA..
    Rönnow, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    High Power Combiner/Divider Design for Dual Band RF Power Amplifiers2015In: Proceedings of the 2015 International Conference on Electromagnetics in Advanced Applications: ICEAA 2015, IEEE Press, 2015, p. 1036-1039Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Design of low loss with an enhanced thermal profile power divider/combiner for high power dual-band Radio Frequency (RF) power amplifier applications is given. The practical implementation, low loss and substrate characteristics make this type of combiner ideal for high power microwave applications. The combiner operational frequencies are chosen to operate at 900 MHz and 2.14 GHz, which are common frequencies for concurrent dual band RF power amplifiers. The analytical results are verified with simulation results for various cases and agreement has been observed on all of them.

  • 12.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Amin, Shoaib
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. Department of Signal Processing, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Alizadeh, Mahmoud
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. Department of Signal Processing, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zenteno, Efrain
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Phase noise coherence of two continuous wave radio frequency signals of different frequency2017In: IET Science, Measurement & Technology, ISSN 1751-8822, E-ISSN 1751-8830, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 77-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method is proposed for determining the correlated and uncorrelated parts of phase noise spectra (PNS) of two continuous wave radio signals of different frequencies, ω1 and ω2. The PNS of the two signals and of mixed signals are measured. The PNS are modelled as having a correlated part that is the same for both signals, except for a multiplicative factor, and uncorrelated parts, that are different for the two signals. A property of the model that the PNS of some mixing products are linear combinations of the PNS of the signals at ω1, ω2, and ω1 − ω2 is experimentally verified. The difference of the PNS at ω1 + ω2 and ω1 − ω2 is proportional to the correlated part of the PNS and is a part of auxiliary functions that are used for finding the multiplicative factor and the correlated, partly correlated, and uncorrelated phase noise at different offset frequencies. A conventional spectrum analyser was used to characterise two signal generators, a phase-coherent and a non-phase-coherent one. For the phase-coherent generator the phase noise of two signals was found to be correlated for offset frequencies below 10 Hz, partly correlated for 10 Hz–1 kHz and uncorrelated above 1 kHz.

  • 13.
    Zenteno, Efrain
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. ACCESS Linnaeus Centre, Department of Signal Processing, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Amin, Shoaib
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. ACCESS Linnaeus Centre, Department of Signal Processing, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Isaksson, Magnus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Händel, Peter
    ACCESS Linnaeus Centre, Department of Signal Processing, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Combating the Dimensionality of Nonlinear MIMO Amplifier Predistortion by Basis Pursuit2014In: Proceedings of the 44th European Microwave Conference, 2014, p. 833-836Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A general description of nonlinear dynamic MIMO systems, given by Volterra series, has significantly larger complexity than SISO systems. Modeling and predistortion of MIMO amplifiers consequently become unfeasible due to the large number of basis functions. We have designed digital predistorters for a MIMO amplifier using a basis pursuit method for reducing model complexity. This method reduces the numerical problems that appear in MIMO Volterra predistorters due to the large number of basis functions. The number of basis functions was reduced from 1402 to 220 in a 2x2 MIMO amplifier and from 127 to 13 in the corresponding SISO case. Reducing the number of basis functions caused an increase of approximately 1 dB of model error and adjacent channel power ratio.

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